(19)
(11)EP 1 756 502 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.04.2014 Bulletin 2014/15

(21)Application number: 05747277.1

(22)Date of filing:  10.05.2005
(51)Int. Cl.: 
F27B 7/20  (2006.01)
F23G 5/26  (2006.01)
C04B 7/44  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/IB2005/001257
(87)International publication number:
WO 2005/108892 (17.11.2005 Gazette  2005/46)

(54)

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INCINERATION OF COMBUSTIBLE WASTE

VERFAHREN UND VORRICHTUNG ZUR VERBRENNUNG VON BRENNBAREM ABFALL

PROCEDE ET DISPOSITIF POUR L'INCINERATION DE DECHETS COMBUSTIBLES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 10.05.2004 DK 200400735

(43)Date of publication of application:
28.02.2007 Bulletin 2007/09

(73)Proprietor: FLSmidth A/S
2500 Valby (DK)

(72)Inventors:
  • THOMSEN, Kent
    DK-4000 Roskilde (DK)
  • HELM, Alexander
    DK-3450 Alleröd (DK)
  • SKAARUP JENSEN, Lars
    DK-2625 Vallensbaek (DK)

(74)Representative: Andréasson, Ivar 
Hynell Patenttjänst AB Patron Carls väg 2
683 40 Hagfors/Uddeholm
683 40 Hagfors/Uddeholm (SE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-01/09548
US-A- 4 295 823
US-B1- 6 210 154
JP-A- 57 007 230
US-A- 4 640 681
US-B2- 6 626 662
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a method for incineration of combustible waste during the manufacture of cement clinker where cement raw meal is preheated in a preheater system with or without a calciner, burned into clinker in a kiln and cooled in a subsequent clinker cooler, by which method the waste is introduced via a waste inlet and supported on a supporting surface incorporated in a separate compartment, where the waste being actively transported, while simultaneously subjected to incineration, through the compartment to its outlet, where the hot exhaust gases produced in connection with the incineration of the waste being vented to the preheater system for heating the cement raw meal, and where the slag generated during the waste incineration process being extracted from the compartment.

    [0002] The invention also relates to an apparatus for carrying out the method.

    [0003] Examples of combustible waste include tyres, furniture, carpets, wood refuse, garden waste, kitchen waste, paper sludge, biomass, petcoke, sewage sludge and bleaching earth.

    [0004] From EP-1200778, the contents of which is hereby invoked as being part of the present application, is known a method as well as an apparatus of the aforementioned kind according to which the waste is burned in the separate compartment subject to simultaneous supply of hot air coming preferably from the clinker cooler. The exhaust gases formed during incineration are directed from the compartment into the preheater where they are utilized for heating the cement raw meal. In practice, this method and apparatus have proven to be particularly suitable for the incineration of waste, providing a significant heat contribution which has improved the total operating economics of the plant. However, it has also been ascertained that the NOx emission from this known apparatus may be at a high level given that in the compartment there is no reduction of the NOx which is formed in the kiln during the burning of cement clinker. In addition, the amount of fuel, which is introduced into a possible NOx reducing zone in the calciner, and being available for the reduction of the NOx vented from the kiln, is reduced, hence this kiln NOx in doing so is reduced less effectively.

    [0005] US-B 6 210 154 concerns the reduction of NOx emission from a cement manufacturing process involving waste combustion.

    [0006] It is the object of the present invention to provide a method as well as an apparatus for incineration of waste during the manufacture of cement clinker by means of which the total amount of NOx emission from the apparatus is significantly reduced.

    [0007] The invention is defined in the claims.

