(19)
(11)EP 1 698 357 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 06111517.6

(22)Date of filing:  19.11.2001
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61L 27/32(2006.01)
A61L 27/10(2006.01)
A61C 8/00(2006.01)
A61L 27/06(2006.01)
A61F 2/30(2006.01)

(54)

POLYPHOSPHONIC ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES THEREOF

POLYPHOSPHONSÄUREN UND IHRE DERIVATE

ACIDES POLYPHOSPHONIQUES ET LEURS DÉRIVÉS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LI LU MC NL PT SE TR

(30)Priority: 20.11.2000 WO PCT/EP00/11510

(43)Date of publication of application:
06.09.2006 Bulletin 2006/36

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
01996400.6 / 1351722

(73)Proprietors:
  • UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE
    1211 Genève 4 (CH)
  • Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
    1015 Lausanne (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • Descouts, Pierre
    Abernethy, Scotland PH2 9GY (GB)
  • Aronsson, Björn-Owe
    1196 Gland (CH)
  • Grätzel, Michael
    1025, St-Sulpice (CH)
  • Viornery, Carine
    69210 Savigny (FR)
  • Pechy, Peter
    1012, Lausanne (CH)

(74)Representative: Vossius & Partner Patentanwälte Rechtsanwälte mbB 
Siebertstrasse 3
81675 München
81675 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A- 0 852 238
EP-A- 0 893 165
EP-A1- 0 108 253
WO-A-92/09697
WO-A1-90/02571
DE-A1- 3 142 517
US-A- 4 259 075
US-A- 5 500 417
US-A- 5 733 564
EP-A- 0 860 213
EP-A1- 0 054 997
EP-A2- 0 330 075
WO-A-99/11202
DE-A1- 2 621 605
DE-A1- 19 731 577
US-A- 4 650 609
US-A- 5 646 134
US-A- 5 962 603
  
  • VIORNERY C ET AL: "SYNTHESIS OF NEW POLYPHOSPHONIC ACIDS", PHOSPHORUS, SULFUR AND SILICON AND THE RELATED ELEMENTS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, US, vol. 177, no. 1, 1 January 2002 (2002-01-01), pages 231-241, XP009063593, ISSN: 1042-6507, DOI: 10.1080/10426500210217
  • FOX M A ET AL: "A SEMICONDUCTIVE NICKEL-PHOSPHINE COORDINATION POLYMER", ADVANCED MATERIALS, WILEY - V C H VERLAG GMBH & CO. KGAA, DE, vol. 3, no. 7 / 08, 1 July 1991 (1991-07-01), pages 381-385, XP000329358, ISSN: 0935-9648, DOI: 10.1002/ADMA.19910030709
  • F L G V BEL 'SKII ET AL: "A cyclopendant complexon based on dibenzo-18-crown-6", RUSSIAN CHEMICAL BULLETIN, 1 January 1998 (1998-01-01), pages 1741-1743, XP055311895, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://rd.springer.com/content/pdf/10. 1007/BF02495697.pdf [retrieved on 2016-10-18]
  • JÜRGEN GEROLD ET AL: "Bis-, Tris-, and Tetrakis(squaraines) Linked by Stilbenoid Scaffolds", EUR.J.ORG.CHEM., 28 June 2001 (2001-06-28), pages 2757-2763, XP055312333, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10. 1002/1099-0690(200107)2001:14%3C2757::AID- EJOC2757%3E3.0.CO;2-2/epdf [retrieved on 2016-10-19]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] Document WO99/11202 discloses a method for enhancing osseointegration of metal implants by coating them with a nucleating agent such as polyvinylphosphonic acid.

[0002] The present Invention relates to polyphosphonic acids or a derivative thereof having 3 to 6 phosphonic acid groups bound to a hydrocarbon residue, which are used to treat the surface of a selected metallic or selected ceramic endosseous implant to be applied to a human or animal bone, said implant having a smooth or rough surface texture, as further defined in the claims. Selected metallic surfaces are, for example, made from metals chosen from chromium, niobium, tantalum, vanadium, zirconium, aluminium, cobalt, stainless steels or alloys thereof. Ceramic surfaces are for example made from a metal oxide, metal carbide, metal nitride, metal oxynitride, metal carbonitride and/or metal oxycarbide. Examples of such metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, oxynitrides, carbonitride or oxycarbides are those of chromium, niobium, tantalum, vanadium, zirconium, aluminium, cobalt, stainless steels or alloys thereof, titanium carbide, titanium nitride, titanium oxynitride, titanium carbonitride and/or titanium oxycarbide.

