(19)
(11)EP 0 003 007 A2

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
11.07.1979 Bulletin 1979/14

(21)Application number: 78850028.8

(22)Date of filing:  19.12.1978
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC)2C07F 9/40, C07F 9/38, A61K 31/66
(84)Designated Contracting States:
BE CH DE FR GB IT LU NL SE

(30)Priority: 22.12.1977 GB 5358077
22.12.1977 GB 5358177
22.12.1977 GB 5358277
22.12.1977 GB 5358377
03.07.1978 GB 2854878
03.07.1978 GB 2855278
03.07.1978 GB 2855378
03.07.1978 GB 2855578

(71)Applicant: Astra Läkemedel Aktiebolag
151 85 Södertälje (SE)

(72)Inventors:
  • Helgstrand, Ake John Erik
    S-150 23 Enhörna (SE)
  • Johansson, Karl Nils-Gunnar
    S-150 23 Enhörna (SE)
  • Misiorny, Alfons
    S-124 43 Bandhagen (SE)
  • Norén, Jan-Olof
    S-140 32 Grödinge (SE)
  • Stening, Göran Bertil
    S-151 50 Södertälje (SE)

(74)Representative: Wurm, Bengt Runio et al
Patent and Trade Mark Department AB ASTRA
151 85 Södertälje
151 85 Södertälje (SE)


(56)References cited: : 
  
      


    (54)Aliphatic derivatives of phosphonoformic acid, pharmaceutical compositions and methods for combating virus infections


    (57) 1. A pharmaceutical preparation containing as active ingredient a compound of the formula



    wherein R, and R2 are the same or different, and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-6 carbon atoms: 1-adamantyl; 2-adamantyl, benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula



    wherein R. and R5 are the same or different, and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl having 1, 2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxy having 1, 2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxycarbonyl having 2-7 carbon atoms and alkylcarbonyl groups having 2-7 carbon atoms; or R. and R5 together form a straight saturated alkylene chain having 3 or 4 carbon atoms and being bound to adjacent positions, i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in the phenyl ring;

    and R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-8 carbon atoms; 1-adamantyl; 2- adamantyl; benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula

    wherein R4 and Rs have the meaning given above; provided that at least one of the groups R,, R2 and R3 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl; and provided that when R3 is H, then one of R, and R2 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl and the other of R, and R2 is H; or a physiologically acceptable salt or an optical isomer thereof; novel compounds within formula I, methods for their preparation and their medicinal use.




    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to novel pharmaceuticalcomposi- tions and to a novel method for selectively combating viruses, such as herpes viruses, influenza viruses, RNA tumor viruses, etc., which can cause various diseases in animals including man. Such diseases include both common infections and neoplastic diseases, i.e. cancer. In those cases wherethe active ingredient in the composition is a novel compound, the invention also comprises the novel compounds per se and processes for their preparation.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] The effects of viruses on bodily functions is the end result of changes occuring at the cellular and subcellular levels. The pathogenic changes at the cellular level are different for different combinations of viruses and host cells. While some viruses cause a general destruction (killing) of certain cells, other may transform cells to a neoplastic state.

    [0003] Important common viral infections are herpes dermatitis (including herpes labialis), herpes keratitis, herpes genitalis, herpes zoster, herpes encephalitis, infectious mononucleosis and cytomegalovirus infections all of which are caused by viruses belonging to the herpesvirus group. Ohter important viral diseases are influenza A and B which are caused by influenza A and B virus respectively. Another important common viral disease is viral hepatitis and especially hepatitis B virus infections are widely spread. Effective and selective antiviral agents are needed for the treatment of these diseases.

    [0004] Several different viruses of both DNA and RNA type have been shown to cause tumors in animals. The effect of cancerogenic chemicals can on animals result in activation of latent tumor viruses. It is possible that tumor viruses are involved in human tumors. The most likely human cases known today are leucemias, sarcomas, breast carcinomas, Burkitt lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinomas and cervical cancers where RNA tumor viruses and herpes viruses are indicated. This makes the search for selective inhibitors of tumorogenic viruses and their functions an important undertaking in the efforts to treat cancer.

    [0005] A most important common feature of the interaction between viruses and cells is the replication or transcription of the specific viral genetic information c.arried by viral nucleic acids. These viral nucleic acids are of two kinds, deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or ribonucleic acids (RNA). The primary - genetic information of the cell is carried by cell'DNA. DNA and RNA synthesis involves complex enzymes called DNA ana RNA polymerases respectively. The genetic information is transferred to the new nucleic acid from a template nucleic acid. There are four general ways in which these nucleic acids can be replicated or transcribed.









    [0006] Processes 1 and 3 are used by cells. DNA viruses such as herpesviruses also use process 1 but the enzyme is different from that of the cell. RNA viruses such as influenza virus use process 2 and the RNA tumor viruses (retroviruses) can transcribe its RNA to DNA according to process 4.

    [0007] The viral polymerases and the viral nucleic acid syntheses are essential not only for ordinary (productive) virus infections but also for viral transformation of cells to a neoplastic state leading to cancer (tumorogenic function of virus). In the latter case DNA produced by DNA viruses such as herpesvirus or transcribed from RNA of RNA tumor viruses and which carries the genetic information for cell transformation can be integrated into the host cell DNA. This integration, or later acts as a consequence of integration (such as interaction with cancerogenic chemicals), can then lead to the transformation of the host cell. The implications of inhibiting reverse transcriptase for cell transformation are also described in U.S patent 3,979,511.

    [0008] Since the viral polymerases in most cases differ from the cellular ones these viral enzymes and viral nucleic acid syntheses are good targets for specific antiviral chemotherapy including chemotherapy of cancer caused by viruses. It should be noted that many compounds presently used for chemotherapy of cancer are inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis. It is therefore possible that antiviral compounds which are also inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis, can affect tumor cells directly. There is a need for an effective antiviral agent preferably having a selective inhibiting effect on a specific viral function of the virus to be combated. It is, therefore, a general object of the present invention to provide a novel method for combating virus infections using an antiviral agen- which exerts a selective inhibiting effect on viral functions but which exerts only a negligible inhibiting effect on functions of the host cells.

    THE INVENTION



    [0009] It has been found according to the present invention that the compounds of the formula



    wherein R1 and R2 are the same or different, and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-6 carbon atoms; 1-adamantyl; 2-adamantyl, benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula



    wherein R4 and R5 are the same or different and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl having 1, 2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxy having 1, 2 or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxycarbonyl having 2-7 carbon atoms and alkylcarbonyl groups having 2-7 carbon atoms; or R4 and R5 together form a straight saturated alkylene chain having 3 or 4 carbon atoms and being bound to adjacent positions, i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in the phenyl ring;

    and R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-8 carbon atoms; 1-adamantyl; 2-adamantyl; benzyl;

    and phenyl groups of the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meaning given above; provided that at least one of the groups R1, R2 and R3 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl; and provided that when R3 is H, then one of R1 and R2 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl and the other of R1 and R2 is H; and physiologically acceotable salts thereof, inhibit certain viral functions including tumorogenic functions and the multiplication of viruses.



    [0010] It is understood that the reference to "physiologically acceptable salts" of the compounds of the formula I in the present specification and claims relates only to such compounds which can form salts. Compounds wherein at least one of R1, R2 and R3 is hydrogen can form salts. Compounds wherein all of R1, R2 and R3 are different from hydrogen do not form salts.

    [0011] Since the compounds of the formula I, when R1 and R2 are different, contain an asymmetric center, they exist in the form of optically active forms, and can be resolved into their optical antipodes by known methods.

    [0012] In this specification, the compounds of the invention are named as derivatives of the compound hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acia, wnicn compouna also is known under the name phosphonoformic acid.

    [0013] The two provisions in the definition of the compounds of the invention mean that the radicals R1, R2 and R3 in formula I can be combined as illustrated in the following tabulation. It is understood that R1 and R2, which are the same or different, are considered as equivalent and interchangeable in the table below.





    [0014] The first provision means that in the atove table, combinations wherein R1, R2 and R3 all are H or phenyl groups of formula II are excluded.

    [0015] The compounds of the formula I and physiologically acceptable salts thereof are useful in therapeutic and/or prophylactic treatment of viral diseases and may be useful in therapeutic and/or prophylactic treatment of cancer caused by viruses.

    PRIOR ART



    [0016] The compounds of the-formula I are esters of phosphonoformic acid. Various esters of phosphonoformic acid are described in for example U.S Patent Nos. 3,943,201, 3,155,597, 3,533,995,: and in Chem. Ber. 57 pl023 (1924), Chem. Ber. 60B, p291 (1927), and in Chem. Pharm. Bull. 21 (5), pl160 (1973).However, these esters have not been suggested for any pharmacological use.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0017] The present invention provides

    A. A method for treatment of diseases caused by viruses in animals including man, comprising administering to an animal so infected a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof.

    B. A method for the treatment of virus-induced neoplastic diseases in animals including man, by inhibiting the transformation of virus-infected cells, characterized by administering to an animal so infected a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof.

    C. A method for tne treatment of diseases causea uy viruses in animals including man, by inhibiting the activity of viral polymerase, characterized by administering to an animal so infected a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof in an amount effective for inhibiting the activity of said viral polymerase.

    D. A method for inhibiting the activity of reverse transcriptases of viruses in animals including man, by administration to an animal a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof in an amount sufficient for inhibiting the activity of said reverse transcriptase. Particular reverse transcriptases are the reverse transcriptases of retroviruses, such as visna, sarcoma and leucemia viruses.

    E. A method for inhibiting the multiplication of virus, in particular herpesviruses, influenza virus and hepatitis B virus, and retroviruses in animals including man, by administering to an animal in need of such treatment a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof in an amount sufficient for inhibiting said multiplication.

    F. A method for inhibiting the growth of virus-transformed cells in animals including man, characterized by administering to an animal in need of such treatment a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof in an amount sufficient for inhibiting said growth.

    G. A method for the treatment of virus-induced neoplastic diseases in animals including man, by inhibiting the multiplication of tumor viruses, characterized by administering to an animal in need of such treatment a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof in an amount sufficient for inhibiting such multiplication.

    H. A method for the treatment of virus-induced neoplastic diseases in animals including man by inhibiting the activity of reverse transeriptase, characterized by administering to an animal so intected a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof in an amount effective for inhibiting the activity of said reverse transcriptase.

    I. A method for the treatment of neoplastic diseases in animals including man, characterized by administering to an animal a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof.



    [0018] The invention also relates to the use of a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof, in each of the above given methods A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I . For example, the invention relates to the use of a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof, for

    (a) inhibiting the replication of virus in animals including man, in particular herpesvirus, influenza virus and hepatitis B viruses; and

    (b) for inhibiting the growth of virus-transformed cells in animals including man.



    [0019] Furthermore, the invention provides pharmaceutical preparations comprising as active ingredient a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof, optionally in association with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The invention also encompasses a process for the preparation of a medicine having antiviral acitivity, characterized in that a compound of the formula I or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof is brought into an administration form suitable for therapeutical purposes, and the shaped medicine obtained by such process.

    [0020] Most of the compundswithin the formula I are novel compounds, and in those cases where the active ingredient in the composition is such a compound, the invention also comprises the novel compounds p6r sa.

    [0021] Compounds included in formula I wherein R1, R2 and R3 are combined as follows are generically disclosed in the prior art:



    [0022] The invention includes the compounds per se of formula I excluding the groups of compounds given in the above table.

    [0023] In tables below, compounds of the formula I which are known from the prior art are indicated. The invention includes within its scope those compounds per se which are included in formula I and which are not known in the prior art. In particular compounds wherein R1, R2 or R3 are 1- adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or phenyl groups of the formula II wherein the radicals R4 and R5 are the same or different and selected from the groups consisting of halogen, alkoxy having 1-3 carbon atoms, alkoxycarbonyl having 2-3 carbon latoms, and alkylcarbonyl having 2-7 carbon atoms, or wherein R4 and R5 together form a straight saturated alkylene chain having 3 or 4 carbon atoms and being bound to adjacent positions i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in the phenyl ring, are novel. Further groups of novel compounds, which also are included in the scope of the invention,are indicated in the preferred groups of radicals which are enumerated elsewhere in this specification. Those individual compounds which are enumerated in tables below, or which are exemplified in working examples, and which are not indicated as known in the art, are believed to be novel and included within the scope of the invention.