    [0008] Hereby is obtained an apparatus which does not just offer simplicity in terms of design characteristics, but providing also the opportunity for reducing substantially the NOx emission. This is due to the fact that exhaust gases containing NOx are brought into contact with fuel, which reduces a part of the NOx content in the exhaust gases by various NOx reducing reactions which occur during this process, as explained in further details in the following. The incineration of the waste in the compartment can be viewed as comprising five stages which consist of a heating stage, a pyrolysis stage, an ignition stage, a reaction stage between components in gas phase and a reaction stage of char and soot. The gaseous reactants, the char and the soot are formed in connection with the pyrolysis of the waste during the heating process. The three pyrolysis products contain the nitrogen which is introduced to the compartment with the waste and any possibly admitted fuel. In the gases nitrogen is present as N2, HCN, NH3 and NO. The remaining part of the nitrogen is still bound in the soot and the char. In addition to the nitrogen-containing compounds, the gases will also contain SO2, H2, CO, CH4 and hydrocarbons (CxHy) or radicals hereof. The pyrolysis of the waste begins immediately after the waste has been introduced to the compartment. The NOx reduction in the compartment is achieved by reactions between hydrocarbon radicals (CHi ·) and NO, which form HCN:

            CHi • + NOHCN,i = 1,2,3     (1)

    or through reactions between CO or H2 and NO, which are catalyzed by raw meal or char:







    [0009] The reaction (1) is promoted by a high temperature and requires a small amount of oxygen to sustain the formation of CHi·. The reactions (2), (3) and (4) are catalyzed as previously mentioned by raw meal and are, furthermore, rendered impossible if oxygen is present. During the pyrolysis and the decomposition of NO, the compounds HCN and NH3 are formed. Catalyzed by raw meal, HCN or NH3 will be decomposed according to reaction (5) and (6), or will react by reactions (5a) or (6a) either with radicals (here exemplified by O2/OH·) and NO, which, respectively, removes or forms NOx.





            HCN + NO + OH• →N2, CO, CO2, H2O     (5a)

            NH3 + NO + OH• → N2, H2O     (6a)

            NH3 + O2NO, N2, H2O     (7)

            HCN + O2NO, N2, CO, CO2, H2O     (8)



    [0010] The reactions (7) and (8) will continue at the bottom of the subsequent preheater system, thus forming a certain amount of NOx. The combustion of char and nitrogen in the char starts in the reducing atmosphere of the compartment and will mainly take place in the calciner or riser pipe of the subsequent preheater. Only a portion of the nitrogen in the char forms NOx during combustion, the remaining part will form N2. Furthermore, the carbon in the char is capable of reacting with NO, forming N2 and CO.

            Char - N + O2NO     (9)

            Char - N + O2N2, O2     (10)

            Char - C + NON2, CO     (11)



    [0011] The NOx reducing reactions are promoted by a high temperature.

    [0012] Further, at least a part of the incineration of the waste in the compartment takes place in a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere. This will further enhance many of the NOx removing reactions referred to above.

    [0013] The NOx containing exhaust gases which are introduced to the compartment may in principle be sourced from any combustion unit, but according to the invention the exhaust gases are extracted from the kiln and introduced to the compartment via a riser duct. It is further preferred that all exhaust gases from the kiln are introduced to the compartment. If the exhaust gases from the kiln are led into the compartment prior to any input of air to the process, the only oxygen available in the compartment will thus be the oxygen contained in the exhaust gases sourced from the kiln, typically between 2 and 4 % oxygen. This oxygen will rapidly be consumed during the incineration process, hence forming a NOx reducing zone where the NOx reduction according to reaction (2) to (4) is significantly enhanced so that essentially all of the NOx contained in the exhaust gases from the kiln will be removed while, simultaneously, the exhaust gases leaving the compartment will contain only a negligible amount of NOx.

    [0014] In order to achieve a satisfactory level of NOx reduction it is essential to ensure that the waste in the compartment has a sufficient retention time in contact with the exhaust gases in order to form a reducing zone. Therefore, it is preferred that the waste in the compartment is supported in a manner preventing the waste itself from having the ability to travel through the compartment, which can simply be achieved by ensuring that the supporting surface in the compartment is substantially horizontal across at least a portion of its total area. According to the invention, the waste must therefore be actively transported through the compartment and, in principle, this can be done in any appropriate manner. For example, the waste can be transported along a substantially linear path through the compartment by means of a pushing mechanism which is moved back and forth. However, it is preferred that the waste is transported through the compartment along a circular path, preferably on a rotary disc. This will allow the retention time of the waste in the compartment to be controlled simply by adjusting the rotational speed of the disc.