[0003] Such implants may be used as prostheses in medicine, more specifically in orthopaedics, for replacing or strengthening broken or diseased bones, and in dentistry, for anchoring artificial teeth and for anchoring of bone anchored hearing prosthesis. It has been shown that surfaces modified with polyphosphonic acids surprisingly enhance the bone bonding strength.

[0004] The invention relates to the use of a compound having phosphonic acid groups, corresponding to the general formula (I):

        A-[P(O)(OH)2]p     (I),

or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative thereof, which is

a salt thereof, wherein A means
a residue of a linear, branched or cyclic, saturated or unsaturated, hydrocarbon residue with n carbon atoms, whereby said residue may be substituted by hydroxyl and/or carboxyl and optionally further interrupted by one or more oxygen and/or sulphur and/or nitrogen atoms, carrying p phosphonic acid groups, wherein

n is a number from 4 to 70, preferably 4 to 40, more preferably 4 to 22, and p 3, 4, 5 or 6, preferably 3 or 4.



[0005] Compounds of the general formula (I) are preferred, wherein
n is 4 to 10 and p is 3, 4, 5 or 6, preferably 3, 4 or 5, and more preferably 3 or 4; or n is 11
to 70 and p is 3, 4, 5 or 6, preferably 3, 4 or 5, and more preferably 3 or 4.

[0006] A is preferably a saturated hydrocarbon residue of the formula -(CnH2n+2-p)-, wherein n means 4 to 70, preferably 4 to 40, and more preferably 4 to 22. The compound of formula (I) may be in the free acid or the salt form. The pharmaceutically acceptable salt is preferably an alkali metal salt, for example a sodium or potassium salt.

[0007] Examples of such compounds are butane-1,1,4-triphosphonic acid, pentane-1,1,5-triphosphonic acid, pentene-2,2,6-triphosphonic acid, hexane-2,2,6-triphosphonic acid, pentane-1,1,5,5-tetraphosphonic acid, or heptane-1,4,4,7-tetraphosphonic acid.

[0008] As disclosed herein, the compounds hexaisopropyl butane-1,1,4-triphosphonate and octaisopropyl heptane-1,4,4,7-tetraphosphonate, respectively a mixture of these compounds, are obtained in that an alkalimetal salt, preferably a sodium salt of tetra lower alkyl methylenediphosphonate, preferably tetraisopropyl methylenediphosphonate, is reacted with at least a stoichiometric amount of a dihalomethane, preferably dibromomethane, in the presence of an organic solvent having no active hydrogen atoms, preferably dry hexane or benzene or toluene.

[0009] The reaction may be carried out at a temperature within the range of 30°C to 125°C, preferably 40°C to 110°C, until the reaction is completed, which generally is within a time period of 10 to 48 hours, preferably 18 to 36 hours.

[0010] To the reaction product is then added the purified product of triisopropylphosphite that has been reacted with diisopropyl-3-bromopropane. The obtained mixture of compounds can then be separated in a conventional manner, for example by column chromatography.

[0011] As also disclosed herein, in an analogous way, by reacting 1,4-dibromobutane in excess molar ratio in the range of 1:6 to 1:0.5 with triisopropylphosphite, surprisingly the new compounds hexaisopropyl pentane-1,1,5-triphosphonate and octalsopropyl nonane-1,5,5,9-tetraphosphonate are produced. Further, in an analogous way the haxaisopropyl pentane-2,2,5-triphosphonate and hexaisopropyl hexane-2,2,6-triphosphonate are obtained by reacting equal parts of tetraisopropylethane-1,1-diphosphonate with diisopropyl-3-bromopropylphosphonate or diisopropyl-4-bromobutylphosphonate.

[0012] The preparation may further comprise that these products are hydrolysed to produce the analogous acids by refluxing them in molar excess of HCl for a time within 1 to 12 hours, preferably 1 to 6 hours. The compounds are then preferably dried under vacuum over P2O5.

[0013] The following Examples illustrate but do not limit the present invention.