    [0024] The compounds of the formula I may be hydrolyzed in vivo to give phosphonoformic acid or ionized forms thereof, which are antiviral agents. In a more generalized aspect the invention includes within its scope the use of all physiologically acceptable compounds (including physiologically acceptable salts thereof) of the formula I, wherein R1, R2 and R3, when they are different from H , are any pharmaceutically acceptable organic group, which by in vivo hydrolysis is capable of forming phosphonoformic acid or a physiologically acceptable salt thereof in the animal body (i.e. bioprecursors to phosphonoformic acid) for the treatment of virus infections and related ailments, as previously described, in animals including man, and pharmaceutical compositions containing such compounds.

    [0025] Phosphonoformic acid and physiologically acceptable salts thereof inhibit viral functions such as polymerases including reverse transcriptase and virus multiplication, and have effects on virus infections and virus-related tumors in animal models. The antiviral effects of trisodium phosphonoformate is described by Helgstrand et. al. Science 201, 819 (1978).

    [0026] An important aspect of the invention is that the radicals R1, R2 and R3 in formula I can be chosen in such a way that the compounds of formula I and physiologically acceptable salts thereof possess more favourable pharmacokinetic properties than phosphonoformic acid and physiologically acceptable salts thereof. Such favourable pharmacokinetic properties include better tissue penetration, better oral absorption and prolonged activity.

    [0027] Although the present invention relates broadly to a novel method for selectively combating viral diseases in animals and man, and pharmaceutical preparations to be used in such treatment, it will be particularly useful in the treatment of herpesvirus infections, influenza virus infections, hepatitis B virus infections and cancer caused by herpesviruses and RNA tumor viruses.

    [0028] An especially important area of use for the compositions of the present invention is in the treatment of herpes virus infections. Among the herpesviruses may be mentioned Herpes simplex type 1 and 2, varicella (Herpes zoster), virus causing infectious mononucleosis (i.e. Epstein-Barr virus), and cytomegalovirus. Important diseases caused by herpes viruses are herpes dermatitis, (including herpes labialis), herpes genitalis, herpes keratitis and herpes encephalitis. An other important area of use for the compositions of the present invention is in the treatment of infections caused by ortho- myxoviruses, i.e. influenza viruses of type A and type B. A further area of use is the treatment of infections caused by viruses such as hepatitis virus A and hepatitis virus B, papillomaviruses, adencviruses and poxviruses.

    [0029] Other possible areas of use for the compositions of the present invention are in the treatment of infections caused by picornaviruses, togaviruses including arboviruses, retroviruses (e.g. leucoviruses), arenaviruses, corona- viruses, rhabdoviruses, paramyxoviruses, hepatitis non A and non B virus, iridoviruses, papovaviruses, parvo- viruses, reoviruses, and bunyaviruses.

    [0030] Another possible area of use for the compositions of the present invention are in the treatment of cancer and tumors, particularly those caused by viruses. This effect may be obtained in different ways, i.e. by inhibiting the transformation of virus-infected cells to a neoplastic state, by inhibiting the spread of viruses from transformed cells to other normal cells and by arresting the growth of virus-transformed cells. A particular area of use for the compositions of the present invention is in the inhibition of reverse transcriptases of RNA tumor viruses. The viruses in this group include all of the transforming sarcoma C-type viruses, the leucemia C-type viruses and the mammary B-type viruses. Possible areas of use for the compositions of the present invention with respect to cancer chemotherapy are treatment of leucemias, lymphomas including Burkitt lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease, sarcomas, breast carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinomas and cervical cancers in which RNA tumor viruses and herpesviruses are indicated. Other possible areas of use for the composition of the present invention with respect to cancer chemotherapy are treatment of multiple myeloma and cancer of the lungs (and bronchus), the stomach, the liver, the colon, the bladder, the lips, the bones, the kidneys, the ovary, the prostate, the pancreas, the skin (melanoma), the rectum, the salivary gianos, the mouin, the esophagus, the testis, the orain (and cranial meninges), the thyroid gland, the gallbladder (and ducts), ths nose, the larynx, the connective tissues, the penis, the vulvas, the vagina, the corpus uteri, the tongue, the breasts, and the cervix.

    [0031] Illustrative examples of the meanings of the radicals R1, R2 and R3 in the formula I above are:

    alkyl:















    substituted phenyl:








    1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl

    [0032] The above illustrative examples are intended to illustrate the meanings of all the radicals R1, R2, and R3 within the boundaries with regard to number of carbon atoms which are prescribed for each radical.

    [0033] Preferred groups of the radicals R and R2 are:

    1. The group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms, phenyl, and benzyl;

    2. The group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups" containing 1-4 carbon atoms; phenyl, and benzyl;

    3. The group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms;

    4. The group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms, that is methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, i-butyl, sec-butyl and t-butyl.

    5. Phenyl

    6. Benzyl

    7. 1-adamantyl (novel compounds);

    8. 2-adamantyl (novel compounds);

    9. monosubstituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    10. disubstituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    11. mono-alkyl substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    12. mono-halogen substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    13. mono-alkoxy substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    14. mono-alkoxycarbonyl substituted phenyl groups -(novel compounds);

    15. di-alkyl substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    16. di-halogen substituted phenyl groups (novel comounds);

    17. di-alkoxy substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    18. phenyl groups of the formula

    wherein n is 3 or 4 and wherein the alkylene chain is bound to adjacent positions, i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in tne pnenyl ring (novel compounds).

    19. mono-alkylcarbonyl substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds)

    20. cycloalkyl and cycloalkyl-alkyl groups (novel compounds)



    [0034] Particularly preferred groups of the radicals R1 and R2 are unsubstituted, monosubstituted and disubstituted phenyl groups within the above formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above.

    [0035] In a preferred embodiment, R1 and R2 have the same meaning.

    [0036] Preferred groups of the radical R3 are:

    1. The groups consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; phenyl; and benzyl;

    2. The group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms; phenyl; and benzyl;

    3. The group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms;

    4. The group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms, that is methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, i-butyl, sec-butyl and t-butyl.

    5. Phenyl

    6. Benzyl

    7. 1-adamantyl (novel compounds);

    8. 2-adamantyl (novel compounds);

    9. monosubstituted phenyl groups;

    10. disubstituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    11. mono-alkyl substituted phenyl groups;

    12. mono-halogen substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    13. mono-alkoxy substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    14. mono-alkoxycarbonyl substituted phenyl groups (novel comoounds);

    15. di-alkyl substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    16. di-halogen substibuted phanyl groups (novel compounds);

    17. di-alkoxy substituted phenyl groups (novel compounds);

    18. phenyl groups of the formula

    wherein n is 3 or 4 and wherein the alkylene chain is bound to adjacent positions, i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in the phenyl ring (novel compounds).

    19. mono-alkylcarbonyl substituted phenyl groups(novel compounds);

    20. cycloalkyl and cycloalkyl-alkyl groups (novel compounds);



    [0037] Particularly preferred groups of the radical R3 are unsubstituted, monosubstituted and disubstituted phenyl groups within the above formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above.

    [0038] Preferred combinations of R1, R2, and R3 are:

    1. R1 and R2 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms, phenyl, and benzyl; and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms, phenyl, and benzyl;

    2. R1, R2, and R3 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms; phenyl; and benzyl;

    3. R1 and R2 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms;

    4. R1, R2, and R3 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms;

    5. R1, R21 and R3 are benzyl (novel compound);

    6. in each of the groups 1-4 above, R1 having the same meaning as R2;

    and are selected from the group consisting of alkyl

    7. R1 and R2 are selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms and R3 is selected from the group consisting of an unsubstituted, monosubstituted or disubstituted phenyl group within the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above (novel compounds except where R3 is mono-alkyl substituted phenyl);

    8. R1 is an alkyl group containing 1-4 carbon atoms, R2 and R3 are the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of unsubstituted, monosubstituted or disubstituted phenyl groups within the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above (novel compounds);

    9. R1 and R2 are the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of an unsubstituted, monosubstituted or disubstituted phenyl group within the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above, and R3 is an alkyl group containing 1-4 carbon atoms (novel compounds);

    10. R1 and R2 are the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms, and R3 is selected from the group consisting of 1-adamantyl and 2-adamantyl (novel compounds);

    11. R1, R2, and R3 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms, benzyl, unsubstituted, monosubstituted or disubstituted phenyl groups within the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above; 1-adamantyl; and 2-adamantyl, whereby at least one of the groups R1, R2, and R3 is not alkyl or benzyl.

    12. R1 and R2 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms; and unsubstituted, monosubstituted or disubstituted phenyl groups with the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above; and R3 is selected from the group consisting of 1-adamantyl and 2-adamantyl (novel compounds);

    13. R1 and R2 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms; and unsubstituted, monosubstituted or disubstituted phenyl groups within the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above; and R3 is benzyl;

    14. in each of the groups 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 above, R1 having the same meaning as R2.

    15. R1 and R2 are hydrogen and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; and benzyl;

    16. R1 and R2 are hydrogen and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms; and benzyl;

    17. R1 and R2 are hydrogen and R3 is salected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms;

    18. R1 and R2 are hydrogen and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms, that is methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl; n-butyl, i-butyl, sec-butyl, and t-butyl;

    19. R1 and R2 are hydrogen and R3 is benzyl;

    20. R1 and R2 are hydrogen and R3 is 1-adamantyl (novel compound);

    21. R1 and R2 are hydrogen and R3 is 2-adamantyl (novel compound);

    22. R1 is H, R2 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; and benzyl; and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; phenyl; and benzyl;

    23. R1 is H, R2 and R3 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms; and benzyl;

    24. R1 is H, R2 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms;

    25. R1 is H, and R2 and R3 are selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms;

    26. R1 is H, and R2 and R3 are benzyl (novel compound);

    27. R1 is H, R2 is monosubstituted or disubstituted phenyl groups within the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; and benzyl (novel compounds);

    28. R1 is H, R2 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; benzvl; unsuhstituted, monosubstituted and disubstituted phenyl groups within the above formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above; 1-adamantyl; and 2-adamantyl; and R3 is selected from the group consisting of 1-adamantyl and 2-adamantyl (novel compounds);

    29. R is H, R2 is 1-adamantyl or 2-adamantyl, and R3 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; benzyl; unsubstituted, monosubstituted and disubstituted phenyl groups within the above formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meanings given above; 1-adamantyl and 2-adamantyl (novel compounds);

    30. R1 is H, R2 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms and benzyl; and R3 is selected from the group consisting of monosubstituted or disubstituted phenyl groups within the formula

    where R4 and R5 have the meanings given above;

    31. R1 and R3 are H and R2 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; and benzyl;

    32. R1 and R3 are H and R2 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms and benzyl;

    33. R1 and R3 are H and R2 is selected from the group consisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms;

    34. R1 and R2 are H and R2 is selected from the group con- sisting of straight and branched alkyl groups containing 1-4 carbon atoms, that is metnyl, etnyl, n-propyl, i-propyi,. n-butyl, i-butyl, sec-butyl and t-butyl;

    35. R1 and R3 are H and R is benzyl;

    36. R1 and R3 are H and R2 is 1-adamantyl (novel compound);

    37. R1 and R3 are H and R2 is 2-adamantyl (novel compound);

    38. Compounds of the formula I wherein R1 and R2 are hydrogen.

    39. Compounds of the formula I wherein R1 is hydrogen.

    40. Compounds of the formula I wherein R1 and R3 are hydrogen.



    [0039] Examples of compounds of the invention are given in the following table. In the right margin it is indicated whether the compound has been specifically disclosed in the prior art. All the other compounds are believed to be novel, and thus constitute a further aspect of the invention.















    and physiologically acceptable salts thereof.

    Salts of the active substances



    [0040] Physiologically acceptable salts of those active substances of the formula I which form salts are prepared by methods known in the art as illustrated in the following.

    [0041] Examples of metal salts which can be prepared are salts containing Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn and Ba. A less soluble metal salt can be precipitated from a solution of a more soluble salt by addition of a suitable metal compound. Thus for examples, Ca, Ba, Zn, Mg, and Mn salts of the active substances can be prepared from sodium salts thereof. The metal ion of a metal salt of the active substances can be exchanged by hydrogen ions, other metal ions, ammonium ion and ammonium ions substituted by one or more organic radicals by using a cation exchanger,

    [0042] Examples of other useful salts which can be prepared in this way are the salts of the formula

    in which formula R1 R2 and R3have the same meaning as above, n is 1 or 2, and X is a salt-forming component such as NH3, CH3NH2, C2H5NH2, C3H7NH2, C4H9NH2, C5H11NH2, C6H13NH2, (CH3)2NH, (C2H5)2NH, (C3H7)2NH, (C4H9)2NH, (C5H11)2NH, (C6H13)2NH, (CH3)3N, (C2H5)3N, (C3H7)3N, (C4H9)3N,(C5H11)3N, (C6H13)3N, C6H5CH2NH2, HOCH2CH2NH2, (HOCH2CH2)2NH, (HOCH2CH2)3N, C2H5NH(CH2CH2OH), C2HSN (CH2CH2OH)2, (HOH2C)3CNH2 and



    [0043] Further examples of other useful salts which can be prepared by the ion exchange technique are quaternary ammonium salts of the active substances, i.e. salts in which the hydrogens in the active substances (structural formula I) have been substituted with quarternary ammonium ions such as (CH3)4N, (C3H7)4N, (C4H9)4N, (C5H11)4N, (C6H13)4N and C2H5N(CH2CH2OH)3. Lipophilic salts of this type can also be prepared by mixing a salt of the active substances with a quaternary ammonium salt in water and extracting out the resulting quaternary ammonium salt of the active substances with an organic solvent such as dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methyl isobutyl ketone.