    [0015] Also, it has proved advantageous to direct the exhaust gases into and through the compartment in counterflow to the waste stream. One of the effects of this will be that unburned char, on its discharge from the compartment, will be captured and entrained by the exhaust gases from the kiln, causing the char to burn when reacting with the oxygen in the exhaust gases. Hence the last burnable residues will be effectively burned, and, furthermore, the NOx reduction in the compartment will be improved by, with all other things being equal, extending the NOx reducing zone in the compartment.

    [0016] A high temperature which can improve the efficiency of reaction (1) can be generated by using preferably variable means for splitting the raw meal into sub-streams which are directed to the riser duct, the compartment and the calciner, respectively. The temperature in the compartment is preferably adjusted within an interval between 925-1050° C or the highest possible range without entailing risk of coating formations. According to the invention it is preferred that cement raw meal is introduced to the riser duct via an inlet.

    [0017] For optimization of the capacity of the apparatus and the regulation of the temperature in the compartment for waste incineration, it is further preferred that cement raw meal is introduced to the compartment via an inlet for cement raw meal. The introduced raw meal will act as a heat reservoir, assisting in maintaining the temperature at the desired level, even when process conditions fluctuate. The compartment may comprise an inlet for introducing raw meal from the preheater, the calciner and/or the raw meal store. Further, the cement raw meal can capture volatile component in the gas stream, which might otherwise entail formation of cakings.

    [0018] Typically, between 10 and 50 % of the raw meal must be introduced to the kiln riser duct and/or the compartment.

    [0019] It is of crucial importance for the NOx reduction to have a zone with intensely reducing conditions in order to promote the NOx reducing reactions. According to the invention, retention time in such reducing zone is provided by introducing and burning the waste in a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere. The result of the reactions will be a removal of between 50-90 % of the NOx contained in the kiln exhaust gases.

    [0020] In special cases it may be advantageous to introduce hot air from the clinker cooler to the compartment.

    [0021] The exhaust gases generated during the waste incineration process are fed to the calciner of the preheater for calcination of the cement raw meal. This will cause combustible, volatile constituents and any undesirable combustion products, CO, soot etc. contained in the exhaust gases from the compartment to burn out and to be decomposed, respectively, in the calciner.

    [0022] The slag produced during the waste incineration process as well as any unburned waste are discharged from the compartment at its outlet and via the riser duct into the kiln. As a result, a portion of any unburned waste will, as previously noted, be captured and entrained by the exhaust gases admitted from the kiln and will burn out when reacting with the oxygen present in the exhaust gases.

    [0023] In event of risks of overheating and/or explosion, it will not be possible to interrupt the incineration process in the compartment instantaneously in the manner practised in a traditional burner, and it is therefore preferred that cold raw meal from a raw meal store or a specifically provided emergency bin can be conducted to the compartment in such instances. It is further preferred that the cold raw meal is introduced to the compartment in sufficient quantity to cool down the waste and to shield it against the hot gasstream.

    [0024] The apparatus comprises a riser duct for introducing the exhaust gases into the compartment, said riser duct is connected to the kiln.

    [0025] It is preferred that the supporting surface is substantially horizontal to prevent the waste from travelling unaided through the compartment.

    [0026] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the supporting surface comprises a rotary disc which simultaneously serves as a means for transporting the waste through the compartment.

    [0027] In the preferred embodiment, the apparatus further comprises a scraper mechanism for diverting the slag generated during the waste incineration process as well as any unburned waste away from the compartment at its outlet and into the riser duct.

    [0028] The rotary disc may constitute a part of or the whole of the bottom of the compartment.

