(19)
(11)EP 1 628 166 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
08.11.2017 Bulletin 2017/45

(21)Application number: 05104459.2

(22)Date of filing:  25.05.2005
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G03G 15/00  (2006.01)

(54)

Systems and methods for correcting banding defects using feedback and/or feedforward control

Systeme und Verfahren zur Korrektur von Banddefekten mit Rückkopplungssteuerung und/oder Optimalwertregelung

Systèmes et procédés permettant de corriger de défauts de lignes à régulation par rétroaction et/ou par action directe


(84)Designated Contracting States:
DE FR GB

(30)Priority: 25.05.2004 US 852216

(43)Date of publication of application:
22.02.2006 Bulletin 2006/08

(73)Proprietor: Xerox Corporation
Rochester, New York 14644 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • Hamby, Eric S.
    Fairport, NY 14450 (US)
  • Gross, Eric M.
    Rochester, NY 14618 (US)
  • Viassolo, Daniel E.
    Penfield, NY 14526 (US)
  • Thompson, Michael D.
    Rochester, NY 14620 (US)
  • Viturro, R Enrique
    Rochester, NY 14618 (US)
  • Xiao, Fei
    Penfield, NY 14526 (US)
  • Lange, Clark V.
    Ontario, NY 14519 (US)

(74)Representative: Grünecker Patent- und Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB 
Leopoldstraße 4
80802 München
80802 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A- 1 197 916
US-A- 5 155 530
US-A1- 2003 142 985
JP-A- H11 112 810
US-A- 5 887 223
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


    1. Field of Invention



    [0001] This invention relates to systems and methods for detecting and correcting image quality defects, such as banding defects, in image marking devices, such as, for example, xerographic marking devices, using feedback and/or feedforward control.

    2. Description of Related Art



    [0002] A common image quality defect introduced by the copying or printing process is banding. Banding generally refers to periodic, linear structures on an image caused by a one-dimensional density variation in either the cross-process (fast scan) direction or process (slow scan) direction. Fig. 1 shows an image taken from an image marking device, such as, for example, a xerographic printer that illustrates an extreme case of banding due to photoreceptor and magnetic roll runout. A typical density variation of this image in the process direction is shown in Fig. 2.

    [0003] Banding defects can result due to many xerographic subsystem defects such as, for example, development nip gap variation caused by developer roll runout and/or photoreceptor drum runout, coating variations on either the developer rolls or the photoreceptor, non-uniform photoreceptor wear and/or charging, and developer material variations.

    [0004] One approach to mitigate banding defects is by specifying tight tolerances in subsystem design. One problem with this "passive" approach is that stringent image quality specifications increasingly lead to subsystem components with tighter and tighter tolerances, which, in turn, are more costly to manufacture. Another potential problem is scalability. That is, the subsystem design for one product in a family may not be appropriate for a different product in the same family, thus leading to costly and time consuming redesign. Furthermore, specifying tight tolerances in subsystem design has limited robustness properties. For example, using developer rolls with a tight tolerance on runout will not help with banding due to photoreceptor wear.

    [0005] US 2003/0142985 A1 describes automated banding defect analysis and repair for document processing systems. Using a system of computer modules operatively associated with a document processing machine, banking defect analysis is accomplished by analyzing specific test patterns via image processing. The banding defects are characterized in terms of quantitative parameters based on an analysis of the banding defect. Key features are extracted from the banding defect parameters. The key features are analyzed in a diagnostic engine, to determine the possible source of the defect. The identified source is correlated to a recommended repair service procedure. The diagnostic process may be augmented by also including machine data in the analysis.