    [0044] The compounds utilized within the invention may be formulated for use in human and veterinary medicine for therapeutic and prophylactic use. The compounds may be used in the form of a physiologically acceptable salt. Suitable salts are e.g. amine salts, e.g. dimethylamine and triethylamine salt, ammonium salt tetrabutylammonium salt, cyclohexylamine salt, dicyclohexylamine salt; and metal salts, e.g. mono-, and disodium salt, mono- and dipotassium salt, magnesium salt, calcium salt and zinc salt.

    [0045] The compounds utilized within the invention are particularly useful for systemic treatment of virus infections, by oral administration or by injection. In comparison with phosphonoformic acid, they are generally more stable in acid solutions, and are thus less readily decomposed in the stomach.

    [0046] In comparison with phosphonoformic acid the compounds of the present invention are more lipophilic and are thus more suitable to treat virus infections in organs for which penetration through lipid barriers are of importance.

    [0047] In clinical practice the compound will normally be administered topically, orally, intranasally, by injection or by inhalation in the form of a pharmaceutical preparation comprising the active ingredient in the form of the original compound or optionally in the form of pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in association with a pharmaceutically accaptable carrier which may be a solid, semi-solid or liquid diluent or an ingestible capsule, and such preparations comprise a further aspect of the invention. The compound may also be used without carrier material. As examples of pharmaceutical preparations may be mentioned tablets, drops such as nasal and eye drops, preparations for topical application such as ointments, jellies, creams and suspensions, aerosols for inhalation, nasal spray, liposomes, etc. Usually the active substance will comprise between 0.05 and 99, or between 0.1 and 99 % by weight of the preparation, for example between 0.5 and 20 % for preparations intended for injection and between 0.1 and 50 % for preparations intended for oral administration.

    [0048] To produce pharmaceutical preparations in the form of dosage units for oral application containing a compound of the invention the active ingredient may be mixed with a solid, pulverulent carrier, for example lactose, saccharose, sorbitol, mannitol, a starch such as potato starch, corn starch, amylopectin, laminaria powder or citrus pulp powder, a cellulose derivative or gelatine and also may include lubricants such as magnesium or calcium stearate or a Carbowax or other polyethylene glycol waxes and compressed to form tablets or cores for dragées. If dragées are required, the cores may be coated for example with concentrated sugar solutions which may contain gum arabic, talc and/or titainium dioxide, or alternatively with a film forming agent dissolved in easily volatile organic solvents or mixtures of organic solvents. Dyestuffs can be added to these coatings, for example, to distinguish between different contents of active substance. For the preparation of soft gelatine capsules consisting of gelatine and, for example, glycerol as a plasticizer, or similar closed capsules, the active substance may be admixed with a Carbowax® or a suitable oil as e.g. sesam oil, olive oil, or arachis oil. Hard gelatine capsules may contain granulates of the active substance with solid, pulverulent carriers such as lactose, saccharose, sorbitol, mannitol, starches (for example potato starch, corn starch or amylopectin), cellulose derivatives or gelatine, and may also include magnesium stearate or stearic acid as lubricants.

    [0049] By using several layers of the active drug, separated by slowly dissolving coatings sustained release tablets are obtained. Another way of preparing sustained release tablets is to divide the dose of the active drug into granules with coatings of different thicknesses and compress the granules into tablets together with the carrier substance. The active substance can also be incorporated in slowly dissolving tablets made for instance of fat and wax substances or evenly distributed in a tablet of an insoluble substance such as a physiologically inert plastic substance.

    [0050] In order to obtain dosage units of oral preparations - tablets, capsules, etc. - which are designed so as to prevent release of and possible decomposition of the active substance in the gastric juice, the tablets, dragées etc. may be enteric coated, that is provided with a layer of a gastric juice resistant enteric film or coating having such properties that it is not dissolved at the acidic pH in the gastric juice. Thus, the active substance will not be released until the preoaration reaches the intestines. As examoles of such known enteric coatings may be mentioned cellulose acetate obtalate, hvdroxy- propylmethylcellulose phtalates such as those sold under the trade names HP 55 and HP 5J, and Eudragit ®L and Eudragit®S.

    [0051] Effervescent powders are prepared by mixing the active ingredient with non-toxic carbonates or hydrogen carbonates of e.g. sodium, potassium or calcium, such as calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate and potassium hydrogen carbonate, solid, non-toxic acids such as tartaric acid, ascorbic acid, and citric acid, and for example aroma.

    [0052] Liquid preparations for oral application may be in the form of elixirs, syrups or suspensions, for example solutions containing from about 0.1 % to 20 % by weight of active substance, sugar and a mixture or ethanol, water, glycerol, propylene glycol and optionally aroma, saccharine and/or carboxymethylcellulose as a dispersing agent.

    [0053] For parenteral application by injection preparations may comprise an aqueous suspension of the active compounds according to the invention, desirably in a concentration of 0.5-10%, and optionally also a stabilizing agent and/or buffer substances in aqueous solution. Dosage units of the solution may advantageously be enclosed in ampoules.

    [0054] For topical application, especially for the treatment of herpes virus infections on skin, genitals and in mouth and eyes the preparations are suitably in the form of a solution, ointment, gel, suspension, cream or the like. The amount of active substance may vary, for example between 0.05-20% by weight of the preparation. Such preparations for topical application may be prepared in known manner by mixing the active substance with known carrier materials such as isopropanol, glycerol, paraffine, stearyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, etc. The pharmaceutically acceptable carrier may also include a known chemical absorption promotor. Examples of absoption promoters are e.g. dimethylacetamide (U.S. Patent No. 3,472,931), trichloroethanol or trifluoromethanol (U.S. Patent No. 5,591,757), certain alcohols and mixtures thereof (British Pat. No. 1,001,949). A carrier material for topical application to unbroken skin is also described in the British patent specification No. 1,464,975, which discloses a carrier material consisting of a solvent comprising 40-70% (v/v) isopropanol and 0-60% (v/v) glycerol, the balance, if any, being an inert constituent of a diluent not exceeding 40% of the total volume of solvent.

    [0055] The dosage at which the active ingredients are administered may vary within a wide range and will depend on various factors such as for example the severity of the infection, the age of the patient, etc., and may have to be individually adjusted. As a possible range for the amount of the active substance which may be administered per day may be mentioned from about 0.1 mg to about 2000 mg or from about 1 mg to about 2000 mg, or preferably from 1 mg to about 2000 mg for topical administration, from 50 mg to about'2000 mg or from 100 to 1000 mg for oral administration and from 10 mg to about 2000 mg or from 50 to 500 mg for injection. In severe cases it may be necessary to increase these doses 5-fold to 10-fold. In less severe cases it may be sufficient to use up to 500 or 1000 mg.

    [0056] The pharmaceutical compositions containing the active ingredients may suitably be formulated so that they provide doses within these ranges either as single dosage units or as multiple dosage units and are preferably provided as sterile preparations.

    [0057] Thus, it has been found according to the invention that the above compounds, and the physiologically acceptable salts thereof can be used to selectively inhibit the multiplication of viruses and the compounds and physiologically acceptable salts thereof are therefore useful in therapeutic and/or propylactic treatment or virus iniections and neoplastic diseases, as described above.

    Preparation of the active substances



    [0058] Reference to "meaning given above" for R1, R2 and R3 as used below refers to the definitions given in formula I.

    [0059] The hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters may be prepared by known methods for example as described in Houben-Weyl, Methoden der Organischen Chemie, Auflage 4, Band XII, Teil 1, Organische Phosphorverbindungen, p. 433-463. Examples of such methods are the following.

    [0060] A. Reacting formic acid ester compounds with phosphite triesters according to the formula:

    wherein R1 and R3 have the meaning given above except that R1 must not be phenyl or substituted phenyl. R10 is a leaving group suitable for Arbuzov type reactions, such as Cl, Br, I,sulphonate, carboxylate, alkoxide.

    [0061] Preferably the reaction is performed at 0 to 1500 for 1 to 50 hours.

    [0062] B. Reacting formic acid ester compounds with phosphite triesters according to the formula:

    wherein R1, R3 and R10 have the meaning given above. R11 may be an alkyl, a cycloalkyl, a cycloalkyl-alkyl, a benzyl, an adamantyl or any phosphite esterifying group suitable for participation in Arbuzov type reactions.

    [0063] Preferably the reaction is performed at 0 to 150° for 1 to 50 hours.

    [0064] C. Reacting formic acid ester compounds with phosphite triesters according to the formula:

    wherein R1, R2, R3 and R10 have the meaning given above, except that R1 must not be phenyl or a substituted phenyl.

    [0065] D. Reacting formic acid ester compounds with phosphite diester salts according to the formula:

    wherein R1, R3 and R10 have the meaning given above and M+ is a cation, preferably a metal such as Li+, Na+ or K+, and the reaction is preferably performed at 0 to 100° for 1 to 50 hours in a solvent such as for example, toluene, ether or tetrahydrofurane.

    [0066] The phosphite diester salts are prepared by treating the phosphite diester with a suitable proton abstracting compound, such as a metal alkoxide, suitably free from alcohol, such as litium-, sodium- or potassium methoxide, ethoxide or t-butoxide, or with a hydride such as sodium- or potassium hydride, or with a base such as butyllithium.

    [0067] The starting materials used in the above methods of preparation A-D are known compounds, or may be prepared by known methods commonly used for the synthesis of formate esters and phosohite triesters. Examples of methods used for the synthesis of haleformate esters may be found in, or peferred to in M. Matzner et al Chem. Rev. 64 (1964) 645. Examples of methods used for the synthesis of phosphite triesters may be found in Houben-Weyl, Methoden der Organischen Chemie, Auflage 4, Band XII, Teil 2, Organische Phoshorverbindungen, p. 5-78.

    [0068] E. Esterification of the phosphonic acid groups of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid monoester according to the formula:

    R1 and R3 have the meaning given above. The reaction is performed through the intermediary of activating agents known per se for the phosphorylationof alcohols and phenols. Examples of such methods are described for example by L.A. Slotin in Synthesis 1977, 737 and by H Seliger and H Kössel in Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 32 (1975) 297.

    [0069] Synthesis of monoesters of the carboxylic group of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid are described below in methods T-X.

    [0070] F. Esterification of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid diesters according to the formula:

    R1, R2 and R3 have the meaning given above.

    [0071] The reaction is performed through the intermediary of activating agents known per se for the phosphorylation of alcohols and phenols. Examples of sucn metnods are described for example by L A Slotin in Synthesis 1977, 737, and by H Seliger and H Kössel in Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 32 (1975) 297.

    [0072] Synthesis of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid diesters are described below in methods K-0.

    [0073] G. Reacting oxycarbonylphosphonic acid dihalide esters according to the formula:

    Hal is Cl,Br or I and R1 and R3 have the meaning given above.

    [0074] The reaction is performed by methods known per se for the phosphorylation of alcohols and phenols by phosphoric and phosphonic acid halides. Examples of such methods are described for example by L A Slotin in Synthesis 1977, 737 and by H Seliger and H Kössel in Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 32 (1975) 297.

    [0075] The oxycarbonylphosphonic acid dihalide esters are prepared from oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monocarboxylic esters by methods known per se for the synthesis of dihalides of phos- phoric acids and phosphonic acids. References for those methods are found for example in the two publications above and in Houben-Weyl, Methoden der Organischen Chemie, Auflage 4, Band XII/1, p. 386-406 and Band XII/2 p. 211-225 and p. 274-292.

    [0076] Oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monocarboxylic esters are prepared by methods described below in T-X.

    [0077] H. Reacting oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monohalide diesters according to the formula:

    Hal is Cl, Br or I and R1, R2 and R3 have the meaning given above.