    [0029] The rotary disc may be mounted for rotation about a substantially vertical axis proceeding through its centre. The axis may be angled relative to the vertical level, preferably between 1 and 10 degrees. If the rotary disc is thus made to slope slightly towards the outlet of the compartment, it will improve the discharge of slag and waste residues from the compartment.

    [0030] To prevent circulation of the exhaust gases in the compartment, the latter comprises a preferably gas-tight, stationary partition wall which is mounted on the rotation stretch between the outlet of the compartment and its inlet, and extending from the side wall of the compartment to the axis of rotation of the rotary disc.

    [0031] The rotary disc preferably comprises a ceramic material.

    [0032] In an alternative embodiment of the invention the supporting surface may be stationary and the means for transporting the waste through the compartment may comprise an element which rotates about an axis proceeding perpendicularly relative to the supporting surface. In this embodiment the transport means will preferably comprise a scoop wheel equipped with at least two scoops.

    [0033] The invention will now be explained in further details with reference to the drawing, being diagrammatical, and where

    Fig. 1 shows an apparatus according to the invention,

    Fig. 2 shows a detail of a preferred embodiment of the invention, viewed from above, and

    Fig. 3 - 6 show alternative embodiments of the apparatus according to the invention.



    [0034] In Fig. 1 is seen a plant for manufacturing cement clinker. The plant comprises a cyclone preheater 1 with calciner 3, a rotary kiln 5, a clinker cooler 7 and a compartment 9 for incineration of waste which is introduced via an opening 11 in the compartment 9. In the shown embodiment the compartment 9 is located between the calciner 3 and the rotary kiln 5. During operation the cement raw meal is directed from a raw meal store 17 to the raw meal inlet F of the preheater 1. From here the raw meal flows towards the rotary kiln 5 through the cyclones of the preheater 1 and the calciner 3 in counterflow to hot exhaust gases from the rotary kiln 5, thereby causing the raw meal to be heated and calcined. In the rotary kiln 5 the calcined raw meal is burned into cement clinker which is cooled in the subsequent clinker cooler 7 by means of atmospheric air. Some of the air thus heated is directed from the clinker cooler 7 via a duct 15 to the calciner 3.

    [0035] Waste is introduced via the waste inlet 11 on a supporting surface 21 (see also Fig. 2) in compartment 9, and subsequently, when brought into contact with the hot exhaust gases being supplied via a riser duct 6 to the compartment 9 from the rotary kiln 5, the waste is heated, pyrolized and at least partially incinerated while it is simultaneously transported in the direction towards the outlet 23 of the compartment along a circular path. The exhaust gases from the kiln 5 will typically contain between 2 and 4 % oxygen which in a so-called burning zone 18 comprising the riser duct 6 and the outlet end of the compartment 9 will react primarily with char and other combustible, solid constituents. In the remaining part of the compartment 9, which is a so-called pyrolysis zone 19, the temperature of the exhaust gases will be sufficiently high to cause pyrolysis of the waste, releasing the waste's content of volatile combustible constituents, which are entrained in the exhaust gas stream and vented via a riser duct 4 to the calciner 3 where they burn out. In this latter pyrolysis or NOx reducing zone 19 of the compartment 9, sub-stoichiometric NOx reducing conditions will thus prevail, resulting in effective removal of NOx by the reactions (1) to (4).

    [0036] The temperature in the riser duct 6 and the compartment 9 can be controlled by introducing cement raw meal from the preheater, the calciner and/or the raw meal store to, respectively, the riser duct 6 and the compartment 9 per se via inlet 12 and 13, respectively. The raw meal which is introduced to the riser duct 6 will effectively reduce the exhaust gas temperature and capture volatile components in the exhaust gases, thus preventing formation of cakings in this area. Furthermore, this raw meal will act as a catalyst for the NOx reduction in this area.

    [0037] In the shown embodiment, the supporting surface consists of a rotary disc 21 which rotates about an axis 25 and which constitutes the bottom of the compartment 9. For diversion of the combustion residues in the form of slag and any unburned waste through the outlet 23 of the compartment and into the riser duct 6, the compartment 9 comprises a scraper mechanism 27.