A) Synthesis of alkane polyphosphonic acids


Example A1: (Reference)



[0014] Methylenediphosphonic acid was synthesized according to US-patent 3,400,176 and B.A. Arbusov, Pure Appl. Chem. 9 (1967), pp. 307-353 and references therein. The compound was characterized by NMR (1H, 31P, 13C), mass spectroscopic elemental analysis, and by its melting point. All these data are in accordance with the literature O.T. Quimby et al., Metalated methylendiphosphonate esters, preparation, characterization and synthetic applications, J. of Organomet. Chem. 13, 199-207 (1968).

B) Application examples


Example B1:



[0015] 
  1. a) A dental implant made from titanium in the form of a screw, having a diameter of 4 mm and a length of 10 mm, is produced in a conventional manner. The surface to be implanted into the body is provided with a surface roughness according to EP 0 388 575 by sandblasting the surface using an average grain size of 0.25-0.5 mm, followed by a treatment with a mixture of an aqueous acidic mixture containing a mixture of hydrochloric acid/sulfuric acid/water in a ratio of 2:1:1, at a temperature of about 80°C for about 5 minutes so that a rough surface of the implant is obtained which is about 3.6 times larger compared to the polished surface, as measured with the voltametric method In aqueous electrolyte with 0.15M NaCl. The surface of the implant is then chemically treated with a nitrogen plasma to yield a titanium nitride surface as described in B.-O. Aronsson et al., J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 35 (1997), pp. 49f. The treated implant, resp. surface, is sonicated in bidistilled water during 15 minutes at 30°C, washed with pure water followed by sonication in water (three times) for 10 minutes and then rinsed with pure hexane and dried under vacuum (10 mm Hg, room temperature).
  2. b) The implant as produced in chapter a) above is then put into an aqueous solution of (i) pentane-1,1,5-triphosphonic acid [1.2 x 10-4 mol/10 ml, in distilled water], (ii) pentane-1,1,5-triphosphonic acid potassium salt [1.2 x 10-4 mol/10 ml, in distilled water] and left there at room temperature for 15 minutes. The implant is then rinsed with pure water.


[0016] The implant prepared according to the preparations b(i) and b(ii) are implanted into the upper jaw of a mini pig. The osseointegration is measured as the torque needed to unfasten the implant from the jaw where it had osseointegrated. Comparative test results are given for the untreated implant. The results are given in Table 1. Analysis with XPS and ToF-SIMS indicated that a molecular (mono) layer was formed on the implant surface as well as on the titanium nitride surface, and that the roughness of the surface did not seem to influence this behaviour.
Table 1
PreparationTorque* after 2 weeks (Ncm)torque* after 3 weeks (Ncm)torque* after 4 weeks (Ncm)
B(i) 32 79 132
B(ii) 29 83 124
Comparative Test 20 60 100
* the torque is given in Ncm as an average value from three measurements for each test.


[0017] The results illustrate the improved osseointegration of the implants according to the present invention compared to the non treated implants.

Example B2:



[0018] Example B1 is repeated with the difference that the original titanium surface of the implant is treated with methane in an argon glow discharge plasma so that a surface of titanium carbide is obtained. The treatment is performed as described in B.-O. Aronsson et al., J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 35 (1997), pp. 49f. Analogous test results are obtained analogous to those given in Table 1.


Claims

1. A compound which is butane-1,1,4-triphosphonic acid, pentane-1,1,5-triphosphonic acid, pentane-2,2,5-triphosphonic acid, hexane-2,2,6-triphosphonic acid, pentane-1,1,5,5-tetraphosphonic acid, heptane-1,4,4,7-tetraphosphonic acid, or a salt thereof.
 
2. Use of a compound having phosphonic acid groups, corresponding to the general formula (I)

        A-[P(O)(OH)2]p     (I),

or a pharmaceutically acceptable derivative thereof, which is a salt thereof, wherein

A means a residue of a linear, branched or cyclic, saturated or unsaturated, hydrocarbon residue with n carbon atoms, whereby said residue may be substituted by hydroxyl and/or carboxyl and optionally further interrupted by one or more oxygen and/or sulphur and/or nitrogen atoms, carrying p phosphonic acid groups, wherein

n is a number from 4 to 70, and

p is 3, 4, 5 or 6,

for treating the surface of a metallic or ceramic endosseous implant to be applied to a human or animal bone, said implant having a smooth or rough surface texture, to enhance the bone bonding strength and/or improve the osseointegration of the implant.
 