    [0078] The reaction is performed by methods known per se for the phosphorylation of alcohols and phenols. Examples of such methods are described for example by L A Slotin in Synthesis 1977, 737 and by H Seliger and H Kössel in Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 32 (1975) 297.

    [0079] Oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monohalide diesters are prepared from oxycarbonylphosphonic acid diesters by methods known per se for the synthesis of monohalides of phosphonic and phosphoric acids. References for those methods are found for example in the two publications above and in Houben-Weyl, Methoden der Organischen Chemie, Auflage 4, Band XII/1 p. 386-406 and XII/2 p. 211-225 and p. 274-292.

    [0080] Oxycarbonylphosponic acid diesters are prepared by methods described below in K-0.

    [0081] J. Reacting a carbonylphosphonic acid diester according to the formula

    R1, R2 and R3 have the meaning given above and R9 is a suitable activating moiety, known per se as a good leaving group in substitution reactions on activated carboxylic acid groups. Preferably R9 is a group such as for example p-nitrophenoxy or imidazolyl.

    [0082] The activated carbonylphosohonic acid diester used as a starting material may for example be prepared by methods anala- gous to these described above in A-U.

    [0083] Diesters of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid are prepared by Known methods, such as

    K. Reacting a hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester with an iodide or a bromide anion, according to the formula:

    wherein X is Br or I and R1, R3 and R11 have the meaning given above.



    [0084] Preferably the reaction is carried out with sodium iodide in a solvent such as for example tetrahydrofuran or acetone. Preferably the reaction is carried out at a temperature from 20 to 100° from 2 hours to 7 days.

    [0085] The hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters may be prepared by methods analogous to these described above in A-J.

    [0086] L. Hydrolysing the hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester with a base according to the formula:

    R1, and R3 have the meaning given above. R12 is a hydrolyzable phosphate ester group. For example it may have the meaning given R1 and R2 and it may for example be a more generally substituted aryl group.

    [0087] Preferably the reaction is carried out with a base such as for example sodium hydregencerbonate, sodiumearbonate or sedium hydroxide in water at a temperature from 20 to 100° frcm 2 hours to 7 days.The hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters may be prepared by methods analogous to those described above in A-J.

    [0088] M. Aqueous hydrolysis of a hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester, containing one silyl esterified phosphonate group according to the formula:

    where R2 and R3 have the meaning given above and R6 is an inert organic residue, preferably an organic group such as for example CH3. Another example of'silylester groups are for example butyldiphenylsilyl compounds,which have been described by R A Jones et al Bichemistry 17 (1978) 1268 as phosphate ester derivatives.

    [0089] Optionally the formed phosphonic acid group may be neutralized. Preferably it may be neutralized with a base such as for example MHCO3, M2CO3 or MOH or with a weak cation exchanger (M+), where M is NH4+ or a metal such as Li+, Na+, or K+.

    [0090] The silyl esterified phosphonate group may be obtained by treating the hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester with a halosilane according to the formula:

    X is Cl, Br or I and R2, R2 R6 and R11 have the meaning given above.

    [0091] Prefarably the reagents used for silyletion are for example brometrimethylsilane at -20° to 50° for 1/2 to 20 hours, or alternatively for example chlorotrimetnylsilane at 20° to reflux temperature for several days.

    [0092] The hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters are prepared by methods analogous to those described above in A-J.

    [0093] Alternatively the silyl esterified phosphonate group may be prepared by reacting a phosphite triester containing two silyl ester groups, with a formate ester, according to the formula:

    R2, R3, R6 and R10 have the meaning given above.

    [0094] Preferably the phosphite is an ester such as for example a bis-(trimethylsilylated)phosphite triester. These compounds can be prepared by methods known per se. For example the synthesis of propyl- and hexyl-bis(trimethylsilyl)phosphites are described in T R Herrin et al , J Med Chem 20 (1977) 660.

    [0095] N. Reacting oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monocarboxylic esters according to the formula:

    R1 and R3 have the meaning given above. The reaction is performed througn the intermediary of activating agents known per se for the phosphorylation of aicohols and phenols. Examples of such methods are described for examole by L A Slotin in Synthesis 1977, 737 and by H Selifer and H Kfssel in Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 32 (1975) 297. Optionally the phosphonic acid group may be Synthesis of oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monocarboxylic acids are described below in methods T-X.

    [0096] O. Reacting hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid mono-P ester with an esterifying halide, using a tetraalkylammonium salt as a catalyst, according to the formula:



    [0097] Hal is Cl, Br or I. R2 and R3 have the meaning given above and Ra is an alkyl residue such as for example n-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl and n-octyl. Preferably n-heptyl is used and preferably the reaction is performed as an extractive alkylation as described by for example A Brand- ström in Preparative Ion Pair Extraction (Apotekarsocieteten, Hässle, Sweden 1976).

    [0098] Also as described the phosphonate group may be transformed to a salt

    or a metal such as Li+, Na or K+.

    [0099] The synthesis of hvdroxycarbonylphosohonic acid mono-P esters are described below in methods P-S.

    [0100] Monoesters of the phosphonic group of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid are prepared by known methods such as,

    P. Hydrolyzing a hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester according to the formula:

    wherein M is a cation such as NH+ or Li+, Na or K and wherein R12 has the meaning given above. R13 has the meaning given R12 and R12 and R13 may be the same or different. R2 is asdefined above except that it must not be phenyl or substituted phenyl.



    [0101] Preferably the reaction is carried out in water at 20 to 100° for 1 to 10 hours.

    [0102] The hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters are prepared by methods analogous to those described above in A-J.

    [0103] Q. By the stepwise deesterification of a phosphonic acid trisubstituted silyl ester group, and the carboxylic acid ester group, of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters, according to the formula:

    R6 and R13 have the meaning given above, and the silyl ester group is preferably a group such as exemplified above in method M. R2 is as defined above except that it must not be phenyl or substituted phenyl.

    [0104] The trimethylsilyl ester group is preferably hydrolyzed with water and the free acid group is preferably converted to a salt by a weak cation exchanger (M+) or with an aqueous base such as MHCO3, M2CO3 or MOH.

    [0105] The carboxylic acid ester group is preferably hydrolyzed in water and neutralized with a weak cation exchanger (M+) or with for example an aqueous base such as MHCO3, M2CO3 or MOH.

    [0106] M+ is NH4 or a metal such as Li, Na or K.

    [0107] Compounds containing the silylesterified phosphonate group may be prepared by known methods as described in method M above.

    [0108] R. By the stepwise deesterification of the silyl-and the benzyl ester group of alkyl, silyl benzyloxycarbonylphosphonate according to the formula:

    M+ is NH4+ or a metal such as for example Li+, Na or K+, and R2 and R6 have the meaning given above except that R2 must not be benzyl, phenyl or substituted phenyl. The silyl ester group is preferably a group such as described above in method M.

    [0109] The benzyl ester group is preferably hydrogenated with a catalyst sucn as for example palladiumcarbon. The free acid groups are converted to their metal salts by the treatment with a weak cation exchanger (M+) or with a base such as for example MHCO3, M2CO3 or MOH.

    [0110] The silylated compound may be prepared by known methods, analogous to those described above in M.

    [0111] S. By the deesterification of the bis-silylester groups (on the phosphonic and on the carboxylic acid groups) of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters according to the formula:

    R2 has the meaning given above. R6 and R7 are inert organic residues, the same or different, preferably they are the same and a group such as for example CH3. The silyl ester groups may also be for example butyldiphenylsilyl groups as described above in method M.M+ is NH4+ or a metal such as Li+, Na+ or K+.

    [0112] The silyl ester groups are preferably hydrolyzed with for example water and neutralized with for example a weak cation exchanger (M+) or an aqueous base such as MHCO3, M2CO3 or MOH.

    [0113] The bis-silylated triester of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid may be prepared by methods known per se, according to the formula

    Hal is Cl, Br or I and R2, R6 and R7 have the meaning given above.

    [0114] Preferably the phosphite is an ester such as for example a bis (trimethylsilylated)phosphite triester. These compounds can be prepared as described above in M.

    [0115] The haloformate silylesters may be prepared according to the formula:

    R7 has the meaning given above.

    [0116] The reaction is carried out under anhydrous conditions, and preferably a base such as for example N,N-dimethylaniline is used for capturing the released hydrogenchloride. The reaction is preferably carried out in an inert solvent such as for example toluene or ether, at for example -10 to 25° for 1 to 25 hours.

    [0117] Monoesters of the carboxylic group of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid are oreoared by known methods, such as T. Aqueous hydrolysis of a hydroxycarbonylphosphcnic acid triester, containing two silyl esterified phosphonate groups, according to the formula:

    R3 and R6 have the meaning given above. Preferably R6 is for example CH3. The silyl ester derivatives may also be for example butyldiphenylsilyl groups as described above in method M.

    [0118] Optionally the formed phosphonic acid groups can be neutralized. Preferably they may be neutralized with a weak cation exchanger (M+) or with a base such as MHCO3, M2CO3 or MOH. M+ is NH4+ or a metal such as Li+, Na+ or K+.

    [0119] The phosphonate bis-silyl esters may be obtained according to the formula:

    R3, R6 and R11 have the meaning given above. R14 has the meaning given R11 and R11 and R14 may be the same or different. Preferably the organic residues of the silyl group are as described above. Hal is Cl, Br or I and preferably the reaction is performed at -200 to reflux temperatures for 1 hour to several days.

    [0120] The hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters are prepared by.methods analogous to tnose described in A-5.

    [0121] Alternatively the bis silylphosphonate esters may be prepared by reacting a trissilylphosphite with a halogenformate ester according to the formula:

    R3, R6 and R10 have the meaning given above and preferentially the organic residues of silyl groups are as described above. Preferably the reaction is performed at 20-150° for 1 to 25 hours.

    [0122] The tris-silyl phosphites are prepared by known methods, as described for example by Herrin et al in J.Med. Chem. 20 (1977) 660, for the preparation of tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite.

    [0123] U. Reacting triesters of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid with hydrogenhalide acids according to the formula:

    R3, R11 and R14 have the meaning given above. X is Cl, Br or I.

    [0124] Preferably HI may be used and the reaction may preferably be performed in a dry solvent such as methylene chloride or acetic acid at a temperature from 0 to 30°. Examples of the reaction may be found in the patents USP 3,943,201 and DT-OLS 2435 407.

    [0125] Optionally the phosphonic acid groups may be neutralized. Preferably a weak cation exchanger (M+) or a base such as MHCO3, M2CO2 or MOH is used. M+ is for examole NH4+ or a metal such as Li , Na+ or K .

    [0126] V. Hydrogenating dibenzyl, alkyl-oxycarbonyl- phonates according to the formula:

    R3 has the meaning given above, except that it should not be benzyl, phenyl or substituted phenyl

    [0127] Preferably the reaction may be performed with a catalyst such as palladiumcarbon. Optionally the phosphonic acid groups may be neutralized. Preferably they may be neutralized with a weak cation exchanger (M+) or with a base such as MHCO3, M2CO3 or MOH. M+ is for example NH4+ or a metal such as Li+, Na or K .

    [0128] W. Reacting hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid with an esterifying halide, using a tetraalkylammonium salt as a catalyst, according to the formula:

    Hal is Cl, Br or I. R3 has the meaning given above and R8 an alkyl residue, such as for example n-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl and n-octyl. Preferably n-heptyl is used and preferably the reaction is performed as an extractive alkylation, as described by for example A Brändström, Preparative Ion Pair Extraction (Apotekarsocieteten, Hassle, Sweden 1976).

    [0129] Also as described, the phoshonate groups may be transformed to a disalt

    where M+ is for example NH4+ or a metal such as Li+, Na or K+.

    [0130] X. Reacting oxycarbonylphosphonic acid diesters according to the formula

    R2 and R3 have the meaning described above.

    [0131] The preparations may be performed by procedures analogous to those described above in T-V.

    [0132] Optionally the oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monocarboxylic ester thus obtained may be neutralized with a weak cation exchanger or with a base such as MHCO3, M2CO3 or MOH. M+ is for example NH4+ or a metal such as Li+, Na or K+.

    [0133] The oxycarbonylphosphonic acid diesters may be prepared by methods described above in K-0.

    [0134] Preparations of triesters of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid.

    Example 1. Diethyl 4-methoxyphenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0135] 18.6 g (0.12 mole) of triethylphosphite was heated at 125-130°C in a flask with a reflux condensor. 18.6 g (0.10 mole) of 4-methoxyphenyl chloroformate (prepared according to M.J. Zabik and R.D. Schuetz, J. Org. Chem. 32 (1967) 300) was added dropwise. The reaction flask was heated additionally at about 120°C for 1,5 hours and left at room temperature overnight. The product was distilled to give 25.8 g (89%) of diethyl 4-methoxyphenoxycarbonylphosphonate. Bp0.03 = 174-8°C,

    = 1,4940.