    [0006] US 5,155,530 describes toner process control system based on toner developed mass, reflectance density and gloss. A method for controlling toner developed mass per unit area in an electrostatic or electrophotographic device includes the steps of: forming a toner image on a printing sheet; measuring a toner density of the toner image on the printing sheet; measuring a gloss of the toner image on the printing sheet; determining a toner developed mass per unit area for the measured gloss and measured toner density; and adjusting a voltage of a development field in the electrostatic device in accordance with the determined toner developed mass per unit area. An apparatus for controlling toner developed mass per unit area in an electrostatic device includes: means for fusing a toner image onto a printing sheet; means for measuring a toner density of toner particles on the fused toner image; means for measuring a gloss of the fused toner image on the printing sheet; means for determining toner developed mass per unit area for the measured gloss and measured toner density; and means for adjusting a voltage of a development field in a range in which the toner developed mass per unit area and the voltage of the development field are related so that an increase in the voltage leads to an increase in the toner developed mass per unit area, and a decrease in the voltage leads to a decrease in the toner developed mass per unit area.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0007] It is the object of the present invention to improve detection and correction of image quality defects. This object is achieved by providing a method of controlling banding defects on a receiving member of an image marking device according to claim 1 and a feed back and/or feed forward control system for controlling banding defects on a receiving member in a xerographic marking device according to claim 8. Embodiments of the invention are set forth in the dependent claims.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0008] Various exemplary embodiments of the systems and methods of this invention will be described in detail, with reference to the following figures, wherein:

    Fig. 1 shows an example of a banding defect due to photoreceptor and magnetic roll runout;

    Fig. 2 illustrates a typical density variation in the process direction in uniform banding;

    Fig. 3 schematically illustrates an exemplary image marking device developer housing and sensors that can be used to implement a feedback and/or feedforward loop control architecture for controlling banding defects in an image;

    Fig. 4 illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a feedback and/or feedforward loop control architecture for controlling banding defects in an image;

    Fig. 5 illustrates another exemplary embodiment of a feedback and/or feedforward loop control architecture for controlling banding defects in an image;

    Fig. 6 is a flowchart of an exemplary embodiment of a method of establishing the parameters of the feedback and/or feedforward control loop for controlling banding defects;

    Fig. 7 schematically illustrates an exemplary simplified runout model for the image marking device of Fig. 3 employing the feedback and/or feedforward control loop strategies for controlling banding defects;

    Fig. 8 illustrates a simulated optical sensor response for the case where the development voltage has not been calibrated for runout;

    Fig. 9 illustrates a simulated optical sensor response for the case where the development voltage has been calibrated for runout according the exemplary feedback and/or feedforward control methods and systems of this invention;

    Fig. 10 illustrates a typical print corresponding to the case where the development voltage has not been calibrated for runout;

    Fig. 11 illustrates a simulated print corresponding to the case where the development voltage has been calibrated for runout according the exemplary feedback and/or feedforward control methods and systems of this invention;

    Fig. 12 is a flowchart of an exemplary embodiment of a method of controlling banding defects using a closed loop feedback and/or feedforward control strategy;

    Fig. 13 is a flowchart of an exemplary embodiment of a method of updating the calibration of the development field of a print engine to control banding defects using a closed loop feedback and/or feedforward control strategy.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS



    [0009] These and other features and advantages of this invention are described in, or are apparent from, the following detailed description of various exemplary embodiments of the systems and methods according to this invention.

    [0010] Fig. 3 schematically illustrates an exemplary image marking device developer housing 10, such as an electrophotographic (EP) device developer housing, and one or more optical sensors 50 that can be used to implement a feedback and/or feedforward loop control architecture for controlling banding defects in an image. As shown in Fig. 3, typical EP devices, such as photocopiers, scanners, laser printers and the like, may include a photoreceptor drum 20, which may be an organic photoconductive (OPC) drum 20, that rotates at a constant angular velocity. The EP device shown in Fig. 3 further includes a magnetic roll 30 and a trim bar 40.

    [0011] As the OPC drum 20 rotates, it is electrostatically charged, and a latent image is exposed line by line onto the OPC drum 20 using a scanning laser or an light emitting diode (LED) imager. The latent image is then developed by electrostatically adhering toner particles to the photoreceptor 20, e.g. OPC drum 20. The developed image is then transferred from the OPC drum 20 to the output media, e.g., paper. The toner image on the paper is then fused to the paper to make the image on the paper permanent.

    [0012] According to various exemplary embodiments of this invention, closed loop feedback and/or feedforward controlled architectures or strategies are disclosed that can be used to determine, control and mitigate banding defects discussed above. Mitigating banding defects is done, according to various exemplary embodiments, by first determining the banding defects in the developed image on the receiving member using one or more optical sensors, then altering the image marking process parameters, e.g., printing parameters, to eliminate the defects.