    [0038] In this embodiment, the waste is transported from the inlet 11 supported by the rotary disc 21 in a circular path, as indicated at the arrows, through to the outlet 23 of the compartment 9 where the scraper mechanism 27 will ensure that all material on the rotary disc is pushed over the edge and into the riser duct 6, where the material is sorted so that small particles suspended in the exhaust gases are thrust upwards and back into the compartment 9, whereas any large particles are directed downwards to the kiln. The particles which are thrown back to the compartment 9 will thus burn out when reacting with the oxygen in the exhaust gases, thereby extending the NOx reducing zone in the compartment 9.

    [0039] The compartment may also comprise a gas-tight, stationary partition wall 29 which is located on the rotational stretch between the outlet 23 of the compartment and inlet 11. The function of the partition wall is to ensure that the hot exhaust gases from the kiln 5 travel in counterflow over the waste along a path which is roughly the same. Hence, the exhaust gases formed during incineration in the compartment with their content of combustible constituents will be directed via the riser duct 4 into the calciner 3 in which its content of combustible constituents are burned out and thus utilized for calcination of the cement raw meal.

    [0040] The retention time of the waste in the compartment can be simply controlled by regulating the rotational speed of the rotary disc. Furthermore, significant advantages may be obtained by operating at a higher speed during a short period of time, followed by a prolonged break, since this will result in better scraper performance than is attainable during constant low-speed operation. Another option involves intermittent high-speed operation in forward direction, separated by intermittent periods of backward operation over smaller distances. The different modes of operation make it possible to vary the retention time of the waste in order to ensure complete combustion of the waste material.

    [0041] In event of risks of overheating and/or explosion in the compartment 9, cold raw meal from a raw meal store 17 or a specifically provided emergency bin can be conducted to the compartment 9. The cold raw meal will preferably be supplied in sufficient quantity to ensure cooling of the waste and to shield it from the hot gases from the kiln 5.

    [0042] In Fig. 3 to 6 are seen four examples of alternative embodiments of the apparatus according to the invention.

    [0043] The embodiment shown in Fig. 3 does not comprise a duct 15, which means that all the heated air vented from the clinker cooler 7 is led through the kiln 5. Hence, the exhaust gases being discharged from the kiln 5 and being conducted to the compartment 9 will have a higher oxygen content, which entails a more rapid incineration of the waste in the compartment. In this embodiment reduction of NOx contained in the kiln gases will take place because waste and pyrolysis gases are brought into contact with the NOx containing kiln gases and reducing conditions locally will be present, however the total NOx reduction will be at a lower level than in the embodiment shown in Fig. 1.

    [0044] The embodiment shown in Fig. 4 comprises an extra duct 14, so that the exhaust gases from the kiln, particles and volatile potentially caking-forming components in a variable manner by means of regulation means 10 can be routed through or around, respectively, the compartment 9.

    [0045] The embodiment shown in Fig. 5 corresponds to the one shown in Fig. 4, except from the fact that it comprises a calciner 3a, 3b of the "down draft" type.

    [0046] The embodiment shown in Fig. 6 corresponds essentially to the one shown in Fig. 1, except from the fact that it comprises an assembly 16 for extracting slag and unburned components, which in connection with the combustion of waste having a high content of iron or steel, such as car tyres, may be of high importance in order not to influence on the cement chemistry in an unintentional manner.