    [0136] Analysis for C12H1706P. Found (calculated): C 49.79 (50.00), H 6.01 (5.95), P 10.54 (10.75).

    [0137] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.42 (t, CH3), 3.78 (S, OCH3), 4.13-4.63 (CH2), 6.77-7.33 (aromatic).

    [0138] IR (neat) cm-1: 1740 (CO), 1275, 1255, 1190, 1030.

    Example 2



    [0139] By mixing the phosphite triester and the chloroformate ester at a temperature from 20 to 130°C and by heating at 80 to 130°C for 1 to 10 hours, the following compounds were prepared analogously to example 1.

    a) Diethyl 4-chlorophenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0140] From 20 g (0.12 mole) of triethylphosphite and 19.1 g (0.10 mole) of 4-chlorophenyl chloroformate (prepared according to M.J. Zabik and R.D. Scheutz J. Org. Chem. 32 (1967) 300). (125°C, 2 hours). Yield 26.3 g (90%). Bp0.01 153-6°C,

    1.4980.

    [0141] Analysis for C11H14ClO5P. Found (calculated): C 44.85 (45.14), H 4.83 (4.82), P 10.54 (10.59).

    [0142] NMR (CDC13) 6: 1.45 (t, CH3), 4.17-4.63 (CH2), 7.03-7.48 (aromatic).

    b) Dimethyl p-tolyloxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0143] From 10.3 g (85 mmole) of trimethylphosphite and 10.3 g (60 mmole) of p-tolyl chloroformate (prepared according to M.J. Zabik and R.D. Schuetz, J. Org. Chem. 32 (1967) 300). (100°C, 2 hours). Yield 93%. Rp3.2 131°C,

    1.4972.

    [0144] Analysis for C10H13O5P. Found (calculated): C 49.37 (49.18), H 5.53 (5.36), P 11.71 (12.69).

    [0145] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 2.40 (CH3), 3.92 and 4.12 (CH3O), 6.97-7.37 (aromatic protons).

    [0146] A second distillation gave a yield of about 80%.

    [0147] New analysis: C 49.13 (49.18), H 5.41 (5.36), P 12.71 (12.69).

    c) Dimethyl 3,4-dichlorophenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0148] From 10.3 g (85 mmole) of trimethylphosphite and 13.5 g (60 mmole) of 3,4-dichlorophenyl chloroformate (100°C, 2 hours). Yield 11.4 g (64%). BP0.04 164°C,

    1.5271.

    [0149] Solidifies to colourless crystals m.p. 58-9 C.

    [0150] Analysis for C9H9Cl2O5P. Found (calculated). C 36.06 (36.14), H 3.31 (3.03), Cl 23.58 (23.71), P 10.50 (10.36).

    [0151] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 3.93 and 4.07 (CH3O), 7.0-7.6 (aromatic protons).

    [0152] IR (KBr) cm-1: 1740 (CO), 1265, 1200, 1165, 1055, 1020.

    d) Dimethyl 2-adamantoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0153] From 1.5 g (12 mmole) of trimethylphosphite and 2.0 g (9.3 mmole) of 2-adamantyl chloroformate.'(100-110°C, 2 hrs). Yield 1.0 g (37%). Bp0.3 160°C.

    [0154] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.5-2.2 (adamant), 3.87 and 4.03 (CH3O), 5.2 (C02CH).

    e) Dimethyl phenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0155] From 10.0 ml (85 mmole) of trimethylphosphite and 10.0 g (64 mmole) of phenylchloroformate. (100°C, 2 hours). Yield 11.0 g (75%). Bp0.5 125-7°C.

    1,4907.

    [0156] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 3.90 and 4.09 (CH3), 7.10-7.60 (C6H5).

    f) Dimethyl 4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0157] From 16.1 g (0.13 mole) of trimethylphosphite and 22.8 g (0.10 mole) of 4-ethoxycarbonylphenyl chloroformate. (100°C, 3 hours). Yield 26.7 g (88%). BP0.05 205-C.

    [0158] Analysis for C12H15O7P. Found (calculated): C 47.70 (47.69), H 5.07 (5.00), P 10.15 (10.25).

    [0159] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.40 (t, J 7Hz, CH3-C), 4.02 (d, J llHz, CH30), 4.36 (q, J 7Hz, CH2), 7.27 and 8.10 (d, J 9Hz). IR (neat) cm : 1740 (CO).

    g) Diethyl 4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0160] From 21.6 g (0.13 mole) of triethylphosphite and 22.8 g (0.10 mole) of 4-ethoxycarbonylphenyl chloroformate. (120°C, 2 hours). Yield 26.1 g (88%). Bp0.01 190-2°C.

    1.4890.

    [0161] Analysis for C14H19O7P. Found (calculated): C 50.77 (50.91), H 6.20 (5.80), P 9.53 (9.38).

    [0162] NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.15-1.38 (CH3), 4.15-4.65 (CH2), 7.28 and 8.12 (d, J 9Hz).

    h) Diphenyl ethoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0163] [According to A. Takamizewa and Y. Sato, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 12 (1964) 398]. Yield 97%, Bp0.03 153-5°C,

    1.5314.

    i) Dimethyl benzyloxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0164] From 50 ml (0.4 mole) of trimethylphosphite and 56.9 g (0.3 mole) of benzyl chloroformate (Sigma 90-95%) (100°C, 2 hours). Yield 73 g (90%). BP0.02 135-6°C.

    1,4997.

    [0165] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 3.75 and 3.97 (CH3), 5.28 (s, CH2), 7.37 (s, C6H5).

    k) Diethyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0166] [According to T. Reetz et al. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 77 (1955) 3813]. Yield 87%, Bp1 87-91°C,

    1.4235.

    [0167] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.20 (t, J 6Hz, CH3-C), 3.83 (s, C02CH3), 4.03-4.52 (J 6Hz, CH2).

    [0168] IR (neat) cm-1: 1725 (CO).

    1) Dimethyl n-butoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0169] From 10.0 ml (85 mmole) of trimethylphosphite and 8.7 g (64 mmole) of n-butyl chloroformate. (100°C, 1.5 hours). Yield 10.9 g (81%). Bp1.0 97-100°C.

    1,4269.

    [0170] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 0.80-1.08 (CH3-C), 1.15-1.80 (CH2-CH2), 3.80 and 4.02 (CH3O), 4.20-4.41 (OCH2).

    m) Dimethyl i-propoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0171] From 10.0 ml (85 mmole) of trimethylphosphite and 7.8 g (64 mmole) of i-propyl chloroformate. (100°C, 2 hours). Yield 8.0 g (64%). Bp2 90-2°C.

    1,4202.

    [0172] NMR (CDCl3) δ : 1.39 (d, J 6Hz, C-CH3), 3.80 and 3.98 (CH3O), 5.0-5.4 (CH).

    n) di-n-butyl methoxycarbonylphosohonate



    [0173] From 26.6 g (0.10 mole) of tri-n-butylphosphite and 18.9 g (0.20 mole) of methyl chloroformate (80°C, 6 hours).

    [0174] Yield 22.4 g (89%). Bp0.2 85-105°C,

    1.4310.

    [0175] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 0.80-1.03 (CH3), 1.18-1.98 (CH2-CH2), 3.85 (s, CO2CH3), 4.23 (q, J 6Hz, OCH2).

    o) Triethyloxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0176] [According to P. Nylén, Ber. 57 (1924) 10231. Yield 85-90%. Bp16 136-141°C,

    1.4225.

    p) Dimethyl cyclohexoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0177] From 24.8 g (0.20 mole) of trimethylphosphite and 32.1 g (0.20 mole) of cyclohexylchloroformate, (Y. Iwakura and A. Nabeya, J. Org. Chem. 25 (1960) 1118; M.E. Fourneau et al. Chem. Abstr. 16 (1922) 240; J.H. Saunders et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73 (1951) 3797). (100°C, 2 hours). Yield 30 g (64%). BP1.4-1.8 148-151°C.

    1.4543.

    [0178] Analysis for C9H17O5P. Found (calculated): C 45.97 (45.76), H 7.27 (7.26), P 13.37 (13.12).

    [0179] NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.3-2.0 (CH2), 3.83 and 4.03 (CH3), 5.1 (CH).

    q) Dimethyl cyclopentylmethylenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0180] From 12.4 g (0.10 mole) of trimethylphosphite and 16.26 g (0.10 mole) of cvclooentvlmethvlchloroformate. (100°C, 2 hrs). Yield 14.4 g (61%). BP1.5-2.0 150-4°C,

    .4549.

    [0181] Analysis for C9H17O5P. Found (calculated): C 45.80 (45.76), H 7.30 (7.26), P 12.97 (13.11).

    [0182] NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.1-2.6 (cyclopentyl), 3.87 and 4.05 (CH3), 4.12 (CH2, d, J 7Hz).

    Example 3. Ethyl, o-methoxyphenyl phenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0183] 24.4 g (0.10 mole) of diethyl p-methoxyphenylphosphite and 31.2 g (0.20 mole) of phenyl chloroformate were mixed at room temperature and heated 130°C for about 2 hours. The excess of phenyl chloroformate was evaporated at 130°C with a vacuum pump, to give the product as a residue.

    [0184] 

    1.5378. NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.42 (t, J 7Hz, CH3-C), 3.80 (s, CH30), 4.50 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH2), 6.76-7.70 (9H).

    [0185] IR (neat) cm : 1740, 1590, 1500, 1180, 980 and 920.

    Example 4



    [0186] Analogously as described in example 3, the following compounds were prepared by heating at 20-130 C for 2-15 hours.

    a) Ethyl, p-chlorophenyl phenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0187] From 24.9 g (0.10 mole) of diethyl p-chlorophenylphosphite and 31.3 g (0.20 mole) of phenyl chloroformate. (110°C, about 15 hours).

    [0188] NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.47 (t, J 7Hz, CH3-C), 4.50 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH2), 7.0-7.7 (aromatic).

    b) Ethyl, 3,4-dichlorophenyl phenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0189] From 14.2 g (0.05 mole) of diethyl 3,4-dichlorophenyl- phosphite and 15.7 g (0.10 mole) of phenyl chloroformate (110°C, about 15 hours).

    [0190] NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.46 (t, J 7Hz, CH3), 4.50 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH2), 7.0-7.6 (aromatic).

    c) Ethyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0191] From 20.0 g (83 mmole) of diethyl 2,6-dimethylphenylphos- phite and 10.0 ml (127 mmole) of methyl chloroformate. (100°C, 4 hours). Yield 22.2 g (99%). By g.l.c. (3% OV 17 column, 120-280°C) only one peak was seen.

    [0192] NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.35 (t, J 7Hz, CH3-C), 2.37 (s, CH3-Ar), 3.92 (s, CO2CH3), 4.40 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH2), 7.03 (s, C6H3).

    [0193] An analytical sample was distilled in vacuo. BP0.04 125-8 C.

    1.4914.

    d) Ethyl, 5-indanyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0194] From 20.0 g (78 mmole) of diethyl 5-indanylphosphite and 10.0 ml (127 mmole) of methyl chloroformate (100°C, 4 hours). Yield 22 g (99%). By g.l.c. (3% OV17 column, 120-280°C) the purity was estimated to be about 85%.

    [0195] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.40 (t, J 7Hz, CN3-C), 1.85-2.35 (multiplet, CH2), 2.80-3.05 (CH2-C-CH2), 3.82 (s, CO2CH3), 4.42 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH20), 6.9-7.3 (C6H3).

    e) Methyl 1-adamantyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0196] From 24.4 g (0.1 mole) of dimethyl 1-adamantylphosphite and 18.9 g (0.2 mole) of methyl chloroformate (90°C, 2 hours).

    [0197] NMR (CDCl3) δ : 1.63 and 2.16 (broad singlets, C10H15), 3.83 (s, C02CH3), 3.88 (d, J 12Hz, OCH3). 1R (neat) cm -1: 1730, 1290, 1230, 1060, 1020, 990.

    [0198] An analytical sample was distilled in vauco. B.p. 0.01, 125-7°.

    1.4922.

    f) Methyl p-acetylphenyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0199] From 11.4 g (50 mmole) of dimethyl p-acetylphenylphosphite and 9.5 g (100 mmole) of methyl chloroformate (100°C, 1 hour and 120°C, 2 hours).

    1.5178.

    [0200] NMR (CDC13) δ: 2.60 (s, CH3-CO), 3.92 (s, CO2CH3), 4.08 (d, J llHz, OCH3), 7.39 and 8.03 (doublets, J 9Hz, C6H4).

