(19)
(11)EP 1 568 082 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
18.01.2017 Bulletin 2017/03

(21)Application number: 03768763.9

(22)Date of filing:  07.11.2003
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H01L 21/02  (2006.01)
H01L 29/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2003/035571
(87)International publication number:
WO 2004/053994 (24.06.2004 Gazette  2004/26)

(54)

BUFFER LAYER COMPRISING QUATERNARY AND TERNARY ALLOYS IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

QUATERNÄRE UND TERNÄRE LEGIERUNGEN ENTHALTENDE PUFFERSCHICHT IN HALBLEITERVORRICHTUNGEN

Couche tampon comprenant des alliages quaternaires et ternaires dans des dispositifs semiconducteurs


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IT LI LU MC NL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 05.12.2002 US 310207

(43)Date of publication of application:
31.08.2005 Bulletin 2005/35

(73)Proprietor: RAYTHEON COMPANY
Waltham MA 02451-1449 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • HOKE, William, E.
    Wayland, MA 01778 (US)
  • LYMAN, Peter, S.
    Mendon, MA 01756 (US)

(74)Representative: Richardson, Julie Kate et al
Reddie & Grose LLP 16 Theobalds Road
London WC1X 8PL
London WC1X 8PL (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A- 1 249 906
US-A1- 2002 144 645
  
  • HAUPT M ET AL: "Molecular beam epitaxy of Al0.48In0.52As/Ga0.47In0.53As heterostructures on metamorphic AlxGayIn1-x-yAs buffer layers" JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, NORTH-HOLLAND PUBLISHING CO. AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 175-176, 1 May 1997 (1997-05-01), pages 1028-1032, XP004091439 ISSN: 0022-0248
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] This invention relates to semiconductor devices having gallium arsenide substrates and a metamorphic buffer on said substrate. substrates.

BACKGROUND



[0002] As is known in the art, for high quality semiconductor devices, such as field effect transistor (FET) devices, the critical active layers of such devices must lattice-match the underlying substrate to prevent the formation of active device degrading dislocations. This requirement is severe since even a 1% lattice mismatch can cause dislocations and there are few lattice matching material combinations available to the designer. An approach that relieves this requirement is to insert a metamorphic buffer layer between the substrate and critical active device layers. The metamorphic buffer layer is used to alter the lattice constant from that of the substrate. The defects and dislocations necessarily formed in the metamorphic buffer layer to transform the lattice constant are primarily confined to the buffer layer. Subsequently the active device layers are grown on top of a material, i.e., the metamorphic buffer layer, with a new lattice constant.

[0003] More particularly, a metamorphic buffer layer grown on a GaAs substrate is used to expand the lattice constant from that of the GaAs crystal substrate thereby enabling the growth of high quality active device structures which are not possible with direct growth on such GaAs substrates. This metamorphic buffer layer is typically an arsenide alloy containing aluminum, gallium, and indium. The concentration of indium is increased during growth to expand the lattice constant. Typically, current practice is to use an InxAl1-xAs or quaternary Inx(AlyGa1-y)1-xAs alloys. (The GaInAs ternary alloy is not used because its low bandgap results in electrically leaky buffer layers.) Two problems are encountered with this current practice. With the highly resistive ternary AlInAs buffer layer, the growth must start with a very high aluminum concentration (approximately 95%). The indium concentration is then ramped up while the aluminum concentration is ramped down. The high aluminum concentration roughens the surface morphology which can degrade device performance. With the quaternary AlGaInAs buffer layer, lower aluminum concentrations (approximately 40%) can be used at the start of the growth due to the presence of gallium which smoothens the surface. However, by the end of the compositional ramp, the bandgap of the AlGaInAs material is significantly reduced by the indium and gallium concentrations thereby reducing desireable insulating characteristics of the layer. This problem becomes increasingly severe for indium concentrations greater than 50%.

[0004] Thus, since AlAs and GaAs lattice match to 0.1%, the lattice constant is expanded by incorporating indium. During metamorphic buffer layer growth, the indium concentration is increased either linearly or step-fashion, necessarily forming dislocations as the lattice constant expands. When properly grown, the dislocations are predominantly contained in the buffer layer and do not extend into the material grown on top of the buffer layer. A common example is to grade the indium concentration to 52%, giving In0.52Al0.48As or In0.52(AlyGa1-y)As. This composition has a lattice constant matching InP. Consequently device structures previously grown on expensive and fragile InP substrates can be grown on GaAs substrates.