    [0013] Continuing with reference to Fig. 3, in various exemplary embodiments, the receiving member can be the photoreceptor 20 on the intermediate belt. The optical sensors 50 used to determine the banding defects may include, according to various exemplary embodiments, enhanced toner area coverage (ETAC) sensors or other single spot (or point) sensors. According to various alternative exemplary embodiments, the sensors 50 are array-type sensors such as, for example, full-width array (FWA) sensors, and the like.

    [0014] According to various exemplary embodiments, the sensors 50 actuate an electromechanical actuator such as, for example, a developer roll voltage Vdev(t), where t is time, using a feedback and/or feedforward control loop. The developer roll voltage Vdev, according to various exemplary embodiments, is used as an actuator to remove the mean banding level.

    [0015] As discussed above, in typical developer housings, the developer roll voltage (Vdev) can be adjusted as a function of time, that is, in the process direction. Accordingly, the developer roll voltage Vdev can control uniform banding by removing some amount of banding along the process direction. For example, (Vdev) can lighten the dark lines shown on Fig. 1. In this approach, the developer roll voltage Vdev may be used as a one-dimensional actuator.

    [0016] Calibration could occur during machine cycle-up and involves developing a given patch structure, sensing the banding defect on the photoreceptor using an optical sensor (e.g. ETAC), and actuating the development field using a feedback and/or feedforward control strategy, such as for example, repetitive control or adaptive feedforward control strategies. After a uniform density in the developed image is achieved, the resulting periodic control signal is stored as a function of developer roll position using, for example, an encoder. During routine machine operation, controlling and/or mitigating banding defects can be achieved by "playing back" the calibrated development field according to the developer roll position.

    [0017] As a particular example, the following discussion considers banding due to developer roll runout. However, the feedback and/or feedforward control calibration strategies described herein are useful and applicable to address banding due to other sources as well. By implementing this invention, both UMC reduction and higher print quality are achieved.

    [0018] The exemplary feedback and/or feedforward control strategies or architectures presented herein may be used to mitigate banding defects from any number of sources. However, for illustrative purposes, the feedback and/or feedforward control strategies discussed below will generally focus on controlling banding defects due to developer roll runout along the roll axis.

    [0019] The methods and systems according to various exemplary embodiments of this invention are used to achieve a spatially uniform developed image on the photoreceptor despite the periodic disturbance due to runout shown in Figure 2. This disturbance has a known spatial period, which is computed as follows:

    where Td is the spatial period of the runout disturbance as projected onto the photoreceptor, ρMR is the radius of the magnetic roll and SR is the speed ratio of the magnetic roll to the photoreceptor.

    [0020] In various exemplary embodiments, the systems and methods according to this inventions employ various approaches or techniques for rejecting sinusoidal disturbances of a known period. One exemplary approach or technique is based on the Internal Model Principle. Generally, the Internal Model (IM) principle states that the feedback loop must contain a model of the disturbance to cancel the effect of the disturbance on the system output.

    [0021] Another exemplary approach or technique is referred to as adaptive feedforward control (AFC) technique. The AFC technique adaptively constructs a model of the disturbance, which is then "fed forward" and injected into the system to cancel the effect of the periodic disturbance. The control architectures for rejecting banding disturbances based on these two approaches are discussed in more detail below.

    [0022] It will be noted that the systems and methods of this invention are not limited to the two approaches or techniques discussed above. One skilled in the art of feedback and/or feedforward control methods may employ other known or to be developed techniques or approaches to model and mitigate banding defects.

    [0023] An exemplary embodiment of a closed loop feedback and/or feedforward control structure/architecture 400 is shown in Fig. 4. As shown in Fig. 4, r (460) is the target value for the developed mass average (DMA) of a reference patch (or patches) on the photoreceptor, u (450) is the magnetic roll voltage Vdev as computed by the controller (410), y (470) is the measured DMA as determined from an optical sensor 50, e.g. ETAC sensor (shown in Fig. 3), θ (480) is the angular position of the magnetic roll (shown as 30 in Fig. 3), which may be provided and or stored as an encoder reading, and d (420) represents the banding disturbances impacting the system 100 (shown in Fig. 3).