    [0201] IR (neat) cm-1: 1730, 1690, 1610, 1510, 1370, 1300, 1270, 1250, 1220, 1050, 950.

    Example 5. Dibenzyl ethoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0202] Ethanol (4.6 g) was added to a fine suspension of sodium metal (2.25 g) in dry ether (200 ml) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. The mixture was heated for 8 hours, after which dibenzylphosphite (25.7 g) in dry ether (50 ml) was added. After standing over-night the dibenzylphosphite sodium salt was added over a period of 2 hours to a cold solution of ethyl chloroformate (10.8 g) in ether, under an atmosphere of nitrogen. The reaction was heated at reflux for 1 hour, cooled, washed with water, a NaCl solution and dried over Na2SO4. The ether was evaporated. After evaporating and discarding components volatile at 0.01 mm and 150°C the resiaue was collected (13 g).

    [0203] Analysis: NMR (CDCl3): 1.10-1.25 (CH3), 4.03-4.50 (CO2CH2), 5.00-5.32 (CH2), 7.39 (C6H5). IR (neat): 1720 cm-1 (CO).

    [0204] Examples of methods used for the synthesis of haloformate esters.

    Example 6. 3,4-Oichlorophenyl chloroformate



    [0205] 40.75 g (0.25 mole) of 3,4-dichlorophenol in 135 ml of dry toluene was cautiously added to 240 ml (0.46 moles) of a 20% solution of phosgene in toluene. The reaction flask was equipped with a stirrer, a dry ice condensor and a dropping funnel, and the reaction temperature was 20-25 C. 31.5 g (0.26 moles) of N,N-dimethylaniline was added over a period of 45 min and the flask was left without stirring for 2 hours. The precipitate was filtered off and washed with 2 x 25 ml of toluene. The combined toluene solutions were cooled on ice and quickly washed with 50 ml of water, 100 ml of 0.1 N HC1 and 100 ml of water. The solution was dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated on a rotary evaporator. The residue was distilled in vacuo over a Vigreux column, to give 46.4 g (82%) of 3,4-dichlorophenylchlorformate, bp20 134°C. The product becomes slightly blue and crystallizes in long needles, m.p. 51-53°C.

    Example 7. 2-Adamantanyl chloroformate



    [0206] 15.2 g (0.10 mole) of 2-adamantanol and 12.1 g (0.10 mole) of N,N-dimethylaniline were dissolved in 200 ml of dry ether and added to 105 ml (0.20 mole) of phosgene in toluene (20%) over a period of 1 hour. The reaction flask was kept at 0°C and was equipped with a stirrer and a dry ice condensor. The product was stirred at room temperature for another hour, after which the solution was cooled on ice and 10 ml of ice cold water was added carefully. The water and the toluene phasse were quickly separated and the toluene was quiclly washed with 50 ml of 0.5 N HCl, 50 ml of 0.5 N NaOH and 50 ml of H2O. The toluene solution was drie over magnesium sulfate and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in dry n-hexane and filtered. The hexane was evaporated and the residue was distilled in vacuo to give 2-adamantanyl chloroformate bp15 135°C,

    1.521, IR (CO) 1770 cm-1.

    Example 8. Cyclooentylmethylmethylene chloroformate



    [0207] A mixture of 24.2 g (0.20 mole) N,N-dimethylaniline and 20.3 g (0.20 mole) of cyclopentylmethanol was slowly added to a 20% solution of phosgene in toluene (104 ml, 0.20 mole) cooled to -5 to +5°C. After the addition the reaction mixture was allowed to attain room temperature and was kept at room temperature for 30 min. The precipitate was filtered off and the solvent was evaporated. Distillation in vacuo gave 26.3 g (81%) of cyclopentylmethyl chloroformate.

    [0208] BP17-20 82-84°C,

    1.4541. Analysis for C7H11ClO2.

    [0209] Found (calculated): Cl 21.37 (21.80). IR (neat) cm-1:

    1790 (CO).


    Example 9. 4-Ethoxycarbonylphenyl chloroformate



    [0210] From 49.9 g (0.3 mole) of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid ethylester, 40 ml (0.3 mole) of N,N-dimethylaniline and 0.4 mole of a 20% solution of phosgene in toluene, 54.4 g (79%) of 4-ethoxycarbonylphenyl chloroformate was obtained. Bp10146-146.5°C,

    1.5140. IR (neat) cm : 1720 and 1790 (CO).

    [0211] Examples of methods used for the synthesis of triesters of phosphorous acid.

    Example 10. Diethyl p-methoxyphenylphosphite



    [0212] The synthesis was carried out by the method described by W.S. Bentrude, 5.8. Hannen, W.A. Khen, T.B. Min and P.E. Rogers, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 95 2292 (1973) for the preparation of diethyl phenylphosphite.

    [0213] A solution of 50.0 g (0.364 mole) of phosphorous trichloride in 500 ml of anhydrous ether was stirred (mechanically) under an atmosphere of argon. The temperature was maintained at -20 - -150C during the addition of 37.1 g triethylamine, followed by the slow addition of p-methoxyphenol, 45.19 g (0.364 mole) in 200 ml of dry ether over a period of 2.5 hours. When the addition was complete another portion of triethylamine 73.8 g (0.728 mole), was added, followed by the slow addition of absolute ethanol, 33.5 g (0.728 mole), in 50 ml of dry ether (1.5 hours). The mixture was stirred at room temperature over night. The mixture was warmed and allowed to reflux for 1 hour. The triethylamine hydrochloride was filtered off and was washed with dry ether. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure. Distillation of the residual oil yielded 48.6 g of diethyl p-methoxyphenylphosphite, bp110 (1.2 mm)-102 (0.6 mm). Another 4.20 g was obtained at 0.2 mm bp 92-960C.

    1.4993.

    [0214] Analysis for C11H17O4P. Found (calculated). C 54.14 (54.10), H 7.07 (7.02), P 12.74 (12.68).

    [0215] NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.26 (t, J 7Hz, CH3), 3.70 (s, CH30), 4.00 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH2), 6.7-7.1 (m, C6H4).

    [0216] IR.(neat) cm-1: 2980, 1510, 1220, 1030, 920.

    [0217] Example 11. Analogously as described in Example 10, the following phosphites were prepared.

    a) Diethyl p-chlorophenylphosphite



    [0218] Yield 43%. BP1.5 102-104°C,

    1.5047.

    [0219] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.17 (t, J 7Hz, CH3), 4.00 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH2), 6.9-7.3 (C6H4).

    [0220] IR (neat) cm-1: 2980, 1590, 1490, 1390, 1230, 1030, 920.

    b) Diethyl 3,4-dichloroohenylphosphite



    [0221] Yield 18%. Bp0.02 110°C,

    1.5188.

    [0222] Analysis for C10H13Cl2O3P. Found (calculated): C 42.47 (42.43), H 4.55 (4.63), Cl 25.11 (25.05), P 10.33 (10.94).

    [0223] NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.30 (t, J 7Hz, CH3), 4.03 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH2), 6.9-7.5 (C6H3).

    [0224] IR (neat) cm : 2980, 1590, 1570, 1470, 1390, 1260, 1220, 1120, 1030, 900.

    c) Dimethyl p-acetylphenylphosphite



    [0225] Yield 20%. Bp0.03 128-130°C,

    1.5308.

    [0226] Analysis for C10H13O4P. Found (Calculated): C 52.36 (52.64), H 5.74 (5.74), P 13.33 (13.57).

    [0227] NMR (CDC13) δ: 2.58 (s, CH3CO), 3.68 (d, J llHz, CH30), 7.14 and 7.97 (d, J 9Hz).

    d) Dimethyl 1-adamantylphosphite



    [0228] Yield 50% (crude product).

    [0229] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.63 and 2.0-2.2 (adamantyl), 3.50 (d, J 11 Hz, CH3O).

    e) Diethyl 2,6-dimethylphenylphosphite



    [0230] Yield 29%. Bp0.01 64-5°C.

    [0231] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.30 (t, J 7Hz, CH3-C), 2.33 (s, CH3-Ar), 4.03 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH20), 7.00 (s, C6H3).

    f) Diethyl 5-indanylphosphite



    [0232] Yield 29%. Bp0.01 140°C.

    [0233] NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.30 (t, J 7Hz, CH3), 1.95-2.30 (CH2), 2.97-3.03 (CH2-C-CH2), 4.03 (quintet, J 7Hz, CH2O), 6.7-7.3 (C6H3).

    [0234] Preparation of diesters of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid.

    Example 12. Sodium methyl benzyloxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0235] 



    [0236] 3.66 g of dimethyl benzyloxycarbonylphosphonate and 2.25 g of sodium iodide were stirred in 25 ml of dry tetrahydrofuran for 3 days. The precipitate was filtered, washed with ether and dried in a desiccator. Colourless, hygroscopic crystals of the title compound were obtained (3.15 g, 82%). By t.l.c. (polyethyleneimine, 1M LiCl, molybdate spray) the compound was estimated to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0237] Analysis for C9H16NaO5P x 1/4 H2O. Found (saleulated):

    H2O 1.7% (1.75); Na 8.8% (8.96); Molecular weight by titra-Lion 257 (256.6).

    NMR (D2O) δ: 3.57 and 2.76 (CH3), 5.28 singlet (CH2), 7.48 singlet (C6H5).


    Example 13



    [0238] Analogously with example 12, the following compounds were prepared by treating the respective triester with sodium iodide. The purification procedure was somewhat modified.

    a) Sodium n-butyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0239] From di-n-butyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate (3.78 g).

    [0240] The collected reaction product (1.65 g) was dissolved in water (10 ml) and added to acetone (100 ml). After filtration the solvent was evaporated. The residue was triturated with aceton, centrifuged and dried in a desiccator, to yield colourless crystals (0.46 g, 14%). Thin layer chromatography: Silica gel, eluted with ethanol and visualized with iodine vaper Rf 0.46.

    [0241] By t.l.c. (polyethyleneimine, 1M LiCl, molybdate spray) the compound was estimated to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0242] Analysis for C6H12NaO5P. Found (calculated): Na 10.8% (10.54); Molecular weight (by titration) 218.8 (218.1).

    b) Sodium ethyl ethoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0243] From hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triethyl ester (3.15 g). The reaction precipitate (0.35 g) was centrifuged, washed with ether, dissolved in water (10 ml) and the water solution was washed with ether. The solution was evaporated in vacuo (3 mm) at room temoerature. Ethanol was added to the residue and evaporated. The residue was treated with ether and dried in a

    . Colourless crystals (0.29 g, 9%) were obtained. By t.l.c. (polyethyleneimine, 1M LiCl,

    [0244] molybdate spray) the compound was estimated to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0245] Analysis for C5H10NaO5P. Found (calculated): Na 11.7% (11.26); Molecular weight (by titration) 204.0 (204.1).

    Example 14. Sodium phenyl ethoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0246] 



    [0247] Diphenyl ethoxycarbonylphosphonate (3.06 g) and sodium hydrogencarbonate (0.84 g) were stirred in water (10 ml) at room temperature for about 24 hours. The solvent was evaporated and the residue extracted with ethanol. The ethanol was evaporated and the residue was washed with ether. The residue was recrystallized twice from isopropanol. Colourless crystals (0.67 g, 27%) were obtained.

    [0248] Thin layer chromatography on silica gel, eluted with ethanol and developed with iodine vapor: Rf 0.66. By t.l.c. the compound was estimated to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0249] Analysis for C9H10NaO5P. Found (calculated): C 42.99 (42.87), H 3.73 (4.00), Na 9.12 (9.12), P 12.12 (12.28). Molecular weight by titration 253.8 (252.1).

    [0250] Reactions involving a trimethylsilyl group:

    Example 15. Sodium 2,6-dimethylphenyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0251] 11.1 g (41 mmole) of ethyl 2,6-dimethylphenyl methoxycarbon- vlphesphenate and 12.7 g (83 mmelel of bromo trimethylsilane, were stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere for about 3 days.

    [0252] Excess of bromotrimethylsilane was evaporated in vacuo (0.5 mm) and 4.62 g (14 mmole) of the residue (total 12.7 g) was added to 60 ml of water and 27.8 g (60 meq.) of Amberlite IRC 50 (Na+). The mixture was stirred for about 2 days, and filtered. The solution was evaporated in vacuo, redissolved in 50 ml of water and washed with ether (3x25 ml). The solution was evaporated in vacuo, the residue was dissolved in 50 ml of ethanol and 200 ml of ether was added. The precipitate was recrystallized twice from i-propanol to give 1.77 g (45%) of the title compound. By t.l.c. (polyethyleneimine, 1M LiCl, molybdate spray) the compound was shown to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0253] Analysis for C10H12O5PNa. Found (calculated): Na 8.64 (9.0).

