(19)
(11)EP 1 751 581 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
15.01.2014 Bulletin 2014/03

(21)Application number: 05724900.5

(22)Date of filing:  04.03.2005
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01S 13/88  (2006.01)
G01N 22/02  (2006.01)
G01S 13/50  (2006.01)
F01D 21/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2005/007458
(87)International publication number:
WO 2005/119294 (15.12.2005 Gazette  2005/50)

(54)

DOPPLER RADAR SENSING SYSTEM FOR MONITORING TURBINE GENERATOR COMPONENTS

DOPPLER-RADAR-MESSSYSTEM ZUR ÜBERWACHUNG VON TURBINENGENERATORKOMPONENTEN

SYSTEME DE DETECTION A RADAR DOPPLER UTILISE DANS LA SURVEILLANCE DES COMPOSANTS D'UN TURBOGENERATEUR


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 27.05.2004 US 855021

(43)Date of publication of application:
14.02.2007 Bulletin 2007/07

(73)Proprietor: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
80333 München (DE)

(72)Inventors:
  • BOSSELMANN, Thomas
    91080 Marloffstein (DE)
  • WILLSCH, Michael
    90762 Furth (DE)
  • SEVILLA PEREZ, Francisco, Javier
    08042 Barcelona (ES)
  • SANJANA, Zal
    Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15243 (US)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-B1- 1 585 949
GB-A- 2 322 988
US-A- 4 507 658
WO-A-2004/042199
US-A- 3 973 259
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field of Invention



    [0001] The present invention relates generally to Doppler radar based sensing systems and, more particularly, to Doppler radar sensing systems for monitoring turbine generator components during normal operation.

    Background of Invention



    [0002] Gas turbine engines are known to include a compressor section, a combustor section, and a turbine section. Many components that form the turbine section, such as the stationary vanes, rotating blades and surrounding ring segments, are directly exposed to hot combustion gasses that can exceed 1500 degrees C and travel at velocities approaching the speed of sound. The rotating blades and stationary vanes are arranged circumferentially in rows with each row being comprised of a plurality of blades and vanes. To help shield the turbine components from this extreme and damaging operating environment, they are often coated with ceramic thermal barrier coating materials, such as ytrria stabilized zirconia oxide (YSZ).

    [0003] However, thermal barrier coatings tend to chip, delaminate, or spall from the underlying turbine component during operational service life, thereby causing a damaged turbine component. Moreover, the spalled thermal barrier coating itself can constitute a harmful foreign object within the gas path that damages other turbine components.

    [0004] In the past, inspection for damage to turbine components has been performed by partially disassembling the gas turbine engine and performing visual inspections on individual components. In-situ visual inspections may be performed without engine disassembly by using a borescope inserted into a gas turbine engine, but such procedures are labor intensive, time consuming, costly, and require that the gas turbine engine be shut down.

    [0005] A millimeter wave radar mounted on a turbine installation for monitoring turbine blade vibration is known from US 4 507 658, wherein a waveguide conducts signals from the radar outside of the turbine and directs the signal to the rotating blades. The determination of the vibrational state of turbine blades arranged on a rotor shaft is known from EP 1 585 949 B1, wherein an electromagnetic wave is transmitted into a flow channel in the vicinity of the blades. A system for detecting damage to a gas turbine of a jet engine is known from GB 2 322 988 A, wherein radar signals are transmitted at the turbine.

    [0006] Due to the strong economic incentive to inspect for turbine component damage while the gas turbine is operating, various on-line and real-time methods and apparatus for detecting and locating defects in turbine components while the turbine engine is in operation have been proposed, including acoustic, optical and infrared. However, each of these methods and apparatus have appreciable disadvantages.

    [0007] Accordingly, there continues to be a need for methods and apparatus in gas turbines for the on-line and/or real-time detection of damage to turbine components.

    Summary of Invention



    [0008] The present invention provides a gas turbine with a sensing system. Among other things, the sensing system advantageously allows for real time (i.e. delay less than a few seconds) monitoring of damage to turbine components during operation of the turbine engine.