    [0024] The controller 410 in this set-up is assumed to contain a built-in model of the disturbance according to the Internal Model Principle. Repetitive control falls under this category and is known to be an effective means for rejecting disturbances of a known period such as the banding disturbance of interest here. An exemplary repetitive control law is provided in the following equation:

    where z is the z-transform variable, N is the period length of the disturbance, and f(z-1) represents a filter designed to ensure that the resulting closed-loop system is stable. One important feature of a repetitive controller is that it places poles at the disturbance frequencies (the internal model of the disturbance), which enables cancellation of the periodic disturbance. This basic control structure 400 can be expanded in a number of ways to handle more complex situations. For example, multiple repetitive controllers 410 could be used to reject multiple periodic disturbances d (420).

    [0025] When implementing a controller in this framework (as well as in the AFC framework described below), one potential issue that needs to be overcome is the size of the test pattern or reference patch (or patches) on the photoreceptor that would need to be measured by the optical sensor in order for the controller to "learn" the disturbance. To illustrate the point, consider an exemplary image marking device. The radius of the magnetic roll is 9 mm and the speed ratio is 1.75, which, according to Eq. (1), gives a spatial period of 32.3 mm. The circumference of the photoreceptor drum is 82.9 mm. Since measurements of multiple periods of the disturbance may be needed to "learn" the disturbance, the patch needed in this example would certainly go beyond any inter-document zone and may even require multiple revolutions of the drum depending on the number of periods measured. Consequently, this learning process could not take place during customer printing. This is generally not a problem, however, because a banding disturbance like that shown in Fig. 1 generally does not change substantially over time and, as a result, would likely require only infrequent characterization.

    [0026] Assuming that the banding disturbance properties only change slowly with respect to time enables banding defect calibration. In calibration mode, the method may require printing a test pattern or reference patch of sufficient size for the controller to "learn" the periodic banding disturbance. This mode would occur during, for example, cycle-up prior to customer printing. Its purpose is to establish the baseline control voltage waveform needed to counteract the banding defects. After establishing a uniform image on the photoreceptor, the controller records the resulting development voltage as a function of developer roll position. This is the development field that will then be used during customer printing to counteract banding defects.

    [0027] Fig. 5 schematically illustrates another exemplary embodiment of a closed loop feedback and/or feedforward control architecture 500, such as an Adaptive Feedforward Control (AFC) architecture 500, that may also be used to control and calibrate the development field. In the AFC architecture, for a DMA target value r (560) of a reference patch or test pattern, the controller 510 is designed to achieve nominal performance, which could include rejection of non-periodic disturbances, such as, for example, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller 510, and the adaptive feedforward controller 515 is designed to cancel the periodic disturbance. To do this, the adaptive feedforward controller 515 adaptively constructs a model of the periodic disturbance and then adds this signal "on top" of the control signal to cancel the effect of the disturbance on the system output. The structure of the disturbance model is Fourier expansion as follows:

    where d (525) is the disturbance estimate, i is the discreet time index,

    N is the length of the disturbance period, and the αj are the model coefficients that are to be estimated from measurement data.

    [0028] The error, e, is calculated using the formula

    where term r (560) represents the target DMA value and y (570) represents the measured DMA as determined from the optical sensor. Given a model of the development process, and the applied control signal, u (550), estimates of the disturbance model coefficients can be calculated and updated in real-time using a standard least-squares algorithm. In calibration mode, a given reference patch or test pattern would be measured to establish the estimate of the disturbance, d̂ (520). Once the disturbance estimate converges, the control signal is stored and synchronized to developer roll position as described above. As discussed above, the angular position θ (580) of the magnetic roll (shown as 30 in Fig. 3), may be provided and or stored as an encoder reading.

    [0029] Fig. 6 is a flowchart of an exemplary embodiment of a method of establishing the parameters of the feedback and/or feedforward control loop for controlling banding defects. According to various exemplary embodiments, establishing the feedback and/or feedforward control loop starts at step S100. Next, during step S110, the parameters αj are identified by using a known pattern and measuring the resulting developer roll voltage (Vdev) or full-width amplitude (FWA) signal. When the test pattern is measured, a least squares fit to the resulting data may be used to provide estimates of the parameters αj, thus setting up equations 1-4. Next, once the parameters αj are identified during step S110, control continues to step S120.