    [0254] NMR (D20) δ: 2.30 (s, CH3-Ar), 3.91 (s, CO2CH3), 7.12 (s, C6H3). IR (KBr) cm : 1730, 1700, 1490, 1260, 1180, 1100, 920.

    Example 16



    [0255] Analogously as described in example 15, the following compounds were prepared.

    a) Sodium 5-indanyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0256] From ethyl 5-indanyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate. Yield 16%. By t.l.c. (polyethyleneimine, 1M LiCl, molybdate spray) the compound was shown to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0257] Analysis for C11H12O5PNa. Found (calculated): Na 8.3 (8.3). Equivalent weight oy titration: 279.1 (278.2).

    [0258] NMR (D2O) δ: 1.8-2.3 and 2.7-3.1 (CH2-CH2-CH2), 3.83 (s, CO2CH3), 6.9-7.4 (C6H3).

    [0259] IR (KBr) cm : 1720,. 1500, 1280, 1260, 1210, 1140, 1100, 960.

    b) Sodium 1-adamantyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0260] From 11.5 g (0.04 mole) of methyl 1-adamantyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0261] The crude product (11.5 g) was dissolved in 100 ml of warm water, and filtered. The solution was evaporated and the residue was dissolved in 50 ml of water. 400 ml of ethanol was added, the solution was filtered and evaporated in vacuo, to give 4.85 g (40%) of the title compound after the residue had been washed with ethanol and dried.

    [0262] By t.l.c. (polyethyleneimine, 1M LiCl, molybdate spray) the compound was shown to contain <1% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate).

    [0263] NMR (D20) δ: 1.50 and 1.85 (broad singlets; C10H15), 3.62 (s, CO2CH3).

    [0264] Preparation of monoesters of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid (of the phosphonic acid group).

    Example 17. Methyl disodium oxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0265] The synthesis was carried out analogously by the method described in patent OT-OLS 2435407 (W. Abitz, D.F. Morf and H.A. Brauns).

    [0266] Dimethyl benzyloxycarbonylphosphonate (6.2 g) in water (50 ml) was stirred and 50% aqueous NaOH (4.0 g) was added dropwise. The mixture was heated at reflux for 1 hour, after which the solution was evaporated in vacuo. The product was redissolved in water (10 ml) and methanol (80 ml) was added slowly. The precipitate was filtered and dried (2.60 g). Later anether 0.55 g of the title compound nrecipitated slowly from the solution in the form of its disodium salt.

    [0267] By t.l.c. (PEI, 1M LiCl, molybdate spray) the compound was shown to contain <0.5% trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0268] Analysis for C2H3Na2O5P. Found (calculated): Na 24.9% (24.99); Equivalent weight 92.6 (92.0). (By titration).

    [0269] NMR (D20) J: 3.45 and 3.63 (CH3).

    [0270] IR (KBr) cm-1: 1590 (CO), 1085 (P-O-), 1055 (POCH3).

    Example 18. 1-Adamantyl disodiumoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0271] 11.5 g (0.04 mole) of methyl 1-adamantyl methoxycarbonylphosphonate and 12.5 g (0.08 mole) of bromotrimethylsilane were stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere, at room temperature overnight. Excess of bromotrimethylsilane was evaporated in vacuo (about 0.3 mm) at 50°C. The residue was stirred with 80 ml (0.08 mol) of 1 N aqueous NaOH at room temperature for two hours, after which the solvent was evaporated in vacuo.

    [0272] The residue (12.06 g) was dissolved in 150 ml of water, filtered and 350 ml of ethanol was added to the solution. The precipitate was filtered off (5.47 g), redissolved in 100 ml of water and 60 ml of ethanol was added. The new precipitate (A) was filtered off (2.83), and another 350 ml of ethanol was added to the solution to give another 2.15 g of precipitate (B). Precipitate B was redissolved in 50 ml of water; 20 ml of ethanol was added and the precipitate was discarded. Another 400 ml of ethanol was added, the precipitate was collected by centrifugation, to give, after drying, 1.49 g of the title compound. By performing twice, this purification scheme on precipitate A, another 1.92 g of the title compound could be collected.

    [0273] Both fractions could by t.l.c. (polyethyleneimine, 1M LiCl, molybdate spray) be estimated to contain <1% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0274] Rf (the same system) 0.57 single spot.

    [0275] NMR (D20) δ: 1.50 and 1.93 (broad singlets).

    [0276] IR (KBr) cm-1: 1580 (CO), 1380, 1240, 1200, 1090, 1060, 990.

    [0277] Preparation of monoesters of the carboxylic group of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid.

    Example 19. Disodium ethoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0278] 1.20 g (5.7 mmole) of triethyl oxycarbonylphosphonate and 2.65 g (17.2 mmole) of bromotrimethylsilane were stirred at room temperature in a dried flask under an atmosphere of argon. After about 3 hours, volatile components were evaporated in vacuo (1 mm) and the residue was added to 16 g of Amberlite IRC 50 (Na+, 1.3 meq/g) in 25 ml of water. After 1.5 hours the ion exchanger was added to a column and eluted with another 25 ml of water. The combined water phases (50 ml) were washed with diethyl ether, filtered and evaporated in vacuo (3 mm Hg) at room temperature. The residue was washed with ethanol, filtered and dried in a desiccator, to yield 1.88 (88%) of colourless crystals of the title product.

    [0279] T.l.c. (polyethyleneimine, 1.4M LiCl, molybdate spray):

    Rf 0.58.



    [0280] By t.l.c. (1M LiCl) the compound was estimated to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0281] Analysis for C3H5Na2O5P x 5H2O. Found (calculated): H2O 11.8 (12.0), Na 20.7 (20.4). Molecular weight by titration:

    232 (225)



    [0282] NMR (D2O) δ: 1.23 (t, J 7Hz, CH3), 4.18 (quartet, 3 7Hz, CH2).

    Example 20



    [0283] Analogously as described in example 19, the following reactions and analyses were performed.

    a) Disodium n-butoxycarbonylohosphonate



    [0284] From dimethyl n-butoxycarbonylphosphonate. Yield 92%. T.l.c. Rf 0.52. By t.l.c. (1M LiCl) compound was estimated to contain <0.5% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0285] Analysis for C5H9Na2O5P x 1.5H20. Found (calculated):

    H20 10.6 (10.7), Na 18.7 (18.2). Molecular weight 262 (253).

    NMR (D20) δ: 0.9 (CH3), 1.2-1.8 (CH2-CH2), 4.1 (OCH2).


    b) Disodium i-propoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0286] From dimethyl i-propoxycarbonylphosphonate. Yield 90%. T.l.c. Rf 0.53. By t.l.c. (1M LiCl) the compound was estimated to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0287] Analysis for C4H7Na2O5P x 1.5H20. Found (calculated):

    H20 11.6 (11.3), Na 19.1 (19.2). Molecular weight: 234 (239).

    NMR (DZO) δ: 1.20 (d, J 6Hz, CH3]), 4.93 (m, CH).


    c) Disodium benzoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0288] From dimethyl benzoxycarbonylphosphonate. Yield 88%. T.l.c. Rf 0.37. By t.l.c. (1M LiCI) the compound was estimated to contain <0.4% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0289] Apalysis for r H Na O5P X 1.5H O. Found (caleulated):

    H2O 9.2 (9.4), Na 18.4 (18.0).

    NMR (D20) δ: 5.14 (s, CH2), 7.37 (s, C6H5).


    d) Disodium cyclohexoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0290] From dimethyl cyclohexoxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0291] The crude product was purified by precipitation with ethanol from a water solution. Yield 87%. T.l.c. Rf 0.54. Single spot. By t.l.c. the compound was estimated to contain <0.5% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0292] NMR (D20) δ: 1.2-2.0 (m, C6H11). IR(KBr) cm-1: 1670 (CO), 1120 and 990 (PO43-).

    e) Disodium cyclopentylmethylenoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0293] From dimethyl cyclopentylmethylenoxycarbonylphosphonate. The crude product was purified by precipitation with ethanol from a water solution. Yield 67%. T.l.c. Rf 0.55. Single spot. By t.l.c. the compound was estimated to contain <0.5% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0294] NMR (D2O) δ: 1.1-1.9 [m, (CH2)4], 2.0-2.3 (m, CH), 3.98 (d, J 7Hz, C02CH2).

    [0295] IR (KBr) cm-1: 1680 (CO), 1130 and 1000 (PO43- ).

    f) Disodium 2-adamantoxycarbonylphosphonate



    [0296] From dimethyl 2-adamantoxycarbonylphosphonate. Yield 80%. T.l.c. Rf 0.56. Single spot. By t.l.c. the compound was estimated to contain <1% of trisodium oxycarbonylphosphonate.

    [0297] NMR (D20) δ: 1.43-2.20 (C10H14), 4.93 (CO2CH).

    [0298] IR (KBr) cm-1: 1680 (CO), 112U and 980 (PO4).

    Pharmaceutical compositions



    [0299] The following examples illustrate the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions of the invention. The active substance in case it can form salts, is preferably used in the form of its sodium salt.































    [0300] Preparations containing 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g of active substance have also been prepared.







    [0301] The coating is carried out by a pouring procedure in a conventional coating pan or by spraying the tablets in a pan spray tablet coater.












    Biological tests


    I. Inhibition of virus multiplication in cell culture


    A. Inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 plague



    [0302] The plaque reduction assay for herpes simplex type 1 was performed on GMK (Green Monkey Kidney) cells as described by Ejereito et al. J. Gen. Virol. 2 (1968) 357. Monolayers on 5 cm petri dishes were used and after virus adsorption the test compound was added in the medium. The results are shown below.

    [0303] Inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 plaque on GMK monolayers


    B. Inhibition of influenza (WSN Wilson Smith Neurotropic type A.) plaque



    [0304] The method for plaque assay of influenza has been described by Bentley et al, Archiv für die Gesamte Virusforschung 33 (1971) 234.

    [0305] Monolayers of MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney) cells on 5 cm plastic petri dishes were inoculated with 100 plaque-forming units of influenza virus (WSN). After virus adsorption, 5 ml of agarose overlay containing different concentrations of the test compound were added and the plates were incubated at 340C for 4 days. The plaques formed at this time were counted. The results are shown below.

    [0306] Inhibition of influenza (WSN Wilson Smith Neurotropic type A) plaque on GMK monolayers.


    II. Inhibition of cutaneous herpes on guinea pigs



    [0307] The effect on cutaneous herpes simplex type 1 infections have been measured in a guinea pig model described by Hubler et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 69 (1974) 92. The compounds have been tested as topical applications of 30 µl of 2% solution of the compound in 45 % (v/v) isopropanol, 10% (v/v) glycerol and 45% water (v/v) twice daily for 4 days starting 4 hours after infection. The appearance of an infected treated area and a similar infected untreated (only isopropanol-glycerol-water) area was scored daily on a scale from 0 to 3. The total effect is judged from the score at day 5.


    III. Stability test



    [0308] The acid stability was investigated by dissolving 5 mg of each compound in 1 ml of 0.1 N HC1 in a test tube. For use as references 0.2 ml of each solution was withdrawn, immediately treated with 0.2 ml of a 10 % aqueous solution of NaHCO3 and frozen. The remaining 0.8 ml of each solution was incubated at 37°C for 2 hours. After incubation, 0.8 ml of a 10 % aqueous solution of NaHCO3 was added to each solution and the solutions were frozen. The incubated compounds and the reference compounds were lyophilized to dryness and redissolved in distilled H2O, 0.2 ml and 1.0 ml respectively, for each reference solution and incubated solution. The solutions were applied to silica gel (Merck PF254' 20x20 cm) and polyethylene imine (Macherey-Nagel PEI, 20x20 cm) thin layer plates. A total of 20 µl of the reference solutions (100 µg compound) and 25 pl of the incubated solutions (100 µg compound) were applied. To each plate was also added, as references, solutions of phosphorous acid (H2HP03) (5 and 20 µg) and of trisodiumphosphonoformate (5 and 20 µg). (Decomposition of phosphonoformic acid at low pH produces phosphorous acid).

    [0309] The silica gel plates were prepared in duplicate and eluted with a solution composed of methanol - 10% aq ammonia - trichloroacetic acid - water (50-15-5-3, v/v) and the polyethylene imine plates were eluted with a 1M aq lithium chloride solution. After elution the plates were dried. One of the duplicated silica gel plates was. sprayed with 4 % aq . (NH4)2MoO4 and the polyethylene imine plates were sprayed with a solution composed of 60 % HClO4 - O.lN aq HC1 - 4% aq (NH4)2MoO4 - H20 (5-10-25-60, v/v). The silica gel plates were briefly dried at 80-90°C and sprayed with 1% SnCl2 in 10% aq HC1. Phosphorous acid and phosphonic acid groups appeared as blue spots on the silica gel plates (System 1) and as white spots on the polyethylene imine plates (System II). The remaining duplicate silica gel glates were exposed to iodine vapor for detection of di-and triesters of phcsphono- formic acid.



