(19)
(11)EP 1 702 675 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
21.09.2016 Bulletin 2016/38

(21)Application number: 04805105.6

(22)Date of filing:  17.12.2004
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
B01J 13/16(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/ES2004/000562
(87)International publication number:
WO 2005/058476 (30.06.2005 Gazette  2005/26)

(54)

CONTINUOUS MULTI-MICROENCAPSULATION PROCESS FOR IMPROVING THE STABILITY AND STORAGE LIFE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

KONTINUIERLICHES MULTIMIKROVERKAPSELUNGSVERFAHREN ZUR VERBESSERUNG DER STABILITÄT UND HALTBARKEIT VON BIOLOGISCH AKTIVEN BESTANDTEILEN

PROCEDE DE MULTI-MICROENCAPSULAGE EN CONTINU POUR L'AMELIORATION DE LA STABILITE ET STOCKAGE D'INGREDIENTS BIOLOGIQUEMENT ACTIFS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 18.12.2003 ES 200302998

(43)Date of publication of application:
20.09.2006 Bulletin 2006/38

(73)Proprietor: GAT Microencapsulation GmbH
2490 Ebenfurth (AT)

(72)Inventors:
  • CASANA GINER, Victor
    A-Ebenfurth 2490 (AT)
  • GIMENO SIERRA, Miguel
    A-Ebenfurth 2490 (AT)
  • GIMENO SIERRA, Barbara
    A-2490 Ebenfurth (AT)
  • MOSER, Martha
    A-2490 Ebenfurth (AT)

(74)Representative: Soler Lerma, Santiago 
C/ Poeta Querol No. 1-10a
46002 Valencia
46002 Valencia (ES)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 344 516
US-A- 3 875 074
US-A1- 2003 193 102
ES-T3- 2 066 044
US-A- 4 308 165
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Notes:


    Use of special terminology:



    [0001] An expression than contains "A, B and/or C" means that permits the combinations A, A+B, B, C, A+C, B+C, A+B+C and its permutations.

    Abbreviations:



    [0002] The following list consists in terms commonly employed in the field of the invention:

    W= water

    O= oil

    W/O= emulsion water in oil

    O/W= emulsion oil in water

    (W/O)/W= emulsion water in oil in water

    a.i.= active ingredient(s). In the present invention it means biologically active ingredient(s), except when it is evident from the text that the ingredients are used not for biological functions. The use of singular or plural it is deduced from the text UV= ultraviolet light

    FA= fatty acid, with a long carbon chain (of more than 6 carbons)

    SFA= saturated fatty acid

    MUFA= monounsaturated fatty acid (1 unsaturated bond)

    PUFA= polyunsaturated fatty acid (2 or more unsaturated bonds)

    HUFA= highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (4 or more unsaturated bonds)

    w-3= UFA omega-3, it is said, that contains at least an unsaturation in the third carbon when numbering the chain beginning from the opposite side of the carboxylic group

    w-6= UFA omega-6, defined as w-3, except in that the first unsaturation (at least one) when numbering the chain beginning from the opposite side of the carboxylic group, is in position 6 instead of 3.
    The abbreviations w-3 and w-6 are referred either to the singular or plural case; FA, SFA, UFA, MUFA, PUFA, HUFA may be ended in "s" (e.g. HUFAs) when they are referred to plural case.

    GMOs= Genetically modified organisms



    [0003] The invention relates to microcapsules, and a continuous microencapsulation water-in-oil-in-water microencapsulation process through in situ and interfacial polymerization of the emulsion. The formulation comprises a continuous water phase having a dispersion of microcapsules which contain oil drops and wherein the inside of each oil phase drop -containing optionally oil-soluble materials- there is a dispersion of water, or aqueous extract or water dispersible material or water soluble material. The oil drops are encapsulated with a polymerisable material of natural origin. Such microcapsules are appropriated for spray-dry processes, to be used as dry powder, lyophilised, self-emulsifiable powder, gel, cream and any liquid form. The active compounds included in te microcapsules are beneficial to the health and other biological purposes. Such formulations are appropriate to be incorporated in any class of food, specially for the production of nutraceuticals, as well as cosmetic products (such as rejuvenescence creams, anti-wrinkle creams, gels, bath and shower consumable products and sprays). The preparations are adequate to stabilise compounds added to the food, media for cultivating microbes and nutraceuticals, specially those which are easily degradable or oxidable.

    Field of the invention.



    [0004] The field of the invention corresponds to methods of formulation, use of biologically active materials, specially in foodstuffs, more specially in nutraceuticals or functional foods, comprises method of microencapsulation, microcapsules produced thereof and application (use) of them when they include certain compounds, some of them described in this document for the first time.

    State of the Art


    Microencapsulation



    [0005] The microencapsulation technique is known and used in many fields (pharmacy, agrochemistry, dyestuffs, etc). There exist different forms to microencapsulate compounds in such a way they are controlled released. For a thorough and correct definition of the term microcapsule, and a broad prior art, check Fong, M. "Techologies of microencapsulation" in "Controlled Release Systems: Fabrication Technology, 1988 Vol I, Editor Dean Hsieh, CRD Press, Florida. In this reference it is explained that often is confounded the term "microcapsule" with other formulation methods as emulsions, microspheres, liposomes, etc. True microcapsules are based in a physical separation of phases by means of a wall (polymer) that has inside -the "core"- the microencapsulated material; must be not confounded the technique of formulate materials by dispersing or mixing them in polymeric matrices, W/O or (W/O)/W emulsions. A fundamental difference of the present invention with all the previous patents referring to true microcapsules (hereinafter, microcapsules) is that we create an emulsion W/O that is enclosed by a microcapsule's wall, and these microcapsules are dispersed or emulsified in water, moreover, the microcapsules can contain smaller microcapsules in the core, thus having multi-microcapsules. On one side, the microcapsules here disclosed (and their production method) are characterized in that the wall is made of a mix of hydrocolloids that are polymerized and cross-linked and the hardening of the structure is due to an increase in temperature, the process runs without time laps in between process steps and under continuous agitation. No patent or scientific paper discloses a microencapsulation method similar to this one.

    [0006] No patent or scientific paper discloses a microencapsulation method similar to ours.

    [0007] The closest state of the art regarding this invention is represented by US 6,234,464,

    [0008] US 6,234,464 describes a method of microencapsulation of Fas, in particular w-3, w-6 or derivatives. Differences with respect the present invention are: i) in US 6,234,464 the core of the microcapsule has only a W/O phase; in our invention the core has a W/O phase and moreover smaller microcapsules ii) in US 6,234,464 each W drop is protected with a wall in our invention there exist multiple water drops inside the oil drops, and not all the W drops are protected with a wall iii) in US 6,234,464 the wall is limited to two hydrocolloids, further separated and differentiated into two layers defined as inner and outer layers; in our invention is possible and convenient to combine more than two hydrocolloids to form the wall and there is no differentiated layered structure in two (or any number) layers, our microcapsules have a mixed layer where the hydrocolloids (not necessarily limited to two) are mixed iv) in US 6,234,464, during the process disclosed in example 1, the process includes a pH changeto cure the first hydrocolloid layer, and then form the second layer while in our process we do not make any intermediate step to cure any hydrocolloid: the are all together cured at the end of the process v) in US 6,234,464 each FA particle -we understand that are FA's drops- is covered with two hydrocolloid layers; our microcapsules do not need that the FA -in the case that they are chosen as a.i.- are covered with two layers, on the contrary, much more advantageous for the product quality, it is convenient that the Fas are in contact with other compounds, even coming from the water phase that would act as stabilizers and protect from oxidation vi) the curing of the microcapsules of US 6,234,464 is done by cooling; while in our process the curing is done by temperature increase, resulting in our case a harder wall vii) to eliminate the water from the microcapsules of US 6,234,464 it is used ethanol as water replacer and drying agent to obtain microcapsules' powder, while we can obtain dried microcapsules without the use of ethanol.

    [0009] Although the differences mentioned are many, they make reference to the process; the microcapsules formed according US 6,234,464 and those according the present invention have also different properties: thermal, protection of a.i., controlled release of a.i., content of microcapsules (US 6,234,464 is limited to Fas), etc.

    [0010] US 2003/193102 A1 discloses a process for preparing microcapsules, comprising 1) providing an aqueous mixture of a loading substance wherein said loading substance is an oil emulsified in said aqueous mixture, a first polymer component and a second polymer component; 2) forming primary microcapsules comprising shells comprising said first and the second polymer components; 3) forming agglomerates by cooling; 4) forming an outer shell around said agglomerates by further cooling; 5) cross-linking the shell material by adding a cross-linker. The process is performed with mixing and the loading substance is a biologically active substance. The first polymer component is gelatin type A while the second polymer component is gelatin type B.

    Use of FA in foodstuffs



    [0011] It is known for the skilled in the art that certain UFAs are healthy, in particular MUFAs, PUFAs and HUFAs. We can differenciate w-3 and w-6 among these chemical groups. Following publications of scientists and epidemiological studies many patents have been filed afterwards, that, based on such studies, claim the use of these natural compounds, that have been consumed by the humankind since its beginning. The inventors of this patent do not know any patent that claims the combined use of FA with sphingolipids either with cerebrosides.

    [0012] The methods of application of all these compounds are widely varied, including microencapsulation but in no method it is described the microencapsulation of UFAs as in this invention (that is characterized in that allows to incorporate to any kind of foodstuff microencapsulated UFAs withoud a significant degradation of them).

    [0013] It is described the combination of UFAs with antioxidants (EP 404058, US 5,855,944) but in no case are used microcapsules similar to those described in this invention, either are claimed certain complementary antioxidants herein described, and they lack of scientifically sound studies regarding the quality of the UFA's once the foodstuff is processed (that is, that they remain undegraded after the industrial processing), or, simply, the shelf stability (stability with time).

    [0014] There exist many sources of UFAs, practically all of them described in scientific papers before being claimed in patents. The novelty of this patent is not referred to the sources of the UFAs, rather in the microencapsulation of UFAs obtained from natural sources (or GMOs), or by organic syntheses, in microcapsules for its use in foodstuffs and other uses.

    Infant foods



    [0015] A particular aspect of this invention is the use of our formulation in infant foods. Cow's milk lacks of certain UFAs that are present in the mother's milk. This type of nutritional complementation for preganants, breast-feeding infants and children, has been claimed in many patents, but no disclosure has been made with regard of microencapsulated materials and the optimal conservation of the UFAs till final consume. Of particular interest of the present patent is the microencapsulation of arachidonic acid (see WO 9213086).

    Intelligence development



    [0016] It is a nowadays debate the increase of intelligence, or at least the potential intelligence, by DNA recombinant techniques. The inventors, based in diverse scientific papers that describe the development of the brain cortex (where the intelligence resides) with a correct and balanced consume of UFAs w-3, w-6 and w-9, as well as the role of certain sphingolipids in neuronal transmissions, and knowing the inventors certain human metabolic pathways, the inventors have found a solution for a new demand of the society: to develop to the maximum extent the potential of the human, in particular the intelligence, as the distinctive feature of the humankind, by addition of certain natural compounds to the diet. We describe here the combined use of w-3, w-6 and sphingolipids, in particular cerebrosides to increase the potential development of the intelligence, The inventors are not aware of such use of compounds for the aforementioned purpose of combining intake of sphingolipids and a balanced intake of w-3 and w-6. It is already state of the art some papers that relate the use of w-3 and/or w-6 and intelligence [see C. Maurage, P.Guesnet, M. Pinault et al. "Effect of two types of fish oil supplementation on plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in formula-fed term infants" Biol. Neonate 1998, 74:416-429 and Crawford-MA Bloom-M Broadhurst-CL Schmidt-WF Cunnane-SC Galli-C Gehbremeskel-K Linseisen-F Lloydsmith-J Parkington-J; "Evidence for the unique function of DHA during evolution of the modern hominid brain", Lipids 1999, vol. 34(S):S39-S47] but either these or any other paper point out to the important metabolic role the w-3 and w-6 toghether with sphingolipids and cerebrosides, in particular with brain processes.

    [0017] Use of antioxidants, protectors and blockers of UV-light, and free-radical blockers.

    [0018] It is well known that the origin of many illnesses, from different cancer types till cataracts is due to oxidation reactions, degradation of DNA chains due to oxidation processes and induced by oxidants, UV-light and or/free radicals. Many inventions relate to the use of natural antioxidant extracts, antioxidant compounds, etc (EP 1344516, EP 1064910) to prevent a wide array of diseases. The present invention, to the difference all other inventions, shows the particularity that the antioxidant compounds or extracts preserve their antioxidant capacity through industrial processes and strong stressing environments, until the consumer gets the compounds in a perfect quality and functional state (not degraded), thanks to the microcapsules produced according the microencapsulation process described herein.

    Detailed description of the invention



    [0019] The proposed microencapsulation method is a continuous multi-microencapsulation process by means of in situ and interfacial polymerization of biologically active materials as disclosed in claim 1.

    [0020] In a more detailed description of the process we can refer to the Figures:
    1. (a) Two different solutions (Fig.1) 1a (oil) and 1b (water) are mixed by addition of 1b to 1a, these solutions containing active ingredients and optionally free or sequestered cations to be liberated later,
    2. (b) Thanks to a food emulsifier that can be in 1a or in 1b, an emulsion of water drops (10) into the oil phase (9) is formed. This step is finished with the formation of emulsion 1c, where in the oil phase (9) are solubilized or dispersed -preferably liposoluble- active ingredients; it is also formed an oil in water emulsion, with the water droplets (10) containing -preferably hydrosoluble- active ingredients, being optional that the solubility [of the active ingredients] in water or in oil is modified by derivatization of the active ingredient(s),
    3. (c) Then, it is added to existing emulsion [1c] the solution 2b, having 2b at least one hydrocolloid [able to be polymerized and cross-linked] and optionally containing at least one active ingredient,
    4. (d) It follows a phase inversion, having then dispersed drops (11) that are an emulsion of water (12) in oil, dispersed in the continuous phase (24), namely, water,
    5. (e) Later, (Fig. 5) it is added a solution or dispersion 5a, containing at least a hydrocolloid (15) that acts as protective colloid, The solution or dispersion containing the primary emulsifier is added to emulsion 2a.
    6. (f) when the polymerization and cross-linking reactions are deemed to be finalized, reaching a reduction of particle size to about 1-30 µm, the temperature that remained at about 30-70 °C is raised to 60-100 °C.
    7. (g) Finally it is added a food grade viscosity modifier.


    [0021] Optionally, the formulation may be spray-dried or any state of the art technique, and to be collected to form dry powders, self-emulsifiable powders, gels, creams or any other form that may contain them, including oil dispersions, as well as to be submitted to a lyophyllization unit operation.

    Preferred embodiment of the invention



    [0022] Since the preferred embodiment is the use of the microcapsules to be added to foods, the microcapsules ontained by this process have been tested (with successful results) against degradation by temperature, pressure and critical ranges of pH, etc.

    [0023] The hydrocolloid(s) as well as the protective colloid(s) may be added together in the form of a solution or initial aqueous dispersion.

    [0024] The primary emulsifier and the protective colloid can be chosen among the group of hydrocolloids, as well as the viscosity modifier, because the hydrocolloids posses all these different features.

    [0025] The group of compounds more adequate for a successful formulation according the described process corresponds to chitosans, starch, dextrins, cyclodextrins, celluloses, lignine, pectines, agar alginates, carragenates, gelatins, guar gum, Arabic gum, tragacanth, lignosulfonates, Carayan gum, Ceratonia siliqua gum, saponines, Xanthan gum, seeds' gums, galactomanans, arabanogalactomanans, beta-glucanes, inulin, psyllium, acacia gum, in all their isomeric and stereochemical configurations, in all their variations regarding quantity and quality of monomers or oligomers that constitute the hydrocolloid, in all their presentation forms, as metal salts, nitrogenated, phosphorated, sulfurated salts, as well any derivatized product of the referred hydrocolloids.

    [0026] The hydrophylic-lipophylic value, known as HLB, is an estimation of the emulsifier activity of a compound with emulsification properties, varying according the convenience of forming a W/O emulsion or a O/W emulsion. The primary emulsifier of this invention must be chosen in between 9 and 16, preferably in between 12 and 14.

    [0027] The emulsion 1c (10) typically has a particle size (a Master Sizer® laser equipment is used) of 50-500 µm, preferably 70-200 µm.