    [0030] During step S120, the developer roll voltage (Vdev) is initialized and an image is produced. Next, control continues to step S130. During step S130, developer mass average (DMA) is measured at the different sensor locations. Next, control continues to step S140.

    [0031] During step S140, the controller determines whether there is a large amount of banding. A large amount of banding is a variation which a typical consumer of the product, upon viewing an image of a uniform area, would notice the banding to be objectionable. If a large amount of banding is determined, then control continues to step S 150. During step S 150, the developer roll voltage (Vdev) is configured, i.e., updated so as to reduce the amount of banding determined. Following step S150, control goes back to step S 130 in order to measure the resulting DMA at the different sensor locations.

    [0032] If a large amount of banding is not determined, then control jumps back to step S140. During step S140, the controller determines again whether there is a large amount of banding.

    [0033] To examine the Internal Model Principle based calibration strategy shown in Fig. 4, the inventors have constructed a simulation based on a magnetic roll-to-photoreceptor drum development system, where runout was present in both the magnetic roll and the photoreceptor drum. Fig. 7 schematically illustrates an exemplary simplified runout model 700 for the image marking device 100 of Fig. 3 employing the feedback and/or feedforward control loop strategies for controlling banding defects.

    [0034] As shown in Fig. 7, the basic model geometry is adapted from an exemplary image marking device schematic, as shown in Fig. 3. In this setup, runout is modeled using elliptical cross-sections for both the magnetic roll 30 and the photoreceptor drum 20. Other 3-dimensional forms of runout such as "bowing" runout or "conical" runout were not considered.

    [0035] A simulated sensor measurement of a developed image on the photoreceptor drum is shown in Fig. 8 for the case where the level of runout is extreme and the development field has not been calibrated. An example of a print that could result from this level of density variation is shown in Figure 10. For this print, ΔEpeak-to-peak is approximately 15. After a first-cut attempt at calibrating the development field voltage (Vdev) according to the Internal Model Principle approach described above, the sensor measurement of the developed image is as shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 11 illustrates a simulated print corresponding to the case where the development voltage has been calibrated for runout according the exemplary feedback and/or feedforward control methods and systems of this invention.

    [0036] As indicated in Figs. 8 and 9, the peak-to-peak variation in the sensor output has been reduced by more than a factor of 10 after the development field is calibrated. In addition, the sensor response after calibration implies ΔEpeak-to-peak is approximately 1. Given further refinements to the approach, the inventors anticipate reducing ΔEpeak-to-peak to less than 0.5, which is known to those skilled in the art as the perceptibility threshold for this banding frequency (0.03 cycles/mm).

    [0037] Fig. 12 is a flowchart of an exemplary embodiment of a method of controlling banding defects using a closed loop feedback and/or feedforward control strategy. Calibration could occur during machine cycle-up. In various exemplary embodiments, the method begins at step S1200, where the calibration routine is started, and continues to step S1210 where a given patch structure or test pattern is developed on a receiving member. The operation continues to step S1220 where a banding defect is sensed on the receiving member, e.g. photoreceptor, using an optical sensor, e.g. ETAC, and its extent determined.

    [0038] Next, at step S1230, based on the extent of the banding sensed and determined, the development field is actuated using a feedback and/or feedforward control strategy, such as, for example, the repetitive control or adaptive feedforward control strategies discussed above. At step S1240, it is determined whether a uniform density has been achieved in the developed image. If it is determined that a uniform density has not been achieved, the operation returns to step S1220, where the operations of steps S1220 and S1230 are performed to determine and correct for the banding defects sensed on the receiving member.

    [0039] If however, at step S1240, it is determined that a uniform density has been achieved in the developed image, operation continues to step S1250, where the resulting periodic control signal is stored as a function of developer roll position using, for example, an encoder. During routine machine operation, at step S1260, controlling and/or mitigating banding defects in images can be achieved by "playing back" the calibrated development field according to the developer roll position. The calibration routine continues to step S1270 where the calibration method ends.