    [0009] One aspect of the invention involves a gas turbine as defined in claim 1.

    [0010] Yet another aspect of the invention provides a method to monitor in real time the damage to a turbine vane in a gas turbine, as defined in claim 10.

    Brief Description of the Drawings



    [0011] The above-mentioned and other concepts of the present invention will now be described with reference to the drawings of the exemplary and preferred embodiments of the present invention. The illustrated embodiments are intended to illustrate, but not to limit the invention. The drawings contain the following figures, in which like numbers refer to like parts throughout the description and drawings and wherein:

    FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a turbine section of a gas turbine,

    FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a sensing system of the present invention,

    FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary Doppler radar scheme,

    FIG. 4a is a perspective view of an electromagnetic wave signal sent from a transmitter on a blade toward a vane,

    FIG. 4b is a perspective view similar to Fig 4a, showing the signal reflected from the vane back to the blade, and

    FIG. 5 is an exemplary computer screen display of processed information obtained from the sensing system.


    Detailed Description of Invention



    [0012] The monitoring device described herein employs some basic concepts. For example, one concept relates to a Doppler based sensing system to monitor damage to a turbine component. Another concept relates to a blade adapted to house a portion of the sensing system. Another concept relates to the processing of Doppler signal information regarding turbine components into a usable computer output.

    [0013] The present invention is disclosed in context of use as a sensing system within a gas turbine engine for monitoring damage to turbine components. The principles of the present invention, however, are not limited to use within gas turbine engines or to monitor turbine component damage. For example, the sensing system could be used in other operational monitoring environments to detect damage to objects, such as steam turbines, aero-thermal aircraft engines, electric generators, air or gas compressors, auxiliary power plants, and the like. Other types of damage that can be monitored includes cracks and broken components. One skilled in the art may find additional applications for the apparatus, processes, systems, components, configurations, methods and applications disclosed herein. Thus, the illustration and description of the present invention in context of an exemplary gas turbine engine for monitoring damage to turbine components is merely one possible application of the present invention. However, the present invention has particular applicability for use as a sensing system for monitoring damage to turbine components.

    [0014] To assist in the description of the claimed invention and its operation, the following cylindrical coordinate system is introduced. The X-X axis defines the axial direction and extends in the direction of the rotor centerline. Axis Y-Y defines the radial direction and extends radially tangential to the axial direction and outward through the blade or vane. The Z-Z axis defines the tangential direction and extends in the plane created by the X-X axis and Y-Y axis and defines rotation.

    Components



    [0015] Referring now to Figures 1, 2, 4a and 4b, an exemplary Doppler radar sensing system adapted to monitor damage to turbine components is provided. The sensing system 10 advantageously comprises a transmitter such as radar 12 configured to transmit an electromagnetic wave such as microwave 18. The microwave 18 is carried by a wave-guide 14, exits through an antenna 16, and is directed toward an object 8. The object 8 is radiated by the transmitted microwave 18 and reflects a reflected microwave 24 which is received by the antenna 16. The reflected microwave 24 then travels back through the wave-guide 14 to the radar 10 circuitry and is dispatched to a processor 26. The processor 26 is configured with logic to measure a frequency shift or intensity change resulting from the change of surface material composition of the object 8 between the transmitted microwave 18 and the reflected microwave 24. The processor 26 is further configured with logic to relate the intensity and frequency of the reflected electromagnetic wave 24 to the intensity and frequency of the transmitted electromagnetic wave 18. The processed information can then be output to a computer screen using conventional computer program applications.

    [0016] Referring now to Figures 1 and 2, a transmitter 12 is used to generate an electromagnetic wave 18 of a suitable frequency, wavelength, and intensity to radiate an object 8 and reflect the electromagnetic wave 18 back to the transmitter 12. The transmitter 12 is advantageously embodied as a radar. A suitable radar is commercially available from the PRO NOVA company, although those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that a wide variety of other radars and transmitters 12 could be used to achieve the purposes of the present invention. A suitable radar 12 configuration is shown in Figure 3. The radar 12 may generate and emit the electromagnetic wave 18 continually, randomly, intermittently, graduated, or otherwise, although continuous electromagnetic wave 18 emission is preferred for a more robust monitoring of the turbine component.

