(19)
(11)EP 1 068 021 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
25.02.2009 Bulletin 2009/09

(21)Application number: 99935731.2

(22)Date of filing:  16.07.1999
(51)Int. Cl.: 
B05B 3/06  (2006.01)
F16D 63/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US1999/016392
(87)International publication number:
WO 2000/003811 (27.01.2000 Gazette  2000/04)

(54)

LIQUID ROTARY NOZZLE WITH COIL SPRING RETARDER

ROTIERENDE FLÜSSIGKEITSDÜSE MIT SCHRAUBENFEDER-RETARDER

BUSE ROTATIVE POUR LIQUIDES MUNIE D'UN RETARDATEUR A RESSORT EN SPIRALE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LI LU MC NL PT SE

(30)Priority: 17.07.1998 US 118489

(43)Date of publication of application:
17.01.2001 Bulletin 2001/03

(73)Proprietor: Stoneage Inc.
Durango, CO 81301 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • ZINK, Gerald, P.
    Durango, CO 81301 (US)

(74)Representative: Strehl Schübel-Hopf & Partner 
Maximilianstrasse 54
80538 München
80538 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
DE-A- 19 741 416
US-A- 4 673 073
US-A- 4 747 544
US-A- 4 932 590
US-A- 4 660 766
US-A- 4 704 826
US-A- 4 802 628
US-A- 5 503 334
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0001] This invention relates to a small rotary nozzle assembly for spraying high pressure liquids and having a centrifugally controlled radially expandable helical coil spring device driven by a rotary nozzle to act as a rotary speed retarder to prevent undesirable overspeed of nozzle rotation.

    BACKGROUND ART



    [0002] In the field of high pressure rotary liquid handling devices as disclosed e.g. in document US-4 802 628 where the operating parameters can exceed 6895 newton/sq cm. (10,000 psi), rotating speeds of 1,500 rpm and flow rates of 95 liters/min (25 gpm), operating parameters relating to construction, cost, durability and ease of maintenance of rotating small nozzles present many problems. Combined length and diameter of such nozzles may not exceed several centimeters. The more extreme operating parameters and great reduction in size compound the problems. Pressure, temperature and wear factors affect durability, ease of maintenance and attendant cost, and inconvenience and safety in use of such nozzle devices. Simple durable low cost and easily maintained speed controlled nozzles are most desirable.

    DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION



    [0003] Among the objects of the invention is to simplify the configuration of wearing parts of a small high pressure spray nozzle to reduce the number and cost and facilitate economical manufacture and replacement of the wearable parts.

    [0004] Another object of the invention is to help achieve a small durable light weight elongated and small diameter rotating high pressure spray nozzle assembly which can be conveniently carried on the end of a spray lance and readily inserted into small diameter tubes and the like to clean the same as well as being usable on other structures or large flat areas.

    [0005] Another object of the invention is to provide a nozzle with a speed retarding mechanism having a first relatively low friction generation mechanism reacting to nozzle speed control which directly interacts with a higher friction generating mechanism also under nozzle speed control to achieve a desired retarding of nozzle speed.

    [0006] Another object of the invention is to provide a durable rotation speed control mechanism for the rotating spray head in an elongated small diameter high pressure water spray assembly.

    [0007] Another object of the invention is to provide an improved speed control mechanism for a rotating nozzle member of a small diameter high pressure spray nozzle assembly using a centrifugally responsive actuator.

    [0008] Another object of the invention is to provide an improved speed control mechanism for a rotating nozzle member of a small diameter high pressure spray nozzle assembly using a mechanism incorporating a centrifugal weight controlled radially expandable helical coil spring for nozzle speed retardation control.

    [0009] Another object of the invention is to provide an improved speed control mechanism for a rotating nozzle member of a small diameter high pressure spray nozzle assembly using unwinding radial expansion of a radially expandable helical coil spring against an internal small diameter cylindrical wear resistant surface to create a nozzle retarding effect.

    [0010] Another object of the invention is to provide in a single isolated sealed chamber of a small diameter high pressure spray nozzle assembly an improved speed control mechanism for a rotating nozzle member and a rotating nozzle bearing assembly.

    [0011] Another object of the invention is to limit temperature rise in heat generating components of elongated small diameter high pressure water spray nozzle assemblies.

    [0012] A further object of the invention is to provide an improved rotatable nozzle assembly wherein removal of all principal parts of rotary nozzle support bearings and rotary nozzle speed control mechanisms from a common sealed chamber therefor is achieved through one end of a housing body containing a rotatable nozzle.

    [0013] Another object of the invention is to provide improved means for replenishing or replacing lubricating liquid of stable viscosity into a sealed chamber enclosing a speed control mechanism by merely temporarily removing a plug for a fill opening into the chamber and pumping new liquid into the chamber.

    [0014] Another object of the invention is to achieve a significant amount of retarding force on a rotary nozzle of a spray nozzle assembly by viscous shear in a speed control mechanism having friction generating speed retarding parts immersed in the liquid.

    [0015] The high pressure nozzle of this invention is intended for use in a High Pressure (HP) range of approximately 3447 to 20685 newton/sq cm. (5,000 to 30,000 psi). Thus the seal between a relatively stationary seal holder and the rotating inlet end of a rotary nozzle tube must contain any selected pressure to be used. For a selected pressure, the flow rate and the orientation of the nozzle discharge tips provide the reactive force to rotate the nozzle. With a nozzle speed control means utilizing interrelated friction generating speed retarding mechanisms immersed in a high temperature resistant lubricating, liquid, such as automatic transmission fluid, confined in a sealed protected speed control chamber to prevent overspeeding, the speed can be selectively kept in the range of about 100 to 2000 rpm for a spraying operation. Without practical maximum speed control a runaway nozzle can reach several thousand rpm which can detrimentally affect the spraying function and also rapidly increase wear of seals, bearings and other operating parts of the rotary nozzle structure.

    [0016] Radial ball bearings form axially spaced load distributing bearing means between a rotating nozzle shaft and an inner cylindrical surface of a nozzle housing body. The bearings rotatably support the shaft coaxially within the housing body, and prevent axial movement of the shaft when the shaft is subject to high forwardly directed thrust forces from internal high liquid pressures at rotary seal members in the nozzle assembly,

    [0017] The nozzle structure comprises a generally cylindrical housing body forming a relatively stationary reference structure with respect to a coaxial rotatable nozzle carrying tubular shaft member contained therein. The shaft member is a rotary structure having an input end in sealed relationship with a connecting high pressure liquid input member in the input end of the housing which has an internally threaded portion for receiving the male threaded end, i. e. cone-and thread or conventional pipe threads, of a nozzle structure supporting lance or other means (not shown) for supplying the high pressure spray liquid to the nozzle structure.

    [0018] Between the liquid input member and the input end of the nozzle shaft is a high pressure sealing assembly forming a passage for confining high pressure liquid being transferred to the nozzle and comprising a stationary annular seal holder opposite to the end of the shaft for supporting annular seal components arranged end-to-end and having inner diameters corresponding to the inner diameter of the input end of the shaft. The seal holder is counterbored to provide a stepped annular recess with a smooth cylindrical wall coaxial with the shaft and containing the end-to-end components comprising a plastic annular cylindrical seal member and an annular cylindrical carbide wear resistant hard sealing ring seat which is held between the plastic seal and the end of the shaft when high pressure liquid flows through the nozzle during its spraying operation. The carbide seat is kept coaxial with the shaft by the stepped recess and its forward end projects beyond the recess into sealing engagement with the end of the shaft. The outside wall of the plastic seal fits snugly against the wall of the stepped recess and has an additional softer sealing 0-ring seal in a longitudinally-central annular groove between the plastic seal and the wall of the stepped recess to provide additional sealing means therebetween and hold the plastic seal in position against rotation and against the carbide seat as the latter is held against the shaft by pressure of the spray liquid on the plastic seal and rotates with the shaft during operation of the nozzle. As the end of the plastic seal wears where it contacts the carbide seat, liquid pressure on the plastic seal will push it forwardly along the stepped recess to assure continuity of the sealing assembly at the input end of the shaft.

    [0019] The seal contains the high working pressure of the high pressure spray liquid and prevents escape of high pressure liquid from the intended liquid flow path passage into the inlet end of the tubular nozzle member. The seal member is made of an extrusion-resistant crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. The additional softer sealing 0-ring is preferably of resilient tough heat-resistant elastomeric material held in a groove of rectangular cross section machined in the outer cylindrical surface of the seal member midway along its length. When the end of the seal member engaging the inlet end of the seat wears down to near the 0-ring groove, the plastic seal member can be removed and reversed and used until the other end of the seal member becomes similarly worn.

    [0020] The seal assembly used permits easy replacement of a single plastic seal member with 0-ring when it is worn at a small fraction of the cost of replacement of the carbide seat. The carbide seat is pressed axially against and rotates with the nozzle shaft during operation of the spray nozzle apparatus.

    [0021] The sealing assembly comprises the seal holder, the plastic seal and the carbide seat. This provides a very effective seal at low cost because of the simplicity of configuration of these three principal parts and their manner of retention, and replacement when necessary after wear, during the life of the nozzle structure. Wear of 50% of the plastic seal is tolerated without degradation of sealing by this assembly.

    [0022] A rotational speed control means for the spray nozzle is contained in a sealed chamber which encloses ball bearing means for rotatably supporting the rotatable tubular nozzle shaft member which carries the spray liquid to the nozzle spray head. This chamber is sealed to protect the bearing and speed control mechanisms and lubricants therefor from any spray liquid which might escape from the spray liquid passages within the nozzle housing.

    [0023] The speed control is useful in governing the spray pattern from the spray head as the nozzle assembly is moved by its support relative to an object or surface being sprayed. Also the reduced rotational speed significantly reduces wear and heat generation at the moving parts within the nozzle assembly.

    [0024] The sealed bearing-enclosing and speed control chamber is closed at the forward end of the housing by a removable cup-shaped clamping member and an annular forward end lip seal between the outer surface of the shaft and an inner surface of the clamping member. The rear end of the sealed chamber is sealed by an annular lip seal between the shaft and a necked portion of the housing. A removable threaded plug in an opening in the clamping member allows lubricating liquid to be injected under pressure into the sealed chamber. The lips of the seals are so arranged that the forward seal blocks escape of the liquid but the rear seal allows liquid to escape past its lip and thus allow replenishment or complete replacement of the liquid by merely removing the plug.

    [0025] The various internal elements in the sealed bearing chamber of the nozzle assembly, including the bearings, are kept in relatively fixed axial positions by means including the removable clamping member which pushes all such elements toward one end of the housing where an element of the assembly abuts an inwardly extending housing shoulder.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0026] 

    Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of a high pressure liquid spray nozzle apparatus using for nozzle rotor speed control a centrifugal weight controlled radially expandable unwindable coil spring engageable with a cylindrical friction surface to prevent overspeeding and showing a forward end cap for keeping internal components of the spray apparatus clamped in place.

    Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the nozzle apparatus of Fig. 1 from its outlet end, but with nozzle discharge tips and a protector for the tips omitted.

    Fig. 3 is an perspective exploded view of the nozzle apparatus of Fig. 2.

    Fig. 4 is an enlarged exploded view of the principal coil spring speed control components used in the nozzle of Figs. 1-3.

    Fig. 5 is a side view of a shaft member forming part of the subassembly of Fig. 4.

    Fig. 5A is a rear end view of the shaft member of Fig 5.

    Fig. 6 is a side view of a helical coil spring forming part of the subassembly of Fig. 4.

    Fig. 7 is a side view of a cluster of centrifugal weights forming part of the subassembly of Fig. 4.

    Fig. 7A is a front end view of the cluster of centrifugal weights shown in Fig. 7.

    Fig. 8 is a graphical illustration of the relationship between self-generated reaction torque of the rotating nozzle versus rotating nozzle speed when using a nozzle speed retarding mechanism in accordance with the present invention.

    Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing an alternative embodiment also using a coil spring speed control mechanism.


    BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION



    [0027] Figs. 1-4 show a high pressure liquid nozzle apparatus assembly having an elongated cylindrical nozzle housing body 10 within which is rotatably mounted a coaxial two-piece hollow or tubular nozzle shaft structure having a first tubular shaft member 11 with a female threaded forward end into which is screwed the male rear end of a coaxial shaft extension 13 having a Y-shaped passage feeding two nozzle sockets in a nozzle head 14. The hollow shaft structure 11-13 carries high pressure liquid to a discharge spray head 14 at one end of the body 10. Nozzle means on the forward end of the rotating nozzle shaft provides multiple jet streams of the liquid for cleaning purposes with the streams oriented to provide a jet reaction torque on the nozzle shaft to make it self-rotating. For shaft retarding purposes pointed out hereinafter the direction of self rotation in this illustrated embodiment is clockwise when looking into the discharge end of the nozzle assembly. This also keeps the extension 13 screwed securely into the shaft member 11.

    [0028] As seen in Fig. 1, the arms of the Y-shaped passage in the rotatable shaft structure 11-13 connect with threaded cylindrical canted bores 45 in head 14 of the nozzle structures. Nozzle discharge tips 46 are threaded into these canted bores 45. The end of the upper nozzle tip 46 in Fig. 1 is canted toward the reader and the end of the lower nozzle tip 46 in Fig. 1 is similarly canted away from the reader so that reaction forces due to jet streams from these nozzle tips 46 rotate the nozzle head 14 clockwise as seen looking toward the nozzle discharge end, or in the direction of a right hand screw to keep the shaft extension member 13 screwed into the shaft member 11.

    [0029] High pressure liquid is supplied to the inlet end of the shaft 11 by inlet means comprising a necked down inlet end of the housing body 10 which is internally threaded to connect to a conventional cone-and-thread threaded connector on the end of a hose or a lance forming the source of high pressure liquid (not shown) for the nozzle assembly. The inside of the inlet end of the body 10 has a smooth cylindrical bore which ends at an inwardly directed shoulder providing an annular sealing surface against which a seal holder 16 is clamped by the cone-and-thread connector of the liquid supply source. The seal holder has a cylindrical outer surface which is slidable within the bore in the inlet end of body 10. The holder 16 has a conical high pressure liquid entrance forwardly tapering to a short reduced diameter cylindrical orifice. Just forward of the orifice is a stepped smooth annular cylindrical counterbored seal supporting surface completely enclosing an axially slidable annular plastic seal 17 which abuts a hard durable carbide annular seal member or seat 18 which is partially contained in the seal holder 16 counterbore.

    [0030] When the conventional cone-and-thread connector on the high pressure liquid source (not shown) is secured in the entrance end of housing body 10 it forms a sealed connection at the conical entrance to the seal holder 16 and clamps the seal holder 16 tightly in place against the shoulder at the end of the bore in the inlet end of housing body 10. The stepped coaxial counterbored passage of the seal holder 16 presents a smooth inner cylindrical surface within which are coaxially supported in end-to-end relationship the annular cylindrical deformable seal member 17 and the annular cylindrical rigid carbide seat 18 which are pushed forward solely by high liquid pressure on the seal member 17 and on the seat 18 to force the seat against the inlet end of the shaft 11. The sealing seat member 18 has a first end face beveled at its outer edge and abutting the shaft 11 with an area of contact smaller than an area where its opposite end face abuts the seal member 17 whereby the force differential across the seat 18 due to the high pressure liquid in said inlet passage holds the seat 18 against the shaft during operation of the apparatus.

    [0031] The seal member 17 has an elastomeric 0-ring in a longitudinally central annular groove of rectangular cross section in its outer surface to prevent high pressure liquid from flowing between the outer cylindrical surface of the seal 17 and the wall of the counterbore in seal holder 16. The seal member 17 is made of hard strong wear resistant deformable extrusion-resistant material such as a cross linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

    [0032] Upon removal of the cone-and-thread connection on the high pressure liquid source from the inlet end of the housing body 10, the sealing assembly comprising seal holder 16, the seal 17 and the seat 18 is free to be withdrawn from the inlet end of the housing body 10 for inspection, repair or replacement, without interfering with or disassembling any other part of the nozzle apparatus. To prevent inadvertent separation of the seal holder 16, seal 17 and the seat 18 from the inlet end of the housing body 10, a retaining 0-ring 19 is removably held at the outer end of the seal holder 16 in a groove in the inner wall of the end of the body 10.

    [0033] The seal components comprising the seal holder 16, the deformable seal member 17 and the carbide seat 18 form a high pressure liquid sealing means within said housing body 10 for confining high pressure liquid flow between the inlet end connection to the housing body 10 and the inlet end of the shaft member 11 to a flow passage within said housing body which is isolated from the interior of a sealed chamber between the shaft structure 11-13 and the housing body 10. Any leakage of high pressure liquid to the outside of the seal 17 and seat 18 can escape through the slotted weep passages 26 in the body 10 to the outside of the nozzle assembly. The inlet end of the shaft 11 has a reduced diameter portion extending rearwardly through a small aperture in a transverse wall in the body 10 and into the chamber bled by the weep holes 26 where the seat 18 seals against the inlet end of the shaft 11.

    [0034] The illustrated seal holder 16, seal member 17 and seal seat 17 are disclosed in copending United States application Ser. No. 09/071,384, filed April 30, 1998, in which applicant is a joint inventor.

    [0035] The sealed chamber contains radial ball bearings 20a and 20b for rotatably supporting the shaft structure 11-13, a shaft speed control mechanism described in detail hereinafter and lubricating means. Ends of the sealed chamber are defined just beyond the bearings 20a and 20b by means of a front shaft seal 22 between the shaft member 13 and the body 10 and a rear shaft seal 24 between the shaft member 11 and an inner stepped surface of the housing body 10.

    [0036] The lip seals 22 and 24 at opposite ends of the sealed chamber between the rotary shaft and the housing have their sealing lips directed toward the rear of the nozzle apparatus. This enables lubricating liquid to be pumped by any suitable syringe-type device into an opening sealed by the screw plug 42 for replenishment of complete replacement of the lubricating liquid in the chamber which is again sealed after such pumping. The screw plug 42 is located in an annular cap member 40 closing the front end of the housing body 10. The rear seal is oriented to allow excess lubricating liquid to escape to the area of weep ports or passages 26 in the body 10 which communicate to the outside of the housing 10 of the nozzle assembly. Complete replenishment of deteriorated and contaminated liquid is indicated by the flow of clear clean liquid from the weep ports 26 of the housing 10 as pumping of clean liquid progresses.

    [0037] The forward end of the shaft structure is rotatably supported by the radial ball bearing 20a between the shaft extension 13 and the forward end of body 10 capped by an annular cap member 40 screwed on the outer forward end of the housing body 10. The rear end of the shaft structure 11-13 is rotatably supported by the radial ball bearing 20b between the shaft member 11 and the housing body 10. The axial position of the bearing 20a is fixed by having its outer race pushed by the end cap 40 axially into clamping engagement with the forward end of a bronze sleeve 30 abutting a shoulder projecting inwardly from the outermost cylindrical wall portion of the housing body 10. The axial position of the shaft structure 11-13 is fixed by the inner race of the bearing 20a being clamped between opposing shoulders on shaft member 11 and on shaft extension member 13 when these members 11 and 13 are screwed together.

    [0038] It is desirable to insure that the torque produced by the discharged jets from canted nozzle tips 46 is within the operating limits of the tool. The preferred tool operational torque range is from 23 to .67 Newton-meter .67 (1.5 to 6 in.-1b.) and it is generally desirable not to exceed 1.13 newton-meter (10 in-lb) of torque. The higher figure of 1.13 newton-meter (10 in-lb) will provide more latitude for tolerable ranges of overall operating parameters.

    [0039] The jet reaction force and nozzle orientation are designed to produce from .23 to .67 Newton-meter (1.5 to 6 in-lb) of torque based on pump size. Too small a torque may result in erratic rotation rates or be insufficient to start rotation. Too large a torque will exceed the ability of the tool to govern rotation speed and may cause heat buildup, temperature rise in the internal parts, rapid seal wear, and excessive rotation speeds affecting the cleaning operation of the jet streams. The tool should not generally be operated at torques above 1.13 newton-meter (10 in-lb).

    [0040] The flow rating of the tool is .45 Cv. This means that at 34 liters/min. (9 gpm) the pressure loss through the tool is about 276 newton/sq cm. (400 psi), while at 45.4 liters/min. (12 gpm) the loss is about 490 newton/sq cm. (710 psi).

    [0041] The outside wall of the plastic seal 17 fits snugly against the wall of the counterbored stepped recess in the stationary seal holder 16. The 0-ring seal 17' in the longitudinally-central annular groove in the seal 17 not only provides additional sealing means between the plastic seal and the wall of the stepped recess but also aides in holding the plastic seal 17 in position against rotation as the seal 17 is pushed forward by pressure of the spray liquid on the plastic seal and sealed against the carbide seat 18 as the seat 17 is held sealed against and rotates with the input end of shaft member 11. The seat 18 rotates with the shaft during operation of the nozzle. As the end of the plastic seal 17 wears where it contacts the carbide seat 18, liquid pressure on the plastic seal 17 will push it forwardly along the counterbored cylindrical recess of the seal holder 16 to assure continuity of the sealing assembly at the input end of the shaft member 11. The importance of the 0-ring 17' is to keep high pressure liquid from flowing or leaking around the outside of the plastic seal 17.