[0005] The conventional practice for arsenide-based metamorphic buffer layers uses AlInAs or AlGaInAs alloys. As noted above, a problem with AlInAs is the surface morphology of the metamorphic buffer is rougher than with AlGaInAs. AlInAs is an alloy of AlAs and InAs. Material quality of AlAs is improved at high growth temperatures (700C) whereas InAs is improved at low temperatures (400C). Consequently in ramping the AlI/In composition from high/low to low/high a complicated temperature ramp is used with limited success in smoothening the surface. A problem with using AlGaInAs in the buffer layer is that the resistivity of the layer and consequently its isolating properties decreases as the indium concentration is ramped up. Low growth temperatures are often used to improve the resistivity by introducing traps or defects into the material. However, these layer imperfections may degrade device layers grown on top of the buffer layer.

[0006] One method used to provide a metamorphic buffer layer is illustrated for the growth of InP-type device structure on a GaAs substrate by using 52% indium concentration in the buffer layer. Other indium concentrations and device structures are possible. The specific example of a layer structure of the metamorphic includes: a GaAs substrate; a GaAs buffer on the substrate; a 1.62 µm metamorphic buffer layer linearly indium graded over a thickness of 1.5 µm from In0.06Al0.40Ga0.54As at the bottom (i.e., on the GaAs buffer) to In0.56Al0.40Ga0.04As followed by 0.12 µm grading to In.0.52Al0.48As at the top of the metamorphic buffer layer; and a 100

In0.52Al0.48As layer on the metamorphic buffer layer: It is understood that the metamorphic buffer layer is typically between 1.0 and 1.8 µm thick. The active device layers are then formed on the In0.52Al0.48As layer.

[0007] The document "Molecular beam epitaxy of Al0,48In0,52As/Ga0,47In0,53As heterostructures on metamorphic AlxGayIn1-x-yAs buffer layers" discloses a prior art buffer structure grown on a GaAs substrate.

SUMMARY



[0008] The invention is defined in the claims, to which reference is now directed.

[0009] Preferably, the lower portion of the buffer layer has approximate concentrations of 5% indium, 40% aluminium, and 55% gallium, (i.e., Al0.40In0.05Ga0.55As). This concentration of aluminium insures good layer resistivity while the gallium concentration smoothens the surface.

[0010] The indium concentration may be increased (i.e., ramped up) and the gallium concentration decreased (i.e., ramped down) from a bottom of the lower portion to a top of the lower portion of the buffer layer. At an indium concentration of approximately 25-35%, the gallium may be terminated and a ternary AlInAs upper layer grown. The resistivity of Al0.7In0.3As is very good with satisfactory smoothness. The indium concentration may then be ramped up toward the final desired composition.

[0011] The indium concentration may be graded 3-10% beyond the desired final indium concentration to relax residual strain. From this compositional overshoot, the indium concentration is then ramped back down to the final indium concentration. This grading approach results in excellent buffer layer resistivity with good surface smoothness for the commonly used 52% indium concentration.

[0012] The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



[0013] 

FIG. 1 is a sketch showing layers on a substrate having a metamorphic buffer layer according to the invention;

FIG. 2 shows leakage currents (10-6 amp/mm) of three sets of structures having metamorphic buffer layers; four-wafer lots A and C contain a quaternary buffer layers according to the prior art and a four-wafer lot B contains a quaternary-ternary buffer layer of FIG. 1 according to the invention

FIG. 3 shows sheet resistivities (ohms/square) of metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMTs) having active layers grown on quaternary metamorphic buffer layer according to the prior art lots A and C and quaternary-ternary metamorphic buffer layer, lot B, of FIG. 1 according to the invention.; and

FIG. 4 shows contact resistances (ohm-millimeter) of the MHEMTs of FIGS. 2 and 3 having active layers grown on quaternary metamorphic buffer layer according to the prior art lots A and C and quaternary-ternary metamorphic buffer layer, lot B, of FIG. 1 according to the invention.