    [0017] The electromagnetic wave 18 generated by the radar 12 is advantageously a microwave in the frequency range of 1 giga hertz (GHz) to 100 GHz to adequately measure TBC loss, more preferably, in the range of 20 GHz to 50 GHz. However, the electromagnetic wave 18 need not be microwave or within the 1 to 100 GHz range and may operate in a higher or lower frequency spectrum, for example, in the deep infrared range of 30 tera hertz (THz) to 300 THz and in the ultraviolet region around 1500 THz.

    [0018] A wave-guide 14 is used to transfer the microwave 18 from the radar 12 to an antenna 16. The wave-guide 14 may be of any cross sectional configuration, although a rectangular or cylindrical cross section is preferred, since a rectangular wave-guide 14 provides a greater bandwidth but a cylindrical wave-guide 14 allows for easier handling and installation. Also, since cumulative wave-guide 14 losses will be a function of the length, the amount of turning from the radar 10 to the antenna 16, the frequency of the microwave 18, and cross section used. Thus, it is preferable, but not necessary, to reduce the wave-guide 14 length without compromising the performance of the sensing system 10. Alternatively, the wave-guide 14 may comprise a plurality of connected cross sectional shapes that collectively form a continuous wave-guide 14. Suitable waveguides14 are commercially available from the Microtech Inc. company as part numbers WR12, WR15, WR28, and WR34.

    [0019] The antenna 16 sends the transmitted microwave 18 and is capable of receiving the reflected microwave 24. The illustrated antenna 16 is connected to the wave-guide 14 at the opposite end of the radar 12. The antenna 16 is advantageously located near the radar 10 to reduce the length of the wave-guide 14 and thereby reducing losses. The illustrated antenna 16 is a horn antenna that radially distributes the microwave 18 from the antenna 16. However, other antennas can be used, for example, a directional antenna can be used to direct the microwave 18 towards a particular object 8. The antenna 16 is advantageously attached to a support object 6 (e.g. rotating blade 6) such that the open end of the antenna 16 is approximately flush with the contour of the airfoil surface of the blade 6 to reduce thermodynamic losses of the turbine 2. The antenna 16 is positioned and oriented on the surface of the object 6 to allow the microwave 18 to be dispatched toward the reflecting object 8 (e.g. stationary vane 8).

    [0020] An area of coverage 50 is formed by the location and orientation of the antenna 16, as well as the frequency and intensity of the microwave 18. The portion of the object 8 that reflects the microwave 18 back to the antenna 16 should be located within the area of coverage 50. For example, if the outer section of the stationary vane 8 is the reflecting object, then the antenna 16 is advantageously arranged at a distance on the Y-Y axis further from the rotor centerline (Axis X-X) to better locate the area of coverage 50 of the transmitted microwave 18 on the portion of the stationary vane 8 to be monitored. Also, arranging the antenna 16 near (e.g. 0 % airfoil chord to 75% airfoil chord, preferably 5% airfoil chord to 30% airfoil chord.) the leading edge of the blade 6 advantageously allows the electromagnetic wave 18 to be more directly aimed at the vane 8. A suitable antenna 16 is commercially available from the Millimetric Company.

    [0021] Referring now to Figures 4a and 4b, the antenna 16 provides a conduit for the transmitted microwave 18 to be sent and for the reflected microwave 24 to be received. In more detail, the transmitted microwave 18 radiates from the antenna 16 on the blade 6 and strikes the vane 8 located with the area of coverage 50. The vane 8 reflects a reflected microwave 24 back to the antenna 16, which receives at least a portion of the reflected microwave 24. The reflected microwave 24 is then transmitted through the wave-guide 14 to the radar 10, and broadcast to the processing element 26 through a wave-guide, via telemetry or other suitable means.