3. The use according to claim 2, wherein the metallic surface to be treated is made from chromium, niobium, tantalum, vanadium, zirconium, aluminium, cobalt, stainless steel or an alloy thereof.
 
4. The use according to claim 2, wherein the ceramic surface to be treated is made from a metal oxide, metal carbide, metal nitride, metal oxynitride, metal carbonitride and/or metal oxycarbide.
 
5. The use according to claim 2, wherein the ceramic surface to be treated is made from an oxide, carbide, nitride, oxynitride, carbonitride and/or oxycarbide of a metal selected from chromium, niobium, tantalum, vanadium, zirconium, aluminium, cobalt, stainless steel and alloys thereof, or the ceramic surface is made from titanium carbide, titanium nitride, titanium oxynitride, titanium carbonitride and/or titanium oxycarbide.
 
6. The use according to any one of claims 2 to 5, wherein p is 3 or 4.
 
7. The use according to any one of claims 2 to 5, wherein A is a saturated hydrocarbon residue of the formula -(CnH2n+2-p)-, n means a number from 4 to 70, and p is 3, 4, 5 or 6.
 
8. The use according to any one of claims 2 to 7, wherein n is a number from 4 to 40, preferably a number from 4 to 22.
 
9. The use according to any one of claims 2 to 5, wherein the compound is butane-1,1,4-triphosphonic acid, pentane-1,1,5-triphosphonic acid, pentane-2,2,5-triphosphonic acid, hexane-2,2,6-triphosphonic acid, pentane-1,1,5,5-tetraphosphonic acid, heptane-1,4,4,7-tetraphosphonic acid, or a salt thereof.
 


Ansprüche

1. Eine Verbindung, welche Butan-1,1,4-triphosphonsäure, Pentan-1,1,5-triphosphonsäure, Pentan-2,2,5-triphosphonsäure, Hexan-2,2,6-triphosphonsäure, Pentan-1,1,5,5-tetraphosphonsäure, Heptan-1,4,4,7-tetraphosphonsäure oder ein Salz davon ist.
 
2. Verwendung einer Verbindung, welche Phosphonsäuregruppen aufweist, entsprechend der allgemeinen Formel (I)

        A-[P(O)(OH)2]p     (I)

oder ein pharmazeutisch verträgliches Derivat davon, welches ein Salz davon ist, wobei

A für einen Rest eines geradkettigen, verzweigten oder cyclischen, gesättigten oder ungesättigten Kohlenwasserstoffrestes mit n Kohlenstoffatomen steht, wobei der Rest durch Hydroxyl und/oder Carboxyl substituiert sein kann und gegebenenfalls weiter durch ein oder mehrere Sauerstoff- und/oder Schwefel- und/oder Stickstoffatome unterbrochen sein kann, welcher p Phosphonsäuregruppen trägt, wobei

n für eine Zahl von 4 bis 70 steht und

p für 3, 4, 5 oder 6 steht,

zur Behandlung der Oberfläche eines metallischen oder keramischen endossalen Implantats zur Anwendung in einem menschlichen oder tierischen Knochen, wobei das Implantat eine glatte oder rauhe Oberflächentextur aufweist, um die Knochenbindekraft zu steigern und/oder die Osseointegration des Implantats zu verbessern.
 
3. Die Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 2, wobei die zu behandelnde metallische Oberfläche aus Chrom, Niob, Tantal, Vanadium, Zirkonium, Aluminium, Cobalt, rostfreien Stählen oder einer Legierung davon hergestellt ist.
 
4. Die Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 2, wobei die zu behandelnde keramische Oberfläche aus einem Metalloxid, Metallcarbid, Metallnitrid, Metalloxynitrid, Metallcarbonitrid und/oder Metalloxycarbid hergestellt ist.
 
5. Die Verwendung gemäß Anspruch 2, wobei die zu behandelnde keramische Oberfläche aus einem Oxid, Carbid, Nitrid, Oxynitrid, Carbonitrid und/oder Oxycarbid eines Metalls ausgewählt aus Chrom, Niob, Tantal, Vanadium, Zirkonium, Aluminium, Cobalt, rostfreien Stählen und Legierungen davon hergestellt ist oder die keramische Oberfläche aus Titancarbid, Titannitrid, Titanoxynitrid, Titancarbonitrid und/oder Titanoxycarbid hergestellt ist.
 