    [0028] At the end of the process, the formed microcapsules (7b) have a size of 0.1-100 µm, preferably in the range 1-30 µm, more preferably 1-5 µm.

    [0029] This size may vary with time with aggregation processes that in to some extent may be desirable as far as the total structure of the formulation is not affected.

    [0030] One of the factors that influence the success in forming an emulsion or dispersion is the energy given to the solution or dispersion where the emulsion is going to be formed. This energy can be provided in the form of shear stress, by agitators, preferably of the type of teeth agitators, anchor or both combined. The approximate speed must remain in between 3000 to 25000 rpm. These values depend on the stage of the process and the dimension of reactors. Once the microcapsules are formed is not recommended to provide too much kinetic/thermal energy, in order to avoid microcapsules' destruction.

    [0031] Particular types of colloids are the hydrogels, and then the hydrocolloids may be substituted by hydrogels optionally based in albumin, alginates, policarboxylates, starch, poli-L-lactid and derivatives thereof.

    [0032] We can choose, according the experimentally measured release rate of the microencapsulated material we can use different combinations of hydrocolloids or hydrogels, in tat way that is possible to change the degree of polymerization, the hardness of the wall, the thickness of the wall and permeability (to determined type of materials) and electric properties, in order to obtain the microcapsule with resistance to alimentary processes, and to the media in which it will be found (e.g., in a yogurth) till the final consumption.

    [0033] This variability of the wall forming materials is also applicable to the viscosity modifiers and emlsifiers either the one(s) used to form (1c), (preferably a polysorbate) as a primary emulsifier (preferably a soy lecitin based emulsifier).

    [0034] The microcapsules may be obtained in a dry state, or to be redispersed in liquid phases or solid and solidifiable matrices. The outer media of the microcapsules may have compounds that help to maintain the wall structure, like ionic force or osmotic pressure regulators, etc. It is possible that inside the microcapsules are present, for example, metallic cations, that once the wall is formed help in maintaining the structure, like Calcium ions inside a microcapsule's wall made with pectins.

    [0035] The active ingredients may be added in any step of the process, including the phase of the process when the foodstuff is mixed with the microcapsules, but, obviously, is preferred that the materials are incorporated inside the microcapsules. Then, the active ingredients may come from solutions 1a, 1b, 2b, 5a or be added in any step of the food process.

    [0036] Since one of the embodiments is to add to any type of foodstuff compounds beneficial for the health, for UFAs and antioxidant particles, it is important to prevent oxidation during the formation of microcapsules. The process may be done under vacuum, in the presence of an inert gas (preferably nitrogen or helium), protected from light of any wavelength and in sterile conditions.

    [0037] We refer to water phase in this document to solutions or dispersions must be understood that under this term are included solutions and dispersions (i) based in aqueous extracts (ii) with a content in alcohols lower than 40% being the rest water (iii) compounds soluble or dispersible in water.

    [0038] It must also understood that the oil phase is referred to any hydrophobic phase as it can be honey or waxes.

    [0039] By virtue of the different thermal properties of water, alcohols or oils, as well as the transmission coefficients form phase to phase it can be improved the resistance of microencpapsulated compounds against alimentary processes (including cooking by the consumer). It is obvious that in some cases it will be needed to add microbiological stabilizers (bactericides, fungicides, bacteriostatics, fungistatics, etc.) to the formulation because eventually can be used for alimentary purposes, then for this use the antimicrobial agents must authorized in foods.

    [0040] One embodiment of the invention refers to dry microcapsules covered by a microbiological stabilizers.

    [0041] For certain applications, particularly cosmetic ones, once the microcapsules are dry they can be added in gels, oils, alcoholic solutions for perfumes, etc. In an embodiment of the invention, the microcapsules contain flavours (aromas) to be used in perfumery or to provide perfumes to gels and bath creams or soaps.

    [0042] The microcapsules can be applied to all type of foods, in a non restrictive way the following examples: cereals and derived (optionally muesli, cereals for milk), pastry shop, dairy products, nutritional supplements, sugars and derived (optionally chocolates, sweet, nougats, marzipans), sweet dietary (with low level of calories), in diet foods and for diabetics, oils and derived, milky and derived, eggs, vegetables and vegetables, vegetables, fruits, tubers and derived, eatable shafts, snacks, appetizers, eatable roots (optionally licorice), bay and wild products, preserves of fruits, dry fruits, meats, sausages, fish, shellfish and crustaceans and their preserves, alcoholic and not alcoholic drinks, carbonated drinks or not carbonated, juices, syrups, nectars, spices, condiments, pre-cooked foods, preprocessed foods (frozen mass of bread), pizzas, honey.

    [0043] Although the main and more useful embodiment of the invention refers to feeding (of human and other animals, even fish and also microorganisms), the microcapsules can be used for other purposes, in particular to encapsulate semiochemicals, attractants, repellent, insecticides, sterilizers, herbicides, fungicides, germicides, viricides (or materials that prevent the viral infections), vectors of genes (for gene therapy or for objectives of technical of recombinant DNA), aromas, indicatives of presence of compounds -as mixed in gas or liquids-, toilet chemicals, astringents to avoid the ingestion of toxic products also in household products (preferably ethanol, isopropylic alcohol, wood cleansers).

    [0044] The invention can be carried out to avoid aromas, with the adaptation of the materials of the wall and other factors, in order to avoiding to the maximum the liberation of the encapsulated materials.

    [0045] In an example presented later on, we will see that the applicant has used advanced statistical techniques usual to reduce the number of necessary tests to determine the most appropriate parameters to encapsulate certain compounds, or to obtain the speed of wanted liberation, etc. to select the independent variables: type of made up of the wall, particle size, emulsifiers(s), speed of rotation of the agitator, agitator type, modifier of viscosity, etc. and an independent variable that represents the quality of the formulation or of the microcapsules. This type of reduction of trials to reproduce the invention is recommended due to the high number factors involved in the repetition of the invention. It has been used the variance analysis or multiple variance analysis with design of factorial fractions, preferably factorial in 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 blocks, half saturated fraction, I design Box-Behnken, central compound, Plackett-Burman. The present invention is the five year-old result with more than 50,000 different formulations, however, without the employment of these statistical techniques, the number of rehearsals would ascend to, at least, a bigger number in 10 orders of magnitude.

    [0046] Defining an aspect of the invention we can refer to the microcapsules taken place by means of a continuous process of multi-microencapsulation characterized because (a) they contain beneficial active ingredients for the human health; (b) the wall of the microcapsules is composed of a mixture of at least two hydrocolloids, such a mixture polymerized and cross-linked, such hydrocolloids are eatable; (c) the polymerization degree, cross-linking and nature of the hydrocolloids influence the controlled liberation of the active compounds and the protection against the oxygen and/or light and/or temperature; (d) the microcapsules contains in their interior an emulsion of water in oil, existing active ingredients optionally in the phase oils, optionally in the phase it dilutes or optionally in both phases and also, (e) they can contain smaller microcapsules (multi-microencapsulation possible until, at least, 5 degrees of multi-encapsulation); and the particle size of the microcapsules is in the range 0,1 µm - 100 µm, preferably in the range 1 µm - 10 µm they are produced by means of a continuous process of multi-microencapsulation for polymerization interfacial in situ.

    [0047] The microcapsules formed according to the process described, can liberate their content for reasons of at least an elected factor of the group of: pH, temperature, pressure, ionic force, osmosis, volatilization, presence of compounds that dissolve the wall of the microcapsule.

    [0048] The formed microcapsules, in an embodiment corresponding to human consumption, they should resist the usual alimentary industry processes, in particular to operations, belonging to the state of the technique, concerning to protection against microorganisms, noxious and/or unwanted compounds presence, microorganisms settlers of the formulation or food to which is dedicated, and the invention provides microcapsules able to be submitted to unit operations like: sterilization, stabilization of microorganisms, pasteurization, UHT, ozonization, UV and gamma ray treatments, use of chemical antimicrobial products (either natural or synthetic).

    [0049] The microbilogical stabilizers can be added in the industrial process, therefore, in a particular embodiment, in the interior of the microcapsules (optionally in the oil phase or in the water phase, or in both) and/or the phase that contain the microcapsules, it is found a stabilizer material in terms of microbiological quality.

    [0050] In another embodiment, the formulation is accompanied with a certificate of quality where the non-existence of heavy metals is analyzed, noxious products of degradation of the biologically active materials, agrochemical products used in the production of the compound biologically active and other materials that are noxious for the health.

    [0051] In another embodiment of the invention, the microcapsules are used to provide nutritive anabolites, compounds that help to identify causing microbes of illnesses (as selective anabolites or radio-active fluorescent or marked products), and these compounds optionally can be liberated by pH changes in the means of cultivation (p. e.g., agar potato-dextrose), for production of enzymes (of the same microbial cultivation, p.ej.) or other metabolites (as alcohol or liberated enzymes).

    [0052] The microcapsules can be added to natural or artificial sweeteners, salt, pepper, spices and condiments in general, in such a way that the addition of the mentioned condiments to the foods makes that the nutritious value is increased, or the benefit for the health of the foods.

    [0053] For a bigger protection of the wall of the same microcapsule or the contained active compounds in it, it is convenient to include compound(s) inside or outside of the microcapsule that prevent the oxidative action of the ultraviolet rays.

    [0054] A favorite embodiment is that in the one that the material to be microencapsulated are compounds that are well known for scientists and for the public -with a certain culture level- as very appropriate to maintain the health or to prevent illnesses, or even to cure illnesses. Nevertheless, when considering the number of patents that claim the use of certain compounds (antioxidants and acids fatty omega-3, omega-6 and w-9 mainly), it is necessary to have present that the an overwhelming percentage, these patents have been requested after the beneficial effects of these compounds were described by the scientific community in articles and conferences. It is then, the objective of our invention, to apply known compounds known as healthy in microencapsulated form since our microencapsulation method is able to maintain until the final consumption by the consumer or of any other animal, all the beneficial properties of the active compounds (to avoid its degradation). The practical entirety of products which are described in this patent, have been described as beneficial for more than 20 years, or even used consciously by the humanity or unconsciously for its benefits for millennia, and even from the origins of the mankind. In this sense, the inventors choose the non-limiting group of compounds, (in combinations or partially or used individually), to be microencapsulated as the following: green tea, black tea, cocoa, red wines or red grapes or residues of grapes (pomaces and marcs), cider or apple or apple juice, germ or saved of cereals, carrots, chili, garlic, radish (especially, spicy radish), as a for long time used foodstuffs.

    [0055] In the same way it has been already explained in the preceding claim, the present invention allows the formulation of a variety of material types, being completely novel that the microencapsulated materials are microencapsulated with edible materials in such a form that protect from degradation in the industrial processes or the kitchen, in a much higher degree than what is prior art, thanks to the structure of the multi-microcapsule that gives multiple protective layers to a percentage of the microencapsulated products, thanks to the emulsion W/O inseide the microcapsules that allows the microencapsulation of oil or water soluble products, and that mixtures of such compounds allow that some compounds protect other compounds against oxidation, as well as the details and steps of the process of production that result in microcapsules that cen be taylor-made for the compounds to be microencapsulated, in terms of optimal protection and adequate release rate. After the high number of experiments performed by the inventors, and considering that the chemically similar compounds behave similarly in the process and in the microcapsule (e.g., pinene and limonene, being both monoterpenos, must present no difference at the time of microencapsulation either at the time of their release, even copaene, that is a sesquiterpene, will not differ much from the monoterpenes, either limonene oxide, with an additional functional group, because fuctional groups does not affect the formation of the microcapsule, either in the emulsion formation in a drastic way. In those cases where compounds may affect to the process as the need of special emulsifiers, the inventors have foreseen for cases, where different emulsifiers, polymers, etc. are used, and limited to those already mentioned -but able to overcome any difficulty in the process of encapsulating the following compounds or materials-. Therefore, preferably but not limited to, are object of microencapsulation:
    1. (a) Flavonoids in general and derivatives: anthocyianidins, pro-anthocyanidins, oligomer-procyanidine, isoflavones, chalcones, catechin, epihatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, eriocitrin, narirutin, rutin, naringin, myricitrin, hesperidin, myricetin, eriodictyol, fisetin, quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, hesperidin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, apigenin, rhamnetin, galangin, quercitrin, quercetin, diosmetin, taxifolin, galandin, biochanin A, genistein, eriodictyol, chrysin, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, gabardine, licochalcone, daidzein, matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, enterodiol, enterolactone, equol, desmethylangolensin, luteoferol, luteolinidin, apiferol, apigenidin, leucocyanidin, taxifolin, pelargonidin;
    2. (b) phenolic acids in general and derivatives (preferably esters, glycosides, rutinosides and amines): gallic, sinapic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, (o-, m- or p-) coumaric, guaiacol, (o-, m- or p-) cresol, 4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylguaicol, eugenol, p-hydroxybenzoic, procatechuic, vanillic, hydroxycinnamic, tanins in general tannins, ellagiotannins, gallotannins;
    3. (c) esctructurally combined amides comprising hydroxycinnamic acids and anthranilic acids (avenanthramides), avenasterol, hydroxycinnamic acids and long-chain fatty acids or alcohols -and derivatives thereof-; indoleamines (e.g. melatonin); inulin, glutation;
    4. (d) terpenoids in general and derivatives, monoterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tetraterpenes including the carotenoids: alfa-carotene, phytoene, cyclo-artenol, beta-carotene, ionone, zeaxanthin, capsanthin, astaxanthin, canthaxantin, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, luteoxanthin, auroxanthin, neoxanthin, apo-carotinal, xanthophylls;
    5. (e) commonly synthesized antioxidants for its use in foodstuffs and derivatives of the type of butylhydroxyanisol, 2,6-di-tert-butylhydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,6-di-tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,6-diterbutyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol, 2,4,5-trihidroxibutyrophenone; and derivatives thereof, tocopherols (e.g. alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherols -and derivatives thereof-; Tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocotrienols -and derivatives thereof-); Tocochromanols;
    6. (f) alpha-lipoic acid; coenzime Q-10; squalene; phytoestrogens; chlorophyll; vitamins; aminoacids (preferably L-arginine, cistina and cisteine) and their corresponding organic polymers like glutation, oligopeptides, peptides - preferably carnosine, carnitine -; enzymes; enzyme inhibitors (preferably phenolases or oxigenases or lipooxigenasas or lipases inhibitors);
    7. (g) as well as minerals and oligoelements, especially those involved in redox processes in vivo like selenium, zinc, magnesium.