    [0022] The processing element 26 compares the wave parameters of the transmitted wave 18 with the wave parameters of the reflected wave 24. Comparable parameters include: intensity, frequency, and aperture of an electromagnetic beam (i.e. a plurality of electromagnetic waves 18). Thus, for example, if TBC has detached from the stationary vane 8, the intensity of the reflected electromagnetic wave 24 will increase.

    [0023] By way of example, a small scale test was conducted by transmitting microwaves via a radar toward a blade rotating at about 430 revolutions per minute. The blade then reflected back the signal to the antenna mounted on a stationary support. The intensity level of the reflected microwaves reflected was approximately one third those reflected from the metallic blades. Those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that changes in the blade material, microwave, distance between the sending and reflecting blades, blade rotational speed, and the like will appreciably affect the intensity level difference, with any discernable intensity level suitable for purposes of this invention but differences between 5% - 95% preferable for ease of data processing and calculation differences between 10% - 50% most preferable.

    Method of Assembly



    [0024] Referring back to Figure 1, components of the sensing system 10 may be mounted or installed within the turbine rotor shaft 4 of a turbine generator 2, although other locations are suitable, for example, stationary components such as ring segments or stationary vanes 8 that permit rotating and/or stationary components to be monitored. If the radar 12 is located in a harsh environment (i.e. inside the rotor shaft 4), a protective casing, covering or coating advantageously is used to protect the radar from the aggressive turbine flow path, as will be understood by those skilled in the art.

    [0025] The illustrated wave guide 14 is inserted through a cooling channel of the turbine blade and traversed through the cooling channel exiting lower region of the blade 6 or blade attachment 52. However, the wave-guide 14 can be arranged in many other configurations to achieve the function of connecting the radar 12 with the antenna 16 as will be understood by those skilled in the art. The illustrated wave guide 14 continues through the blade carrier or blade disk 54. The wave guide 14 is connected to the radar at a predetermined location in the turbine 2, for example, in the rotor core at the shaft end-face.

    [0026] Alternatively, a channel, groove or other suitable depression 30 that closely matches the exterior dimension and contour of the antenna 16 can be formed into the blade 6 so that the antenna 16 can be arranged within the channel to present a substantially continuous aerodynamic profile of the blade/antenna assembly. In another alternative, the exterior surface of the antenna 16 can be modified to closely match the aerodynamic profile of the blade 6. And, of course, both the antenna 16 and blade 6 can collectively be modified to closely match the aerodynamic profile.

    [0027] The antenna 30 is operatively associated with the blade 6 or vane 8. For example, the antenna 16 can be mounted on the blade 6 or vane 8, in the blade 6 or vane 8, or in contact with the blade 6 or vane 8. Moreover, the antenna 16 can be directly connected to the blade 6 or vane 8 or indirectly connected to the blade 6 or vane 8 via an interconnection. Suitable direct connections include, but are not limited to, adhesives, bolts, weldments, combinations thereof, and the like. Suitable interconnections include, but are not limited to a connective layer, an insulating layer, a damper, combinations thereof, and the like. However, as one skilled in the art will appreciate, the direct and indirect connections can be achieved in other ways to operatively associate the antenna 16 with the blade 6 or vane 8.

    [0028] The antenna 16 is advantageously located in the turbine 2 wherever good transmission of the electromagnetic wave 18 to the vane 8 can be obtained. In the illustrated embodiment, the antenna 16 is located on an outer surface of the blade 8 and directed toward the vane 8 to be monitored. However, the only requirement to be maintained is that the antenna 16 effectively transmits the electromagnetic wave 18 and receives the reflected electromagnetic wave 24.

    [0029] The illustrated radar 12 is advantageously located in the turbine shaft 28 to be suitably close to the antenna 16 and protected from the harsh environment of the flow path. Since the physical distance from the radar 12 to the antenna 16 affects transmission losses, the radar 12 is advantageously located near the X-X Axis of the rotating blade 6.