    Claims

    1. Method for incineration of combustible waste during the manufacture of cement clinker where cement raw meal is preheated in a preheater system (1) with a calciner (3), burned into clinker in a kiln (5) and cooled in a subsequent clinker cooler (7), by which method the waste is introduced via a waste inlet (11) and supported on a supporting surface (21) incorporated in a separate compartment (9), where the waste being actively transported, while simultaneously subjected to incineration, through the compartment to its outlet (23), where at least a part of the incineration of the waste in the compartment takes place in a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere, where the hot exhaust gases produced in connection with the incineration of the waste being vented to the preheater system for heating the cement raw meal, and where the slag generated during the waste incineration process being extracted from the compartment (9), characterized in that

    - the compartment (9) is located between the calciner (3) and the kiln (5),

    - exhaust gases from the kiln (5) are introduced to the compartment via a riser duct (6),

    - exhaust gases from the compartment (9) are fed to the calciner (3) via a riser duct (4),

    - the compartment (9) has a burning zone (18) comprising the riser duct (6) and the outlet end of the compartment (9) and a pyrolysis zone (19),

    - the exhaust gases containing NOx from the kiln (5) are introduced into and through the compartment (9) in counterflow to the waste stream,
    such that the exhaust gases are subjected to sub-stoichiometric NOx reducing conditions in the pyrolysis zone, and
    such that unburned char on its discharge from the compartment (9) will be entrained by the exhaust gases from the kiln (5) causing the char to burn when reacting with the oxygen in the exhaust gases from the kiln (5).


     
    2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that all exhaust gases from the kiln are introduced to the compartment.
     
    3. Method according to any of the claim 1 to 2, characterized in that the waste is transported through the compartment (9) to its outlet (23) along a circular path.
     
    4. Method according to any of the claim 1 to 3, characterized in that cement raw meal is introduced to the riser duct (6) via an inlet (12).
     
    5. Method according to any of the claim 1 to 4, characterized in that cement raw meal is introduced to the compartment (9) via an inlet (13).
     
    6. Method according to any of the claim 1 to 5, characterized in that hot air from the clinker cooler (7) is introduced to the compartment (9).
     
    7. Method according claim 1, characterized in that the slag produced during the waste incineration process as well as any unburned waste are discharged from the compartment (9) at its outlet (23) and into the kiln.
     
    8. Apparatus for incineration of combustible waste comprising a raw meal store (17), a preheater system (1) with a calciner (3), a kiln (5), a clinker cooler (7), a compartment (9) for incineration of the waste, said compartment comprising an inlet (11) for introducing the waste into the compartment (9) and an outlet (23) for diverting slag and any unburned waste, which compartment (9) comprises also a supporting surface (21) for supporting the waste during the incineration process and means (21,31) for transporting the waste from the waste inlet (11) of the compartment to the outlet (23), characterized in that

    - the apparatus comprises means for introducing exhaust gases containing NOx into the compartment (9),

    - said means for introducing exhaust gases into the compartment (9) comprises a riser duct (6), which is connected to the kiln (5),

    - said compartment (9) is located between the calciner (3) and the kiln (5),

    - said exhaust gases from the compartment (9) are fed to the calciner (3) via a riser duct (4),

    - the compartment (9) has a burning zone (18) comprising the riser duct (6) and the outlet end of the compartment (9) and a pyrolysis zone (19).


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zur Verbrennung von brennbarem Abfall bei der Herstellung von Zementklinker, wobei Zementrohmehl in einem Vorheizsystem (1) mit einem Kalzinator (3) vorgeheizt, in einem Ofen (5) zu Klinker gebrannt und in einem nachfolgenden Klinkerkühler (7) gekühlt wird, wobei durch das Verfahren der Abfall über einen Abfalleinlass (11) eingeführt und auf einer Haltefläche (21) gehalten wird, die in einer separaten Kammer (9) enthalten ist, wobei der Abfall, während er gleichzeitig der Verbrennung ausgesetzt wird, aktiv durch die Kammer zu ihrem Auslass (23) befördert wird, wobei zumindest ein Teil der Verbrennung des Abfalls in der Kammer in einer unterstöchiometrischen Atmosphäre stattfindet, wobei die heißen Abgase, die in Verbindung mit der Verbrennung des Abfalls erzeugt werden, an das Vorheizsystem abgeführt werden, um das Zementrohmehl zu heizen, und wobei die Schlacke, die während des Abfallverbrennungsvorgangs erzeugt wird, aus der Kammer (9) abgeführt wird,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