6. Die Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 5, wobei p für 3 oder 4 steht.
 
7. Die Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 5, wobei A für einen gesättigten Kohlenwasserstoffrest der Formel -(CnH2n+2-p)- steht, n eine Zahl von 4 bis 70 bedeutet und p für 3, 4, 5 oder 6 steht.
 
8. Die Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 7, wobei n für eine Zahl von 4 bis 40, vorzugsweise für eine Zahl von 4 bis 22 steht.
 
9. Die Verwendung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 5, wobei die Verbindung Butan-1,1,4-triphosphonsäure, Pentan-1,1,5-triphosphonsäure, Pentan-2,2,5-triphosphonsäure, Hexan-2,2,6-triphosphonsäure, Pentan-1,1,5,5-tetraphosphonsäure, Heptan-1,4,4,7-tetraphosphonsäure oder ein Salz davon ist.
 


Revendications

1. Composé qui est un acide butane-1,1,4-triphosphonique, un acide pentane-1,1,5-triphosphonique, un acide pentane-2,2,5-triphosphonique, un acide hexane-2,2,6-triphosphonique, un acide pentane-1,1,5,5-tétraphosphonique, un acide heptane-1,4,4,7-tétraphosphonique, ou un sel de ceux-ci.
 
2. Utilisation d'un composé ayant des groupes d'acide phosphonique, correspondant à la formule générale (I)

        A-[P(O)(OH)2]p     (I),

ou d'un dérivé pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci, qui est un sel de celui-ci, dans lequel

A désigne un résidu hydrocarbure linéaire, ramifié ou cyclique, saturé ou non, ayant n atomes de carbone, ledit résidu pouvant être substitué par un hydroxyle et/ou carboxyle et pouvant en outre être optionnellement interrompu par un ou plusieurs atomes d'oxygène et/ou de soufre et/ou d'azote, et portant p groupes d'acide phosphonique, où n est un nombre de 4 à 70, et

p est 3, 4, 5 ou 6,

pour traiter la surface d'un implant endo-osseux métallique ou céramique destiné à être appliqué à un os humain ou animal, ledit implant ayant une texture de surface lisse ou rugueuse, pour améliorer la force d'adhérence à l'os et/ou améliorer l'intégration osseuse de l'implant.
 
3. Utilisation selon la revendication 2, dans laquelle la surface métallique à traiter est faite de chrome, niobium, tantale, vanadium, zirconium, aluminium, cobalt, acier inoxydable ou d'un alliage de ceux-ci.
 
4. Utilisation selon la revendication 2, dans laquelle la surface céramique à traiter est faite d'oxyde métallique, carbure métallique, nitrure métallique, oxynitrure métallique, carbonitrure métallique et/ou oxycarbure métallique.
 
5. Utilisation selon la revendication 2, dans laquelle la surface céramique à traiter est faite d'un oxyde, carbure, nitrure, oxynitrure, carbonitrure et/ou oxycarbure d'un métal choisi parmi le chrome, niobium, tantale, vanadium, zirconium, aluminium, cobalt, acier inoxydable et leurs alliages, ou la surface céramique est à base de carbure de titane, nitrure de titane, oxynitrure de titane, carbonitrure de titane et/ou oxycarbure de titane.
 
6. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 5, dans laquelle p est 3 ou 4.
 
7. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 5, dans laquelle A est un résidu hydrocarbure saturé de formule -(CnH2n+2p)-, n désigne un nombre de 4 à 70, et p est 3, 4, 5 ou 6.
 
8. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 7, dans laquelle n est un nombre de 4 à 40, de préférence un nombre de 4 à 22.
 
9. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 5, dans laquelle le composé est un acide butane-1,1,4-triphosphonique, un acide pentane-1,1,5-triphosphonique, un acide pentane-2,2,5-triphosphonique, un acide hexane-2,2,6-triphosphonique, un acide pentane-1,1,5,5-tétraphosphonique, un acide heptane-1,4,4,7-tétraphosphonique, ou un sel de ceux-ci.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description