    Method of Operation



    [0030] In operation, as illustrated, when the sensing system 10 is initiated, the radar 12 generates the microwave 18 that is transmitted through the wave-guide 14. The transmitted microwave 18 travels through the wave-guide 14 and reaches the antenna 16 housed on a turbine blade 6. The transmitted microwave 18 radiates the vane 8 and is reflected toward the antenna 16. At least a portion of the reflected microwave 24 is received by the antenna 16 and transmitted back through the wave-guide 14. The reflected microwave 24 is then sent, by a suitable means such as telemetry or wire, to a processing system 26 that compares parameters of the reflected microwave 24 to the same parameters of the transmitted microwave 18.

    [0031] The present invention can also be configured such that a plurality of sensing system 10 components (e.g. antenna 16, wave-guide14) are operatively connected to a single processing unit 26. For example, multiple antennae 14 could be mounted on a single blade 6 thereby increasing the area of coverage 50 for a row of vanes 8. The present invention can also be configured such that a plurality of sensing systems 10 are operatively connected to a single processing unit 26. Of course, other combinations of sensing system 10 components and processing units 26 can be used.

    [0032] The processor advantageously interprets the intensity of the reflected microwave 24 over an extended period (e.g. between inspection intervals). For example, an increase in the intensity of the reflected microwave 24 of the vane 8 would indicate that TBC has detached from the reflecting vane 8. Thus, the increase in intensity of the reflected microwave 24 can be translated to a monitoring signal to ouptut on a display screen a statement such as "Loss/No Loss on Blade #xxx", where the parameter #xxx would be the stationary vane 8 number in a particular row of stationary vanes 8 in the turbine 2. With a sensitivity of sufficient magnitude and an intensity change above ambient electronic noise, a percentage of TBC loss can be derived from the signal and associated to a particular stationary vane 8. Data can be interpreted and stored by the processor in real time or non real time. Non real time in this context refers to any time, time interval, or time period greater than real time.

    [0033] The received radar signals are preferably output in a form that suitably displays the processed information. For example, early radar systems used a simple amplitude scope(a display of received signal amplitude, or strength, as a function of distance from the antenna). Another suitable output media is a plan position indicator (PPI), which displays the direction of the target in relation to the radar system as an angle measured from the top of the display, while the distance to the target is represented as a distance from the center of the display. A graphical output 60 advantageously allows the data to be displayed in a real time fashion because of the capabilities of modern central processing units. Alternatively, the data could be stored separately and used with a suitable program or database and analyzed at a later date. Lastly, the output could be used and compared to other output for the purpose of determining trends in the systems being monitored.

    [0034] Although the blade surfaces of turbines may also be inspected by various acoustic, optical, and infrared methods as they rotate through the line-of-sight of a lens or a fiber-optic inspection device, it is not advantageous to do so for stationary vanes 8 since stationary vanes 8 would require numerous lenses to obtain sufficient coverage of a complete row of the stationary vanes 8 (e.g. a row may number from 32 to 80 vanes). The current invention is particularly beneficial to inspect the stationary vanes 8.

    [0035] While the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes and substitutions will occur to those of skill in the art without departing from the invention herein. Also, one or more aspects or features of one or more embodiments or examples of the present invention may be used or combined with one or more other embodiments or examples of the present invention. Accordingly, it is intended that the invention be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A gas turbine (2) comprising a turbine blade (6) and a turbine vane (8) with a ceramic thermal barrier coating and an apparatus (10) for the nondestructive monitoring of said vane,
    said apparatus comprising:

    a transmitter adapted to generate a microwave signal (18); a wave guide for guiding the microwave signal (18) to an antenna housed on said turbine blade, said turbine blade adapted to transmit said microwave signal (18) from said turbine blade to said turbine vane, said turbine vane adapted to receive the transmitted microwave signal and to reflect the microwave signal;

    a receiver in form of the antenna adapted to receive the reflected microwave signal; and

    a processor, said processor adapted to interpret the received microwave signal.


     
    2. The gas turbine as claimed in claim 1, wherein said apparatus is a Doppler radar.
     
    3. The gas turbine as claimed in claim 1, wherein said antenna is a horn antenna.
     
    4. The gas turbine as claimed in claim 3, wherein a plurality of antennae are located on the surface of the turbine blade and each antenna is adapted to transmit and receive the microwave signal and transmit said reflected microwave signal to the processor.
     