[0014] Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0015] Referring now to FIG. 1, a semiconductor structure 10 is shown having a III-V substrate 12, here a 600 µm GaAs substrate. A buffer layer 14 is formed on the substrate 12. Here, such buffer layer 14 has: a 500Å GaAs layer; a 5-period superlattice consisting of 20Å Al0.4Ga0.6As and 20Å GaAs; and a 400Å GaAs upper portion. The number of periods, layer thicknesses, and AlGaAs composition in the superlattice are not critical.

[0016] Next, a metamorphic buffer layer 16 is formed on buffer layer 14. The metamorphic buffer layer 16 has a compositionally graded quaternary lower portion 16L and a compositionally graded ternary upper portion 16U. More particularly, the lower portion 16L is formed in a manner to be described with the following compositional grade beginning closest to the buffer layer 14 and extending upwardly: a starting composition of In.06A1.40Ga.54As; a 1875 Å thick layer graded to In.125Al.40Ga.475As; a 1875Å thick layer graded to In.185Al.40Ga.415As and 1875Å thick layer graded to In.248Al.40Ga.352As. The grading is continuous and linear.

[0017] Next, the introduction of Ga is terminated. The growth is interrupted. The furnace conditions are set and the Al, In, and As are introduced to form a ternary growth with a starting layer of In.25Al.75As on the In.248Al.40Ga.352As. Thus, the upper portion 16U of the metamorphic buffer layer 16 is formed in a manner to be described with the following compositional grade beginning closest to the final quaternary composition of In.248Al.40.352GaAs with a starting, ternary composition of In0.25Al0.75As and continuously linearly graded over 1875Å to In.310Al.69As; a 1875Å thick layer graded to In.373Al.627As; a 1875Å thick layer graded to In.435Al.565As; a 1875Å thick layer graded to In.498Al.502As; a 1875Å thick layer graded to In.560Al.44As; and a 1200Å thick layer graded to In.520Al.48As. It is noted that there is a compositional overshoot in the next to the last layer 18. That is, the compositional grade for the last three layers goes from In.498Al.502As for layer 20 to In.560Al.44As for layer 18 to In.520Al.48As for layer 22. That is, the indium concentration is then ramped back down to the final indium concentration at layer 22. This grading approach results in excellent buffer layer resistivity and good surface flatness for the commonly used 52% indium concentration.

[0018] The following TABLE I provides the steps used to form the structure where: "TC manip (degrees C)" is the temperature of the substrate control thermocouple. It is first noted that the compositional ramping is linear and continuous over distance or growth height.
TABLE II
All Quaternary BufferTC manip (°C)
500Å GaAs

645
20Å A1.43GaAs 5x SL 615
20Å GaAs 5x SL 615
400Å GaAs 540
start grade: In.06Al.40Ga.54As

540
grade 1: 1875Å to In.125Al.40Ga.475As

480
grade 2: 1875Å to In.185Al.40Ga.415As

400
grade 3: 1875Å to In.248Al.40Ga.352As

320
   
grade 4: 1875Å to In.310Al.40Ga.29As 310
grade 5: 1875Å to In.373Al.40Ga.227As 300
grade 6: 1875Å to In.435Al.40Ga.165As 290
grade 7: 1875Å to In.498Al.40Ga.102As 280
grade 8: 1875Å to In.560Al.40Ga.04As 270
   
1000Å In.52AlAs 515
200Å In.60GaAs 515
40Å In.52AlAs 515
   
140Å In.40AlAs 575
100Å In.53GaAs

555
300Å N = 5E18 In.53GaAs

520


[0019] Having formed the metamorphic buffer layer 16 after completion of grade 9 in the TABLE I above, active device layers 18 are formed on such metamorphic buffer layer 16 as shown in TABLE I.