    [0056] The natural sources where the above compounds (or other compounds not yet known or already known but not mentioned in the natural sources above) may be selected can be selected from accepted vegetal additives for its use in foodstuffs, considering additives something that is added to the foodstuff, being a predominant of fundamental part of the foodstuff or not. Some narcotic-producing plants are considered by the inventors that are able to be used or are already used in medicine. Finally, in the following list are listed plants with known therapeutic properties and used in herboristery and para-pharmacy. This is a list of non-limiting examples of natural a.i. to be microencapsulated, either by isolation of compounds, by aqueous or alcoholic solutions and also dispersions of leaves, roots, stems, flowers fruits, etc., grinded till certain suitable particle size, and also lyophilized preparations of such a.i. or preprocessed in any form. The referred list, is: Medicago sativa, Pimenal officinalis, Hibiscus abelmoschus, Angelica archangelica, Galipea officinalis, Pimpinella anisum, Ferula foetida, Ferula asafetida, Melissa officinalis, Myroxylon pereirae, Ocimum basilicum, Pimenta acris, Citrus aurantium bergamia, Prunus amygdalus, Citrus aurantium, Citrus aurantium amara, Piper nigrum, Prunus spinosa, Aniba rosaeodora, Camelia oleifera, Camelia sinensis, Carum carvi, Elettaria cardamomum, Ceratonia siliqua, Daucus carota, Dacus carota sativa, Cascarilla, Apium graveolens, Anthemis nobilis, Matricaria chamomilla, Anthemis nobilis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Cichorium intybus, Cinnamomum spp., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus, Salvia sclarea, Trifolium pratense, Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Coriandrium sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Taraxacum officinale, Sambucus nigra, Edelweiss, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Arabidopsis spp., Zingiber officinale, Citrus grandis, Psidium guajava, Humulus lupus, Marrubium vulgare, Monarda punctata, Hyssopus officinals, Jasminum officinale, Jasminum grandiflorum, Juniperus spp. Juniperus comunis, Eucaliptus officinalis, Cola acuminata, Laurus nobilis, Lavandula spp. Lavandula hybrida, Taxus baccata, Citrus medica limonum, Myristica fragans, Marjorana hortensis, Thymus spp., Thymus officinalis, Thymus mastichina, Ilex paraguarensis, Chamomilla recutita, Saccharum officinarum, Myristica fragans, Allium cepa, Citrus aurantium dulcis, Carum petroselinum, Mentha pulegium, Mentha piperita, Pimenta officinalis, Chimaphila umbellate, Punica granatum, Pelargonium spp., Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Salvia app., Salvia officinalis, Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, Satureia hortensis, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, Tamarindus indica, Citrus reticulata, Artemisia dracunculus, Thea sinensis, Thymus vulgaris, Polianthes tuberosa, Curcuma longa, Prunus serotina, Thymus serpillum, Satureja Montana, Cananga odorata, Curcuma zedoaria, Plantago major, Adansonia digitata, Ananas comosus, Artocarpus altilis, Carica papaya, Lycopersicon esculentum, Cephalophus spp., Vaccinium myrtillus, Thymus aragonensis, Thymus spp., Citrus aurantiifolia, Citrus paradisi, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita spp., Vitis spp., Vitis vinifera, Mangifera indica, Lamiaceae (Coleus, Hedeoma, Hyptis, Leonurus, Leucas, Lycopus, Marrubium, Mentha, Monarda, Perilla, Prunella, Salvia, Stachys, Teucrium, Thymus), Cannabis spp., Digitalis lanata, Adonis vernalis, Aesculus hippocastanum, Frazinus rhychophylla, Agrimonia supatoria, Rauvolfia sepentina, Andrographis paniculata, Areca catechu, Atropa belladonna, Berberis vulgaris, Ardisia japonica, Betula alba, Ananas comosus, Camellia sinensis, Cinnamomum camphora, Camptotheca acuminata, Potentilla fragarioides, Erythroxylum coca, Papaver somniferum, Colchicum autumnale, Claviceps purpurea, Digitalis purpurea, Digitalis lanata, Glaucium flavum, Papaver somniferum, Gossypium spp., Hyoscyamus niger, Camptotheca acuminata, Piper methysticum, Lobelia inflata, Crotalaria sessiliflora, Nicotiana tabacum, Physostigma venenosum, Ephedra sinica, Cinchona ledgeriana, Rhododendron molle, Datura spp., Taxus brevifolia, Strychnos nux-vomica, Stevia rebaudiana, Theobroma cacao, Valeriana officinalis, Pausinystalia yohimbe, Ephedra spp. Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrastis Canadensis, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla erectra, Ledum palustre, Salvia officinalis, Chamomilla recutita, Arctostaphylos uva, Eucommia ulmoides, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Diplazium esculentum, Manihot utillissima, Sauropous androgynus, Terminalia arjuna, Iberis amara, Crataegus spp., Arbutus unedo, Cynara scolymus, Amaranthus caudatus, Alchornea laxiflora, Alpinia officinarum, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Crataegus monogyna, Taxus yunnanensis, Bacopa monniera, Cistus albidus, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Centella asiatica, Urtica dioica, Agrocybe aegerita, Crataegus laevigata, Satureja hortensis, Crocus sativus, Coccinia indica, Brugia malayi, Rubus spp., Silybum marianum, Cannabis spp., Cannabis sativa, Hypericum perforatum, Rhus coriaria, Olea europaea, Cyclopia intermedia, Ginkgo biloba, Lentinus lepideus, Pseudomonas putida, Sargassum micracanthum, Pinus radiata, Pinus sp., Phaseoulus mungo, Cicer arietinum, Vigna sinensis, Phaseolus aureus, Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Vicia faba, Dolichos biflorus, Phaseolus lunatus, Phaseolus aconitifolius, Pisum sativum, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Arachis hypoagea, Brassica spp., Brassica campestris, Brassica napus, Valeriana officinalis, Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea pallida, Echinacea angustifolia, Glcyrrhiza glabra, Seronea repens, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Tancetum parthenuum, Tancetum parthenuum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, cereals, seed fruits, silvestre bays, leguminosae, green tea, black tea and microorganisms able to produce long-chained unsaturated fatty acids.

    [0057] Another issue that is a social concern in developed countries is the consum of probiotic organisms, understanding such organisms as those that by virtue of their metabolism or by its presence in the organism protect against infections (specially Candidasis), reduce cholesterol levels and glycerides levels and help digestion and intestinal movement. Usually these organisms are introduced in yogurts and other dairy products, but with our invention we are able to encapsulate living bacteria, yeasts and molds present in the so-called probiotic foodstuffs, and remaining alive after microencapsulation and processes of the food industry as homogeneization and pasteurization and certain types of cooking or house preparates. This implies a novelty in order to add this probiotic organisms to a lot of foodstuffs. Preferably we chose, not limiting, the probiotic organisms as follows: probiotic bacteria, optionally acid lactic-bacteria and more preferably chosen among the group: Lactobacillus caseii., L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. gasseri, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. crispatus, L. bulgaricus, L. fermentum, L. reuteri, Bifidobacterium infantis, B. bifidum, Streptococcus termophilus, S. bovis, Enterococcus durans, E. faecalis, E. Gallinarum, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium freudenreicheii, or bacteria or fungi or yeasts genetically modified in that the beneficial genes -characterizing the beneficial properties of probiotic bacteria- have been inserted and also a process of microencapsulation of biologically active materials according to any suitable combination of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one of the biologically active materials present in the formulation consist in probiotic yeasts, preferably chosen from the group: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromices marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra, Sporobolomyces puniceus, Aureobasidium pullulans, Leucosporidium scotti and also a process of microencapsulation characterized in that at least one of the biologically active materials present in the formulation consist in probiotic fungi, preferably those fungi present in or coincident or coming from cheeses.

    [0058] The interest in omega-3/6/9 FA has been followed by a huge scientific community, and as well, by Governmentally, University and Medical driven research, proving the benefits of these compounds. Many patents have been directed to claim the use of these compounds after public research, in many cases without any additional data apart from those already made public. The intention of the applicant is not to claim the use of this compounds either their combination in a certain ratio (aspect in which is based the novelty of many patents), rather to the use of our microcapsules to protect with an extraordinarily better performance in front of state of the art techniques. Also, the inventors consider that the combined use of UFAs with sphingolipids, and more precisely with cerebrosides, is recommended for the improved development of the brain and specially in the cortex and other places (e.g. retina), where there is a important place for neural development. The combination of UFAs with cerebrosides do not have precedent to the best of our knowledge, lesser its use in a covalently bonded compounds (A) and (B), for example, synthesized by the inventor according a synthesis of Dondoni et al. (1990), J. Org. Chem. 55(S):1439-1446 and Schmidt and Zimmermann (1986) Tetrahedron 27 (4): 481-484, together with state of the art esterification reactions.

    [0059] We synthesized compound B, R3: CH2CH3, R4: CO-(CH2)2-(CH2-CH=CH)4-CH2-CH3, with a yield (based on initial arachidonic acid content) of 35%. Due to the small amount of compound synthesized we could only obtain LC-MS data (Agilent 1100 Series LC/MSD Trap) confirming that a peak had the characteristic fractionation peaks of the sphingolipids side together with a typical fragmentation of arachidonic acid (M/Z: 79, 67, 91, 55, 108, 318 [M+]). The analysis of the sphingolipids branch was analyzed also after esterification and benzoylation. Also, we did not observe UV absorption at 205 nm, indicating thus that the double bonds remained without transisomerization. Results were similar when esterifying stearidonate with compound A, in position R1, leading the synthesis to a R2 consisting in H. Therefore, in the present invention we show amicroencapsulation method characterized in that at least one of the a.i. (biologically active materal) is chosen in between the group of compounds that correspond to the chemical structures (A) and (B), in all their enantiomeric and/or isomeric forms.

    Compound(s) A



    [0060] 

    wherein,

    R1 is an omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid ester or omega-9 fatty acid ester

    R2 is an omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid ester


    Compound(s) B



    [0061] 

    wherein,

    R3 is an omega-3 or omega-6 or omega-9 fatty acid ester

    R4 is an omega-3 or omega-6 or omega-9 fatty acid ester or an oligosaccharide covalently bound.



    [0062] These compounds A and B are able to deliver to the body an additional source of cerebrosides and/or sphingolipids not described to the date in the scientific or patent literature.

    [0063] One of the embodiments consist in a microencapsulation process characterized in that at least one of the biologically active materials present in the formulation consists in at least, a long fatty acid (at least 6 carbons) unsaturated, in any isomeric and/or stereochemical configuration, as well as products derived thereof-preferably esters, ethers, glycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids and more preferably, diglycerides, triglicerides, phospholipids, compounds (A) and/or (B), esteradionic, eicosapentaneoic, docosahexaenoic, docosapentaenoic, conjugated linoleic, gamma-linoleic, alpha-linolei, dihomogamma-linoleic, arachidonic.

    [0064] The fatty acids are preferably chosen among the the group not limited to: oleic, steradionic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, docosapentaenoic, linoleic, linolenic, gamma-linolenic, alpha-linolenic, dihomogamma-linoleic, arachidonic.

    [0065] These FA may be conjugated with other compounds that are released later in stomach conditions or digestive tract or enzymatic processes in the liver. Therefore, according the present invention, the fatty acids may be conjugated (maintaining or not all their unsaturations) and/or be covalently bonded with glycerides (-mono-, di-, and tri-glycerides esthers preferably), phospholipids, sphingolipids, myelin, amines, ethers, sugars, glycosides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, nitrogenated and/or oxygenated and/or phosphorated and/or sulfurated heterocycles or substituted aromatic rings.

    [0066] Many medicinal virtues are related to the use of FA, but the object of this invention is to achieve that the medicinal effect is really possible achieved thanks to the fact that these UFAs, that are very labile, specially arachidonic acid by virtue of its high number of unsaturations (4), arrive to the final consumer in perfect condition. The inventors have found that the simple addition of UFAs to foodstuffs without any protection, results in non-desirable compounds (aldehydes, ketones, peroxides, etc.) in the foodstuff. The novelty of this invention is that these FA are protected thanks to the singularity of the described microcapsules, also thanks to the provision of the antioxidants in the close environment of the microencapsulated UFAs, and the natural origin of the antioxidants, as weel as the controlled release of the content of the microcapsules, that in a very preferred embodiment, the microcapsules are stable at pH>3 -therefore in the majority of foodstuffs- and they are destroyed only in the stomach, where the pH is lower than 3.

    [0067] FA of long chain (more than 6 carbon atoms), are present in natural sources, w-6 and w-9 being common in plants, but w-3 are more difficult to find in plants, and they are predominant in fishes. Appart from usual (state of the art) sources of w-6 and w-9, other sources of w-3 are:
    1. (a) vegetal origin: Boraginaceae, (Borago spp., Borago officinalis); Linaceae (Linum usitatissimum, Linum arvense, Linum sativum); Onograceae (Oenothera biennis); Grossulariaceae (Ribes nigrum), Zea Mais, Gossypium hirsutum, Carthamus tinctorius, Glycine max.
    2. (b) algae preferably: Graciliariceae (Gracilaria spp); Gigartinaceae (Iridaea spp.); Kallymeniaceae (Callopyllis variegata); Durvillaceae (Durvillaea antartica); Solieriaceae (Euchema cottoni); Gelidiaceae (Gelidium spp); Lossoniaceae (Lesonia nigrescens); Gigantinaceae (Gigartina spp.); Lessoniaceae (Macrocystis spp.); Bangiaceae (Porphyra spp.); Crypthecodinium spp.
    3. (c) Animal origin, normally fish oil, preferably: Engaulidae (Lycengraulis olidus); Clupeidae (Sardina pilchardus); Scomberesocidae (Scomberesox saurus scombroides); Berycidae (Beryx splendens); Engraulidae (Engraulis ringens); Ophichthyidae (Ophichthus spp.); Serranidae (Hemilutjanus macrophthalmus); Scombridae (Thunnus spp., en especial, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus obesus); Sciaenidae (Cynoscion analis); Carcharhinidae (Prionace glauca); Normanichthyidae (Normanichthys crockeri); Percichthyidae (Polyprion oxygeneios); Nototheniidae (Dissostichus eleginoides); Apogonidae (Epigonus crassicaudus); Branchiostegidae (Prolatilus jugularis); Scombridae (Thunnus spp., Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus obesus, Sarda spp., Sarda chiliensis, Scomber japonicus peruanus), Sciaenidae (Cynoscion analis), Carcharhinidae, Normanichthyidae (Normanichthys crockeri); Percichthyidae (Polyprion oxygeneios); Nototheniidae (Bacalao de profundidad); Apogonidae (Epigonus crassicaudus); Branchiostegidae (Prolatilus jugularis); Cheilodactylidae (Cheilodactylus gayi); Gadidae (Salilota australis); Pomadasyidae; Scorpaenidae; Serranidae; Cyprinidae; Monacanthidae; Centrolophidae; Ophidiidae; Scorpaenidae; Coryphaenidae; Channichthydae; Sciaenidae; Aplodactylidae; Carangidae (Trachurus symetricus murphyi); Bothidae (Paralichthys microps); Mugilidae; Clupeidae; Priacathidae; Merlucciidae (Merluccius gayi gayi, Merluccius australis); Macruronidae (Macruronus magellanicus); Gadidae (Micromesistius australis); Girellidae; Trachichthyidae; Carangidae; Kyphosidae; Callorhynchidae; Labridae ; Macrouridae; Atherinidae; Gobiesocidae; Alopiidae; Galaxiidae; Rajidae; Bramidae; Carangidae; Nototheniidae; Scianidae; Mugiloididae; Salmonidae (Salmo spp., Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus spp., Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha); Clupeidae (Sardinops spp., Sardinops sagax, Clupea bentincki); Pomadasyidae; Gempylidae; Lamnidae (Isurus spp., Isurus oxyrinchus);Triakidae; Clinidae; Scophthalmidae; Labridae; and more preferably Atlantic mackerel, Engraulis encrasicholus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sarda sarda, Sardina pilchardus, Brevoortia tyrannus, Brevoortia patronus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Auxis thazard, Scomber scombrus, Scomber japonicus, Alosa aestivalis, Clupea harengus, Etrumeus teres, Argentina silus, Ictalurus punctatus.
    4. (d) microbial origin, preferably: Saccharomices cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Schizochytrium spp., Thraustochytrium aureum, Thraustochytrium roseum, Thraustochytrium striatum, Mortiriella spp., Phytium spp., Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sydowi, Fusarium spp., Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum.


    [0068] One of the embodiments of the invention is a microencapsulated formulation for increasing the neural development, specially the brain and more specially in unborn, newborn, babys and kids characterized in that at least it is present one of the compounds with the formula B and/or A.

    [0069] Other embodiment is the use of a microencapsulated formulation for increasing the potential intelligence in unborn and babies feed with mother milk, by means of the consum on the side of the milk-giving woman in an appropriate foodstuff where it is added the microencapsulated formulation. Also for infant food and milks, characterized in that it contains w-3 and w-6 in a ratio of 0.5-10 preferably 1.4-5.7, and moreover it contains cerebrosides in a percentage of 0.005% and 1% and/or optionally compounds A + B. There are many recommended ratios of w-3 to w-6, without a firm scientific base. On the other side there exist patents that cover all imaginable combinations of ratios. The inventors adopt a range more accepted by medical institutions from different countries. The novelty of the present invention is the incorporation of cerebrosides and optionall compounds A + B, as well a way to provide to the consumer UFAs without the presence of bad or off-aromas or degradation products of the UFAs. The inventors have verified that in an industrial process to prepare milk with w-3, the 50% of the initial content in w-3 is lost during homogeneization and pasteurization. Our microcapsules, industrially, in the worst case, proven in a pilot plant, we obtain a maximum in losses of w-3 of 7%. We claim as well a formulation of microcapsules for its use in infant formula characterized in that no omega-6 fatty acid is added and independently and optionally gamma-linolenic acid is added in a percentage of 1.25%. Also, in a preferred embodiment we use a microencapsulated formulation for increasing the development of the brain cortex and the intelligence, characterized in that contains omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in a ratio 0.5 - 10.0, preferably 1.4 - 5.7 and contains cerebrosides in a percentage of 0,005% - 1% and/or optionally compounds (A) and/or (B).