    5. The gas turbine as claimed in claim 1, wherein the metallic turbine vane is a super-alloy vane.
     
    6. The gas turbine as claimed in claim 1, wherein the frequency of the generated microwave signal is between 1 GHz and 100 GHz.
     
    7. The gas turbine as claimed in claim 7, wherein the frequency of the generated microwave signal is between 20 GHz and 50 GHz.
     
    8. The gas turbine as claimed in claim 1, wherein the transmitter transmits the microwave signal continually, randomly, intermittently, or graduated.
     
    9. The gas turbine as claimed in claim 1, wherein the wave-guide comprises a plurality of sections having differing cross sectional geometries interconnected to form a continuous wave-guide.
     
    10. A method for real time monitoring of damage to a coated metallic turbine vane (8) coated with a ceramic thermal barrier coating in an operating gas turbine, comprising the steps of:

    transmitting a microwave signal from an antenna housed on a turbine blade;

    receiving said microwave signal by a turbine vane;

    reflecting said transmitted microwave signal by the turbine vane back to said antenna housed on the turbine blade;

    processing the transmitted and reflected microwave signals to determine if the turbine vane is damaged.


     
    11. The method as claimed in claim 10, wherein from a change of intensity of the reflected microwave signal with a sufficient magnitude, an amount of loss of coating is derived.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Gasturbine (2), umfassend ein Turbinenblatt (6) und eine Turbinenschaufel (8) mit einer keramischen Wärmedämmschicht und einer Vorrichtung (10) für die zerstörungsfreie Überwachung der Schaufel,
    wobei die Vorrichtung Folgendes umfasst:

    einen Sender, der ausgelegt ist zum Generieren eines Mikrowellensignals (18); einen Wellenleiter zum Leiten des Mikrowellensignals (18) zu einer auf dem Turbinenblatt untergebrachte Antenne, wobei das Turbinenblatt ausgelegt ist zum Übertragen des Mikrowellensignals (18) von dem Turbinenblatt zu der Turbinenschaufel, wobei die Turbinenschaufel ausgelegt ist zum Empfangen des übertragenen Mikrowellensignals und zum Reflektieren des Mikrowellensignals;

    einen Empfänger in Form der Antenne, die ausgelegt ist zum Empfangen des reflektierten Mikrowellensignals; und

    einen Prozessor, wobei der Prozessor ausgelegt ist zum Interpretieren des empfangenen Mikrowellensignals.


     
    2. Gasturbine nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Vorrichtung ein Doppler-Radar ist.
     
    3. Gasturbine nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Antenne eine Hornantenne ist.
     
    4. Gasturbine nach Anspruch 3, wobei sich mehrere Antennen auf der Oberfläche des Turbinenblatts befinden und jede Antenne ausgelegt ist zum Senden und Empfangen des Mikrowellensignals und Übertragen des reflektierten Mikrowellensignals zu dem Prozessor.
     
    5. Gasturbine nach Anspruch 1, wobei die metallische Turbinenschaufel eine Superlegierungsschaufel ist.
     
    6. Gasturbine nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Frequenz des generierten Mikrowellensignals zwischen 1 GHz und 100 GHz liegt.
     
    7. Gasturbine nach Anspruch 7, wobei die Frequenz des generierten Mikrowellensignals zwischen 20 GHz und 50 GHz liegt.
     
    8. Gasturbine nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Sender das Mikrowellensignal kontinuierlich, zufällig, intermittierend oder abgestuft sendet.
     
    9. Gasturbine nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Wellenleiter mehrere Abschnitte mit verschiedenen Querschnittsgeometrien umfasst, die miteinander verbunden sind, um einen kontinuierlichen Wellenleiter auszubilden.
     