[0020] Devices made with the process described in TABLE I above were compared with devices made in accordance with the process described in TABLE II below :
TABLE II
All Quaternary BufferTC manip (°C)
500Å GaAs

645
201Å Al.43GaAs 5x SL 615
201Å GaAs 5x SL 615
400Å GaAs 540
start grade: In.06Al.40Ga.54As

540
grade 1: 1875Å to In.125Al.40Ga.475As

480
grade 2: 1875Å to In.185Al.40Ga.415As

400
grade 3: 1875Å to In.248Al.40Ga.352As

320
   
grade 4: 1875Å to In.310Al.40Ga.29As 310
grade 5: 1875Å to In.373Al.40Ga.227As 300
grade 6: 1875Å to In.435Al.40Ga.165As 290
grade 7: 1875Å to In.498Al.40Ga.102As 280
grade 8: 1875Å to In.560Al.40Ga.04As 270
   
1000Å In.52AlAs 515
200Å In.60GaAs 515
40Å In.52AlAs 515
   
140Å In.40AlAs 575
100Å In.53GaAs

555
300Å N = 5E18 In.53GaAs

520


[0021] In this example for the metamorphic buffer layer 16 growth, the indium concentration is linearly ramped from 6% to 56%. The compositional overshoot to 56% is incorporated to more completely relax the strain in the material. The 1000Å In0.52Al0.48As layer helps stabilize the lattice constant. The indium concentration at the start of the compositional ramp can be 5-10%.The compositional overshoot can be 3-10%. The metamorphic buffer layers used had thicknesses ranging from 1.0-1.8 µm.

[0022] Thus, in TABLE II, the metamorphic layer is competed with the completion of grade 8, active device layers are formed on such metamorphic buffer layer as shown in TABLE II.

[0023] An important characteristic of the metamorphic buffer layer is that it must be insulating to isolate different devices. Using the metamorphic buffer layer structure in TABLE II, transistors grown of such layer have experienced isolation problems. The buffer leakage current was measured by fabricating two closely spaced 100 µm x 100 µm contact pads on the buffer layer. The source drain pads are separated by a 5 µm gap and the leakage current is measured with a 10 volt bias across the pads. Two sets of 4 wafers (Lots A and C) with the buffer layer in TABLE II were tested and the results are given in FIG. 2. FIG. 2 shows leakage currents (10-6 amp/mm) of metamorphic buffer layers. Four-wafer lots A and C contain a quaternary buffer layers (TABLE II) and four-wafer lot B contains a quaternary-ternary buffer layer (TABLE I).

[0024] Leakage currents of 0.450x10-6 amp/mm were measured, which is over an order of magnitude higher than desired. Attempts to increase the buffer resistivity by altering growth conditions did not produce acceptable device resistivity.

[0025] Due to excessive buffer leakage, the new metamorphic buffer layer described above in FIG. 1 and in TABLE I was developed. Here, as described above in FIG. 1 and in TABLE I, the buffer layer starts as an AlGaInAs quaternary with 40% aluminum content for good isolation and surface smoothness. After ramping the indium concentration to 25-30%, the material is switched to AlInAs to maintain good isolation. As a test, a buffer layer was grown using the structure of FIG. 1 and Table I. The surface smoothness of the quaternary-ternary buffer layer was measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The RMS roughness for a 25 µm x 25 µm area was typically 10-11Å, essentially the same as obtained with the conventional buffer layer in TABLE II. The buffer leakage was tested on a 4 wafer, Lot B in FIG. 2. where the Y-axis is 10-6 amp/mm and the plots are statistical plots of the measured data from 4 wafers of each of the 3 lots. The line in the middle of the rectangle is the median. The rectangle contains 50% of the data points (25% of the results greater and lesser than the median). The 2 stems extending outward from the rectangle contain 95% of the data.

[0026] As shown in FIG. 2, the leakage current was drastically reduced from 0.45x10-6 amp/mm to 0.006x10-6 amp/mm.

[0027] Metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) layers were grown on top of the new buffer layer shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 3 shows sheet resistivities of metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMTs) having active layers grown on quaternary metamorphic buffer layer according to the prior art lots A and C and quaternary-ternary metamorphic buffer layer, lot B, of FIG. 1 according to the invention where the Y-axis of is ohms/square.

[0028] FIG. 4 shows contact resistances of the MHEMTs of FIG. 3 having the same active layers grown on quaternary metamorphic buffer layer according to the prior art lots A and C and quaternary-ternary metamorphic buffer layer, lot B, of FIG. 1 according to the invention. The device resistivities (ohms/square)(FIG. 3) and device contact resistances (ohm-millimeter) (FIG. 4) were not affected by the quaternary-ternary metamorphic buffer layer.
A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the claims. For example, the final ramp in Table I is to In0.52Al0.48As. This metamorphic approach can be used to ramp the indium composition over the entire range (0-100%) to alter the lattice constant from GaAs to InAs. Additionally, the indium concentration in Table I at the transition point between the ternary and quaternary grade is 25%. Furthermore, the compositional grading described herein is linear grading. Step-grading to the quaternary and ternary compositions in Table 1 and Figure 1 can also be used. Other concentrations for example between approximately 25% - 35% can be used equally well. Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.