    [0040] Fig. 13 is a flowchart of an exemplary embodiment of a method of updating the calibration of the development field of a print engine to control banding defects using a closed loop feedback and/or feedforward control strategy. As shown in Fig. 13, the method starts at step S1310 with operation of the print engine. As discussed above, calibration could occur during print engine cycle-up, although it is not limited to such timing or operational characteristics. Next, at step S1320, the print engine undergoes the banding calibration procedure or routine shown in Fig. 12. At step S1330, one or more print job operations are performed to determine whether unacceptable banding defects exist in the printed output. At step S1340, based on the extent of the banding defects determined and/or the cause of the banding determined, a determination is made whether the calibration routine needs to be updated to compensate and/or mitigate for the banding defects determined. If yes, the operation returns to step S1320 to perform the banding calibration procedure of Fig. 12. If not, the operation returns to step S1330 where the print job operations commence and/or continue.

    [0041] In various exemplary embodiments of the systems and methods according to this invention, using a closed-loop feedback and/or feedforward control approach allows the use of components with relaxed tolerances, which would reduce unit machine cost (UMC). Furthermore, using a feedback and/or feedforward control approach would allow controller design to be easily scaled from one product to the next. Moreover, feedback and/or feedforward control is inherently robust to subsystem variations, such as developer material variations.

    [0042] The feedback and/or feedforward control calibration approaches discussed above may enable print engines capable of high print quality that use developer rolls with relaxed tolerances. Achieving this goal, would lower UMC and improve print quality. In terms of UMC, the cost of this feedback and/or feedforward control approach may typically involve the cost of an optical sensor (e.g. ETAC) and a position sensor for the magnetic roll. However, optical sensors are currently used to measure developed density on the photoreceptor in many existing print engines.

    [0043] Moreover, if the motor controlling the magnetic roll is servo controlled, then the encoder signal for this servo could be used to determine the roll position. Consequently, the cost of this approach could be minimal. Another advantage of the approach is scalability. For instance, speeding up a product would simply require calibrating the controller. Redesign of the architecture is not necessary. Finally, the closed loop feedback and/or feedforward control strategies discussed above could be used to mitigate banding from other sources besides runout due to developer roll or the photoreceptor drum, including for example, banding caused by coating variations on either the developer rolls or the photoreceptor, non-uniform photoreceptor wear, non-uniform charging, and developer material variations.


    Claims

    1. A method of controlling banding defects on a receiving member (20) of an image marking device, comprising:

    determining a toner density on the receiving member (20), wherein the receiving member (20) is a photoreceptor (20) or an intermediate belt;

    automatically determining the extent of banding on the receiving member (20) by comparing the determined toner density to a reference toner density value; and

    automatically adjusting the toner density based on a result obtained from the comparison of the measured toner density to the reference toner density value,

    wherein automatically determining the extent of banding and automatically adjusting the toner density are performed using a feedback (560) and/or feedforward (515) control routine or application, and automatically adjusting the toner density comprises actuating a development field using the feedback (560) and/or feedforward (515) control routine or application;

    the method further comprising:

    determining whether a uniform density has been achieved in a developed image;

    if a uniform density has been achieved, storing a resulting periodic control signal as a function of developer roll position; and

    during machine operation, control banding defects using the stored periodic control signal.


     
    2. The method of claim 1, wherein the feedback and/or feedforward control routine or application is based at least on an Internal Model Principle technique or an Adaptive Feedforward Control technique.
     
    3. The method of claim 1, wherein the toner density is determined using an optical sensor (50).
     
    4. The method of claim 3, wherein the optical sensor (50) comprises a single spot optical sensor or an array-type optical sensor.
     
    5. The method of claim 3, wherein the feedback and/or feedforward control routine or application interpolates the toner density determined by the optical sensor (50) to adjust a toner output.
     
    6. The method of claim 1, wherein automatically adjusting the toner density is performed using an electromechanical actuator.
     
    7. The method of claim 6, wherein the electromechanical actuator comprises a developer roll voltage.
     
    8. A feedback and/or feedforward control system for controlling banding defects on a receiving member in a xerographic marking device, comprising:

    an optical sensor (50) arranged to determine a toner density on the receiving member;

    an electromechanical actuator disposed in correspondence with the receiving member in the xerographic marking device; and

    a controller, coupled to the optical sensor (50) and the electromechanical actuator, the controller being adapted to:

    automatically determine the extent of the banding defects on the receiving member by comparing the determined toner density to a reference toner density value; and

    automatically adjust the toner density, based on a result obtained from the comparison of the measured toner density to the reference toner density value, by actuating the electromechanical actuator using a feedback (560) and/or feedforward (515) control routine or application,

    determines whether a uniform density has been achieved in a developed image;

    if a uniform density has been achieved, stores a resulting periodic control signal as a function of developer roll position; and

    during machine operation, controls banding defects using the stored periodic control signal.