    [0070] The inventors have formulated a beverage (soft drink) Beverage containing a formulation of microcapsules, characterized in that the beverage contains microcapsules, and the latter contain in the oil phase omega-6 and/or omega-3 fatty acids, optionally with antioxidants added in the aqueous phases of the microcapsule or in the oil phase of the microcapsule or in both and the beverage contains additionally flavours or extracts of: grape, pineapple, and at least a citric fruit, preferably selected from tangerine, orange, mandarin, lemon, lime, and the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids remain stable in the beverage after the industrial process, including customary microbiological stabilization processes like pasteurization, at least up to one month, with a loss of omega-3 less than 7%. After more than one hundred trials to try to maske the off-flavor of omega-3 sources, the inventors tried the best solution with a tasting panel that was not able to detect the presence of the aroma of fish oil or flax oil. Another embodiment of the invention is a juice containing microcapsules of our invention characterized in that (a) the microcapsules contain omega-3 fatty acids coming from a commercial formulation of edible linseed oil; (b) the oil phase contains the linseed oil and an emulsifier based on soja compounds; (c) the water phase contains a mix of different subclasses of hydrocolloids of the type alginates and/or Arabic gum and/or kappa-carrageenate and/or guar gum, also an edible primary emulsifier with HLB in between 10 and 14 and an edible viscosity modifier; (d) the pH of the formulation of microcapsules is 3 to 6, the particle size median of the freshly produced microcapsules is 1 - 10 µm; (e) the main ingredient of the juice is orange juice. Optionally the furits that constitute the juice are chosen from the group: citrics, pineapple, grape and in that contain (all data referred to 150 mL of juice) w-3 in the range 20-200 mg, w-6 in the range 10-100 mg and w-9 in the range of 5-50 mg; with a ration w-3 : w-6 of about 3:1.

    [0071] Playing with the hydrocolloid or hydrogel type, the inventors are able to formulate microcapsules that are destroyed at low pH (like that present in the human stomach) or are resistant to low pHs (and can pass through the stomach - convenient for certain hormones like insulin- and the wall microcapsule being broken when the pH in the intestine is increased), as well as walls that can be attacked by bacteria (e.g., using starch as a wall materials, the amylases would destroy the wall), or by pressure by chewing, or to be gelified in the presence of salive, releasing a flavour (e.g., menthol) in a very fast way. Since in no way the invention is limited for human consume, the microcapsules may be designed for the conditions particular to each animal (e.g., the pig has many amylases in the mouth to the difference of the men, and a microcapsule formulated with starch as wall material would be appropriated to give to the food a better taste to increase the food ingestion, therefore, the benefit os the farmer).

    [0072] The microcapsules and appropriate formulations are compatible and desirable for foods in which the active ingredients come from agriculture (term including fisheries and animals' farming) "biological" and/or ecological", because this falls in the line with a healthy diet without intervention of products strange to the nature. Obviously, in this embodiment, and in many others, all the materials must be edible.

    [0073] In another embodiment, with an spirit completely contrary to the one said in the beforementioned paragraph, the formulation uses for the obtention of the active ingredients, GMOs, hybrid vegetal varieties or obtained be human selection, as well as microbiological cultures selected by any technique. This embodiment is possible but not desired because the consumers generally avoid GMOs.

    [0074] Apart from alimentary uses, the microcapsules produced by our processes can be included in medicinal formulations, combined with active compounds not present in the microcapsules or being the active ingredients present in the microcapsules (or formulation of microcapsules) the only active ingredients of the medicinal preparation, including under the term medicinal preparation also materials for its use in radiology contrasts, seed for oncological radiotherapy, thermotherapy or therapy by irradiation with light of any wavelength. In a preferred embodiment, radiological contrasts are very appropriate to be combined (used as a.i.) with our microcapsules that allow the transit through the stomach without being degraded and finally excreted, for medical uses (e.g., detection of bleedings by virtue of the degradation of microcapsules' wall materials sensitive to enzymes of the blood plasma).

    [0075] Because many of the healthy active ingredients are labile, specially to oxidation, an embodiment is to keep separated the capsules separated from the food or beverage until the final consumprion of the product, optionally with a receptacle that by pressure liberates the microcapsules' formulation, preferably dried, to the food or beverage.

    [0076] For a better understanding of the invention, 19 figures are enclosed, which explanation is better understood when reading the example to which they refer.

    EXAMPLES



    [0077] The following examples are given for illustrative purposes and they cannot be considered as a restriction to the claimed formulation, in so far, changes from the here presented examples are overcome easily in laboratory formulations and/or in bulk production.

    [0078] Also, the applicant has developed proprietary methods to analyze formulations made by means of the herein disclosed procedures, in order to determine unambiguously, when a formulation has been done with the information provided in the present document. These methods of analysis are also available in order to comply with Health and Governmental regulations for approval of new-marketed products.

    Example 1.



    [0079] In this example we describe the active ingredients used to make a formulation suitable for its application to orange juice.
    1.1.- Ingredients
    Oil Phase[%]
    Flaxoil 25.00
    Emulpur 1.00
    Water Phase 
    Dest. Water* 20.00
    Rosemary extract 2.80
    Juice from carrots 7.30
    Orlistat (lipase inhibitor) 1.00
    1.2.- Encapsulation and emulsification ingredients
     [%]
    Alginate solution** 25.00
    Guar gum (4% in water) 15.40
    Lamegin 2.50
    Keltrol 0.30
    * plus 0.5 % CaCl2, 0.1 % ascorbic acid, 0.08% nipagil [all in water].
    ** Alginate solution= 5 % Manucol LB in water
    1.2 Process:
    -oil phase: weigh in a bottle, homogenize in an ultrasonic bath
    -water phase weigh in a bottle, homogenize in an ultrasonic bath
    -W/O emulsion put the oil then the water phase in the reactor, make the emulsion with stirrer at 7350 rpm, 25 min
    -(W/O)/W emulsion add the alginate solution, stirrer at 350 rpm at 35°C
    -Decrease of particle shortly after add the arabic gum, stir at 8350 rpm at 35 °C
    -Further decrease of particle sizeshortly afterwards, add the Lamegin, Ultraturrax
      8135 rpm at 35 °C
    -Curing of the microcapsules 3000 rpm for 120min at 75 °C
    -Addition of viscosity modifier after 20 min add Keltrol, at 5000 rpm
    -Cooling down stop water bath, cooling down to 5-10 °C
    -Fill up fill up directly in package.

    Physiochemical Parameters:



    [0080] 

    pH= 6.5

    Particle size:
    D (v;0,5): 12,57 µm [median] D (v;0,9): 26,39 µm [percentile 90]


    Examples 2 to 11



    [0081] In Table 1, we present a series of microencapsulation processes. These microencapsulations have been made following the general procedure described above. With the data provided in previous patents are in many cases not enough to reproduce or to get the claimed formulations.

    [0082] Both components and results of the tests are shown in table 1.

    [0083] Formulation components active ingredients are described, those of the oil phase and also those of the water phase. The data provided about particle size correspond to the percentile 50 -D (v; 0,5)- and percentile 90 -D (v; 0,9)-.

    [0084] We can see in the last row the quality of the resulting formulation. As we can see, small changes in composition may lead to a bad formulated microencapsulated material.

    Example 12



    [0085] In the present embodiment, we show the release of microcapsules at a certain pH. Microcapsules break down at stomach pH, while the microcapsules stay intact in the yogurt, which is also acidic (but not as highly acidic as the stomach).

    [0086] The objective of the present example is to test the release rate of microencapsulated riboflavin (according to the present invention) present in a probiotic yogurt.

    [0087] The yogurt has been prepared (20 kg) in a traditional, hand-made, way, using an "in-house" culture of fermentation kept from the last yogurt production.

    [0088] The composition of the formulation (percentage with respect to total active ingredients) is:
    • Riboflavine 100 µg/kg yogurt (less than 0.1% of the total active ingredients)
    • Lactobacillus casei 10% (solution in water of a culture with 500 colonies per cm2)
    • Avena sativa extract 90%


    [0089] The formulation has been prepared following the general procedure of encapsulation, with alginates as the cross-linked hydrocolloid and a mixture of Ceratonia siliqua gum and arbabic gum as protective hydrocolloids.

    [0090] A non-encapsulated material has been included in the experiment to show the differences, and also a blank sample.
    1. A) Test in acidic media (1 HCl, buffer at pH 2.5) - conditions in the stomach
    2. B) Test the delivery rate of vitamin B2, in an isotonic solution at pH 4.0
      • conditions in an organic yogurt -produced in an organic farm-. A-Results in acidic media-


    [0091] It is clearly shown, that release of Vitamin B2 from the Formulation GAT 032541 occurs in stomach conditions.

    [0092] The average amount of released Riboflavin happens after 30 min. is 21.5 µg/kg [it is said, a conversion of the weighted sample of ca. 30 - 40 %]; after 60 min., are released 25.7 µg/kg [it is said, a conversion of the weighted sample of ca. 40 - 50 %].

    [0093] The release rate in non-encapsulated material is, as expected, higher. After 30 min., the average released amount of Vitamin B2 is 46.8 % [it is said, 40 - 50 % of the weighted sample]; after 60 min., are released 47.2 µg/kg [it is said, a conversion of the weighted sample of ca. 65 - 75 %].

    [0094] The blank did not show any release (gas-liquid chromatographic peak) of Riboflavin.

    B-Results in yogurt media-



    [0095] Formulation GAT 032541 does not release any vitamin B2, while being in the yogurt, at least for one and a half month.

    [0096] The non-encapsulated sample showed a slight release of 0.021 µg/g after 30 min., and 0.032 µg/g after 60 min.

    [0097] The blank samples did not show any noticeable change in Vitamin B2 content.

    Example 13.



    [0098] One of the innovative aspects of the present invention is its ability to keep the active ingredients stable for longer time with respect to the state in the art microencapsulation and even any other method of formulation. This obviously does not apply for stable active ingredients (e.g. minerals).

    [0099] We have performed tests of storage ability while remaining the active ingredients unchanged.

    [0100] The process of encapsulation is basically as the one presented in the example 1, with the exception that the secondary wall is formed with xanthan gum (from Fluka), the emulsifier is Softenol® 3767 (1%) and the viscosity modifier is Glycosperse® (1%), the source of w-3 and w-6 fatty acids was fish oil (Clupea harengus).

    [0101] Results of this experiment are showed in the following table, where we appreciate that the stability of the fatty acids, for 60 days at 45° C is exceptional.
         alpha-linolenic 
     Palmitic acidStearic acidoleic acidlinoleic acidacidw-3 acids
     % in the oil% in the oil% in the oil% in the oil% in the oil% in the oil
    d=0 1,1 1,4 2,9 2,8 2,7 7,8
    d=30; 4 °C 1,1 1,4 2,7 2,6 2,5 7,8
    d=30; 25 °C 1,1 1,4 2,6 2,6 2,6 7,7
    d=30; 45°C 1,1 1,3 2,6 2,5 2,5 7,7
    d=60; 45°C 1,1 1,3 2,4 2,5 2,4 7,5

    Example 14.



    [0102] The major problem associated with developing new formulations is the difficulty to infer the actual results from past formulations. As far as many components (and quantities) may be present in a microencapsulation, the number of experiments needed for a good statistical validation is enormously high. We have overcome this problem with the state in the art statistical techniques associated to experimental design. We have used a Folded Plackett-Burman experimental design (we are interested only in the main factors, and not in interactions for the purpose of this analysis), with 3 center points and an acceptable level of error degrees of freedom (19). This accounts for 27 runs (instead of the 64 needed in a regular experimental design -all combinations-) in order to investigate the influence in the final formulation of:
    • Oil phase (grape seed oil [50%] + salmon fish oil [50%]): 2 levels, 10%-30%
    • Natural extract (grape marks [50%] + green tea decaffeinated [50%]): 2 levels, 10%-20%
    • Alginate solution: 2 levels, 5%-10%
    • Carrageen gum solution: 2 levels, 5%-10%
    • Yucca glauca extract: 2 levels, 3%-5%
    • homogenization: 2 levels, present-not present
    • Spray drying: 2 levels, present-not present


    [0103] The independent variable is in this case, a value that reflects the suitability of the microencapsulation for industrial purposes, in particular, to add to soft drinks. To evaluate this "acceptability index" we have used the expression:



    [0104] We have developed, through a series of experiments a table that gives, for each Particle Size (and the other variables) a value in between 0 and 1. "Density" (not the actual meaning of density) may have value 0, because outside a defined range, the density is not considered; also, the acceptability index depends of the constraints of the other variables (e.g., if the degree of unreacted polymers is higher than 40%, we give to the acceptability index a value of 0, no matter the value of the rest of the parameters). The constant values that account for the weight of each value have been developed specially for soft drinks. It is clear that behind these experimental design there is much work involved.

    [0105] This way, we obtain (Statgraphics®) a randomized design as follows, being "-1" the lower level and "1" the higher level (last column, Acceptability Index):
    run/testOilPlantAlgin.Xanth.YuccaHom.Spray
     Acc.Index       
    1 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0
    2 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 10
    3 1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 95
    4 1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 60
    5 1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 84
    6 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 32
    7 1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 20
    8 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0
    9 -1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 60
    10 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 30
    11 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 28
    12 1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 45
    13 1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 31
    14 -1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 69
    15 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 85
    16 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 93
    17 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 15
    18 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 7
    19 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 54
    20 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 61
    21 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 12
    22 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 69
    23 1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 81
    24 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0
    25 -1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 20
    26 1,0 1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 17
    27 -1,0 1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 1,0 1,0 72


    [0106] The results of the ANOVA analysis showed in Table 2 show that all the parameters studied influence the final product acceptability. This is indicated by the p-value (<0.05 in all cases), as any skilled in statistics would appreciate. Thus, in developing a formulation of health improving soft drinks, we cannot neglect any of the effects of all the variables tested.

    [0107] It is remarkable that most important parameter in this type of microencapsulation for soft drinks, the homogenization has extreme influence in the final microcapsules.

    Example 15.



    [0108] We have tested the stability of a formulation (according to example 9, improving the previous results with addition of a secondary emulsifier -span 65, 5%-) of spores of Bacillus subtilis. Later we tested that actually the spores were viable (seeding in potato dextrose-agar with development of colonies).

    [0109] Results of the stability of the microcapsules, based on the stability of the particle size of the dispersion, at different aging times, are shown in Fig. 9. There it is show the distribution of the particle size of the microcapsules (the outer diameter, when in the case of multiencapsulation). The different curves obey to different storage times and temperatures.
    1. A= initial (time=0, T= 25 °C)
    2. B= after 60 days at 3 °C
    3. C= after 60 days at 25 °C
    4. D= after 90 days at 25 °C


    [0110] The shape of the curves is homogeneous, meaning that the breakdown of the capsules has not occurred.

    [0111] Note that the particle size is that of the microcapsules (values are plotted when the counter has arrived to 1,000,000 particle size measurements). If we had spores released into the media, the shape of the curve would have changed, and also shifted to the left, because the spores of Bacillus subtilis are in the range 1 to 2 µm.

    Example 16.



    [0112] In the method of analysis of formulations, we have obtained the diagrams of viscosity vs. shear stress.

    [0113] The peak showed in Fig. 10 to 12 is characteristic of our formulation. It indicates that the microencapsulated formulation diminishes progressively its internal structure due to the force applied (shear stress), but after a period of time (force) while the cohesive forces that keep the macromolecular structure of the formulation stable are broken (namely, until the peak shown). Note that the microcapsules are not broken, rather, the structure that keeps the microcapsules in dispersed, without precipitation, coacervation or any distortion of the formulation. When the macromolecular cohesive forces (mainly electrostatic forces) are low (Fig. 13) we do not observe any peak, but a progressive decrease in the viscosity with shear stress applied, because, in such lower viscosity range, the cohesive forces are easily broken. This type of behavior is acceptable in our formulation, but is less desirable than the one depicted in Figs. 10 to 12. When the curves are almost linear (the lower curve of Fig. 13), this means that we are dealing with a liquid with Newtonian behavior, the latter not being convenient either for our formulation.

    Example 17.



    [0114] In this example we show another embodiment of the invention, where there are encapsulated minerals.