    [0042] The retarding means for controlling the speed of the self-rotating nozzle shaft structure comprises two components which frictionally engage the inner cylindrical surface of the non-rotating bronze sleeve 30 clamped to the housing body 10. These components are a radially expandable helical coil spring device 34 encircling the shaft structure and a centrifugally responsive weight means in the form of a weight cluster including three elongated segment weight elements 35-37 arranged around a cylindrical body portion 11a of the shaft member 11. The weight cluster includes coiled garter type spring means 33 of spring steel collectively encircling the weight elements in grooves 33a for biasing the weights toward the rotational axis of the nozzle shaft structure and, when idle, into contact with the outer cylindrical body portion 11a of the shaft member 11. Fig. 7A shows these complementary shaped segment weight elements 35-37 as held together by the garter springs 33 and each weight has an inner arcuate cylindrical surface with a radius of curvature complementary to the outer diameter of the cylindrical surface portion 11a of the shaft member 11 which the weights engage in their idle positions. The outer arcuate surfaces of the weights each has a cylindrical radius of curvature spaced about .05 cm (0.020 inches) from the inner cylindrical surface of the sleeve 30 when the weights are in their idle positions and which move centrifugally to engage the sleeve 30 when the weights move to their active retarding positions. The sleeve 30 has an inner diameter cylindrical surface of about 3.05 cm (1.20 inches) and the outer diameters of the weights and of the spring in their idle configurations is .05 cm (.020 inches) smaller in diameter or .025 cm (0.010 inches) less in radius of curvature than the sleeve's inner surface. To unwind sufficiently for all turns of the spring to contact the inner diameter of the sleeve, the forward end of the spring rotates about 60 degrees relative to the rear end of the spring.

    [0043] Figs. 4-7 show details of the interconnections between the ends of the coil spring 34 and the driving shaft member 11 and weight element 37 of driven centrifugal weight element means 35-37. The spring is a continuous cylindrical helix. A spring engaging flange 38 on the forward end of shaft member 11 has in a rim portion thereof a peripheral arcuate dead end arcuate slot 38a about .16 cm (1/16 inch) wide and about .64 cm (1/4 inch) long to receive and hold the forward end of the coil spring 34. The forward end of the weight element 37 has a rim portion 39 with a similar dead end arcuate slot 39a to receive and hold the rear end of the coil spring 34.

    [0044] The coil spring has 10 turns of 1.25 mm (0.049 in.) square spring steel which are wound in abutment with one another when the opposite ends are held respectively in the slots 38a and 39a. Lubricating fluid can flow around and between the turns as an aid to keeping the spring cool during its retarding operation.

    [0045] During assembly of the shaft member 11, the coil spring 34 and the weight elements 35-37, the weight elements are first clamped together by the garter springs 33. The spring 34 is placed over the head portion 11b of the shaft member 11 with the forward end of the spring engaged in the slot 38a. The weight cluster 35-37 is then placed over the body portion 11a of the shaft member and the coil spring 34 and weight 37 are relatively manipulated to engage the rear end of the spring 34 in the slot 39a. During this assembly an axially extending pin 37p fixed in the end of weight 37 is positioned over the surface of a wrench flat 11f to unidirectionally limit relative rotation of the weight cluster 35-37 with respect to the shaft member 11 to prevent weight 37 from moving beyond the rear tip of the spring 34. Such limited rotation between these parts provides means to prevent the ends of the spring from being withdraw from the slots 38a and 39a during operation of the retarding apparatus. The pin 37p while limiting relative rotation of weight 37 and shaft member 11 in one direction will move over a cutaway portion of the flat 11f to allow sufficient relative movement of the pin in the opposite direction so that the shaft member can unwind the coil spring 34 sufficiently after the weights engage the inner surface of the sleeve 30 to enable the turns of the coil spring to frictionally engage the inner of the sleeve 30. The spring dimensions are such that relative unwinding movement of about 60° of the forward end of the spring relative to the rear end of the spring or about 6.0° per spring turn is sufficient to move the outer surface of the unwound spring 34 into engagement with the inner surface of the sleeve 30.

    [0046] The coil spring has a tip end which is driven by slot 38a at the forward end of the shaft member 11. The turns of the spring are wound so as to progress clockwise like a right hand screw in the direction away from the discharge end of the nozzle. Rotation of the shaft structure forces the forward end of the coil spring to rotate via slot 38a in the direction of rotation such that the driving force from the shaft tends to unwind the coil spring.

    [0047] A rotating force applied by the slot 38a to the front tip of the spring is transferred through the spring turns, in a clockwise direction as mentioned, to the rear coil spring tip engaged in slot 39a to drive weight 37 clockwise as seen in Fig. 7. In an idle or stopped condition of the shaft structure the coil spring 34 and the weight elements 35-37 are slightly spaced from the inner cylindrical surface of the sleeve 30 and remain so until driven to a rotating speed near a range of speed in which retarding action on the shaft structure is intended to take place to keep the shaft from overspeeding. Below this control range, nozzle speed is not retarded by action of the coil spring 34. Centrifugal operation of weights 35-37 over the relatively flat and nearly linear speed curve from A to B in Fig. 8 does not cause significant unwinding of the spring 34. However, near point B the centrifugal force on each of the weights 35-37 moves them into frictional engagement with the inner cylindrical surface of the bronze sleeve 30 and initiates retarding action on the rotating shaft by unwinding of the spring into contact with the sleeve 30.

    [0048] The outer surfaces of the weight elements engage the inner cylindrical surface of sleeve 30 and the friction occurring at the surfaces of weight elements 35-37 is applied via slot 39a on weight element 37 as a retarding force to the rear tip of the coil spring 34. This retarding force from friction on element 37 is supplemented by frictional forces from elements 35 and 36 as they are pushed ahead by weight element 37. The retarding force of the centrifugal weight cluster 35-37 not only is at least initially transferred through the turns of the coil spring via slots 39a and 38a to the shaft structure, but also the initial retarding force acts to create a further retarding force due to an unwinding of the coil spring 34 into contact with the sleeve 30.

    [0049] The turns of coil spring 34 are dimensionally uniform and present an outer cylindrical surface of minimum diameter when the spring is in an idle state. However, during unwinding of the coil spring 34 by the action of centrifugal weights 35-37 the coil spring diameter progressively increases until the retarding action of the weights causes engagement of the outer surface of the spring with the inner surface of sleeve 30 whereupon an additional frictional force is directly applied by the spring to the shaft structure at the slot 38a. This happens at a point near B in the curve of Fig. 8 and above this speed a complicated but dramatic effect takes place as the shaft speed vs. nozzle self-driving torque curve rises exponentially until near point C an equilibrium condition is reached between: (a) the self-driving torque of the nozzle generated by its jet streams, and (b) the resistive and retarding forces within the nozzle assembly. Beyond point C the rotational shaft speed does not increase with out a significant change in the self-generated nozzle torque as might occur, for example, by a significant change in the flow rate of high pressure liquid from the nozzle jets. The closeness of the points B and C for a selected acceptable desired speed range along the speed axis of Fig. 8 gives considerable latitude in designing the retarding components within the nozzle assembly to provide a retarding action in the wide range from B to C along the vertical axis of Fig. 8 without nozzle shaft over-speeding beyond the small acceptable or desired speed range available from B to C.

    [0050] At maximum speed of the shaft structure near point C the retarding friction force between the coil spring 34 and the sleeve 30 is at least several times the retarding friction force between the weight cluster 35-37 and the sleeve 30.

    [0051] The exponential shape of the retarding force curve from B to C of Fig. 8 in which there is controlled retarding friction between the nozzle shaft and the stationary housing produced by the coil spring is believed to be related to slippage between a belt and a pulley driven thereby as expressed by Eytelwein's equation (found in the Standard Handbook of Machine Design) which is used for analyzing belt forces and correlates the coefficient of friction and the arc of belt contact along which slippage exists.

    [0052] The coil spring 34, after being expanded by unwinding to engage the bronze sleeve 30, adds much shaft retarding frictional resistance at the sleeve and heat generation within the bearing and speed control chamber is highest along the spring. As seen in Figs. 1 and 9 the coil spring 34 is located at a longitudinally central position along the shaft structure 11-13 (Fig. 1) or the shaft 12 (Fig.9) to obtain optimum heat transfer from the area of the coil spring to the central area of the shaft structure and therealong towards opposite ends of the shaft structure to maximize heat transfer to the high pressure liquid flowing through the shaft structure. A suitable lubricating liquid for the bearings, weights and coil spring is conventional automatic transmission fluid which is injected into the sealed chamber through an opening in the cap 40 which opening is normally sealed to confine the lubricating liquid in the chamber by the screw plug 42. The lubricating liquid for the bearings and the braking surfaces is agitated and continually stirred or churned within the sealed chamber. Heat is extracted from the rotating weights, coil spring and bearings directly by conduction to other engaged parts of the nozzle apparatus and indirectly by heat transfer via the lubricating liquid to other parts of the nozzle apparatus including the bronze sleeve and the outer surface of the tubular nozzle structure through which the high pressure spraying fluid is being forced during spraying operations.

    [0053] Conventional automatic transmission fluid (ATF) has a viscosity of about 7.24 centistokes at 100° C. and 33.3 centistokes at 40° C., a temperature limit of about 115° C (240° F), and a viscosity index exceeding 190. ATF has a high shear stability as compared to conventional motor oils. For synthetic ATF blends the respective viscosities (7.5 and 34 centistokes), temperature limit 132° C. (270° F.) and viscosity index (198) are somewhat higher. For a synthetic ATF the temperature limit may be still higher or about 149° C. (300° F.). It is desirable that the viscosity of the lubricating liquid used with this invention remain stable during continuous use of the nozzle apparatus.

    [0054] Fig. 9 shows another embodiment of the invention described in greater detail below, but uses several common parts with like reference numbers as in as in Fig. 1 with same functions in the retarding mechanism including: bronze sleeve 30, centrifugal weights 35-37 (36 not appearing in the section of Fig. 9), garter springs 33 and the coil spring 34. Several other like parts from Fig. 1 bear like reference numbers in Fig. 9. Some parts similar to those of Fig. 1 and having like function in Fig. 9 have a prime notation added to the reference number.

    [0055] Fig. 9 shows a high pressure liquid nozzle apparatus assembly having an elongated cylindrical nozzle housing body 10' within which is rotatably mounted a coaxial hollow shaft 12 which carries high pressure liquid to a discharge spray head 14' at one end of the body 10'. The nozzle means on the forward end of the rotating shaft provides multiple jet streams of the liquid for cleaning purposes with the streams oriented to provide a jet reaction torque on the shaft to make it self-rotating in a clockwise direction as seen from the discharge end of the nozzle.