    10. Verfahren für die Echtzeitüberwachung von Schäden an einer beschichteten metallischen Turbinenschaufel (8), die mit einer keramischen Wärmedämmschicht beschichtet ist, in einer arbeitenden Gasturbine, umfassend die folgenden Schritte:

    Senden eines Mikrowellensignals von einer auf einem Turbinenblatt untergebrachten Antenne;

    Empfangen des Mikrowellensignals durch eine Turbinenschaufel;

    Reflektieren des übertragenen Mikrowellensignals durch die Turbinenschaufel zurück zu der auf dem Turbinenblatt untergebrachten Antenne;

    Bearbeiten der übertragenen und reflektierten Mikrowellensignale, um zu bestimmen, ob die Turbinenschaufel beschädigt ist.


     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei ein Ausmaß an Verlust an Beschichtung von einer Änderung bei der Intensität des reflektierten Mikrowellensignals mit einer ausreichenden Größe abgeleitet wird.
     


    Revendications

    1. Turbine (2) à gaz comprenant une aube (6) mobile de turbine et une aube (8) directrice de turbine ayant un revêtement en céramique formant barrière thermique et un dispositif (10) pour le contrôle non destructif de l'aube directrice,
    le dispositif comprenant :

    un émetteur conçu pour produire un signal (18) micro-onde ; un guide d'onde pour guider le signal (18) micro-onde à une antenne logée sur l'aube mobile de la turbine, l'aube mobile de la turbine étant conçue pour transmettre le signal (18) micro-onde de l'aube mobile de la turbine à l'aube directrice de la turbine, l'aube directrice de la turbine étant conçue pour recevoir le signal micro-onde transmis et pour réfléchir le signal micro-onde ;

    un récepteur sous la forme de l'antenne, conçu pour recevoir le signal micro-onde réfléchi ; et

    un processeur, ce processeur étant conçu pour interpréter le signal micro-onde reçu.


     
    2. Turbine à gaz suivant la revendication 1, dans laquelle le dispositif est un radar doppler.
     
    3. Turbine à gaz suivant la revendication 1, dans laquelle l'antenne est une antenne cornet.
     
    4. Turbine à gaz suivant la revendication 3, dans laquelle une pluralité d'antennes sont placées à la surface de l'aube mobile de la turbine, et chaque antenne est conçue pour transmettre et recevoir le signal micro-onde et transmettre le signal micro-onde réfléchi au processeur.
     
    5. Turbine à gaz suivant la revendication 1, dans laquelle l'aube directrice métallique de la turbine est une aube directrice en super alliage.
     
    6. Turbine à gaz suivant la revendication 1, dans laquelle la fréquence du signal micro-onde produit est comprise entre 1 GHz et 100 GHz.
     
    7. Turbine à gaz suivant la revendication 1, dans laquelle la fréquence du signal micro-onde produit est comprise entre 20 GHz et 50 GHz.
     
    8. Turbine à gaz suivant la revendication 1, dans laquelle l'émetteur transmet le signal micro-onde continuellement, aléatoirement, par intermittence ou d'une manière échelonnée.
     
    9. Turbine à gaz suivant la revendication 1, dans laquelle le guide d'onde comprend une pluralité de tronçons ayant des géométries de section transversale interconnectées pour former un guide d'onde continue.
     
    10. Procédé de contrôle en temps réel de l'endommagement d'une aube (8) directrice métallique revêtue de turbine, revêtue d'un revêtement céramique formant barrière thermique dans une turbine à gaz en fonctionnement, comprenant les stades dans lesquels :

    on émet un signal micro-onde d'une antenne logée sur une aube mobile de la turbine ;

    on reçoit le signal micro-onde par une aube directrice de la turbine ;

    on réfléchit le signal micro-onde transmis par l'aube directrice de la turbine en retour à l'antenne logée sur l'aube mobile de la turbine ;

    on traite les signaux micro-onde transmis et réfléchis pour déterminer si l'aube directrice de la turbine est endommagée.


     
    11. Procédé de contrôle suivant la revendication 10, dans lequel on déduit d'un changement d'intensité du signal micro-onde réfléchi en une amplitude suffisante une quantité de perte du revêtement.
     




    Drawing















    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description