    - die Kammer (9) zwischen dem Kalzinator (3) und dem Ofen (5) angeordnet ist,

    - Abgase aus dem Ofen (5) über eine Steigleitung (6) in die Kammer eingeleitet werden,

    - Abgase aus der Kammer (9) über eine Steigleitung (4) dem Kalzinator (3) zugeführt werden,

    - die Kammer (9) eine Brennzone (18), welche die Steigleitung (6) und das Auslassende der Kammer (9) umfasst, und eine Pyrolysezone (19) aufweist,

    - die Abgase aus dem Ofen (5), die NOx enthalten, in Gegenstromrichtung zu dem Abfallstrom in die und durch die Kammer (9) eingeleitet werden,
    so dass die Abgase den unterstöchiometrischen NOx-Reduktionsbedingungen in der Pyrolysezone ausgesetzt werden, und
    so dass unverbrannter Verkohlungsrückstand bei seinem Austritt aus der Kammer (9) von den Abgasen aus dem Ofen (5) mitgerissen wird, so dass der Verkohlungsrückstand brennt, wenn er mit dem Sauerstoff in den Abgasen aus dem Ofen (5) reagiert.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass alle Abgase aus dem Ofen in die Kammer eingeleitet werden.
     
    3. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Abfall entlang eines kreisförmigen Wegs durch die Kammer (9) zu ihrem Auslass (23) befördert wird.
     
    4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass Zementrohmehl über einen Einlass (12) in die Steigleitung (6) eingeführt wird.
     
    5. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass Zementrohmehl über einen Einlass (13) in die Kammer (9) eingeführt wird.
     
    6. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass Heißluft aus dem Klinkerkühler (7) in die Kammer (9) eingeleitet wird.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die während des Abfallverbrennungsvorgangs erzeugte Schlacke sowie aller unverbrannter Abfall an dem Auslass (23) aus der Kammer (9) und in den Ofen abgeführt werden.
     
    8. Vorrichtung zur Verbrennung von brennbarem Abfall, umfassend einen Rohmehlspeicher (17), ein Vorheizsystem (1) mit einem Kalzinator (3), einen Ofen (5), einen Klinkerkühler (7), eine Kammer (9) zur Verbrennung des Abfalls, wobei die Kammer einen Einlass (11) zum Einführen des Abfalls in die Kammer (9) und einen Auslass (23) zum Abführen von Schlacke und allem unverbrannten Abfall umfasst, wobei die Kammer (9) auch eine Haltefläche (21) zum Halten des Abfalls während des Verbrennungsvorgangs und Mittel (21, 31) umfasst, um den Abfall von dem Abfalleinlass (11) der Kammer zu dem Auslass (23) zu befördern,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

    - die Vorrichtung Mittel umfasst, um Abgase, die NOx enthalten, in die Kammer (9) einzuleiten,

    - wobei die Mittel zum Einleiten von Abgasen in die Kammer (9) eine Steigleitung (6) umfassen, die mit dem Ofen (5) verbunden ist,

    - wobei die Kammer (9) zwischen dem Kalzinator (3) und dem Ofen (5) angeordnet ist,

    - wobei die Abgase von der Kammer (9) über eine Steigleitung (4) dem Kalzinator (3) zugeleitet werden,

    - wobei die Kammer (9) eine Verbrennungszone (18), welche die Steigleitung (6) und das Auslassende der Kammer (9) umfasst, und eine Pyrolysezone (19) aufweist.