    [0056] As seen in Fig. 9, the arms of the Y-shaped passage in the head 14' of the rotatable shaft structure connect with threaded cylindrical canted bores 45' in the forward end of the head 14'. Nozzle discharge tips 46 are threaded into these canted bores. The end of the upper nozzle tip 46 in Fig. 9 is canted toward the reader and the end of the lower nozzle tip 46 in Fig. 9 is canted away from the reader so that reaction forces due to jet streams from the nozzle tips 46 rotate the nozzle head 14' clockwise as seen looking toward the nozzle discharge end, or in the direction of a right hand screw to keep the head 14' screwed onto the shaft member 12 via a right hand threaded male to male adapter 48.

    [0057] High pressure liquid is supplied to the inlet end of the shaft 12 by inlet means comprising an inlet nut 15 which is internally threaded to connect to a source of high pressure liquid (not shown). Along the inside cylindrical surface of the housing body 10' the inlet nut 15 clamps a stack of coaxial parts together tightly in place end-to-end and against an inwardly directed shoulder of the housing body 10' near its forward or outlet end. This stack of parts in order consists of a seal holder 16', seal retainer 27 for lip seal 24, the outer bearing race of ball bearing 20b', the bronze sleeve 30, and the outer bearing race of ball bearing 20a' which abuts the housing body shoulder 43'.

    [0058] In Fig. 9 a lip seal 22' at the forward end of the body 10' and a lip seal 24 against the shaft 12 in the seal retainer 27, and an 0-ring 28 sealing the outer periphery of the retainer 27 to body 10', define the ends of a sealed chamber between housing body 10' and shaft 12 for isolating the shaft bearings, the shaft retarding mechanism and the lubricating liquid from the high pressure liquid passages in the nozzle assembly. The lubricating liquid is injected into the sealed chamber through an opening in the forward end of the body 10' which opening is normally sealed to confine the lubricating liquid in the chamber by the screw plug 42. Any high pressure liquid leaking to the outside of the seal 17 and seat 18 can escape to holes through the wall of the housing body 10' by means of radial weep holes 26a in the retainer 27. Like the shaft 11 of Fig. 1, the inlet end of the shaft 12 has a reduced diameter portion extending rearwardly through a small aperture in a transverse wall in the retainer 27 for lip seal 24 and into the chamber bled by weep holes 26a where the seat 18 seals against the inlet end of the shaft 12.

    [0059] The seal holder 16' has a stepped coaxial passage presenting a smooth inner cylindrical surface within which are coaxially supported in end-to-end relationship an annular cylindrical deformable seal member 17 and an annular cylindrical rigid seal seat 18 which is held solely by high liquid pressure on the seal member 17 and on the seat to force the seat against the inlet end of the shaft 12. The sealing seat member 18 has a first end face beveled at its outer edge and abutting the shaft with an area of contact smaller than an area where its opposite end face abuts the seal member 17 whereby the pressure differential across the seat 18 due to the high pressure liquid in said inlet passage maintains a net force holding the seat 18 against the shaft during operation of the apparatus.

    [0060] The shaft portion 12 and the removable spray head 14' with the Y-shaped liquid passage forms two main parts of a multi-piece rotary shaft structure. The rear male end of head 14' is screwed onto the forward threaded male end of the shaft portion 12 by means of the male to male adapter 48.

    [0061] A round thick disk-shaped nozzle tip protector 50, used in both Figs. 1 and 9, has bores therethrough aligned with and protectively enclosing the removable nozzle tips 46. The protector 50 has a base portion fastened to the end face of the head 14 or 14' by screws (not shown). Threaded holes 47 for those screws appear in the end face of head 14 in Figs. 2-3 in circumferentially spaced areas between the threaded bores 45 for nozzle tips 46. The disk-shaped protector 50 allows this end of the nozzle assembly to rotate without the nozzle tips 46 striking and being damaged by engagement with surfaces being cleaned.

    [0062] A comparison of Figs. 1 and 9 shows the space or size saving achieved in Fig. 1 by screwing the shaft member 13, carrying the nozzle tips 46 in the head 14, into the enlarged female threaded end of shaft member 11 at the concealed and inaccessible location within the coil spring 34. The outer housings 10 and 10' and the heads 14 and 14' have respective like outside diameters. The bronze sleeves, the weights and the coil springs are of identical sizes.

    [0063] The bronze sleeve 30 is made of ASTM 660 bronze. The spring 34 is made of heat treated spring steel. The weights 35-37 are made of type 303 stainless steel. The material of these rubbing parts and the lubricant should be chosen to minimize galling at the rubbing surfaces during operation of the retarding apparatus.

    [0064] It is believed that the basic principal of operation of the rewarding mechanism of this invention includes two related energy dissipating mechanisms in which a first mechanism rotating with the nozzle senses relative motion between the rotating nozzle and its relatively stationary housing and creates a retarding action on this first mechanism to slow its rotation relative to the housing. This slowing is achieved by the centrifugal weight cluster moving progressively closer to the housing after a minimum designed speed is attained. After this minimum designed speed is attained the centrifugal forces on the weights cause them to start moving outwardly as these forces exceed the retaining force of the garter springs around the weight cluster. At lower nozzle speeds the garter springs keep the weights in their non-actuating position against the nozzle shaft.

    [0065] The lubricating liquid filling the sealed chamber containing the nozzle shaft bearing is subject to some viscous shear and turbulence but the nozzle shaft speed is permitted to accelerate with only a relatively small resistance to the self-generated nozzle torque as the nozzle speed increases from an initial stopped condition at point A on the curve of Fig. 8 and quickly reaches a speed at point B near the lower end of a desired operating speed range.

    [0066] Near point B the weights move outwardly and as they get progressively closer to the bronze sleeve significant viscous shear occurs in the lubricating liquid by the relative movement of the weights with respect to' the bronze sleeve and the energy dissipated by this viscous shearing action creates a drag on the weights as they closely approach the bronze sleeve. Although the steel weights and the bronze sleeve are selected as relatively anti-galling materials in case they rub against one another at least a film of lubricating liquid is preferably kept between the weights and the bronze sleeve.

    [0067] The second and principal energy dissipating mechanism of the two aforementioned related energy dissipating mechanisms is coupled to the first mechanism by means providing what is akin to a mechanical advantage generating function for causing a portion of the second mechanism which rotates with the nozzle shaft to interact with the bronze sleeve and dissipate energy at a rate which increases exponentially as a function of further nozzle speed increase. This second energy dissipating mechanism is the coil spring immersed in lubricating liquid and progressively unwound by the action of the weights retarding the rear end of the spring whereby there is an increase in shaft speed retardation force in moving from point B to point C of the Fig. 8 curve. Thus, maximum retarding force limiting nozzle speed is achieved when the retarding forces on the nozzle shaft are in equilibrium with the torque applied to the nozzle shaft by the reaction from jets streams issuing from the nozzle discharge tips.

    [0068] Although there is some energy dissipation at the weights as they are subject to slightly increasing resistance forces relative to the bronze sleeve as the shaft speed moves from point A to point B, the total force causing retardation of the nozzle shaft is not greatly increased until the weights apply a retarding force to the rear end of the spring. As the outer surface of the spring windings expand on unwinding and are pressed toward the bronze sleeve a great increase in viscous shear in the lubricating liquid between the spring and the coil windings occurs converting shaft rotational energy into heat energy in the second retarding or energy dissipating mechanism.

    [0069] It is recognized the heat generated at the coil spring is a maximum at its front end and decreases progressively from the front end to the end engaged by the weight cluster.

    [0070] It is preferred for optimum tool life with low cost tool materials that a film or layer of the lubricating liquid in which the weight cluster and the coil spring are immersed remains between these immersed parts and the bronze sleeve to avoid a dry friction condition at the proximate surfaces of these parts to provide a significant amount of retardation by viscous shear in the lubricating liquid and to prevent inordinate wear of the relatively moving parts. In cases where continuous operation is desirable this lubricating film is important. However, where short duration or intermittent operation is acceptable, or when environmental conditions dictate, dry friction conditions may be tolerated.

    [0071] Except where otherwise described, reference in this specification to engagement or frictional engagement between the weights or the coil spring and the bronze sleeve is intended to include either dry engagement or wet engagement where the surfaces are wetted by the lubricating liquid.

    [0072] Except as otherwise described, all metallic components of the assemblies of the preferred embodiment herein are preferably made from a strong non-corrosive material such as stainless steel.

    [0073] Other variations within the scope of this invention will be apparent from the described embodiments and it is intended that the present descriptions be illustrative of the inventive features encompassed by the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A rotary retarding device for connection between a reference structure (10, 30) and a rotary structure (11-13) to control the speed of rotation of the rotary structure relative to the reference structure,
    said device comprising a friction surface means connected to said reference structure (10, 30) and providing an internal cylindrical surface coaxial with an axis of rotation of said rotary structure (11-13),
    centrifugally responsive weight means (35-37) carried by and rotatable with said rotary structure (11-13),
    said weight means (35-37) having external surface portions engageable with said internal cylindrical surface upon centrifugal outward displacement of said weight means with respect to said axis,
    spring biasing means for biasing said weight means (35-37) toward said axis and away from said internal cylindrical surface,
    driving means for rotating said rotary structure (11-13) in one direction about said axis,
    a helically wound coil spring (34) coaxially encircling a portion of said rotary structure (11-13) and having one end in driven engagement with a portion of said rotary structure which tends to unwind and increase the diameter of the coil spring (34) when said one end of the coil spring is driven by the rotary structure in said one direction,
    means for coupling a second end of said coil spring (34) to said weight means (35-37) whereby the coil spring rotates said weight means in said one direction about said axis in response to rotation of the rotary structure (11-13) in said one direction,
    said weight means (35-37) being centrifugally responsive to increased rotational speed of said rotary structure (11-13) in said one direction to frictionally engage said internal cylindrical surface and retard movement of said second end of the coil spring (34) in said one direction and increasingly unwind the coil spring so that its turns increase in diameter and frictionally engage said internal cylindrical surface to retard relative rotational movement of said rotary structure with respect to said reference structure (10, 30).
     
    2. The device of claim 1 wherein said reference structure (10, 30) is a non-rotating structure.
     
    3. The device of claim 1 wherein said weight means (35-37) and said coil spring (34) do not engage said internal cylindrical surface when the rotary structure (11-13) is not rotating.
     
    4. The device of claim 1 wherein said weight means (35-37) comprises a plurality of weight elements arranged around the rotary structure (11-13) and including garter type spring means (33) collectively encircling the weight elements for biasing the weights toward said axis.
     
    5. The device of claim 1 wherein said rotary structure (11-13) is a spray nozzle.
     
    6. The device of claim 5 wherein said driving means for rotating said rotary structure (11-13) includes jet stream nozzle means creating a reactive force driving said rotary structure in said one direction in response to spraying jet streams from the nozzle means.
     