     
    9. The system of claim 8, wherein the optical sensor (50) comprises a single spot optical sensor or an array-type optical sensor.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Steuern von Banddefekten auf einem Aufnahmeelement (20) einer Bildmarkierungsvorrichtung, umfassend:

    Bestimmen einer Tonerdichte auf dem Aufnahmeelement (20), wobei das Aufnahmeelement (20) ein Photorezeptor (20) oder ein Zwischenband ist;

    automatisches Bestimmen des Ausmaßes der Streifenbildung auf dem Aufnahmeelement (20) durch Vergleichen der bestimmten Tonerdichte mit einem Referenztonerdichtewert; und

    automatisches Anpassen der Tonerdichte basierend auf einem Ergebnis, das aus dem Vergleich der gemessenen Tonerdichte mit dem Referenztonerdichtewert erhalten wird,

    wobei das automatische Bestimmen des Ausmaßes der Streifenbildung und das automatische Anpassen der Tonerdichte unter Verwendung einer Feedback- (560) und/oder Feedforward- (515) Steuerroutine oder Anwendung durchgeführt wird, und das automatische Anpassen der Tonerdichte das Aktivieren eines Entwicklerfeldes unter Verwendung der Feedback- (560) und/oder Feedforward- (515) Steuerroutine oder Anwendung umfasst;

    wobei das Verfahren des Weiteren umfasst:

    Bestimmen, ob eine gleichmäßige Dichte in einem entwickelten Bild erreicht wurde;

    wenn eine gleichmäßige Dichte erreicht wurde, Speichern eines resultierenden periodischen Steuersignals als Funktion einer Entwicklerwalzenposition; und

    während des Maschinenbetriebs, Steuern der Banddefekte unter Verwendung des gespeicherten periodischen Steuersignals.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Feedback- und/oder Feedforward-Steuerroutine oder Anwendung mindestens auf einer Technik des inneren Modellprinzips (Internal Model Principle) oder einer Technik der adaptiven Feedforward-Steuerung (Adaptive Feedforward Control) basiert.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Tonerdichte unter Verwendung eines optischen Sensors (50) bestimmt wird.
     
    4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei der optische Sensor (50) einen optischen Einzelpunktsensor oder einen optischen Sensor vom Anordnungstyp umfasst.
     
    5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei die Feedback- und/oder Feedforward-Steuerroutine oder Anwendung die von dem optischen Sensor (50) bestimmte Tonerdichte interpoliert, um eine Tonerausgabe anzupassen.
     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das automatische Anpassen der Tonerdichte unter Verwendung eines elektromechanischen Stellgliedes durchgeführt wird.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, wobei das elektromechanische Stellglied eine Entwicklerwalzenspannung umfasst.
     
    8. Feedback- und/oder Feedforward-Steuersystem zum Steuern von Banddefekten auf einem Aufnahmeelement in einer xerografischen Markierungsvorrichtung, umfassend:

    einen optischen Sensor (50), der dazu eingerichtet ist, eine Tonerdichte auf dem Aufnahmeelement zu bestimmen;

    ein elektromechanisches Stellglied, das in Übereinstimmung mit dem Aufnahmeelement in der xerografischen Markierungsvorrichtung angeordnet ist; und

    eine Steuerung, die mit dem optischen Sensor (50) und dem elektromechanischen Stellglied verbunden ist, wobei die Steuerung zu Folgendem eingerichtet ist:

    automatisches Bestimmen des Ausmaßes der Banddefekte auf dem Aufnahmeelement durch Vergleichen der bestimmten Tonerdichte mit einem Referenztonerdichtewert; und

    automatisches Anpassen der Tonerdichte, basierend auf einem Ergebnis, das aus dem Vergleich der gemessenen Tonerdichte mit dem Referenztonerdichtewert erhalten wird, durch Betätigen des elektromechanischen Stellgliedes unter Verwendung einer Feedback- (560) und/oder Feedforward- (515) Steuerroutine oder Anwendung,

    Bestimmen, ob eine gleichmäßige Dichte in einem entwickelten Bild erreicht wurde;

    wenn eine gleichmäßige Dichte erreicht wurde, Speichern eines resultierenden periodischen Steuersignals als Funktion einer Entwicklerwalzenposition; und

    während des Maschinenbetriebs, Steuern der Banddefekte unter Verwendung des gespeicherten periodischen Steuersignals.