    [0115] In the microphotograph (Fig. 14) we can appreciate the inclusion of inorganic minerals inside the core of a microcapsule. Selenium (from a suitable yeast culture) and zinc citrate have been added. It is clearly shown (ovale and arrow) a crystal of zinc citrate formed in the oil phase, at the same time that we observe the effect of multiencapsulation, where the small particles around are authentic microcapsules enclosed inside the bigger microcapsule that contains the crystals.

    Example 18.



    [0116] In the present example we show two different types of microcapsules.

    [0117] In the microphotograph (Fig, 15), we appreciate single microcapsules (inside the rectangle) and also a microcapsule with more microcapsules inside (inside the oval). The adjustment of the light and focusing must be done in such a way the two compared types of microcapsules are at the same distance from the objective. Then, a big difference in the refraction of the light shows the degree of microencapsulation.


    Claims

    1. Continuous multi-microencapsulation process of biologically active materials by means of in situ interfacial polymerization characterized in that the process is performed under continuous agitation and comprises the following steps:

    (a) in a first step it is emulsified a water phase into an oil phase; wherein

    a.1. a polymerization initiator exists in the water phase,

    a.2. an emulsifier exists in the oil or in the water phase,

    a.3. at least a biologically active ingredient exists in the oil and/or in the water phase;

    (b) in a second step, it is added to the emulsion a solution or dispersion in water that contains at least one hydrocolloid, this producing a phase inversion and the polymerization and cross-linking of the polymerizable hydrocolloid(s) onto the water in oil droplets;

    (c) in a third step, it is added a solution or dispersion in water that contains at least one protective colloid that begins to be deposited on the surface of the drops of water in oil, and to polymerize and cross-link with itself and the hydrocolloid;

    (d) in a fourth step, it is added to a solution or dispersion in water of a surfactant to allow a reduction of the size of the water in oil drops;

    (e) in a fifth step, during the process of reduction of size, the partially formed microcapsules are deaglomerated and reaglomerated, happening eventually an enclosure of drops inside bigger drops;

    (f) when enough time has passed in order that the oil and/or water in oil drops are covered by at least one hydrocolloid and at least one protective colloid, the temperature is increased in order to strengthen the wall of the formed microcapsules or multi-microcapsules suspended in water.


     
    2. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that it is carried out under reduced pressure.
     
    3. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that it is carried out in the presence of an inert gas.
     
    4. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the emulsions and reduction of particle size are performed at an agitation. speed of 3000 to 25000 rpm.
     
    5. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the size of the droplets of the emulsion of the first step is of 50-500 µm.
     
    6. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 5 characterized in that the size of the droplets of the emulsion of the first step is 70-200 µm.
     
    7. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the hydrocolloid of the second step and the protective colloid(s) of the third step are added together in the form of an aqueous solution or dispersion.
     
    8. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the protective colloid(s) belong to the chemical group of hydrocolloids.
     
    9. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the oil phase is comprised of an hydrogenated oil or a wax or honey.
     
    10. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the emulsifier used in the fourth step has a HLB of 12-14.
     
    11. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the protective colloid is a xanthan gum.
     
    12. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the hydrocolloids of the second step and protective colloid(s) of the third step are chosen from the group: chitosans, starch, dextrins, cyclodextrins, celluloses, pectines, agar, alginates, carrageens, gelatins, seed gums, xantan gum, guar gum, acacia gum, arabic gum, Caraya gum, Cerationia siliqua gum, Psyllium gum, gelatin, tragacanths, lignin, lignosulfonates, saponines, galactomanans, arabanogalactams, beta-glucans, inulin,; in all their isomeric and stereochemical forms, in all their variations regarding quantity and proportion of monomers or oligomers constituting the hydrocolloid, in natural or derivatizated form, as salts of metal cations or nitrogenated, sulfurated or phosphorinated derivatives, albumin, polycarboxylates, poli-L-lactid.
     
    13. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the hydrocolloids used in second step are of the type of alginates.
     
    14. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the protective colloid is arabic gum.
     
    15. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the water phases contain at the most 40% of an alcohol of molecular weight up to 144 units of atomic mass.
     
    16. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 1 characterized in that the oil phase consists in fish oil with omega-3 fatty acids or in an arachidonic acid enriched oil or in conjugated linoleic acids.
     
    17. Process of microencapsulation according to claims 1 to 16 characterized in that an additional drying step is made at the end of the process in order to obtain dried microcapsules in the form of powder.
     
    18. Process of microencapsulation according to claim 17 characterized in that at the end of the process, the resulting suspension of microcapsules in water is lyophilized or spray dried.
     
    19. Microcapsules produced by a continuous in-situ interfacial process of microencapsulation characterized in that:

    (a) there exists a water in oil phase inside the microcapsules,

    (b) the wall of the microcapsules is formed by at least two polymerized hydrocolloids,

    (c) the inner content of the microcapsules consists of an emulsion of water in oil and/or of smaller microcapsules forming multi microcapsules up to 5 degrees of multi-microencapsulation,

    (d) biologically active material is present in at least the oil phase and/or in the water phase,

    (e) the average particle size of the microcapsules is 1-10 µm.


     
    20. Suspension in water of microcapsules according claim 19 characterized in that they are produced by the process of claims 1 to 16.
     
    21. Microcapsules according to claim 19 characterized in that they contain unsaturated fatty acids with a carbon chain of at least six carbon atoms that come from the following groups of natural sources or from genetically modify organisms of the following natural sources:

    (a) vegetable origin: Boraginaceae, Borago spp., Borago officinalis; Linaceae, Linum usitatissimum, Linum arvense, Linum sativum; Onograceae, Oenothera biennis; Grossulariaceae, Ribes nigrum, Zea Mais, Gossypium hirsutum, Carthamus tinctorius, Glycine max.

    (b) algae origin: Graciliariceae, Gracilaria spp; Gigartinaceae, Iridaea spp.; Kallymeniaceae, Callopyllis variegata; Durvillaceae, Durvillaea antartica; Solieriaceae, Euchema cottoni; Gelidiaceae, Gelidium spp; Lossoniaceae, Lesonia nigrescens; Gigantinaceae, Gigartina spp.; Lessoniaceae, Macrocystis spp.; Bangiaceae, Porphyra spp.; Crypthecodinium spp.

    (c) animal origin: Engaulidae, Lycengraulis olidus; Clupeidae, Sardina pilchardus; Scomberesocidae, Scomberesox saurus scombroides; Berycidae, Beryx splendens; Engraulidae, Engraulis ringens; Ophichthyidae, Ophichthus spp.; Serranidae, Hemilutjanus macrophthalmus; Scombridae, Thunnus spp., Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus obesus; Sciaenidae, Cynoscion analis; Carcharhinidae, Prionace glauca;, Normanichthyidae, Normanichthys crockeri; Percichthyidae, Polyprion oxygeneios; Nototheniidae, Dissostichus eleginoides; Apogonidae, Epigonus crassicaudus; Branchiostegidae, Prolatilus jugularis; Scombridae, Thunnus spp., Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus obesus, Sarda spp., Sarda chiliensis, Scomber japonicus peruanus, Sciaenidae, Cynoscion analis, Carcharhinidae, Normanichthyidae, Normanichthys crockeri; Percichthyidae, Polyprion oxygeneios;; Apogonidae, Epigonus crassicaudus; Branchiostegidae, Prolatilus jugularis; Cheilodactylidae, Cheilodactylus gayi; Gadidae, Salilota australis; Pomadasyidae; Scorpaenidae; Serranidae; Cyprinidae; Monacanthidae; Centrolophidae; Ophidiidae; Scorpaenidae; Coryphaenidae; Channichthydae; Sciaenidae; Aplodactylidae; Carangidae, Trachurus symetricus murphyi; Bothidae, Paralichthys microps; Mugilidae; Clupeidae; Priacathidae; Merlucciidae, Merluccius gayi gayi, Merluccius australis; Macruronidae, Macruronus magellanicus; Gadidae, Micromesistius australis; Girellidae; Trachichthyidae; Carangidae; Kyphosidae; Callorhynchidae; Labridae ; Macrouridae; Atherinidae; Gobiesocidae; Alopiidae; Galaxiidae; Rajidae; Bramidae; Carangidae; Nototheniidae; Scianidae; Mugiloididae; Salmonidae, Salmo spp., Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus spp., Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; Clupeidae, Sardinops spp., Sardinops sagax, Clupea bentincki; Pomadasyidae; Gempylidae; Lamnidae, Isurus spp., Isurus oxyrinchus; Triakidae; Clinidae; Scophthalmidae, Labridae, Atlantic mackerel, Engraulis encrasicholus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sarda sarda, Sardina pilchardus, Brevoortia tyrannus, Brevoortia patronus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Auxis thazard, Scomber scombrus, Scomber japonicus, Alosa aestivalis, Clupea harengus, Etrumeus teres, Argentina silus, Ictalurus punctatus.

    (d) microbial origin: Saccharomices cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Schizochytrium spp., Thraustochytrium aureum, Thraustochytrium roseum, Thraustochytrium striatum, Mortiriella spp., Phytium spp., Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sydowi, Fusarium spp., Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum.


     
    22. Microcapsules according to claim 19 characterized in that they contain at least a biologically active material selected from the groups:

    (a) Flavonoids, anthocyianidins, pro-anthocyanidins, oligomer-proanthocyanidine, isoflavones, chalcones, catechin, epihatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, eriocitrin, narirutin, rutin, naringin, myricitrin, hesperidin, myricetin, eriodictyol, fisetin, quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, hesperitin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, apigenin, rhamnetin, galangin, quercitrin, quercetin, diosmetin, taxifolin, galandin, biochanin A, genistein, eriodictyol, chrysin, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, glabridine, licochalcone, daidzein, matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, enterodiol, enterolactone, equol, desmethylangolensin, luteoferol, luteolinidin, apiferol, apigenidin, leucocyanidin, taxifolin, pelargonidin;

    (b) phenolic acids in general and esters, glycosides, rutinosides and amines thereof, gallic, sinapic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic procatechuic, vanillic, hydroxycinnamic,and coumaric acids, guaiacol, cresol, 4-ethylphenol, 4-vinylguaicol, eugenol, tannins, ellagiotannins, gallotannins;

    (c) esctructurally combined amides comprising hydroxycinnamic acids and anthranilic acids (avenanthramides), avenasterol, long-chain fatty acids or alcohols, indoleamines, melatonin, inulin, glutation;

    (d) terpenoids, monoterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tetraterpenes, carotenoids, alfa-carotene, phytoene, cyclo-artenol, beta-carotene, ionone, zeaxanthin, capsanthin, astaxanthin, canthaxantin, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, luteoxanthin, auroxanthin, neoxanthin, apo-carotinal, xanthophylls;

    (e) butylhydroxyanisol, 2,6-di-tert-butylhydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,6-di-tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,6-diterbutyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol, 2,4,5-trihidroxibutyro phenone, alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherols, alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocotrienols, alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocochromanols;

    (f) alpha-lipoic acid, coenzime Q-10, vitamins, aminoacids, L-arginine, cistine, cisteine, oligopeptides, peptides, carnosine, carnitine, glutathione, enzymes; enzyme inhibitors, phenolases or oxigenases or lipooxigenasas or lipases inhibitors;

    (g) minerals and oligoelements, selenium, zinc, magnesium.


     
    23. Microcapsules according to claim 19 characterized in that the microcapsules contain at least a biologically compound originated by the group of organisms:

    Medicago sativa, Pimenal officinalis, Hibiscus abelmoschus, Angelica archangelica, Galipea officinalis, Pimpinella anisum, Ferula foetida, Ferula asafetida, Melissa officinalis, Myroxylon pereirae, Ocimum basilicum, Pimenta acris, Citrus aurantium bergamia, Prunus amygdalus, Citrus aurantium, Citrus aurantium amara, Piper nigrum, Prunus spinosa, Aniba rosaeodora, Camelia oleifera, Camelia sinensis, Carum carvi, Elettaria cardamomum, Ceratonia siliqua, Daucus carota, Dacus carota sativa, Cascarilla, Apium graveolens, Anthemis nobilis, Matricaria chamomilla, Anthemis nobilis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Cichorium intybus, Cinnamomum spp., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus, Salvia sclarea, Trifolium pratense, Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Coriandrium sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Taraxacum officinale, Sambucus nigra, Edelweiss, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Arabidopsis spp., Zingiber officinale, Citrus grandis, Psidium guajava, Humulus lupus, Marrubium vulgare, Monarda punctata, Hyssopus officinals, Jasminum officinale, Jasminum grandiflorum, Juniperus spp. Juniperus comunis, Eucaliptus officinalis, Cola acuminata, Laurus nobilis, Lavandula spp. Lavandula hybrida, Taxus baccata, Citrus medica limonum, Myristica fragans, Marjorana hortensis, Thymus spp., Thymus officinalis, Thymus mastichina, Ilex paraguarensis, Chamomilla recutita, Saccharum officinarum, Myristica fragans, Allium cepa, Citrus aurantium dulcis, Carum petroselinum, Mentha pulegium, Mentha piperita, Pimenta officinalis, Chimaphila umbellate, Punica granatum, Pelargonium spp., Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Salvia app., Salvia officinalis, Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, Satureia hortensis, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, Tamarindus indica, Citrus reticulata, Artemisia dracunculus, Thea sinensis, Thymus vulgaris, Polianthes tuberosa, Curcuma longa, Prunus serotina, Thymus serpillum, Satureja Montana, Cananga odorata, Curcuma zedoaria, Plantago major, Adansonia digitata, Ananas comosus, Artocarpus altilis, Carica papaya, Lycopersicon esculentum, Cephalophus spp., Vaccinium myrtillus, Thymus aragonensis, Thymus spp., Citrus aurantiifolia, Citrus paradisi, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita spp., Vitis spp., Vitis vinifera, Mangifera indica, Lamiaceae, Coleus ssp., Hedeoma ssp., Hyptis ssp., Leonurus spp., Leucas ssp., Lycopus, ssp., Marrubium spp., Mentha spp., Monarda spp., Perilla spp., Prunella spp., Salvia spp., Stachys spp., Teucrium spp., Thymus spp., Cannabis spp., Digitalis lanata, Adonis vernalis, Aesculus hippocastanum, Frazinus rhychophylla, Agrimonia supatoria, Rauvolfia sepentina, Andrographis paniculata, Areca catechu, Atropa belladonna, Berberis vulgaris, Ardisia japonica, Betula alba, Ananas comosus, Camellia sinensis, Cinnamomum camphora, Camptotheca acuminata, Potentilla fragarioides, Erythroxylum coca, Papaver somniferum, Colchicum autumnale, Claviceps purpurea, Digitalis purpurea, Digitalis lanata, Glaucium flavum, Papaver somniferum, Gossypium spp., Hyoscyamus niger, Camptotheca acuminata, Piper methysticum, Lobelia inflata, Crotalaria sessiliflora, Nicotiana tabacum, Physostigma venenosum, Ephedra sinica, Cinchona ledgeriana, Rhododendron molle, Datura spp., Taxus brevifolia, Strychnos nux-vomica, Stevia rebaudiana, Theobroma cacao, Valeriana officinalis, Pausinystalia yohimbe, Ephedra spp. Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrastis Canadensis, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla erectra, Ledum palustre, Salvia officinalis, Chamomilla recutita, Arctostaphylos uva, Eucommia ulmoides, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Diplazium esculentum, Manihot utillissima, Sauropous androgynus, Terminalia arjuna, Iberis amara, Crataegus spp., Arbutus unedo, Cynara scolymus, Amaranthus caudatus, Alchornea laxiflora, Alpinia officinarum, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Crataegus monogyna, Taxus yunnanensis, Bacopa monniera, Cistus albidus, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Centella asiatica, Urtica dioica, Agrocybe aegerita, Crataegus laevigata, Satureja hortensis, Crocus sativus, Coccinia indica, Brugia malayi, Rubus spp., Silybum marianum, Cannabis spp., Cannabis sativa, Hypericum perforatum, Rhus coriaria, Olea europaea, Cyclopia intermedia, Ginkgo biloba, Lentinus lepideus, Pseudomonas putida, Sargassum micracanthum, Pinus radiata, Pinus sp., Phaseoulus mungo, Cicer arietinum, Vigna sinensis, Phaseolus aureus, Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Vicia faba, Dolichos biflorus, Phaseolus lunatus, Phaseolus aconitifolius, Pisum sativum, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Arachis hypoagea, Brassica spp., Brassica campestris, Brassica napus, Valeriana officinalis, Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea pallida, Echinacea angustifolia, Glcyrrhiza glabra, Seronea repens, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Tancetum parthenuum, Tancetum parthenuum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, cereals, seed fruits, silvestre bays, leguminosae, green tea, black tea, microorganisms able to produce long-chained unsaturated fatty acids, Lactobacillus casei., L. acidophillus, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. gasseri, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. crispatus, L. bulgaricus, L. fermentum, L. reuteri, Bifidobacterium infantis, B. bifidum, Streptococcus termophilus, S. bovis, Enterococcus durans, E. faecalis, E. Gallinarum, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium freudenreicheii, and genetically modified bacteria or fungi or yeasts having inserted genes of probiotic bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromices marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra, Sporobolomyces puniceus, Aureobasidium pullulans, Leucosporidium scotti.