    7. The device of claim 5 wherein said spray nozzle comprises a rotatable tubular structure having an outlet spraying end and an inlet end within said reference structure (10, 30) and including means for supplying a high pressure spray liquid to said inlet end.
     
    8. The device of claim 1 including means for confining a high temperature resistant liquid of stable viscosity as a lubricating medium between said internal cylindrical surface and said weight means (35-37) and said coil spring (34).
     
    9. The device of claim 1 including means for confining automatic transmission fluid as a lubricating medium between said internal cylindrical surface and said weight means (35-37) and said coil spring (34).
     
    10. The device of claim 1 wherein said internal cylindrical surface is part of a removable cylindrical sleeve (30) secured in said reference structure (10, 30).
     
    11. The device of claim 1 wherein said internal cylindrical surface is part of a removable cylindrical bronze sleeve (30) secured in said reference structure (10, 30).
     
    12. Use of the rotary retarding device of claim 1 in a nozzle assembly for spraying high pressure liquid against an object, the nozzle assembly comprising:

    a hollow cylindrical housing body (10) having an inner cylindrical surface,

    a tubular shaft structure (11-13) rotatable coaxially within the housing body (10) and having a liquid input end,

    said shaft structure (11-13) having an output end and including means at said output end providing a spray nozzle head (14) for rotation with the shaft structure,

    axially spaced bearing means (20a, 20b) between said shaft (11) and said inner cylindrical surface of the housing body (10) to rotatably support said shaft structure (11-13) coaxially within the housing body and to prevent axial movement of the shaft structure when the shaft structure is subject to high axial forces during spraying,

    said coil spring (34) coupled to said shaft (11) and engageable with the inner cylindrical surface of said housing body (10),

    means defining a sealed chamber between said housing body (10) and said shaft structure (11-13) for enclosing said bearing means (20a, 20b) and a high temperature resistant lubricant therefor,

    input means for connecting a high pressure liquid source to an input end of said nozzle assembly in sealed relationship with the input end of the shaft structure (11-13),

    said high pressure liquid input means including a cylindrical bore coaxial with said shaft structure (11-13) with said bore having at its inner end an annular inwardly extending shoulder facing away from said shaft structure,

    said input means including a sealing assembly forming a high pressure liquid sealed passage between the high pressure liquid source and the liquid input end of said shaft structure (11-13),

    said sealing assembly including an annular seal holder (16) and first and second coaxial seal members (17, 18) carried end to end by the seal holder,

    said seal members (17, 18) having differential areas being forced axially toward the liquid input end of the shaft structure (11-13) by said high pressure liquid acting over said differential areas of the seal members,

    said seal holder (16) having an outer coaxial cylindrical surface slidable in said bore and having opposite end faces extending inwardly from its outer cylindrical surface,

    one end face of said seal holder (16) abutting said inwardly extending shoulder at the inner end of said bore, and

    means defining an internally threaded coaxial connection at the outer end of the bore for receiving a threaded coupling on a high pressure liquid conduit whereby the threaded coupling will engage the other end face of the seal holder (16) to hold said one end face and said shoulder in tight sealing abutment,

    said sealing assembly being removable axially from the input end of the nozzle assembly upon removal from the nozzle assembly of the threaded coupling on the high pressure liquid conduit without disturbing the sealed integrity of the sealed chamber and without removing other parts of the nozzle assembly.


     
    13. The use of claim 12 wherein the means for defining the cylindrical bore in the liquid inlet passage is part of the housing body (10).
     
    14. The use of claim 12 including an annular end cap on a second end of the nozzle assembly, said end cap being screwed on the housing body (10) and having a central opening in sealed relationship with the surface of the shaft structure (11-13) to close the sealed chamber at said second end of the nozzle assembly.
     
    15. The use of claim 12 wherein said housing body (10) includes in said chamber a cylindrical sleeve (30) having an inner surface frictionally engageable by said coil spring (34) and said weight means (35-37) to create a rotary retarding force applied to the shaft structure (11-13).
     
    16. The use of claim 15 wherein at maximum rotary speed of the shaft structure (11-13) the retarding friction force between the coil spring (34) and the sleeve (30) is at least several times the retarding friction force between the weight means (35-37) and the sleeve.
     
    17. The use of claim 13 wherein the shaft structure (11-13) includes a removable nozzle carrying extension member (13) having a tubular supporting portion extending within the housing body (10) to a concealed point of threaded attachment in the shaft structure.
     
    18. Use of the rotary retarding device of claim 1 in an elongated slender nozzle assembly for spraying high pressure liquid against an object, the nozzle assembly comprising:

    a hollow cylindrical housing body (10) having an elongated inner cylindrical surface,

    a tubular shaft (11) rotatable coaxially within the housing body (10) and having a liquid input end within and near one end of said housing body,

    said shaft (11) having an output end near a second end of the housing body (10) and including means at said output end for securing a spray nozzle for rotation with the shaft,

    axially spaced bearing means (20a, 20b) between said shaft (11) and said housing body (10) to rotatably support said shaft coaxially within the housing body and to prevent axial movement of the shaft when the shaft is subject to high axial forces during spraying,

    means defining a sealed chamber enclosing said bearing means (20a, 20b) and a high temperature resistant lubricant therefor between said housing body (10) and said shaft (11),

    input means for connecting a high pressure liquid source to said nozzle assembly in sealed relationship with the input end of the shaft (11),

    driving means for rotating said shaft (11) in one direction about said axis,

    said coil spring (34) coaxially encircling a portion of said shaft (11).


     
    19. The use of claim 18 wherein the centrifugal weight means (35-37) comprises several elongated weight segments having outer curved surfaces engageable with the internal cylindrical surface in the housing body (10).
     
    20. The use of claim 19 wherein the elongated weight segments are collectively encircled at their opposite ends by springs to spring bias the weights toward the axis of rotation of the shaft structure (11-13).
     
    21. The use of claim 18 wherein both the weight means (35-37) and the coil spring (34) produce a shaft retarding drag when engaged with the internal cylindrical surface in the housing body (10), but the shaft retarding drag imposed by the coil spring is at least several times greater than the drag produced by the weight means when the shaft (11) rotates at a desired speed.
     
    22. The use of claim 20 wherein the combined lengths of the coil spring (34) and the weight means (35-37) is about forty percent of the length of the housing body (10).
     
    23. The use of claim 18 wherein the coil spring (34) is near the longitudinal center of the shaft (11) to aid in dissipating heat along the shaft and therefrom to the liquid passing through the shaft.
     
    24. Use of the rotary retarding device of claim 1 in a coupling apparatus for controlling the relative rotational speed between a rotatable first member and a second member, the coupling apparatus comprising:

    means for applying torque to said rotatable first member in a range between a first lower torque value and a second higher torque value to cause the speed of rotation of said rotatable first member relative to said second member to increase,

    coupling means rotatably driven by said rotatable first member and responsive to increasing rotational speed of said rotatable first member for applying an increasing frictional force to said second member to retard the rotational speed of said first member relative to said second member,

    said coupling means including said centrifugal weight means (35-37) for initially engaging said second member as the rotational speed of said first member increases to a first speed and a coil spring (34) connected between said first member and said centrifugal weight means and arranged to be unwound by relative rotation of said first member with respect to said weight means to frictionally engage said second member upon unwinding whereby at a speed above said first speed a retarding force of the coil spring on said first member becomes substantially greater than the retarding force of the weight means on the first member,

    said coupling means limiting the maximum rotational speed of the first member relative to the second member to a speed at which the retarding force of the coupling means and the torque applied by said means for applying torque to the first member are in equilibrium.


     
    25. Use of the rotary retarding device of claim 1 in a rotational speed control apparatus which comprises:

    a driven rotatable member whose speed is to be kept within a desired rotational speed range with a practical maximum speed,

    a relatively stationary member supporting said driven member,

    driving means for providing a selected amount of torque for driving said driven member relative to said relatively stationary member,

    a first energy dissipating mechanism for sensing the rotational speed of the driven member relative to said relatively stationary member,

    a second and primary energy dissipating mechanism including said coil spring (34) interacting between the two driven and relatively stationary members, and

    coupling means between said first and second energy dissipating mechanisms whereby when said first mechanism senses a rotational speed near the lower end of said desired speed range it actuates the second energy dissipating mechanism to impose a retarding force on the driven member and limit the maximum driven member rotational speed to said practical speed at which retarding forces of the two mechanisms on the driven member are in equilibrium with and opposed to the driving torque of said driving means on said driven member.


     
    26. The use of claim 25 including means defining a sealed chamber containing a high temperature resistant lubricating liquid in which said mechanisms are immersed.
     
    27. The use of claim 25 wherein said first mechanism is a centrifugally responsive mechanism.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Rotierende Verzögerungsvorrichtung zum Einbau zwischen ein Bezugsbauteil (10, 30) und ein rotierendes Bauteil (11-13) zum Steuern der Drehzahl des rotierenden Bauteils relativ zu dem Bezugsbauteil, mit:

    einer Reibflächeneinrichtung, die mit dem Bezugsbauteil (10, 30) verbunden ist und eine mit einer Drehachse des rotierenden Bauteils (11-13) koaxiale innere Zylinderfläche aufweist,

    einer an dem rotierenden Bauteil (11-13) angebrachten und mit diesem drehbaren Fliehkraft-Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37),
    wobei die Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) äußere Flächenteile aufweist, die bei Fliehkraft-Auswärtsbewegung der Gewichtseinrichtung relativ zu der Achse mit der inneren Zylinderfläche in Eingriff gelangt,

    einer Federvorspanneinrichtung zum Vorspannen der Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) in Richtung der Achse und von der inneren Zylinderfläche weg,

    einer Antriebseinrichtung zum Drehen des rotierenden Bauteils (11-13) in einer Richtung um die Achse,

    einer Schraubenfeder (34), die ein Teil des rotierenden Bauteils (11-13) koaxial umgibt und ein mit einem Teil des rotierenden Bauteils in treibendem Eingriff stehendes Ende aufweist, das sich abzuwickeln und den Durchmesser der Schraubenfeder (34) zu vergrößern sucht, wenn es von dem rotierenden Bauteil in der besagten Einrichtung angetrieben wird,

    einer Einrichtung zum Koppeln eines zweiten Endes der Schraubenfeder (34) mit der Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37), wobei die Schraubenfeder bei Drehung des rotierenden Bauteils (11-13) in der einen Richtung die Gewichtseinrichtung in dieser Richtung um die Achse dreht,
    wobei die Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) auf steigende Drehzahl des rotierenden Bauteils (11-13) in der einen Richtung unter Fliehkraft anspricht und die innere Zylinderfläche durch Reibung beaufschlagt und so die Bewegung des zweiten Endes der Schraubenfeder (34) in der einen Richtung verzögert und die Schraubenfeder zunehmend abwickelt, so dass ihre Windungen im Durchmesser zunehmen und die zylindrische Innenfläche durch Reibung beaufschlagen, so dass die Drehbewegung des rotierenden Bauteils relativ zu dem Bezugsbauteil (10, 30) verzögert wird.