Claims

1. A structure (10) comprising:

a gallium arsenide semiconductor substrate (12);

a buffer layer (16) disposed over the substrate (12), such buffer layer (16) having a compositionally graded AlGaInAs quaternary lower portion (16L) and a compositionally graded AlInAs ternary upper portion (16U).


 
2. The structure (10) recited in claim 1 further comprising an active layer (18) on the buffer layer (16), the active layer (18) having a transistor device therein.
 
3. The structure (10) recited in claim 1 wherein the lower portion (16L) of the buffer layer (16) has an approximate starting concentration of 5% indium, 40% aluminium, and 55% gallium (i.e., In0.05Al0.40Ga0.55As).
 
4. The structure (10) recited in claim 1 wherein the indium concentration is increased and the gallium concentration is decreased from a bottom of the lower portion (16L) to a top of the lower portion (16L).
 
5. The structure (10) recited in claim 4 wherein the top of the lower portion (16L) of buffer layer (16) has an indium concentration of approximately 25-35% and the gallium is terminated at the top of such lower portion (16L) of the layer (16) and wherein such structure includes an AlInAs upper layer on the top of the upper portion (16U) of the buffer layer (16).
 
6. The structure (10) recited in claim 5 wherein the indium concentration is graded 3-10% beyond a predetermined indium concentration prior to the top of the upper portion (16U) of the buffer layer (16) and the indium concentration is reduced to the predetermined indium concentration at the top of the upper portion (16U) of the buffer layer (16).
 
7. The structure (10) recited in claim 1, further comprising an additional buffer layer made out of gallium arsenide disposed on the substrate (12) between the substrate (12) and the buffer layer (16), and wherein the lower portion (16L) of the buffer layer (16) comprises:

a starting composition of In.06Al.40Ga.54As;

graded to a final composition of In0.25Al0.40Ga0.35As and

the upper portion (16U) of the buffer layer (16) comprises:

a starting composition of In0.25Al0.75As graded to In.56Al.44As and then graded to In.520Al.48As.


 
8. A method for forming a semiconductor structure comprising:

providing a gallium arsenide semiconductor substrate (12);

forming over the substrate (12) a buffer layer (16); such buffer layer (16) having a compositionally graded AlGaInAs quaternary lower portion (16L) and a compositionally graded AlInAs ternary upper portion (16U).


 
9. The method recited in claim 8 comprising forming the lower portion (16L) of the buffer layer (16) with an approximate starting concentration of 5% indium, 40% aluminium, and 55% gallium.
 
10. The method recited in claim 9 including increasing the indium concentration and decreasing the gallium concentration from a bottom of the lower portion (16L) to a top of the lower portion (16L).
 
11. The method recited in claim 10 including forming the top of the lower portion (16L) of the buffer layer (16) with an indium concentration of approximately 25-35%, and terminating the gallium at the top of such lower portion (16L) of the buffer layer (16).
 
12. The method recited in claim 11 including forming the indium concentration graded 3-10% beyond a predetermined indium concentration prior to the top of the upper portion (16U) of the buffer layer (16) and reducing the indium concentration to the predetermined indium concentration at the top of the upper portion (16U) of the buffer layer (16).
 
13. The method recited in claim 8 comprising forming compositionally graded quaternary lower portion (16L) as a continuous, linearly graded layer and forming the compositional graded ternary upper portion (16U) as a continuous, linearly graded layer.
 


Ansprüche

1. Struktur (10), die Folgendes umfasst:

ein Galliumsarsenid-Halbleitersubstrat (12);

eine Pufferschicht (16), die über dem Substrat (12) angeordnet ist, wobei eine solche Pufferschicht (16) einen nach Zusammensetzung abgestuften quaternären unteren AlGaInAs-Abschnitt (16L) und einen nach Zusammensetzung abgestuften ternären oberen AlInAs-Abschnitt (16U) aufweist.