    [0310] The formation of phosphorous acid and phosphonoformic acid in each incubated solution was estimated and the results are given below. The figures for the non-incubated reference compounds are given in parenthesis..




    IV. In vivo metabolization



    [0311] Metabolization of compounds of the invention was tested in NMR I 19-20 g male mice. The test compound (10 umol) was dissolved in 0.5 ml saline and injected intraperitoneally. Two mice kept in one cage (for metabolization experiment) were used for each compound. The urine obtained from the two mice on day 1, 2 and 3 after the injections was collected. The urine was diluted with Tris-HC1 buffer (pH 7.9) to a constant volume of 1 ml. This volume was then diluted 1:500, 1:5000 and 1:50000 with the same buffer and assayed for phosphonoformic acid activity on cell-free influenza polymerase. The assay mixture which includes Mn2+ and assay conditions are described by Bishop, Obijeski and Simpson, J. Virol. 8, 66 (1971). Phosphonoformic acid in diluted urine gave 50% inhibition at 0.5 pM in this assay and was used as a standard to estimate the amount of phosphonoformic acid activity formed in the urine from compounds of the invention.


    Acute toxicity



    [0312] A preliminary acute toxicity test was carried out in mice. Groups of two male mice of the NNR I strain weighing 20-21 g received the test compound in doses of 62.5-500 mg/kg i.p. The compound was given as a solution in 0.9% NaCl. The number of animals dead 24 hrs after injection was as follows.


    Discussion of test results



    [0313] As seen in test I compounds of the invention are active on herpes virus and influenza virus multiplication in cells. As seen in test II compounds of the invention are also active on cutaneous herpes in the guinea pig. According to the stability test III, compounds of the invention are more stable than trisodium phosphonoformate in 0.1 N aqueous HC1, which is a model for stability in gastric juice, and the compounds of the invention should therefore be more suitable for oral administrations than phosphonoformic acid and physiologically acceptable salts thereof. The test on in vivo metabolism IV shows that compounds of the invention are metabolized to phosphonoformic acid measured as phosphonoformic acid activity on influenza polymerase. It is also shown in test IV that compounds according to the invention can give such an active metabolite in the urine of mice over a longer time period than trisodium phosphonoformate. Thus compounds of the invention have a prolonged activity in comparison with phosphonoformic acid and its physiologically acceptable salts. The acute toxicity test shows that compounds of the invention have a low acute toxicity, i.e. high LD50 values. In conclusion compounds of the invention have antiviral effects on herpes and influenza viruses and low toxicity. Furthermore compounds of the invention can be bio-transformed to phosphonoformic acid or ionized forms thereof which have strong activities against viral functions and virus multiplication.


    Claims

    1. A pharmaceutical preparation containing as active ingredient a compound of the formula



    wherein R1 and R2 are the same or different, and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-6 carbon atoms; 1-adamantyl; 2-adamantyl, benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula



    wherein R4 and R5 are the same or different and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl having 1, 2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxy having 1, 2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxycarbonyl having 2-7 carbon atoms and alkylcarbonyl groups having 2-7 carbon atoms; or R4 and R5 together form a straight saturated alkylene chain having 3 or 4 carbon atoms and being bound to adjacent positions, i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in the phenyl ring;

    and R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-8 carbon atoms; 1-adamantvl; 2-adamantvl; benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula


    wherein R4 and R5 have the meaning given above; provided that at least one of the groups R1, R2 and R3 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl; and provided that when R3 is H, then one of R1 and R2 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl and the other of R1 and R2 is H; or a physiologically acceptable salt or an optical isomer thereof.
     
    2. A pharmaceutical preparation according to claim 1 in dosage unit form.
     
    3. A pharmaceutical preparation according to any of claims 1-2 , designed for systemic. administration.
     
    4. A compound of the formula



    wherein R1 and R2 are the same or different, and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-6 carbon atoms; 1-adamantyl; 2-adamantyl, benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula



    wherein R4 and R5 are the same or different and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl having 1,2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxy having 1,2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxycarbonyl having 2-7 carbon atoms and alkylcarbonyl groups having 2-7 carbon atoms; or R4 and R5 together form a straight saturated alkylene chain having 3 or 4 carbon atoms and being bound to adjacent positions, i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in the phenyl ring;

    and R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-8 carbon atoms; 1-adamantyl; 2-adamantyl; benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meaning given above; provided that at least one of the groups R1, R2 and R3 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl; and provided that when R3 is H, then one of R1 and R2 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl and the other of R1 and R2 is H;

    or a physiologically acceptable salt or an optical isomer thereof, excluding generically defined groups of compounds wherein R1, R2, end R3 are combined as follows, but including novel soecies within such generic groups:


     
    5. A compound according to claim 4 wherein R1, R2 or R3 are 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or phenyl groups of the formula II wherein the radicals R4 and R5 are the same or different and selected from the groups consisting of halogen, alkoxy having 1-3 carbon atoms, alkoxycarbonyl having 2-3 carbon atoms, and alkylcarbonyl having 2-7 carbon atoms, or wherein R4 and R5 together form a straight saturated alkylene chain having 3 or 4 carbon atoms and being bound to adjacent positions i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in the phenyl ring.
     
    6. A compound according to claim 4 wherein R1, R2 and R3 are combined as follows:






     
    7. Use of a compound as defined in claim 1

    a) in the treatment of diseases caused by viruses in animals including man.

    b) for the treatment of virus-induced neoplastic diseases in animals including man, by inhibiting the transformation of virusinfected cells.

    c) for the treatment of diseases caused by viruses in animals including man, by inhibiting the activity of viral polymerase.

    d) for inhibiting the activity of reverse transcriptases of viruses in animals including man.

    e) for inhibiting the multiplication of virus, in particular herpes-viruses, influenza virus and hepatitis B virus, and retro-viruses in animals including man.

    f) for inhibiting the growth of virus-transformed cells in animals including man.

    g) for the trsatment of virus-induced neoolastic diseases in animals including man, by inhibiting the multiplication of tumor viruses.

    h) for the treatment of virus-induced neoplastic diseases in animals including man by inhibiting the activity of reverse transcriptase.

    i) for the treatment of neoplastic diseases in animals including man.


     
    8 . A process for the preparation of novel compounds within the formula



    wherein R1 and R2 are the same or different, and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-6 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-6 carbon atoms; 1-adamantyl; 2-adamantyl, benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula



    wherein R4 and R5 are the same or different and each is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl having 1, 2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxy having 1, 2, or 3 carbon atoms, alkoxycarbonyl having 2-7 carbon atoms and alkylcarbonyl groups having 2-7 carbon atoms; or R4 and R5 together form a straight saturated alkylene chain having 3 or 4 carbon atoms and being bound to adjacent positions, i.e. 2,3- or 3,4- in the phenyl ring;

    and R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl groups containing 1-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl groups containing 3-8 carbon atoms; cycloalkyl-alkyl groups containing 4-8 carbon atoms; 1-adamantyl; 2-adamantanyl; benzyl; and phenyl groups of the formula

    wherein R4 and R5 have the meaning given above; provided that at least one of the groups R1, R2 and R3 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl; and provided that when R3 is H, then one of R1 and R2 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkyl-alkyl as defined above, or 1-adamantyl, 2-adamantyl, or benzyl; and the other of R1 and R2 is H; or a physiologically acceptable salt cr an optical isomer thereof, by known methods such as

    A. Reacting a formic acid ester with phosphite triesters according to the formula:

    wherein R1 and R3 have the meaning given above except that R1 must not be phenyl or substituted phenyl; R10 is a leaving group suitable for Arbuzov type reactions, such as Cl, Br, I, sulphonate, carboxylate, alkoxide;

    B. Reacting a formic acid ester with phosphite triesters according to the formula

    wherein R1, R3 and R10 have the meaning given above; R11 may be an alkyl, a cycloalkyl, a cycloalkyl-alkyl, a benzyl, an adamantyl or any phosphite esterifying group suitable for participation in Arbuzov type reactions;

    C. Reacting a formic acid ester with phosphite triesters according to the formula:

    wherein R1, R2, R3 and R10 have the meaning given above, except that R1 must not be phenyl or a substituted phenyl;

    D. Reacting a formic acid ester with phosphite diester salts according to the formula:

    wherein R1, R3 and R10 have the meaning given above and M+ is a cation, preferably a metal such as Li+, Na+ or K+;

    E. Esterification of the phosphonic acid groups of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid monoester according to the formula:

    wherein R1 and R3 have the meaning given above;

    F. Esterification of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid diesters according to the formula:

    wherein R1, R2 and R3 have the meaning given above;

    G. Reacting oxycarbonylphosphonic acid dihalide esters according to the formula:

    wherein Hal is Cl, Br or I and R1 and R3 have the meaning given above;

    H. Reacting an oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monohalide diester according to the formula:

    wherein Hal is Cl, Br or I and R1, R2 and R3 have the meaning given above;

    J. Reacting a carbonylphosphonic acid diester according to the formula

    wherein R1, R2 and R3 have the meaning given above and R9 is a suitaule attivating moiety, known. per se es a good leaving group in substitution reactions on activated carboxylic acid groups;

    K. Reacting a hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester with an iodide or a bromide anion, according to the formula:

    wherein X is Br or I and R1, R3 and R11 have the meaning given above;

    L. Hydrolysing a hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester with a base according to the formula:

    wherein R1 and R3 have the meaning given above and R12 is a hydrolyzable phosphate ester group;

    M. Aqueous hydrolysis of a hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester, containing one silyl esterified phosphonate group according to the formula:

    wherein R2 and R3 have the meaning given above and R6 is an inert organic residue;

    N. Reacting an oxycarbonylphosphonic acid monocarboxylic ester according to the formula:

    wherein R1 and R3 have the meaning given above;

    0. Reacting hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid mono-P ester with an esterifying halide, using a tetraalkylammonium salt as a catalyst, according to the formula:

    wherein Hal is Cl, Br or I. R2 and R3 have the meaning given above and R8 is an alkyl residue such as for example n-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl and n-octyl;

    P. Hydrolyzing a hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester according to the formula:

    wherein M is a cation such as NH4+ or Li+, Na or K+ and wherein R2 and R12 have the meaning given above. R13 has the meaning given R12 and R12 and R13 may be the same or different;

    Q. By the stepwise deesterification of a phosphonic acid trisubstituted silyl ester group, and the carboxylic acid ester group, of bydroxycarbonylphasphnine acid triosters, according to the formula:

    R2, R6 and R13 have the meaning given above, and the silyl ester group is preferably a group such as exemplified above in method M;

    R. By the stepwise deesterification of the silyl- and the benzyl ester group of alkyl for aryl), silyl benzyloxycarbonylphosphonate according to the formula:

    wherein M+ is NH4+ or a metal such as for example Li+, Na or K+, and R2 and R6 have the meaning given above except that R2 must not be bonzyl, ohenyl or cubatituted phenyl;

    S. By the deesterification of the bis-silylester groups (on the phosphonic and on the carboxylic acid groups) of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triesters according to the formula:

    wherein R2 has the meaning given above and R6 and R7 are inert organic residues, the same or different;

    T. Aqueous hydrolysis of a hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid triester, containing two silyl esterified phosphonate groups, according to the formula:

    wherein R3 and R6 have the meaning given above;

    U. Reacting triesters of hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid with hydrohalide acids according to the formula:

    wherein R3 and R11 have the meaning given above and X is Cl, Br or I; R14 has the meaning given R11 and R14 and R11 may be the same or different;

    V. Hydrogenating dibenzyl, alkyloxycarbonyl-Phonates according to the formule:

    wherein R3 has the meaning given above, except that it should not be benzyl, phenyl or substituted phenyl;

    W. Reacting hydroxycarbonylphosphonic acid with an esterifying halide, using a tetraalkylammonium salt as a catalyst, according to the formula:

    wherein Hal is Cl, Br or I, R3 has the meaning given above and R8 an alkyl residue, such as for example n-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl and n-octyl;

    X. Reacting oxycarbonylphosphonic acid diesters according to the formula

    wherein R2 and R3 have the meaning described above,


    whereafter the compound within formula I thus obtained if desired is converted to a physiologically acceptable salt and/or resolved into its optical isomers.