     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé pour l'incinération de déchets combustibles lors de la fabrication de clinker de ciment, dans lequel du ciment broyé non traité est préchauffé dans un système de préchauffage (1) avec un four de calcination (3), brûlé pour devenir du clinker dans un four (5) et refroidi dans un refroidisseur de clinker (7) ultérieur, procédé par lequel les déchets sont introduits par l'intermédiaire d'un orifice (11) d'entrée de déchets et sont supportés sur une surface de support (21) située dans un compartiment séparé (9), les déchets étant transportés activement tout en étant simultanément soumis à une incinération, au travers du compartiment jusqu'à sa sortie (23), au moins une partie de l'incinération des déchets dans le compartiment se déroutant dans une atmosphère sous-stoechiométrique, les gaz d'échappement chauds produits en relation avec l'incinération des déchets étant ventilés vers le système de préchauffeur pour chauffer le ciment broyé non traité, et le laitier produit lors de l'incinération des déchets étant extrait du compartiment (9), caractérisé en ce que

    - le compartiment (9) est situé entre le four de calcination (3) et le four (5),

    - les gaz d'échappement provenant du four (5) sont introduits dans le compartiment par l'intermédiaire d'un conduit ascendant (6),

    - les gaz d'échappement provenant du compartiment (9) sont introduits dans le four de calcination (3) par l'intermédiaire d'un conduit ascendant (4),

    - le compartiment (9) comporte une zone de combustion (18) comprenant le conduit ascendant (6) et l'extrémité de sortie du compartiment (9) et une zone de pyrolyse (19),

    - les gaz d'échappement contenant du NOx provenant du four (5) sont introduits dans et à travers le compartiment (9) à contre-courant du flux de déchets,
    de telle sorte que les gaz d'échappement sont soumis à des conditions de réduction de NOx sous-stoecbiométriques dans la zone de pyrolyse, et
    de telle sorte que la carbonisation imbrûlée au niveau de son évacuation du compartiment (9) est entraînée par les gaz d'échappement provenant du four (5), provoquant la combustion de la carbonisation par réaction avec l'oxygène dans les gaz d'échappement provenant du four (5).


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que tous les gaz d'échappement provenant du four sont introduits dans le compartiment.
     
    3. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 2, caractérisé en ce que les déchets sont transportés travers le compartiment (9) vers sa sortie (23) le long d'une trajectoire circulaire.
     
    4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisé en ce que le ciment broyé non traité est introduit dans le conduit ascendant (6) via une entrée (12).
     
    5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, caractérisé en ce que le ciment broyé non traité est introduit dans le compartiment (9) par l'intermédiaire d'un orifice d'entrée (13).
     
    6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, caractérisé en ce que de l'air chaud provenant du refroidisseur (7) à clinker est introduit dans le compartiment (9).
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le laitier produit pendant l'opération d'incinération des déchets ainsi que tous les déchets non brûlés sont évacués du compartiment (9), au niveau de sa sortie (23) et dans le four.
     
    8. Appareil pour l'incinération de déchets combustibles comprenant un magasin (17) de ciment broyé non traité, un système de préchauffage (1) ayant un four de calcination (3), un four (5), un refroidisseur de clinker (7), un compartiment (9) pour l'incinération des déchets, ledit compartiment comprenant un orifice d'entrée (11) pour introduire les déchets dans le compartiment (9) et une sortie (23) pour détourner le laitier et tous les déchets imbrûlés, lequel compartiment (9) comprend également une surface de support (21) pour supporter les déchets pendant le processus d'incinération et des moyens (21, 31) pour transporter les déchets depuis l'entrée des déchets (11) que comprend le compartiment, vers la sortie (23), caractérisé en ce que

    - l'appareil comprend des moyens pour introduire des gaz d'échappement contenant des NOx dans le compartiment (9),

    - lesdits moyens d'introduction de gaz d'échappement dans le compartiment (9) comprennent un conduit ascendant (6), qui est relié au four (5),

    - ledit compartiment (9) est situé entre le four de calcination (3) et le four (5),

    - lesdits gaz d'échappement provenant du compartiment (9) sont introduits dans le four de calcination (3) par l'intermédiaire d'un conduit ascendant (4),

    - le compartiment (9) présente une zone de combustion (18) comprenant le conduit ascendant (6) et l'extrémité de sortie du compartiment (9) et une zone de pyrolyse (19).


     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description