     
    24. Microcapsules according to claim 19 characterized in that the microcapsules contain at least one of the biologically active materials selected from (A) and/or (B) in all their stereochemical and isomeric variations:

    Compounds (A)

    wherein,

    R1 is an omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid esterified

    R2 is an omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid esterified

    Compounds (B)

    wherein,

    R3 is an omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid esterified

    R4 is an omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acid esterified.


     
    25. Microcapsules according to claim 19 characterized in that they contain at least one unsaturated long-chain fatty acid of at least six carbon atoms, in any isomeric and/or stereochemical configuration, as well as any esters, ethers, glycerides, phospholipids, and sphingolipids derivatives thereof.
     
    26. Microcapsules according to claim 19 characterized in that they contain at least one compound selected from the acids: arachidonic, steradionic, eicosapentenoic, docosahexenoic, docosapentenoic, linoleic, conjugated linoleic, linolenic, gamma-linolenic, alphalinoleic, dihomogamma-linolenic, arachidonic, oleic acid; in any isomeric and/or stereochemical configuration, as well as any esters, ethers, glycerides, phospholipids, sphingolipids' derivatives thereof.
     
    27. Microcapsules according to claim 19 characterized in that they contain a combination of compounds selected from: omega-3, omega-6, omega-9 fatty acids and cerebrosides.
     
    28. Microcapsules according to claim 19 characterized in that they release the biologically active material(s) by at least a factor belonging to the group: pH, temperature, ionic force, osmosis, volatilization or presence of chemicals or enzymes that dissolve the microcapsules' wall.
     
    29. Microcapsules according to claim 19 for use in foodstuffs for humans.
     
    30. Microcapsules according to claim 19 for use in feedstuffs for animals.
     
    31. Microcapsules according to claim 19 for use in feedstuffs for cattle, aviculture, fisheries and pets.
     
    32. Microcapsules according to claim 19 for use in the production of a dry formulation of microcapsules.
     
    33. Microcapsules according to claim 19 for use in human foodstuffs or animal feedstuffs.
     
    34. Microcapsules according to claim 19 for use in cereals , muesli, pastry shop, dairy products, nutritional supplements, sugars, chocolates, sweets, nougats, marzipans, sweet, dietary foods and foods for diabetics, oils, eggs, vegetables, fruits, tubers, eatable shafts, snacks, appetizers, eatable roots including licorice, bay and wild fruits, dry fruits, meats, sausages, fish, shellfish and crustaceans, alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, carbonated or non-carbonated, juices, syrups, nectars, spices, condiments, pre-cooked foods, preprocessed foods , frozen mass of bread, pizzas, honey.
     
    35. Process of microencapsulation according to claims 1 to 18 characterized in that the bio- ' logically active material(s) is(are) selected according any of those mentioned in the preceding claims.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Kontinuierliches Mehrfach-Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren für biologisch aktive Materialien mithilfe einer In-situ-Grenzflächenpolymerisation, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren unter kontinuierlicher Agitation durchgeführt wird und die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

    a) in einem ersten Schritt wird eine Wasserphase in eine Ölphase emulgiert; wobei

    a.1. sich in der Wasserphase ein Polymerisationsinitiator befindet,

    a.2. sich in der Öl- oder in der Wasserphase ein Emulgator befindet;

    a.3. sich in der Öl- und/oder in der Wasserphase mindestens ein biologisch aktiver Inhaltsstoff befindet;

    (b) in einem zweiten Schritt wird eine wässrige Lösung oder Dispersion, die mindestens ein Hydrokolloid enthält, zu der Emulsion gegeben, wodurch eine Phasenumkehrung stattfindet und die Polymerisierung und Vernetzung des polymerisierbaren Hydrokolloids bzw. der polymerisierbaren Hydrokolloide auf den Wasser-in-Öl-Tröpfchen herbeigeführt werden;

    (c) in einem dritten Schritt wird eine wässrige Lösung oder Dispersion zugegeben, die mindestens ein schützendes Kolloid enthält, das auf der Oberfläche der Wasser-in-Öl-Tröpfchen abgelagert zu werden beginnt und zu polymerisieren und sich mit sich selbst und dem Hydrokolloid zu vernetzen;

    (d) in einem vierten Schritt wird ein oberflächenaktives Mittel zu einer wässrigen Lösung oder Dispersion zugegeben, um eine Reduzierung der Größe der Wasser-in-Öl-Tröpfchen zu ermöglichen;

    (e) in einem fünften Schritt werden während des Verfahrens der Größenreduzierung die partiell geformten Mikrokapseln deagglomeriert und reagglomeriert, wodurch es schließlich zu einem Einschluss von Tropfen in größeren Tropfen kommt;

    (f) wenn eine ausreichend lange Zeit verstrichen ist, damit die Öl- und/oder Wasser-in-Öl-Tropfen mit mindestens einem Hydrokolloid und mindestens einem schützenden Kolloid bedeckt sind, wird die Temperatur erhöht, um die Wand der gebildeten, in Wasser suspendierten Mikrokapseln bzw. Mehrfach-Mikrokapseln zu verstärken.


     
    2. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es unter reduziertem Druck durchgeführt wird.
     
    3. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es im Beisein eines inerten Gases durchgeführt wird.
     
    4. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Emulgierungen und Partikelgrößenreduzierung bei einer Agitationsgeschwindigkeit von 3.000 bis 25.000 U/Min. durchgeführt werden.
     
    5. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Größe der Tröpfchen der Emulsion im ersten Schritt 50 bis 500 µm beträgt.
     
    6. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Größe der Tröpfchen der Emulsion im ersten Schritt 70 bis 200 µm beträgt.
     
    7. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Hydrokolloid im zweiten Schritt und das schützende Kolloid bzw. die schützenden Kolloide im dritten Schritt zusammen in der Form einer wässrigen Lösung oder Dispersion zugegeben werden.
     
    8. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das schützende Kolloid bzw. die schützenden Kolloide zu der chemischen Gruppe der Hydrokolloide gehören.
     
    9. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Ölphase aus einem hydrogenierten Öl oder einem Wachs oder Honig zusammengesetzt ist.
     
    10. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der im vierten Schritt verwendete Emulgator einen HLB-Wert von 12 bis 14 aufweist.
     
    11. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es sich bei dem schützenden Kolloid um einen Xanthangummi handelt.
     
    12. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Hydrokolloide im zweiten Schritt und das schützende Kolloid bzw. die schützenden Kolloide im dritten Schritt aus folgender Gruppe ausgewählt sind: Chitosanen, Stärke, Dextrinen, Cyclodextrinen, Cellulosen, Pektinen, Agar, Alginaten, Carrageenen, Gelatinen, Saatgummis, Xantangummi, Guargummi, Akaziengummi, Gummi arabicum, Caraya-Gummi, Cerationia siliqua-Gummi, Psyllium-Gummi, Gelatine, Traganthen, Lignin, Lignosulfonaten, Saponinen, Galactomananen, Arabanogalactamen, Betaglucanen, Inulin; in all ihren isomerischen und stereochemischen Formen, in all ihren Varianten in Bezug auf Menge und Anteil von Monomeren oder Oligomeren, die das Hydrokolloid ausmachen, in natürlicher oder derivatisierter Form, als Salze von Metallkationen oder nitrogenierte, geschwefelte oder phosphorylierte Derivate, Albumin, Polycarboxylaten, Poly-L-Lactid.
     
    13. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die im zweiten Schritt verwendeten Hydrokolloide vom Alginattyp sind.
     
    14. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es sich bei dem schützenden Kolloid um Gummi arabicum handelt.
     
    15. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Wasserphasen höchstens 40 % eines Alkohols mit einer Molekülmasse vom bis zum 144-Fachen der Atommasse enthalten.
     
    16. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Ölphase aus Fischöl mit Omega-3-Fettsäuren oder aus einem mit Arachidonsäure angereicherten Öl oder aus konjugierten Linolsäuren besteht.
     
    17. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1 bis 16, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass am Ende des Verfahrens ein zusätzlicher Trocknungsschritt durchgeführt wird, um getrocknete Mikrokapseln in Form eines Pulvers zu erhalten.
     
    18. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 17, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass am Ende des Verfahrens die resultierende wässrige Suspension von Mikrokapseln gefriergetrocknet oder sprühgetrocknet wird.
     
    19. Mikrokapseln, die mit einem In-situ-Mikroeinkapselungsgrenzflächenverfahren hergestellt werden, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass:

    (a) sich in den Mikrokapseln eine Wasser-in-Öl-Phase befindet,

    (b) die Wand der Mikrokapseln von mindestens zwei polymerisierten Hydrokolloiden gebildet ist,

    (c) der Inhalt der Mikrokapseln aus einer Emulsion von Wasser in Öl und/oder aus kleinere Mikrokapseln besteht, die Mehrfach-Mikrokapseln mit einer bis zu 5-fachen Mehrfach-Mikroverkapselung bilden,

    (d) in mindestens der Ölphase und/oder in der Wasserphase aktives Material vorhanden ist,

    (e) die durchschnittliche Partikelgröße der Mikrokapseln 1 bis 10 µm beträgt.


     
    20. Wässrige Suspension von Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie mit dem Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 bis 16 hergestellt werden.
     
    21. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie ungesättigte Fettsäuren mit einer Kohlenstoffkette aus mindestens sechs Kohlenstoffatomen enthalten, die aus den folgenden Gruppen natürlicher Quellen oder aus genetisch veränderten Organismen der folgenden natürlichen Quellen stammen:

    (a) aus Pflanzen stammend: Boraginaceae, Borago spp., Borago officinalis; Linaceae, Linum usitatissimum, Linum arvense, Linum sativum; Onograceae, Oenothera biennis; Grossulariaceae, Ribes nigrum, Zea mais, Gossypium hirsutum, Carthamus tinctorius, Glycine max.

    (b) aus Algen stammend: Graciliariceae, Gracilaria spp; Gigartinaceae, Iridaea spp.; Kallymeniaceae, Callopyllis variegata; Durvillaceae, Durvillaea antartica; Solieriaceae, Euchema cottoni; Gelidiaceae, Gelidium spp; Lossoniaceae, Lesonia nigrescens; Gigantinaceae, Gigartina spp.; Lessoniaceae, Macrocystis spp.; Bangiaceae, Porphyra spp.; Crypthecodinium spp.

    (c) aus Tieren stammend: Engaulidae, Lycengraulis olidus; Clupeidae, Sardina pilchardus; Scomberesocidae, Scomberesox saurus scombroides; Berycidae, Beryx splendens; Engraulidae, Engraulis ringens; Ophichthyidae, Ophichthus spp.; Serranidae, Hemilutjanus macrophthalmus; Scombridae, Thunnus spp., Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus obesus; Sciaenidae, Cynoscion analis; Carcharhinidae, Prionace glauca; Normanichthyidae, Normanichthys crockeri; Percichthyidae, Polyprion oxygeneios; Nototheniidae, Dissostichus eleginoides; Apogonidae, Epigonus crassicaudus; Branchiostegidae, Prolatilus jugularis; Scombridae, Thunnus spp., Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus obesus, Sarda spp., Sarda chiliensis, Scomber japonicus peruanus, Sciaenidae, Cynoscion analis, Carcharhinidae, Normanichthyidae, Normanichthys crockeri; Percichthyidae, Polyprion oxygeneios; Apogonidae, Epigonus crassicaudus; Branchiostegidae, Prolatilus jugularis; Cheilodactylidae, Cheilodactylus gayi; Gadidae, Salilota australis; Pomadasyidae; Scorpaenidae; Serranidae; Cyprinidae; Monacanthidae; Centrolophidae; Ophidiidae; Scorpaenidae; Coryphaenidae; Channichthydae; Sciaenidae; Aplodactylidae; Carangidae, Trachurus symetricus murphyi; Bothidae, Paralichthys microps; Mugilidae; Clupeidae; Priacathidae; Merlucciidae, Merluccius gayi gayi, Merluccius australis; Macruronidae, Macruronus magellanicus; Gadidae, Micromesistius australis; Girellidae; Trachichthyidae; Carangidae; Kyphosidae; Callorhynchidae; Labridae; Macrouridae; Atherinidae; Gobiesocidae; Alopiidae; Galaxiidae; Rajidae; Bramidae; Carangidae; Nototheniidae; Scianidae; Mugiloididae; Salmonidae, Sa/mo spp., Sa/mo salar, Oncorhynchus spp., Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; Clupeidae, Sardinops spp., Sardinops sagax, Clupea bentincki; Pomadasyidae; Gempylidae; Lamnidae, Isurus spp., Isurus oxyrinchus; Triakidae; Clinidae; Scophthalmidae, Labridae, atlantische Makrele, Engraulis encrasicholus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sarda sarda, Sardina pilchardus, Brevoortia tyrannus, Brevoortia patronus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Auxis thazard, Scomber scombrus, Scomber japonicus, Alosa aestivalis, Clupea harengus, Etrumeus teres, Argentina silus, Ictalurus punctatus.

    (d) aus Mikroorganismen stammend: Saccharomices cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Schizochytrium spp., Thraustochytrium aureum, Thraustochytrium roseum, Thraustochytrium striatum, Mortiriella spp., Phytium spp., Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sydowi, Fusarium spp., Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum.


     
    22. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie mindestens ein biologisch aktives Material enthalten, das aus den folgenden Gruppen ausgewählt ist:

    (a) Flavonoiden, Anthocyanidinen, Proanthocyanidinen, Oligomerproanthocyanidin, Isoflavonen, Chalconen, Catechin, Epicatechin, Epicatechingallat, Epigallocatechin, Epigallocatechingallat, Eriocitrin, Narirutin, Rutin, Naringin, Myricitrin, Hesperidin, Myricetin, Eriodictyol, Fisetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Luteolin, Hesperitin, Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin, Apigenin, Rhamnetin, Galangin, Quercitrin, Quercetin, Diosmetin, Taxifolin, Galandin, Biochanin A, Genistein, Eriodictyol, Chrysin, Hydroxytyrosol, Oleuropein, Glabridin, Licochalcon, Daidzein, Matairesinol, Secoisolariciresinol, Enterodiol, Enterolacton, Equol, Desmethylangolensin, Luteoferol, Luteolinidin, Apiferol, Apigenidin, Leucocyanidin, Taxifolin, Pelargonidin;

    (b) Phenolsäuren allgemein und Estern, Glykosiden, Rutinosiden und Aminen davon, Gallus-, Sinapin-, Syringin-, Kaffee-, Chlorogen-, Ferula-, Protocatechu-, Vanillin-, Hydroxyzimt- und Coumarinsäuren, Guaiacol, Cresol, 4-Ethylphenol, 4-Vinylguaicol, Eugenol, Tanninen, Ellagiotanninen, Gallotanninen;

    (c) strukturell kombinierten Amiden, umfassend Hydroxyzimtsäuren und Anthranilsäuren (Avenanthramide), Avenasterol, langkettigen Fettsäuren oder Alkoholen, Indoleaminen, Melatonin, Inulin, Glutathion;

    (d) Terpenoiden, Monoterpeneb, Diterpenen, Sesquiterpenen, Triterpenen, Tetraterpenen, Carotinoiden, Alpha-Carotin, Phytoen, Cycloartenol, Beta-Carotin, Ionon, Zeaxanthin, Capsanthin, Astaxanthin, Canthaxantin, Violaxanthin, Mutatoxanthin, Luteoxanthin, Auroxanthin, Neoxanthin, Apocarotinal, Xanthophyllen;

    (e) Butylhydroxyanisol, 2,6-di-tert-Butylhydroxytolol, tert-Butylhydrochinon, 2,6-di-tert-Butylhydrochinon, 2,6-di-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxymethylphenol, 2,4,5-Trihydroxibutyrophenon, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- und Delta-Tocopherolen, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- und Delta-Tocotrienolen, Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- und Delta-Tocochromanolen;

    (f) Alpha-Liponsäure, Coenzym Q-10, Vitaminen, Aminosäuren, L-Arginin, Cystin, Cystein, Oligopeptiden, Peptiden, Carnosin, Carnitin, Glutathion, Enzymen, Enzymhemmer, Phenolase- oder Oxygenase- oder Lipoxygenase- oder Lipasehemmern;

    (g) Mineralstoffen und Oligoelementen, Selen, Zink, Magnesium.