 
2. Struktur (10) nach Anspruch 1, die ferner eine aktive Schicht (18) auf der Pufferschicht (16) aufweist, wobei sich in der aktiven Schicht (18) ein Transistorbauelement befindet.
 
3. Struktur (10) nach Anspruch 1, wobei der untere Abschnitt (16L) der Pufferschicht (16) eine ungefähre Ausgangskonzentration von 5 % Indium, 40 % Aluminium und 55 % Gallium (d.h. In0,05Al0,40Ga0,55As) hat.
 
4. Struktur (10) nach Anspruch 1, wobei von einer Unterseite des unteren Abschnitts (16L) zu einer Oberseite des unteren Abschnitts (16L) die Indiumkonzentration zunimmt und die Galliumkonzentration abnimmt.
 
5. Struktur (10) nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Oberseite des unteren Abschnitts (16L) der Pufferschicht (16) eine Indiumkonzentration von etwa 25-35 % hat und das Gallium an der Oberseite eines solchen unteren Abschnitts (16L) der Schicht (16) endet, und wobei eine solche Struktur eine obere AlInAs-Schicht auf der Oberseite des oberen Abschnitts (16U) der Pufferschicht (16) aufweist.
 
6. Struktur (10) nach Anspruch 5, wobei die Indiumkonzentration 3-10 % jenseits einer vorbestimmten Indiumkonzentration vor der Oberseite der oberen Schicht (16U) der Pufferschicht (16) abgestuft wird und die Indiumkonzentration auf die vorbestimmte Indiumkonzentration an der Oberseite des oberen Abschnitts (16U) der Pufferschicht (16) reduziert wird.
 
7. Struktur (10) nach Anspruch 1, die ferner eine zusätzliche Pufferschicht aus Galliumsarsenid umfasst, die auf dem Substrat (12) zwischen dem Substrat (12) und der Pufferschicht (16) angeordnet ist, und wobei der untere Abschnitt (16L) der Pufferschicht (16) Folgendes umfasst:

eine Ausgangszusammensetzung von In.06Al.40Ga.54As:

abgestuft auf eine Endzusammensetzung von In0,25Al0,40Ga0,35As, und

der obere Abschnitt (16U) der Pufferschicht (16) Folgendes umfasst:

eine Ausgangszusammensetzung von In0,25Al0,75As abgestuft auf In.56Al.44As und dann abgestuft auf In.520Al.48As.


 
8. Verfahren zum Bilden einer Halbleiterstruktur, das Folgendes beinhaltet:

Bereitstellen eines Galliumarsenid-Halbleitersubstrats (12);

Bilden einer Pufferschicht (16) über dem Substrat (12); wobei eine solche Pufferschicht (16) einen nach Zusammensetzung abgestuften quaternären unteren AlInAs-Abschnitt (16L) und einen nach Zusammensetzung abgestuften ternären oberen AlInAs-Abschnitt (16) aufweist.


 
9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, das das Bilden des unteren Abschnitts (16L) der Pufferschicht (16) mit einer ungefähren Ausgangskonzentration von 5 % Indium, 40 % Aluminium und 55 % Gallium beinhaltet.
 
10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, das das Erhöhen der Indiumkonzentration und das Verringern der Galliumkonzentration von einer Unterseite des unteren Abschnitts (16L) zu einer Oberseite des unteren Abschnitts (16L) beinhaltet.
 
11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, das das Bilden der Oberseite des unteren Abschnitts (16L) der Pufferschicht (16) mit einer Indiumkonzentration von etwa 25-35 % und das Beenden des Galliums an der Oberseite eines solchen unteren Abschnitts (16L) der Pufferschicht (16) beinhaltet.
 
12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, das das Bilden der Indiumkonzentration, abgestuft 3-10 % jenseits einer vorbestimmten Indiumkonzentration vor der Oberseite des oberen Abschnitts (16U) der Pufferschicht (16) und das Verringern der Indiumkonzentration auf die vorbestimmte Indiumkonzentration an der Oberseite des oberen Abschnitts (16U) der Pufferschicht (16) beinhaltet.
 
13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, das das Bilden eines nach Zusammensetzung abgestuften quaternären unteren Abschnitts (16L) als eine kontinuierliche, linear abgestufte Schicht und das Bilden des nach Zusammensetzung abgestuften ternären oberen Abschnitts (16U) als eine kontinuierliche, linear abgestufte Schicht beinhaltet.
 