     
    2. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Bezugsbauteil (10, 30) ein nichtrotierendes Bauteil ist.
     
    3. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) und die Schraubenfeder (34) mit der inneren Zylinderfläche nicht in Eingriff stehen, wenn sich das rotierende Bauteil (11-13) nicht dreht.
     
    4. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) mehrere um das rotierende Bauteil (11-13) herum angeordnete Gewichtselemente sowie eine in sich geschlossene ringförmige Schraubenfeder (33) aufweist, die die Gewichtselemente umschließt und in Richtung der Achse vorspannt.
     
    5. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das rotierende Bauteil (11-13) eine Sprühdüse ist.
     
    6. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 5, wobei die Antriebseinrichtung zum Drehen des rotierenden Bauteils (11-13) eine Strahldüsenanordnung aufweist, die beim Ausstoß von Düsenstrahlen aus der Düseneinrichtung eine Reaktionskraft zum Antrieb des drehbaren Bauteils in der einen Richtung erzeugt.
     
    7. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 5, wobei die Sprühdüse ein rotierendes rohrförmiges Bauteil mit einem Auslass-Sprühende und einem Einlassende innerhalb des Bezugsbauteils (10, 30) sowie eine Einrichtung zur Zuführung einer Drucksprühflüssigkeit an das Einlassende aufweist.
     
    8. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 mit einer Einrichtung, die eine hoch-temperaturfeste Flüssigkeit stabiler Viskosität als Schmiermittel zwischen der inneren Zylinderfläche, der Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) und der Schraubenfeder (34) einschließt.
     
    9. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 mit einer Einrichtung, die ein Automatikgetriebe-Strömungsmittel als Schmiermittel zwischen der inneren Zylinderfläche, der Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) und der Schraubenfeder (34) einschließt.
     
    10. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die innere Zylinderfläche Teil einer in dem Bezugsbauteil (10, 30) befestigten herausnehmbarbaren Zylinderhülse (30) ist.
     
    11. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die innere Zylinderfläche Teil einer in dem Bezugsbauteil (10, 30) befestigten herausnehmbarbaren zylindrischen Bronzehülse (30) ist.
     
    12. Verwendung der rotierenden Verzögerungsvorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 in einer Düsenanordnung zum Aufsprühen einer Hochdruckflüssigkeit auf einen Gegenstand, wobei die Düsenanordnung aufweist:

    einen hohlzylindrischen Gehäusekörper (10) mit einer inneren Zylinderfläche,

    eine koaxial in dem Gehäusekörper (10) rotierende Rohrwellenanordnung (11-13) mit einem Flüssigkeitseinlassende,
    wobei die Wellenanordnung (11-13) ein Auslassende und an diesem eine Einrichtung aufweist, die einen Sprühdüsenkopf (14) zur Drehung mit der Wellenanordnung bildet,

    zwischen der Welle (11) und der inneren Zylinderfläche des Gehäusekörpers (10) und in axialem Abstand voneinander angeordnete Lagereinrichtungen (20a, 20b), die die Wellenanordnung (11-13) koaxial innerhalb des Gehäusekörpers drehbar lagern und eine Axialbewegung der Wellenanordnung verhindern, wenn diese beim Sprühen hohen Axialkräften ausgesetzt ist,
    wobei die Schraubenfeder (34) mit der Welle (11) gekoppelt ist und mit der inneren Zylinderfläche des Gehäusekörpers (11) in Eingriff zu bringen ist,

    eine Einrichtung, die zwischen dem Gehäusekörper (10) und der Wellenanordnung (11-13) eine dichte Kammer bildet, die die Lagereinrichtungen (20a, 20b) und ein hoch-temperaturfestes Schmiermittel umschließt,

    eine Einlasseinrichtung, die eine Hochdruck-Flüssigkeitsquelle mit einem Einlassende der Düsenanordnung in einer bezüglich des Einlassendes der Wellenanordnung (11-13) dichten Weise verbindet,
    wobei die Hochdruck-Flüssigkeitseinlasseinrichtung eine zu der Wellenanordnung (11-13) koaxiale Zylinderbohrung aufweist, die an ihrem inneren Ende eine nach innen ragende und von der Wellenanordnung abgewandte Ringschulter hat,
    wobei die Einlasseinrichtung eine Dichtanordnung aufweist, die zwischen der Hochdruck-Flüssigkeitsquelle und dem Flüssigkeitseinlassende der Wellenanordnung (11-13) einen druckflüssigkeitsdichten Kanal bildet,
    wobei die Dichtungsanordnung einen ringförmigen Dichtungshalter (16) sowie ein erstes und ein zweites koaxiales Dichtelement (17, 18) aufweist, wobei die Dichtungselemente in dem Dichtungshalter stirnseitig aneinander angeordnet sind,
    wobei die Dichtungselemente (17, 18) unterschiedliche Flächen haben und von der an der Differenzfläche der Dichtungselemente wirkenden Hochdruckflüssigkeit axial gegen das Flüssigkeitseinlassende der Wellenanordnung (11-13) gedrückt werden,
    wobei der Dichtungshalter (16) eine äußere koaxiale Zylinderfläche aufweist, die in der Bohrung gleitet und entgegengesetzte Stirnflächen aufweist, die von seiner äußeren Zylinderfläche einwärts verlaufen,
    wobei eine Stirnfläche des Dichtungshalters (16) an der einwärts gerichteten Schulter am inneren Ende der Bohrung anliegt, sowie

    eine Einrichtung, die am äußeren Ende der Bohrung einen Koaxialanschluss mit Innengewinde zur Aufnahme einer Gewindekupplung an einer Hochdruck-Flüssigkeitsleitung definiert, wobei die Gewindekupplung die andere Stirnfläche des Dichtungshalters (16) beaufschlagt, so dass die besagte eine Stirnfläche und die Schulter dichtend aneinander gehalten sind,
    wobei die Dichtungsanordnung nach Entfernen der Düsenanordnung der Gewindekupplung an der Hochdruck-Flüssigkeitsleitung vom Einlassende der Düsenanordnung axial abnehmbar ist, ohne den Dichtzustand der dichten Kammer zu stören und ohne sonstige Teile der Düsenanordnung zu entfernen.


     
    13. Verwendung nach Anspruch 12, wobei die die Zylinderbohrung in dem Flüssigkeitseinlasskanal bildende Einrichtung Teil des Gehäusekörpers (10) ist.
     
    14. Verwendung nach Anspruch 12, wobei an einem zweiten Ende der Düsenanordnung eine ringförmige Endkappe vorgesehen ist, die auf den Gehäusekörper (10) aufgeschraubt ist und eine Mittelöffnung aufweist, die gegenüber der Oberfläche der Wellenanordnung (11-13) abgedichtet ist, um die dichte Kammer an dem zweiten Ende der Düsenanordnung zu verschließen.
     
    15. Verwendung nach Anspruch 12, wobei der Gehäusekörper (10) in der Kammer eine Zylinderhülse (30) mit einer Innenfläche in Reibungseingriff mit der Schraubenfeder (34) und der Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) aufweist, um eine auf die Wellenanordnung (11-13) einwirkende Drehverzögerungskraft zu erzeugen.
     
    16. Verwendung nach Anspruch 15, wobei die Verzögerungs-Reibkraft zwischen der Schraubenfeder (34) und der Hülse (30) bei maximaler Drehzahl der Wellenanordnung (11-13) mindestens ein Mehrfaches der Verzögerungs-Reibkraft zwischen der Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37) und der Hülse beträgt.
     
    17. Verwendung nach Anspruch 13, wobei die Wellenanordnung (11-13) einen die abnehmbare Düse tragenden Ansatz (13) mit einem rohrförmigen Tragabschnitt aufweist, der innerhalb des Gehäusekörpers (10) zu einer verdeckten Stelle des Gewindeanschlusses in der Wellenanordnung verläuft.
     
    18. Verwendung der rotierenden Verzögerungsvorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 in einer länglichen schlanken Düsenanordnung zum Aufsprühen einer Hochdruckflüssigkeit auf einen Gegenstand, wobei die Düsenanordnung aufweist:

    einen hohlzylindrischen Gehäusekörper (10) mit einer länglichen inneren Zylinderfläche,

    eine Rohrwelle (11), die koaxial in dem Gehäusekörper (10) drehbar ist und einen Flüssigkeitseinlass innerhalb und nahe einem Ende des Gehäusekörpers aufweist,
    wobei die Welle (11) nahe einem zweiten Ende des Gehäusekörpers (10) ein Auslassende und an diesem eine Einrichtung zum Befestigen einer Sprühdüse zur Drehung mit der Welle aufweist,

    zwischen der Welle (11) und dem Gehäusekörper (10) und in axialem Abstand voneinander angeordnete Lagereinrichtungen (20a, 20b), die die Welle koaxial innerhalb des Gehäusekörpers drehbar lagern und eine Axialbewegung der Welle verhindern, wenn diese beim Sprühen hohen Axialkräften ausgesetzt ist,

    eine Einrichtung, die zwischen dem Gehäusekörper (10) und der Welle (11) eine die Lagereinrichtungen (20a, 20b) und ein hoch-temperaturfestes Schmiermittel umschließende dichte Kammer definiert,

    eine Einlasseinrichtung, die eine Hochdruck-Flüssigkeitsquelle mit der Düsenanordnung in einer mit dem Einlassende der Welle (11) dichten Weise verbindet, und

    eine Antriebseinrichtung zum Drehen der Welle (11) in einer Richtung um die Achse, wobei die Schraubenfeder (34) einen Teil der Welle (11) koaxial umgibt.


     
    19. Verwendung nach Anspruch 18, wobei die Fliehkraft-Gewichtseinrichtung (35-17) mehrere längliche Gewichtssegmente mit gekrümmten Außenflächen umfasst, die mit der inneren Zylinderfläche des Gehäusekörpers (11) in Eingriff zu bringen sind.
     
    20. Verwendung nach Anspruch 19, wobei die länglichen Gewichtssegmente an ihren entgegengesetzten Enden von Federn gemeinsam umgeben sind, die die Gewichte federnd gegen die Drehachse der Wellenanordnung (11-13) vorspannen.
     
    21. Verwendung nach Anspruch 18, wobei die Gewichtseinrichtungen (35-37) und die Schraubenfeder (34) miteinander eine die Welle verzögernde Widerstandskraft erzeugen, wenn sie mit der inneren Zylinderfläche des Gehäusekörpers (10) in Eingriff kommen, wobei jedoch die von der Schraubenfeder ausgeübte, die Welle verzögernde Widerstandskraft mindestens um ein Mehrfaches größer ist als die von der Gewichtseinrichtung erzeugte Widerstandskraft, wenn die Welle (11) mit einer gewünschten Drehzahl rotiert.
     