     
    9. System nach Anspruch 8, wobei der optische Sensor (50) einen optischen Einzelpunktsensor oder einen optischen Sensor vom Anordnungstyp umfasst.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé de contrôle de défauts de formation de bandes sur un élément de réception (20) d'un dispositif de marquage d'image, comprenant :

    la détermination d'une densité de toner sur l'élément de réception (20), dans lequel l'élément de réception (20) est un photorécepteur (20) ou une courroie intermédiaire ;

    la détermination automatique de l'étendue de la formation de bandes sur l'élément de réception (20) en comparant la densité de toner déterminée à une valeur de densité de toner de référence ; et

    l'ajustement automatique de la densité de toner sur la base d'un résultat obtenu de la comparaison de la densité de toner mesurée avec la valeur de densité de toner de référence,

    dans lequel la détermination automatique de l'étendue de la formation de bandes et l'ajustement automatique de la densité de toner sont effectués en utilisant une routine ou une application de commande à rétroaction (560) et/ou à action directe (515), et l'ajustement automatique de la densité de toner comprend l'actionnement d'un champ de développement en utilisant le sous-programme ou l'application de commande à rétroaction (560) et/ou à action directe (515) ;

    le procédé comprenant en outre :

    la détermination qu'une densité uniforme a été obtenue dans une image développée ;

    si une densité uniforme a été obtenue, la mémorisation d'un signal de commande périodique résultant en fonction d'une position de rouleaux de développement ; et

    pendant le fonctionnement de la machine, le contrôle des défauts de formation de bandes en utilisant le signal de commande périodique mémorisé.


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le sous-programme ou l'application de commande à rétroaction et/ou à action directe est basé au moins sur une technique de Principe de Modèle Interne ou une technique de commande par action directe adaptative.
     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la densité de toner est déterminée en utilisant un capteur optique (50).
     
    4. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le capteur optique (50) comprend un capteur optique à point unique ou un capteur optique de type à réseau.
     
    5. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le sous-programme ou l'application de commande à rétroaction et/ou à action directe interpole la densité de toner déterminée par le capteur optique (50) pour ajuster une sortie de toner.
     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'ajustement automatique de la densité de toner est effectué en utilisant un actionneur électromécanique.
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel l'actionneur électromécanique comprend une tension de rouleaux de développement.
     
    8. Système de commande à rétroaction et/ou à action directe pour contrôler des défauts de formation de bandes sur un élément de réception dans un dispositif de marquage xérographique, qui comprend :

    un capteur optique (50) agencé pour déterminer une densité de toner sur l'élément de réception ;

    un actionneur électromécanique disposé en correspondance avec l'élément de réception dans le dispositif de marquage xérographique ; et

    un contrôleur, couplé au capteur optique (50) et à l'actionneur électromécanique, dans lequel le contrôleur est conçu pour :

    déterminer automatiquement l'étendue des défauts de formation de bandes sur l'élément de réception en comparant la densité de toner déterminée à une valeur de densité de toner de référence ; et

    ajuster automatiquement la densité de toner, sur la base d'un résultat obtenu de la comparaison de la densité de toner mesurée à la valeur de densité de toner de référence, en actionnant l'actionneur électromécanique en utilisant un sous-programme ou une application de commande à rétroaction (560) et/ou à action directe (515),

    déterminer si une densité uniforme a été obtenue dans une image développée ;

    si une densité uniforme a été obtenue, mémoriser un signal de commande périodique résultant en fonction d'une position de rouleaux de développement ; et

    pendant le fonctionnement de la machine, contrôler des défauts de formation de bandes en utilisant le signal de commande périodique mémorisé.


     
    9. Système selon la revendication 8, dans lequel le capteur optique (50) comprend un capteur optique à point unique ou un capteur optique de type à réseau.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description