Revendications

1. Structure (10) comprenant :

un substrat semi-conducteur en arséniure de gallium (12);

une couche tampon (16) disposés par-dessus le substrat (12), cette couche tampon (16) ayant une partie inférieure en AlGaInAs quaternaire à gradient de composition (16L) et une partie supérieure en AlInAs ternaire à gradient de composition (16U).


 
2. Structure (10) selon la revendication 1 comprenant en outre une couche active (18) sur la couche tampon (16), la couche active (18) renfermant un composant transistor.
 
3. Structure (10) selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle la partie inférieure (16L) de la couche tampon (16) a une concentration de départ approximative de 5 % d'indium, 40 % d'aluminium, et 55 % de gallium (c.-à-d. In0,05Al0,40Ga0,55As).
 
4. Structure (10) selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle la concentration d'indium est augmentée et la concentration de gallium est diminuée depuis un bas de la partie inférieure (16L) jusqu'à un haut de la partie inférieure (16L).
 
5. Structure (10) selon la revendication 4 dans laquelle le haut de la partie inférieure (16L) de la couche tampon (16) a une concentration d'indium d'approximativement 25 à 35 % et le gallium est terminé au niveau du haut de cette partie inférieure (16L) de la couche (16) et dans lequel cette structure comporte une couche supérieure en AlInAs sur le haut de la partie supérieure (16U) de la couche tampon (16).
 
6. Structure (10) selon la revendication 5 dans laquelle la concentration d'indium a un gradient de 3 à 10 % au-delà d'une concentration d'indium prédéterminé avant le haut de la partie supérieure (16U) de la couche tampon (16) et la concentration d'indium est réduite à la concentration d'indium prédéterminée au niveau du haut de la partie supérieure (16U) de la couche tampon (16).
 
7. Structure (10) selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une couche tampon supplémentaire réalisée en arséniure de gallium disposée sur le substrat (12) entre le substrat (12) et la couche tampon (16), et dans laquelle la partie inférieure (16L) de la couche tampon (16) comprend :

une composition de départ de In0,06Al0,40Ga0,54As ;

graduée à une composition finale de In0,25Al0,40Ga0,35As et

la partie supérieure (16U) de la couche tampon (16) comprend :

une composition de départ de In0,25Al0,75As graduée à In0,56Al0,44As puis graduée à In0,520Al0,48As.


 
8. Procédé de formation d'une structure semi-conductrice comprenant :

la fourniture d'un substrat semi-conducteur en arséniure de gallium (12) ;

la formation par-dessus le substrat (12), d'une couche tampon (16) ; cette couche tampon (16) ayant une partie inférieure en AlGaInAs quaternaire à gradient de composition (16L) et une partie supérieure en AlInAs ternaire à gradient de composition (16U).


 
9. Procédé selon la revendication 8 comprenant la formation de la partie inférieure (16L) de la couche tampon (16) avec une concentration de départ approximative de 5 % d'indium, 40 d'aluminium, et 55 % de gallium.
 
10. Procédé selon la revendication 9 comportant l'augmentation de la concentration d'indium et la diminution de la concentration de gallium depuis un bas de la partie inférieure (16L) jusqu'à un haut de la partie inférieure (16L).
 
11. Procédé selon la revendication 10 comportant la formation du haut de la partie inférieure (16L) de la couche tampon (16) avec une concentration d'indium d'approximativement 25 à 35 % et la terminaison du gallium au niveau du haut de cette partie inférieure (16L) de la couche tampon (16).
 
12. Procédé selon la revendication 11 comportant la formation de la concentration d'indium avec un gradient de 3 à 10 % au-delà d'une concentration d'indium prédéterminée avant le haut de la partie supérieure (16U) de la couche tampon (16) et la réduction de la concentration d'indium à la concentration d'indium prédéterminée au niveau du haut de la partie supérieure (16U) de la couche tampon (16).
 
13. Procédé selon la revendication 8, comprenant la formation d'une partie inférieure quaternaire à gradient de composition (16L) sous forme de couche continue, graduée linéairement, et la formation de la partie supérieure ternaire à gradient de composition (16U) sous forme de couche continue, graduée linéairement.
 




Drawing