     
    23. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Mikrokapseln mindestens eine biologische Verbindung enthalten, die aus der folgenden Organismengruppe stammt:

    Medicago sativa, Pimenal officinalis, Hibiscus abelmoschus, Angelica archangelica, Galipea officinalis, Pimpinella anisum, Ferula foetida, Ferula asafetida, Melissa officinalis, Myroxylon pereirae, Ocimum basilicum, Pimenta acris, Citrus aurantium bergamia, Prunus amygdalus, Citrus aurantium, Citrus aurantium amara, Piper nigrum, Prunus spinosa, Aniba rosaeodora, Camelia oleifera, Camelia sinensis, Carum carvi, Elettaria cardamomum, Ceratonia siliqua, Daucus carota, Dacus carota sativa, Cascarilla, Apium graveolens, Anthemis nobilis, Matricaria chamomilla, Anthemis nobilis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Cichorium intybus, Cinnamomum spp., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus, Salvia sclarea, Trifolium pratense, Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Coriandrium sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Taraxacum officinale, Sambucus nigra, Edelweiss, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Arabidopsis spp., Zingiber officinale, Citrus grandis, Psidium guajava, Humulus lupus, Marrubium vulgare, Monarda punctata, Hyssopus officinals, Jasminum officinale, Jasminum grandiflorum, Juniperus spp. Juniperus comunis, Eucaliptus officinalis, Cola acuminata, Laurus nobilis, Lavandula spp. Lavandula hybrida, Taxus baccata, Citrus medica limonum, Myristica fragans, Marjorana hortensis, Thymus spp., Thymus officinalis, Thymus mastichina, Ilex paraguarensis, Chamomilla recutita, Saccharum officinarum, Myristica fragans, Allium cepa, Citrus aurantium dulcis, Carum petroselinum, Mentha pulegium, Mentha piperita, Pimenta officinalis, Chimaphila umbellate, Punica granatum, Pelargonium spp., Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Salvia app., Salvia officinalis, Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, Satureia hortensis, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, Tamarindus indica, Citrus reticulata, Artemisia dracunculus, Thea sinensis, Thymus vulgaris, Polianthes tuberosa, Curcuma longa, Prunus serotina, Thymus serpillum, Satureja montana, Cananga odorata, Curcuma zedoaria, Plantago major, Adansonia digitata, Ananas comosus, Artocarpus altilis, Carica papaya, Lycopersicon esculentum, Cephalophus spp., Vaccinium myrtillus, Thymus aragonensis, Thymus spp., Citrus aurantiifolia, Citrus paradisi, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita spp., Vitis spp., Vitis vinifera, Mangifera indica, Lamiaceae, Coleus ssp., Hedeoma ssp., Hyptis ssp., Leonurus spp., Leucas ssp., Lycopus, ssp., Marrubium spp., Mentha spp., Monarda spp., Perilla spp., Prunella spp., Salvia spp., Stachys spp., Teucrium spp., Thymus spp., Cannabis spp., Digitalis lanata, Adonis vernalis, Aesculus hippocastanum, Frazinus rhychophylla, Agrimonia supatoria, Rauvolfia sepentina, Andrographis paniculata, Areca catechu, Atropa belladonna, Berberis vulgaris, Ardisia japonica, Betula alba, Ananas comosus, Camellia sinensis, Cinnamomum camphora, Camptotheca acuminata, Potentilla fragarioides, Erythroxylum coca, Papaver somniferum, Colchicum autumnale, Claviceps purpurea, Digitalis purpurea, Digitalis lanata, Glaucium flavum, Papaver somniferum, Gossypium spp., Hyoscyamus niger, Camptotheca acuminata, Piper methysticum, Lobelia inflata, Crotalaria sessiliflora, Nicotiana tabacum, Physostigma venenosum, Ephedra sinica, Cinchona ledgeriana, Rhododendron molle, Datura spp., Taxus brevifolia, Strychnos nux-vomica, Stevia rebaudiana, Theobroma cacao, Valeriana officinalis, Pausinystalia yohimbe, Ephedra spp. Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrastis Canadensis, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla erectra, Ledum palustre, Salvia officinalis, Chamomilla recutita, Arctostaphylos uva, Eucommia ulmoides, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Diplazium esculentum, Manihot utillissima, Sauropous androgynus, Terminalia arjuna, Iberis amara, Crataegus spp., Arbutus unedo, Cynara scolymus, Amaranthus caudatus, Alchornea laxiflora, Alpinia officinarum, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Crataegus monogyna, Taxus yunnanensis, Bacopa monniera, Cistus albidus, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Centella asiatica, Urtica dioica, Agrocybe aegerita, Crataegus laevigata, Satureja hortensis, Crocus sativus, Coccinia indica, Brugia malayi, Rubus spp., Silybum marianum, Cannabis spp., Cannabis sativa, Hypericum perforatum, Rhus coriaria, Olea europaea, Cyclopia intermedia, Ginkgo biloba, Lentinus lepideus, Pseudomonas putida, Sargassum micracanthum, Pinus radiata, Pinus sp., Phaseoulus mungo, Cicer arietinum, Vigna sinensis, Phaseolus aureus, Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Vicia faba, Dolichos biflorus, Phaseolus lunatus, Phaseolus aconitifolius, Pisum sativum, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Arachis hypoagea, Brassica spp., Brassica campestris, Brassica napus, Valeriana officinalis, Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea pallida, Echinacea angustifolia, Glcyrrhiza glabra, Seronea repens, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Tancetum parthenuum, Tancetum parthenuum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Zerealien, Saatfrüchten, Wildbeeren, Leguminosen, Grüntee, Schwarztee, Mikroorganismen, die langkettige ungesättigte Fettsäuren herstellen können, Lactobacillus casei., L. acidophillus, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. gasseri, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. crispatus, L. bulgaricus, L. fermentum, L. reuteri, Bifidobacterium infantis, B. bifidum, Streptococcus termophilus, S. bovis, Enterococcus durans, E. faecalis, E. Gallinarum, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium freudenreicheii und genetisch veränderten Bakterien oder Pilzen oder Hefen, denen Gene probiotischer Bakterien eingesetzt wurden, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromices marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra, Sporobolomyces puniceus, Aureobasidium pullulans, Leucosporidium scotti.


     
    24. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Mikrokapseln mindestens eines der biologisch aktiven Materialien enthalten, die aus (A) und/oder (B) ausgewählt sind, in all deren stereochemischen und isomeren Varianten;

    Verbindungen (A),

    wobei,

    R1 für eine veresterte Omega-3- oder Omega-6-Fettsäure steht,

    R2 für eine veresterte Omega-3- oder Omega-6-Fettsäure steht,

    Verbindungen (B),

    wobei,

    R3 für eine veresterte Omega-3- oder Omega-6-Fettsäure steht,

    R4 für eine veresterte Omega-3- oder Omega-6-Fettsäure steht,


     
    25. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie mindestens eine ungesättigte langkettige Fettsäure aus mindestens sechs Kohlenstoffatomen in jeglicher isomerer und/oder stereochemischer Konfiguration sowie beliebige Ester-, Ether-, Glyzerid-, Phospholipid- und Sphingolipidderivate davon enthalten.
     
    26. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie mindestens eine Verbindung, die aus den Säuren Arachidon-, Stearidon- Eicosapentaen-, Docosahexaen-, Docosapentaen-, Linol-, konjugierte Linol-, Linolen-, Gamma-Linolen-, Alpha-Linolen-, Dihomogamma-Linolen-, Arachidon-, Ölsäure in jeglicher isomerer und/oder stereochemischer Konfiguration ausgewählt ist, sowie beliebige Ester-, Ether-, Glyzerid-, Phospholipid-, Sphingolipidderivate davon enthalten.
     
    27. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie eine Kombination von Verbindungen ausgewählt aus Omega-3-, Omega-6-, Omega-9-Fettsäuren und Cerebrosiden enthalten.
     
    28. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie das biologisch aktive Material bzw. die biologisch aktiven Materialien durch mindestens einen Faktor freisetzen, der zu der folgenden Gruppe gehört: pH-Wert, Temperatur, Ionenstärke, Osmose, Verflüchtigung oder Vorhandensein von Chemikalien oder Enzymen, welche die Wand der Mikrokapseln auflösen.
     
    29. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19 zur Verwendung in Lebensmitteln für Menschen.
     
    30. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19 zur Verwendung in Futtermitteln für Tiere.
     
    31. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19 zur Verwendung in Futtermitteln für Rinder, die Vogelzucht, die Fischerei und für Haustiere.
     
    32. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19 für die Verwendung bei der Herstellung einer Trockenformulierung von Mikrokapseln.
     
    33. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19 zur Verwendung in Lebensmitteln für den Menschen oder in Futtermitteln für Tiere.
     
    34. Mikrokapseln nach Anspruch 19 zur Verwendung in Zerealien, Müsli, Konditoreien, Milchprodukten, Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln, Zuckern, Schokoladen, Süßigkeiten, Nugaten, Marzipanen, Süßigkeiten, diätetischen Lebensmitteln und Lebensmitteln für Diabetiker, Ölen, Eiern, Gemüsen, Früchten, Knollen, essbaren Stängeln, Snacks, Vorspeisen, essbaren Wurzeln, einschließlich Lakritze, Beerenfrüchte und Wildfrüchten, Trockenfrüchten, Fleisch, Würsten, Fisch, Schalen- und Krustentieren, alkoholischen und alkoholfreien Getränken, mit oder ohne Kohlensäure, Säften, Sirupen, Nektaren, Gewürzen, Würzmitteln, vorgegarten Lebensmitteln, bereits verarbeiteten Lebensmitteln, gefrorenen Brotlaiben, Pizzen, Honig.
     
    35. Mikroeinkapselungsverfahren nach Anspruch 1 bis 18, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das biologisch aktive Material bzw. die biologisch aktiven Materialien nach einem der in den vorstehenden Ansprüchen genannten ausgewählt wird bzw. werden.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé continu de multi-microencapsulation de principes biologiquement actifs au moyen d'une polymérisation interfaciale in situ, caractérisé en ce que le procédé est réalisé sous agitation continue et comprend les étapes suivantes :

    (a) dans une première étape, une phase aqueuse est émulsifiée dans une phase huileuse ; où

    a.1. un initiateur de polymérisation est présent dans la phase aqueuse,

    a.2. un émulsifiant est présent dans l'huile ou dans la phase aqueuse,

    a.3. au moins un principe biologiquement actif est présent dans l'huile et/ou dans la phase aqueuse ;

    (b) dans une deuxième étape, une solution ou une dispersion dans de l'eau qui contient au moins un hydrocolloïde est ajoutée à l'émulsion, produisant ainsi une inversion de phase et la polymérisation et la réticulation du ou des hydrocolloïdes polymérisables sur les gouttelettes d'eau dans l'huile ;

    (c) dans une troisième étape, une solution ou une dispersion dans de l'eau est ajoutée qui contient au moins un colloïde protecteur qui commence à se déposer sur la surface des gouttelettes d'eau dans l'huile, et à se polymériser et à se réticuler avec lui-même et l'hydrocolloïde ;

    (d) dans une quatrième étape, un tensioactif est ajouté à une solution ou à une dispersion dans de l'eau afin de permettre une réduction de la taille des gouttelettes d'eau dans l'huile ;

    (e) dans une cinquième étape, pendant le procédé de réduction de taille, les microcapsules partiellement formées sont désagglomérées et réagglomérées, avec éventuellement l'emprisonnement de gouttes à l'intérieur de gouttes plus grosses ;

    (f) après une durée suffisamment longue afin que les gouttes d'huile et/ou d'eau dans l'huile soient recouvertes par au moins un hydrocolloïde et au moins un colloïde protecteur, la température est augmentée afin de renforcer la paroi des microcapsules formées ou des multi-microcapcules suspendues dans l'eau.


     
    2. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'il est réalisé sous pression réduite.
     
    3. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'il est réalisé en présence d'un gaz inerte.
     
    4. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les émulsions et la réduction de la taille des particules sont réalisées à une vitesse d'agitation de 3000 à 25 000 tr/min.
     
    5. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la taille des gouttelettes de l'émulsion de la première étape est de 50 à 500 µm.
     
    6. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 5, caractérisé en ce que la taille des gouttelettes de l'émulsion de la première étape est de 70 à 200 µm.
     
    7. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'hydrocolloïde de la deuxième étape et le ou les colloïdes protecteurs de la troisième étape sont ajoutés ensemble sous la forme d'une solution ou d'une dispersion aqueuse.
     
    8. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le ou les colloïdes protecteurs appartiennent au groupe chimique des hydrocolloïdes.
     
    9. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la phase huileuse comprend une huile hydrogénée ou une cire ou du miel.
     
    10. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'émulsifiant utilisé dans la quatrième étape a un HLB de 12 à 14.
     
    11. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le colloïde protecteur est une gomme xanthane.
     
    12. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les hydrocolloïdes de la deuxième étape et le ou les colloïdes protecteurs de la troisième étape sont choisis dans le groupe des : chitosanes, amidon, dextrines, cyclodextrines, celluloses, pectines, gélose, alginates, carraghénanes, gélatines, gommes de graine, gomme xanthane, gomme de guar, gomme d'acacia, gomme arabique, gomme de Caraya, gomme de Cerationia siliqua, gomme de Psyllium, gélatine, adragantes, lignine, lignosulfonates, saponines, galactomannanes, arabanogalactames, bêta-glucanes, inuline ; sous toutes leurs formes isomères et stéréochimiques, sous toutes leurs variations concernant la quantité et la proportion de monomères ou d'oligomères constituant l'hydrocolloïde, sous forme naturelle ou dérivée, sous forme de sels de cations métalliques ou de dérivés azotés, soufrés ou phosphorés, d'albumine, de polycarboxylates, de poli-L-lactide.
     
    13. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les hydrocolloïdes utilisés dans la deuxième étape sont du type des alginates.
     
    14. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le colloïde protecteur est la gomme arabique.
     
    15. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les phases aqueuses contiennent au plus 40 % d'un alcool de poids moléculaire allant jusqu'à 144 unités de masse atomique.
     
    16. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la phase huile est constituée par de l'huile de poisson avec des acides gras oméga-3 ou par une huile enrichie en acide arachidonique ou par des acides linoléiques conjugués.
     
    17. Procédé de microencapsulation selon les revendications 1 à 16, caractérisé en ce qu'une étape de séchage supplémentaire est réalisée à la fin du procédé afin d'obtenir des microcapsules séchées sous la forme d'une poudre.
     
    18. Procédé de microencapsulation selon la revendication 17, caractérisé en ce qu'à la fin du procédé, la suspension de microcapsules dans de l'eau résultante est lyophilisée ou séchée par pulvérisation.
     
    19. Microcapsules produites par un procédé interfacial in situ continu de microencapsulation, caractérisé en ce que :

    (a) il existe une phase eau dans l'huile à l'intérieur des microcapsules,

    (b) la paroi des microcapsules est formée par au moins deux hydrocolloïdes polymérisés,

    (c) le contenu interne des microcapsules se compose d'une émulsion d'eau dans de l'huile et/ou de microcapsules plus petites formant de multi-microcapsules allant jusqu'à 5 degrés de multi-microencapsulation,

    (d) un principe biologiquement actif est présent dans au moins la phase huileuse et/ou dans la phase aqueuse,

    (e) la granulométrie moyenne des microcapsules est de 1 à 10 µm.


     
    20. Suspension dans de l'eau de microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisée en ce qu'elles sont produites par le procédé selon les revendications 1 à 16.
     