    22. Verwendung nach Anspruch 20, wobei die Gesamtlänge der Schraubenfeder (34) und der Gewichtseinrichtungen (35-37) etwa 40% der Länge des Gehäusekörpers (11) beträgt.
     
    23. Verwendung nach Anspruch 18, wobei die Schraubenfeder (34) nahe der Längsmitte der Welle (11) angeordnet ist, um dazu beizutragen, Wärme längs der Welle und von dieser auf die die Welle durchströmende Flüssigkeit zu zerstreuen.
     
    24. Verwendung der rotierenden Verzögerungsvorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 in einer Kupplungseinrichtung zum Steuern der relativen Drehgeschwindigkeit zwischen einem rotierenden ersten Bauteil und einem zweiten Bauteil, wobei die Kupplungseinrichtung aufweist:

    eine Einrichtung zum Ausüben eines Drehmoments auf das rotierende erste Bauteil in einem Bereich zwischen einem ersten niedrigeren Drehmomentwert und einem zweiten höheren Drehmomentwert, um zu bewirken, dass die Drehzahl des rotierenden ersten Bauteils relativ zu dem zweiten Bauteil steigt,

    eine von dem rotierenden ersten Bauteil drehend angetriebenen Kupplung, die bei steigender Drehzahl des rotierenden ersten Bauteils eine steigende Reibungskraft auf das zweite Bauteil ausübt, um die Drehzahl des ersten Bauteils relativ zu dem zweiten Bauteil zu verzögern,

    wobei die Kupplung eine Fliehkraft-Gewichtseinrichtung (35-37), die zunächst das zweite Bauteil beaufschlagt, wenn die Drehzahl des ersten Bauteils auf eine erste Geschwindigkeit steigt, sowie eine zwischen dem ersten Bauteil und der Fliehkraft-Gewichtseinrichtung eingeschaltete Schraubenfeder (34) aufweist, die so ausgelegt ist, dass sie sich infolge Relativdrehung des ersten Bauteils bezüglich der Gewichtseinrichtung abwickelt und dabei mit dem zweiten Bauteil in Reibeingriff tritt, wobei bei einer Drehzahl oberhalb der ersten Drehzahl eine auf das erste Bauteil wirkende Verzögerungskraft der Schraubenfeder wesentlich größer wird als die auf das erste Bauteil wirkende Verzögerungskraft der Gewichtseinrichtung,
    wobei die Kupplung die maximale Drehzahl des ersten Bauteils relativ zu dem zweiten Bauteil auf eine Geschwindigkeit begrenzt, bei der die Verzögerungskraft der Kupplung und das von der Einrichtung zum Ausüben eines Drehmoments auf das erste Bauteil erzeugte Drehmoment im Gleichgewicht sind.
     
    25. Verwendung der rotierenden Verzögerungsvorrichtung nach Anspruch 1 in einer Drehzahlsteuerung, die aufweist:

    ein angetriebenes rotierendes Bauteil, dessen Drehzahl innerhalb eines gewünschten Drehzahlbereichs mit einer praktischen Höchstdrehzahl gehalten werden soll,

    ein das angetriebene Element lagerndes relativ stationäres Bauteil,

    eine Antriebseinrichtung zum Erzeugen einer gewählten Drehmomentgröße zum Antrieb des angetriebenen Bauteils gegenüber dem relativ stationären Bauteil,

    einen ersten Energie zerstreuenden Mechanismus zum Erfassen der Drehzahl des angetriebenen Bauteils gegenüber dem relativ stationären Bauteil,

    einen zweiten und primären Energie zerstreuenden Mechanismus, der die zwischen dem angetriebenen und dem relativ stationären Bauteil wirkende Schraubenfeder (34) aufweist, und

    eine zwischen dem ersten und dem zweiten Energie zerstreuenden Mechanismus vorgesehene Kupplung, wobei dann, wenn der erste Mechanismus eine Drehzahl nahe dem unteren Ende des gewünschten Drehzahlbereichs erfasst, der zweite Energie zerstreuende Mechanismus aktiviert wird, um auf das angetriebene Bauteil eine Verzögerungskraft auszuüben und die maximale Drehzahl des angetriebenen Elements auf die praktische Drehzahl zu begrenzen, bei der die Verzögerungskräfte der beiden Mechanismen auf das angetriebene Bauteil mit dem von dem treibenden Bauteil auf das angetriebene Bauteil ausgeübten Antriebsdrehmoment im Gleichgewicht und zueinander entgegengesetzt sind.


     
    26. Verfahren nach Anspruch 25 mit einer Einrichtung, die eine dichte Kammer zur Aufnahme einer hoch-temperaturfesten Schmierflüssigkeit bildet, in die die Mechanismen eintauchen.
     
    27. Verwendung nach Anspruch 25, wobei der erste Mechanismus ein Fliehkraft-Mechanismus ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Retardateur rotatif pour une liaison entre une structure de référence (10, 30) et une structure rotative (11 à 13) pour réguler la vitesse de rotation de la structure rotative par rapport à la structure de référence,

    ledit dispositif comprenant des moyens formant surface de frottement reliés à ladite structure de référence (10, 30) et fournissant une surface cylindrique interne coaxiale à un axe de rotation de ladite structure rotative (11 à 13),

    des moyens formant poids (35 à 37) sensibles de manière centrifuge supportés par et capables de tourner avec ladite structure rotative (11 à 13),

    lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) comportant des parties de surface externes pouvant être mises en prise avec ladite surface cylindrique interne lors d'un déplacement centrifuge vers l'extérieur desdits moyens formant poids par rapport audit axe,

    des moyens de sollicitation par ressort pour solliciter lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) vers ledit axe et à l'opposé de ladite surface cylindrique interne,

    des moyens d'entraînement pour faire tourner ladite structure rotative (11 à 13) dans une direction autour dudit axe,

    un ressort hélicoïdal (34) enroulé de manière hélicoïdale encerclant coaxialement une partie de ladite structure rotative (11 à 13) et ayant une extrémité en prise de manière entraînée avec une partie de ladite structure rotative qui tend à dérouler et augmenter le diamètre du ressort hélicoïdal (34) lorsque ladite une extrémité du ressort hélicoïdal est entraînée par la structure rotative dans ladite une direction,

    des moyens pour accoupler une deuxième extrémité dudit ressort hélicoïdal (34) auxdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37), moyennant quoi le ressort hélicoïdal fait tourner lesdits moyens formant poids dans ladite une direction autour dudit axe en réponse à la rotation de la structure rotative (11 à 13) dans ladite une direction,

    lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) étant sensibles de manière centrifuge à l'augmentation de la vitesse de rotation de ladite structure rotative (11 à 13) dans ladite une direction pour venir en prise par frottement avec ladite surface cylindrique interne et retarder le mouvement de ladite deuxième extrémité du ressort hélicoïdal (34) dans ladite une direction et dérouler de plus en plus le ressort hélicoïdal de sorte que ses enroulements augmentent en diamètre et viennent en prise par frottement avec ladite surface cylindrique interne pour retarder le mouvement de rotation relatif de ladite structure rotative par rapport à ladite structure de référence (10, 30).


     
    2. Dispositif selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite structure de référence (10, 30) est une structure non rotative.
     
    3. Dispositif selon la revendication 1, dans lequel lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) et ledit ressort hélicoïdal (34) ne viennent pas en prise avec ladite surface cylindrique interne lorsque la structure rotative (11 à 13) ne tourne pas.
     
    4. Dispositif selon la revendication 1, dans lequel lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) comprennent une pluralité d'éléments de poids agencés autour de la structure rotative (11 à 13) et comprenant des moyens formant ressort de type jarretière (33) encerclant collectivement les éléments de poids pour solliciter les poids vers ledit axe.
     
    5. Dispositif selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite structure rotative (11 à 13) est une buse de pulvérisation.
     
    6. Dispositif selon la revendication 5, dans lequel lesdits moyens d'entraînement pour entraîner en rotation ladite structure rotative (11 à 13) comprennent des moyens formant buse de courant-jet créant une force de réaction entraînant ladite structure rotative dans ladite une direction en réponse à la pulvérisation de courants-jets par les moyens formant buse.
     
    7. Dispositif selon la revendication 5, dans lequel ladite buse de pulvérisation comprend une structure tubulaire rotative comportant une extrémité de pulvérisation de sortie et une extrémité d'entrée dans ladite structure de référence (10, 30) et comprenant des moyens pour délivrer un liquide de pulvérisation à haute pression à ladite extrémité d'entrée.
     
    8. Dispositif selon la revendication 1, comprenant des moyens pour confiner un liquide résistant aux températures élevées à viscosité stable en tant que milieu lubrifiant entre ladite surface cylindrique interne et lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) et ledit ressort hélicoïdal (34).
     
    9. Dispositif selon la revendication 1, comprenant des moyens pour confiner un fluide de transmission automatique en tant que milieu lubrifiant entre ladite surface cylindrique interne et lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) et ledit ressort hélicoïdal (34).
     
    10. Dispositif selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite surface cylindrique interne fait partie d'un manchon (30) cylindrique amovible fixé dans ladite structure de référence (10, 30).
     
    11. Dispositif selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite surface cylindrique interne fait partie d'un manchon (30) cylindrique amovible en bronze fixé dans ladite structure de référence (10, 30).
     