    21. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisées en ce qu'elles contiennent des acides gras insaturés ayant une chaîne carbonée d'au moins six atomes de carbone qui proviennent des groupes de sources naturelles suivants ou d'organismes génétiquement modifiés des sources naturelles suivantes :

    (a) d'origine végétale : Boraginaceae, Borago spp., Borago officinalis ; Linaceae, Linum usitatissimum, Linum arvense, Linum sativum; Onograceae, Oenothera biennis ; Grossulariaceae, Ribes nigrum, Zea Mais, Gossypium hirsutum, Carthamus tinctorius, Glycine max.

    (b) d'origine algale : Graciliariceae, Gracilaria spp ; Gigartinaceae, Iridaea spp. ; Kallymeniaceae, Callopyllis variegata ; Durvillaceae, Durvillaea antartica ; Solieriaceae, Euchema cottoni ; Gelidiaceae, Gelidium spp ; Lossoniaceae, Lesonia nigrescens ; Gigantinaceae, Gigartina spp. ; Lessoniaceae, Macrocystis spp. ; Bangiaceae, Porphyra spp. ; Crypthecodinium spp.

    (c) d'origine animale : Engaulidae, Lycengraulis olidus ; Clupeidae, Sardina pilchardus ; Scomberesocidae, Scomberesox saurus scombroides ; Berycidae, Beryx splendens ; Engraulidae, Engraulis ringens ; Ophichthyidae, Ophichthus spp. ; Serranidae, Hemilutjanus macrophthalmus ; Scombridae, Thunnus spp., Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus obesus ; Sciaenidae, Cynoscion analis ; Carcharhinidae, Prionace glauca ; Normanichthyidae, Normanichthys crockeri ; Percichthyidae, Polyprion oxygeneios ; Nototheniidae, Dissostichus eleginoides ; Apogonidae, Epigonus crassicaudus ; Branchiostegidae, Prolatilus jugularis ; Scombridae, Thunnus spp., Thunnus albacares, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus obesus, Sarda spp., Sarda chiliensis, Scomber japonicus peruanus, Sciaenidae, Cynoscion analis, Carcharhinidae, Normanichthyidae, Normanichthys crockeri ; Percichthyidae, Polyprion oxygeneios ; Apogonidae, Epigonus crassicaudus ; Branchiostegidae, Prolatilus jugularis ; Cheilodactylidae, Cheilodactylus gayi ; Gadidae, Salilota australis ; Pomadasyidae ; Scorpaenidae ; Serranidae ; Cyprinidae ; Monacanthidae ; Centrolophidae ; Ophidiidae ; Scorpaenidae ; Coryphaenidae ; Channichthydae ; Sciaenidae ; Aplodactylidae ; Carangidae, Trachurus symetricus murphyi ; Bothidae, Paralichthys microps ; Mugilidae ; Clupeidae ; Priacathidae ; Merlucciidae, Merluccius gayi gayi, Merluccius australis ; Macruronidae, Macruronus magellanicus ; Gadidae, Micromesistius australis ; Girellidae ; Trachichthyidae ; Carangidae ; Kyphosidae ; Callorhynchidae ; Labridae ; Macrouridae ; Atherinidae ; Gobiesocidae ; Alopiidae ; Galaxiidae ; Rajidae ; Bramidae ; Carangidae ; Nototheniidae ; Scianidae ; Mugiloididae ; Salmonidae, Salmo spp., Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus spp., Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ; Clupeidae, Sardinops spp., Sardinops sagax, Clupea bentincki ; Pomadasyidae ; Gempylidae ; Lamnidae, Isurus spp., Isurus oxyrinchus ; Triakidae ; Clinidae ; Scophthalmidae, Labridae, Atlantic mackerel, Engraulis encrasicholus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Sarda sarda, Sardina pilchardus, Brevoortia tyrannus, Brevoortia patronus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Auxis thazard, Scomber scombrus, Scomber japonicus, Alosa aestivalis, Clupea harengus, Etrumeus teres, Argentina silus, Ictalurus punctatus.

    (d) d'origine microbienne : Saccharomices cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Schizochytrium spp., Thraustochytrium aureum, Thraustochytrium roseum, Thraustochytrium striatum, Mortiriella spp., Phytium spp., Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sydowi, Fusarium spp., Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum.


     
    22. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisées en ce qu'elles contiennent au moins un principe biologiquement actif choisi dans les groupes des :

    (a) flavonoïdes, anthocyianidines, pro-anthocyanidines, oligomère-proanthocyanidine, isoflavones, chalcones, catéchine, épihatéchine, gallate d'épicatéchine, épigallocatéchine, gallate d'épigallocatéchine, ériocitrine, narirutine, rutine, naringine, myricitrine, hespéridine, myricétine, ériodictyol, fisétine, quercétine, naringénine, lutéoline, hespéritine, kaempférol, isorhamnétine, apigénine, rhamnétine, galangine, quercitrine, quercétine, diosmétine, taxifoline, galandine, biochanine A, génistéine, ériodictyol, chrysine, hydroxytyrosol, oléuropéine, glabridine, licochalcone, daidzéine, matairesinol, sécoisolariciresinol, entérodiol, entérolactone, équol, desméthylangolensine, lutéoférol, lutéolinidine, apiférol, apigénidine, leucocyanidine, taxifoline, pélargonidine ;

    (b) acides phénoliques en général et esters, glycosides, rutinosides et amines de ceux-ci, acides gallique, sinapique, syringique, caféique, chlorogénique, procaté-chuique, férulique, vanillique, hydroxycinnamique et coumarique, gaïacol, crésol, 4-éthylphénol, 4-vinylguaicol, eugénol, tanins, ellagiotanins, gallotanins ;

    (c) amides structurellement combinés comprenant les acides hydroxycinnamiques et les acides anthraniliques (avénanthramides), avénastérol, acides ou alcools gras à longue chaîne, indolamines, mélatonine, inuline, glutathion ;

    (d) terpénoïdes, monoterpènes, diterpènes, sesquiterpènes, triterpènes, tétraterpènes, caroténoïdes, alfa-carotène, phytoène, cyclo-arténol, bêta-carotène, ionone, zéaxanthine, capsantine, astaxanthine, canthaxanthine, violaxanthine, mutatoxanthine, lutéoxanthine, auroxanthine, néoxanthine, apocarotinal, xanthophylles ;

    (e) butylhydroxyanisol, 2,6-di-tert-butylhydroxytoluène, tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,6-di-tert-butylhydroquinone, 2,6-diterbutyl-4-hydroxyméthylphénol, 2,4,5-trihidroxibutyrophénone, alpha, bêta, gamma et delta tocophérols, alpha, bêta, gamma et delta tocotriénols, alpha, bêta, gamma et delta tocochromanols ;

    (f) acide alpha-lipoïque, coenzime Q-10, vitamines, acides aminés, L-arginine, cistine, cistéine, oligopeptides, peptides, carnosine, carnitine, glutathion, enzymes ; inhibiteurs d'enzymes, inhibiteurs de phénolases ou d'oxygénases ou de lipooxygénases ou de lipases ;

    (g) minéraux et oligoéléments, sélénium, zinc, magnésium.


     
    23. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisées en ce que les microcapsules contiennent au moins un composé biologique provenant du groupe des organismes :

    Medicago sativa, Pimenal officinalis, Hibiscus abelmoschus, Angelica archangelica, Galipea officinalis, Pimpinella anisum, Ferula foetida, Ferula asafetida, Melissa officinalis, Myroxylon pereirae, Ocimum basilicum, Pimenta acris, Citrus aurantium bergamia, Prunus amygdalus, Citrus aurantium, Citrus aurantium amara, Piper nigrum, Prunus spinosa, Aniba rosaeodora, Camelia oleifera, Camelia sinensis, Carum carvi, Elettaria cardamomum, Ceratonia siliqua, Daucus carota, Dacus carota sativa, Cascarilla, Apium graveolens, Anthemis nobilis, Matricaria chamomilla, Anthemis nobilis, Anthriscus cerefolium, Cichorium intybus, Cinnamomum spp., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus, Salvia sclarea, Trifolium pratense, Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Coriandrium sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Taraxacum officinale, Sambucus nigra, Edelweiss, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Arabidopsis spp., Zingiber officinale, Citrus grandis, Psidium guajava, Humulus lupus, Marrubium vulgare, Monarda punctata, Hyssopus officinals, Jasminum officinale, Jasminum grandiflorum, Juniperus spp. Juniperus comunis, Eucaliptus officinalis, Cola acuminata, Laurus nobilis, Lavandula spp. Lavandula hybrida, Taxus baccata, Citrus medica limonum, Myristica fragans, Marjorana hortensis, Thymus spp., Thymus officinalis, Thymus mastichina, Ilex paraguarensis, Chamomilla recutita, Saccharum officinarum, Myristica fragans, Allium cepa, Citrus aurantium dulcis, Carum petroselinum, Mentha pulegium, Mentha piperita, Pimenta officinalis, Chimaphila umbellate, Punica granatum, Pelargonium spp., Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Salvia app., Salvia officinalis, Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, Satureia hortensis, Satureja hortensis, Origanum majorana, Tamarindus indica, Citrus reticulata, Artemisia dracunculus, Thea sinensis, Thymus vulgaris, Polianthes tuberosa, Curcuma longa, Prunus serotina, Thymus serpillum, Satureja Montana, Cananga odorata, Curcuma zedoaria, Plantago major, Adansonia digitata, Ananas comosus, Artocarpus altilis, Carica papaya, Lycopersicon esculentum, Cephalophus spp., Vaccinium myrtillus, Thymus aragonensis, Thymus spp., Citrus aurantiifolia, Citrus paradisi, Cucumis melo, Cucurbita spp., Vitis spp., Vitis vinifera, Mangifera indica, Lamiaceae, Coleus ssp., Hedeoma ssp., Hyptis ssp., Leonurus spp., Leucas ssp., Lycopus, ssp., Marrubium spp., Mentha spp., Monarda spp., Perilla spp., Prunella spp., Salvia spp., Stachys spp., Teucrium spp., Thymus spp., Cannabis spp., Digitalis lanata, Adonis vernalis, Aesculus hippocastanum, Frazinus rhychophylla, Agrimonia supatoria, Rauvolfia sepentina, Andrographis paniculata, Areca catechu, Atropa belladonna, Berberis vulgaris, Ardisia japonica, Betula alba, Ananas comosus, Camellia sinensis, Cinnamomum camphora, Camptotheca acuminata, Potentilla fragarioides, Erythroxylum coca, Papaver somniferum, Colchicum autumnale, Claviceps purpurea, Digitalis purpurea, Digitalis lanata, Glaucium flavum, Papaver somniferum, Gossypium spp., Hyoscyamus niger, Camptotheca acuminata, Piper methysticum, Lobelia inflata, Crotalaria sessiliflora, Nicotiana tabacum, Physostigma venenosum, Ephedra sinica, Cinchona ledgeriana, Rhododendron molle, Datura spp., Taxus brevifolia, Strychnos nux-vomica, Stevia rebaudiana, Theobroma cacao, Valeriana officinalis, Pausinystalia yohimbe, Ephedra spp. Crataegus oxyacantha, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrastis Canadensis, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla erectra, Ledum palustre, Salvia officinalis, Chamomilla recutita, Arctostaphylos uva, Eucommia ulmoides, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Diplazium esculentum, Manihot utillissima, Sauropous androgynus, Terminalia arjuna, Iberis amara, Crataegus spp., Arbutus unedo, Cynara scolymus, Amaranthus caudatus, Alchornea laxiflora, Alpinia officinarum, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Crataegus monogyna, Taxus yunnanensis, Bacopa monniera, Cistus albidus, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Bixa orellana, Centella asiatica, Urtica dioica, Agrocybe aegerita, Crataegus laevigata, Satureja hortensis, Crocus sativus, Coccinia indica, Brugia malayi, Rubus spp., Silybum marianum, Cannabis spp., Cannabis sativa, Hypericum perforatum, Rhus coriaria, Olea europaea, Cyclopia intermedia, Ginkgo biloba, Lentinus lepideus, Pseudomonas putida, Sargassum micracanthum, Pinus radiata, Pinus sp., Phaseoulus mungo, Cicer arietinum, Vigna sinensis, Phaseolus aureus, Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Vicia faba, Dolichos biflorus, Phaseolus lunatus, Phaseolus aconitifolius, Pisum sativum, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Arachis hypoagea, Brassica spp., Brassica campestris, Brassica napus, Valeriana officinalis, Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea pallida, Echinacea angustifolia, Glcyrrhiza glabra, Seronea repens, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Tancetum parthenuum, Tancetum parthenuum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, céréales, fruits à graines, baies silvestre, légumineuses, thé vert, thé noir, microorganismes capables de produire des acides gras insaturés à chaîne longue, Lactobacillus casei., L. acidophillus, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. gasseri, L. fermentum, L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. crispatus, L. bulgaricus, L. fermentum, L. reuteri, Bifidobacterium infantis, B. bifidum, Streptococcus termophilus, S. bovis, Enterococcus durans, E. faecalis, E. Gallinarum, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium freudenreicheii, et bactéries ou champignons ou levures génétiquement modifié(e)s ayant des gènes insérés de bactéries probiotiques, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromices marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra, Sporobolomyces puniceus, Aureobasidium pullulans, Leucosporidium scotti.


     
    24. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisées en ce que les microcapsules contiennent au moins les principes biologiquement actifs (A) et/ou (B) sous toutes leurs variations stéréochimiques ou isomères :

    Composés (A)

    où,

    R1 est un acide gras oméga-3 ou oméga-6 estérifié

    R2 est un acide gras oméga-3 ou oméga-6 estérifié

    Composés (B)

    où,

    R3 est un acide gras oméga-3 ou oméga-6 estérifié

    R4 est un acide gras oméga-3 ou oméga-6 estérifié.


     
    25. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisées en ce qu'elles contiennent au moins un acide gras insaturé à chaîne longue d'au moins six atomes de carbone, sous n'importe quelle configuration isomère et/ou stéréochimique, ainsi que n'importe quels dérivés esters, glycérides, phospholipides et sphingolipides de celui-ci.
     
    26. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisées en ce qu'elles contiennent au moins un composé choisi parmi les acides : arachidonique, stéradionique, éicosapenténoïque, docosahexénoïque, docosapenténoïque, linoléique, linoléique conjugué, linolénique, gamma-linolénique, alpha-linolénique, dihomogamma-linolénique, arachidonique, oléique ; sous n'importe quelles configurations isomères et/ou stéréochimiques, ainsi que n'importe quels dérivés esters, glycérides, phospholipides et sphingolipides de ceux-ci.
     
    27. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisées en ce qu'elles contiennent une combinaison de composés choisis parmi : les acides gras oméga-3, oméga-6, oméga-9 et les cérébrosides.
     
    28. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, caractérisées en ce que qu'elles libèrent le ou les principes biologiquement actifs par au moins un facteur appartenant au groupe des : pH, température, force ionique, osmose, volatilisation ou présence de composés chimiques ou d'enzymes qui dissolvent la paroi des microcapsules.
     
    29. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, pour une utilisation dans des aliments pour les êtres humains.
     
    30. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, pour une utilisation dans des aliments pour les animaux.
     
    31. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, pour une utilisation dans des aliments pour le bétail, l'aviculture, la pêche et les animaux domestiques.
     
    32. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, pour une utilisation dans la production d'une formulation anhydre de microcapsules.
     
    33. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, pour une utilisation dans des aliments pour êtres humains ou des aliments pour animaux.
     
    34. Microcapsules selon la revendication 19, pour une utilisation dans des céréales, du muesli, un magasin de pâtisserie, des produits laitiers, des compléments nutritionnels, des sucres, des chocolats, des bonbons, des nougats, de la pâte d'amande, des aliments diététiques sucrés et des aliments pour diabétiques, des huiles, des oeufs, des légumes, des fruits, des tubercules, des arbres comestibles, des collations, des amuse-gueules, des racines comestibles y compris la réglisse, des baies et des fruits sauvages, des fruits secs, des viandes, des saucisses, des poissons, des coquillages et des crustacés, des boissons alcoolisées et non alcoolisées, gazeuses ou non gazeuses, des jus, des sirops, des nectars, des épices, des condiments, des aliments précuits, des aliments prétransformés, une masse congelée de pain, des pizzas, du miel.
     
    35. Procédé de microencapsulation selon les revendications 1 à 18, caractérisé en ce que le ou les principes biologiquement actifs sont choisis selon l'un quelconque de ceux mentionnés dans les revendications précédentes.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description