    12. Utilisation du retardateur rotatif selon la revendication 1 dans un ensemble de buse pour pulvériser un liquide à haute pression contre un objet, l'ensemble de buse comprenant :

    un corps de logement (10) cylindrique creux comportant une surface cylindrique interne,

    une structure d'arbre (11 à 13) tubulaire capable de tourner coaxialement dans le corps de logement (10) et comportant une extrémité d'entrée de liquide,

    ladite structure d'arbre (11 à 13) comportant une extrémité de sortie et comprenant des moyens à ladite extrémité de sortie réalisant une tête de buse de pulvérisation (14) pour une rotation avec la structure d'arbre,

    des moyens formant roulement (20a, 20b) espacés axialement entre ledit arbre (11) et ladite surface cylindrique interne du corps de logement (10) pour supporter en rotation ladite structure d'arbre (11 à 13) coaxialement dans le corps de logement et pour empêcher un déplacement axial de la structure d'arbre lorsque la structure d'arbre est soumise à de grandes forces axiales pendant une pulvérisation,

    ledit ressort hélicoïdal (34) accouplé audit arbre (11) et pouvant être mis en prise avec la surface cylindrique interne dudit corps de logement (10),

    des moyens définissant une chambre étanche entre ledit corps de logement (10) et ladite structure d'arbre (11 à 13) pour enfermer lesdits moyens formant roulement (20a, 20b) et un lubrifiant résistant aux températures élevées pour ceux-ci,

    des moyens d'entrée pour relier une source de liquide à haute pression à une extrémité d'entrée dudit ensemble de buse dans une relation étanche avec l'extrémité d'entrée de la structure d'arbre (11 à 13),

    lesdits moyens d'entrée de liquide à haute pression comprenant un alésage cylindrique coaxial à ladite structure d'arbre (11 à 13), ledit alésage comportant à son extrémité interne un épaulement annulaire s'étendant vers l'intérieur orienté à l'opposé de ladite structure d'arbre,

    lesdits moyens d'entrée comprenant un ensemble d'étanchéité formant un passage étanche aux liquides à haute pression entre la source de liquide à haute pression et l'extrémité d'entrée de liquide de ladite structure d'arbre (11 à 13),

    ledit ensemble d'étanchéité comprenant un support de joint (16) annulaire et des premier et deuxième éléments d'étanchéité (17, 18) coaxiaux supportés d'extrémité à extrémité par le support de joint,

    lesdits éléments d'étanchéité (17, 18) comportant des zones différentielles qui sont forcées axialement vers l'extrémité d'entrée de liquide de la structure d'arbre (11 à 13) par ledit liquide à haute pression agissant sur lesdites zones différentielles des éléments d'étanchéité,

    ledit support de joint (16) comportant une surface cylindrique coaxiale externe capable de coulisser dans ledit alésage et comportant des faces d'extrémité opposées s'étendant vers l'intérieur à partir de sa surface cylindrique externe,

    une face d'extrémité dudit support de joint (16) étant en butée contre ledit épaulement s'étendant vers l'intérieur à l'extrémité interne dudit alésage, et

    des moyens définissant une liaison coaxiale filetée intérieurement à l'extrémité externe de l'alésage pour recevoir un raccord fileté sur un conduit de liquide à haute pression, moyennant quoi le raccord fileté viendra en prise avec l'autre face d'extrémité du support de joint (16) pour maintenir ladite une face d'extrémité et ledit épaulement en butée étanche serrée,

    ledit ensemble d'étanchéité pouvant être retiré axialement de l'extrémité d'entrée de l'ensemble de buse lors d'un retrait de l'ensemble de buse du raccord fileté sur le conduit de liquide à haute pression sans perturber l'intégrité étanche de la chambre étanche et sans retirer d'autres parties de l'ensemble de buse.


     
    13. Utilisation selon la revendication 12, dans laquelle les moyens pour définir l'alésage cylindrique dans le passage d'entrée de liquide fait partie du corps de logement (10).
     
    14. Utilisation selon la revendication 12, comprenant un capuchon d'extrémité annulaire sur une deuxième extrémité de l'ensemble de buse, ledit capuchon d'extrémité étant vissé sur le corps de logement (10) et comportant une ouverture centrale dans une relation étanche avec la surface de la structure d'arbre (11 à 13) pour fermer la chambre étanche à ladite deuxième extrémité de l'ensemble de buse.
     
    15. Utilisation selon la revendication 12, dans laquelle ledit corps de logement (10) comprend, dans ladite chambre, un manchon cylindrique (30) comportant une surface interne avec laquelle ledit ressort hélicoïdal (34) et lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) peuvent venir en prise par frottement pour créer une force de retardement de rotation appliquée à la structure d'arbre (11 à 13).
     
    16. Utilisation selon la revendication 15, dans laquelle, à une vitesse de rotation maximum de la structure d'arbre (11 à 13), la force de frottement de retardement entre le ressort hélicoïdal (34) et le manchon (30) est égale à au moins plusieurs fois la force de frottement de retardement entre les moyens formant poids (35 à 37) et le manchon.
     
    17. Utilisation selon la revendication 13, dans laquelle la structure d'arbre (11 à 13) comprend un élément d'extension (13) supportant une buse amovible comportant une partie de support tubulaire s'étendant dans le corps de logement (10) jusqu'à un point dissimulé de fixation filetée dans la structure d'arbre.
     
    18. Utilisation du retardateur rotatif selon la revendication 1 dans un ensemble de buse mince allongé pour pulvériser un liquide à haute pression contre un objet, l'ensemble de buse comprenant :

    un corps de logement (10) cylindrique creux comportant une surface cylindrique interne allongée,

    un arbre tubulaire (11) capable de tourner coaxialement dans le corps de logement (10) et comportant une extrémité d'entrée de liquide dans une extrémité dudit corps de logement et à proximité de celle-ci,

    ledit arbre (11) comportant une extrémité de sortie à proximité d'une deuxième extrémité du corps de logement (10) et comprenant des moyens, à ladite extrémité de sortie, pour fixer une buse de pulvérisation pour une rotation avec l'arbre,

    des moyens formant roulement (20a, 20b) espacés axialement entre ledit arbre (11) et ledit corps de logement (10) pour supporter en rotation ledit arbre coaxialement dans le corps de logement et pour empêcher un mouvement axial de l'arbre lorsque l'arbre est soumis à de grandes forces axiales pendant une pulvérisation,

    des moyens définissant une chambre étanche enfermant lesdits moyens formant roulement (20a, 20b) et un lubrifiant résistant aux températures élevées pour ceux-ci entre ledit corps de logement (10) et ledit arbre (11),

    des moyens d'entrée pour relier une source de liquide à haute pression audit ensemble de buse dans une relation étanche avec l'extrémité d'entrée de l'arbre (11),

    des moyens d'entraînement pour faire tourner ledit arbre (11) dans une direction autour dudit axe,

    ledit ressort hélicoïdal (34) encerclant coaxialement une partie dudit arbre (11).


     
    19. Utilisation selon la revendication 18, dans laquelle les moyens formant poids (35 à 37) centrifuges comprennent plusieurs segments de poids allongés comportant des surfaces externes incurvées pouvant être mises en prise avec la surface cylindrique interne dans le corps de logement (10).
     
    20. Utilisation selon la revendication 19, dans laquelle les segments de poids allongés sont encerclés collectivement à leurs extrémités opposées par des ressorts pour solliciter par ressorts les poids vers l'axe de rotation de la structure d'arbre (11 à 13).
     
    21. Utilisation selon la revendication 18, dans laquelle à la fois les moyens formant poids (35 à 37) et le ressort hélicoïdal (34) produisent une traînée de retardement de l'arbre lors d'une mise en prise avec la surface cylindrique interne dans le corps de logement (10), mais la traînée de retardement de l'arbre appliquée par le ressort hélicoïdal est au moins plusieurs fois supérieure à la traînée produite par les moyens formant poids lorsque l'arbre (11) tourne à une vitesse souhaitée.
     
    22. Utilisation selon la revendication 20, dans laquelle les longueurs combinées du ressort hélicoïdal (34) et des moyens formant poids (35 à 37) sont égales à environ quarante pour cent de la longueur du corps de logement (10).
     
    23. Utilisation selon la revendication 18, dans laquelle le ressort hélicoïdal (34) est à proximité du centre longitudinal de l'arbre (11) pour faciliter la dissipation de chaleur le long de l'arbre et à partir de celui-ci vers le liquide passant à travers l'arbre.
     
    24. Utilisation du retardateur rotatif selon la revendication 1 dans un dispositif d'accouplement pour réguler la vitesse de rotation relative entre un premier élément rotatif et un deuxième élément, le dispositif d'accouplement comprenant :

    des moyens pour appliquer un couple audit premier élément rotatif dans une plage entre une première valeur de couple inférieure et une deuxième valeur de couple supérieure pour provoquer une augmentation de la vitesse de rotation dudit premier élément rotatif par rapport audit deuxième élément,

    des moyens d'accouplement entraînés en rotation par ledit premier élément rotatif et sensibles à l'augmentation de la vitesse de rotation dudit premier élément rotatif pour appliquer une force de frottement croissante audit deuxième élément pour retarder la vitesse de rotation dudit premier élément par rapport audit deuxième élément,

    lesdits moyens d'accouplement comprenant lesdits moyens formant poids (35 à 37) centrifuges pour venir en prise initialement avec ledit deuxième élément alors que la vitesse de rotation dudit premier élément augmente à une première vitesse et un ressort hélicoïdal (34) relié entre ledit premier élément et lesdits moyens formant poids centrifuges et agencé pour être déroulé par la rotation relative dudit premier élément par rapport auxdits moyens formant poids pour venir en prise par frottement avec ledit deuxième élément lors d'un déroulement, moyennant quoi, à une vitesse supérieure à ladite première vitesse, une force de retardement du ressort hélicoïdal sur ledit premier élément devient sensiblement supérieure à la force de retardement des moyens formant poids sur le premier élément,

    lesdits moyens d'accouplement limitant la vitesse de rotation maximum du premier élément par rapport au deuxième élément à une vitesse à laquelle la force de retardement des moyens d'accouplement et le couple appliqué par lesdits moyens pour appliquer un couple au premier élément sont en équilibre.


     
    25. Utilisation du retardateur rotatif selon la revendication 1 dans un dispositif de régulation de vitesse de rotation qui comprend :

    un élément rotatif entraîné dont la vitesse doit être maintenue dans une plage de vitesse de rotation souhaitée avec une vitesse maximum pratique,

    un élément relativement fixe supportant ledit élément entraîné,

    des moyens d'entraînement pour fournir une quantité sélectionnée de couple pour entraîner ledit élément entraîné par rapport audit élément relativement fixe,

    un premier mécanisme de dissipation d'énergie pour détecter la vitesse de rotation de l'élément entraîné par rapport audit élément relativement fixe,

    un deuxième mécanisme de dissipation d'énergie principal comprenant ledit ressort hélicoïdal (34) interagissant entre les deux éléments entraîné et relativement fixe, et

    des moyens d'accouplement entre lesdits premier et deuxième mécanismes de dissipation d'énergie, moyennant quoi, lorsque ledit premier mécanisme détecte une vitesse de rotation proche de l'extrémité inférieure de ladite plage de vitesse souhaitée, il actionne le deuxième mécanisme de dissipation d'énergie pour appliquer une force de retardement à l'élément entraîné et limiter la vitesse de rotation maximum de l'élément entraîné à ladite vitesse pratique à laquelle les forces de retardement des deux mécanismes sur l'élément entraîné sont en équilibre avec le couple d'entraînement desdits moyens d'entraînement sur ledit élément entraîné et opposées à celui-ci.


     
    26. Utilisation selon la revendication 25, comprenant des moyens définissant une chambre étanche contenant un liquide lubrifiant résistant aux températures élevées dans lequel lesdits mécanismes sont immergés.
     
    27. Utilisation selon la revendication 25, dans laquelle ledit premier mécanisme est un mécanisme sensible de manière centrifuge.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description