(19)
(11)EP 1 782 489 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
18.11.2020 Bulletin 2020/47

(21)Application number: 05765818.9

(22)Date of filing:  05.07.2005
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H01M 2/14  (2006.01)
C08J 7/04  (2020.01)
H01M 10/056  (2010.01)
H01M 10/052  (2010.01)
H01M 2/16  (2006.01)
H01M 10/0562  (2010.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/KR2005/002133
(87)International publication number:
WO 2006/004366 (12.01.2006 Gazette  2006/02)

(54)

ORGANIC/INORGANIC COMPOSITE POROUS SEPARATOR AND ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICE COMPRASING THE SAME.

ORGANISCHER/ANORGANISCHER VERBUNDSEPARATOR UND DIESER ENTHALTENDE ELEKTROCHEMISCHES BAUELEMENT.

NOUVEAU SEPARATEUR POREUX COMPOSITE ORGANIQUE/INORGANIQUE ET DISPOSITIF ELECTROCHIMIQUE LE CONTENANT.


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 07.07.2004 KR 2004052638
02.09.2004 KR 2004070097

(43)Date of publication of application:
09.05.2007 Bulletin 2007/19

(60)Divisional application:
20180768.2 / 3739668

(73)Proprietors:
  • LG Chem, Ltd.
    Seoul 07336 (KR)
  • Toray Industries, Inc.
    Tokyo (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • YONG, Hyun-Hang
    Seoul 152-102 (KR)
  • LEE, Sang-Young
    Daejeon 305-761 (KR)
  • KIM, Seok-Koo
    Daejeon 305-761 (KR)
  • AHN, Soon-Ho
    Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-720 (KR)
  • SUK, Jung-Don
    Daejeon 305-333 (KR)

(74)Representative: Goddar, Heinz J. et al
Boehmert & Boehmert Anwaltspartnerschaft mbB Pettenkoferstrasse 22
80336 München
80336 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 848 435
JP-A- 10 241 656
JP-A- 2003 059 480
US-A- 4 637 990
US-A- 5 882 721
US-A1- 2004 214 089
JP-A- 7 220 759
JP-A- 2000 228 223
US-A- 4 615 913
US-A- 5 707 567
US-A1- 2002 102 455
US-A1- 2006 078 791
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Technical Field



    [0001] The present invention relates to an organic/inorganic composite porous separator that can show excellent thermal safety and lithium ion conductivity and a high degree of swelling with electrolyte compared to conventional polyolefin-based separators, and an electrochemical device comprising the same, which ensures safety and has improved quality.

    Background Art



    [0002] Recently, there is an increasing interest in energy storage technology. Batteries have been widely used as energy sources in portable phones, camcorders, notebook computers, PCs and electric cars, resulting in intensive research and development into them. In this regard, electrochemical devices are subjects of great interest. Particularly, development of rechargeable secondary batteries is the focus of attention.

    [0003] Secondary batteries are chemical batteries capable of repeated charge and discharge cycles by means of reversible interconversion between chemical energy and electric energy, and may be classified into Ni-MH secondary batteries and lithium secondary batteries. Lithium secondary batteries include secondary lithium metal batteries, secondary lithium ion batteries, secondary lithium polymer batteries, secondary lithium ion polymer batteries, etc.

    [0004] Because lithium secondary batteries have drive voltage and energy density higher than those of conventional batteries using aqueous electrolytes (such as Ni-MH batteries), they are produced commercially by many production companies. However, most lithium secondary batteries have different safety characteristics depending on several factors. Evaluation of and security in safety of batteries are very important matters to be considered. Therefore, safety of batteries is strictly restricted in terms of ignition and combustion in batteries by safety standards.

    [0005] Currently available lithium ion batteries and lithium ion polymer batteries use polyolefin-based separators in order to prevent short circuit between a cathode and an anode. However, because such polyolefin-based separators have a melting point of 200 °C or less, they have a disadvantage in that they can be shrunk or molten to cause a change in volume when the temperature of a battery is increased by internal and/or external factors. Therefore, there is a great possibility of short-circuit between a cathode and an anode caused by shrinking or melting of separators, resulting in accidents such as explosion of a battery caused by emission of electric energy. As a result, it is necessary to provide a separator that does not cause heat shrinking at high temperature.

    [0006] To solve the above problems related with polyolefin-based separators, many attempts are made to develop an electrolyte using an inorganic material serving as a substitute for a conventional separator. Such electrolytes may be broadly classified into two types. The first type is a solid composite electrolyte obtained by using inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity alone or by using inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity mixed with a polymer matrix. See, Japanese Laid-Open Patent No. 2003-022707, ["Solid State lonics"- vol.158, n.3, p.275, (2003)], ["Journal of Power Sources"-vol.1 12, n.1, p.209, (2002)], ["Electrochimica Acta"-vol.48, n.14, p.2003, (2003)], etc. However, it is known that such composite electrolytes are not advisable, because they have low ion conductivity compared to liquid electrolytes and the interfacial resistance between the inorganic materials and the polymer is high while they are mixed.

    [0007] The second type is an electrolyte obtained by mixing inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity or not with a gel polymer electrolyte formed of a polymer and liquid electrolyte. In this case, inorganic materials are introduced in a relatively small amount compared to the polymer and liquid electrolyte, and thus merely have a supplementary function to assist in lithium ion conduction made by the liquid electrolyte.

    [0008] As described above, electrolytes according to the prior art using inorganic particles have common problems as follows. First, when liquid electrolyte is not used, the interfacial resistance among inorganic particles and between inorganic particles and polymer excessively increases, resulting in degradation of quality. Next, the above-described electrolytes cannot be easily handled due to the brittleness thereof when an excessive amount of inorganic materials is introduced. Therefore, it is difficult to assemble batteries using such electrolytes. Particularly, most attempts made up to date are for developing an inorganic material-containing composite electrolyte in the form of a free standing film. However, it is practically difficult to apply such electrolyte in batteries due to poor mechanical properties such as high brittleness of the film. Even if the content of inorganic particles is reduced to improve mechanical properties, mixing inorganic particles with a liquid electrolyte causes a significant drop in mechanical properties due to the liquid electrolyte, resulting in a fail in the subsequent assemblage step of batteries. When a liquid electrolyte is injected after assemblage of a battery, dispersion of the electrolyte in a battery needs too long time and actual wettability with electrolyte is poor due to the high content of the polymer in the organic/inorganic composite film. Additionally, addition of inorganic particles for improving safety causes a problem of a significant drop in lithium ion conductivity. Further, because the electrolyte has no pores therein or, if any, has pores with a size of several angstroms(A) and low porosity, the electrolyte cannot sufficiently serve as separator.

    [0009] In addition, US Patent No. 6,432,586 discloses a composite film comprising a polyolefin-based separator coated with silica, etc., so as to improve the mechanical properties such as brittleness of the organic/inorganic composite electrolyte. However, because such films still use a polyolefin-based separator, they have a disadvantage in that it is not possible to obtain a significant improvement in safety including prevention of heat shrinking at high temperature.

    [0010] JP 2003-059480 A discloses a porous separator for a lithium battery comprising a porous substrate sheet, and an organic polymer layer having microporous structure and comprising an organic polymer and an inorganic filler.

    [0011] US 2002/102455 A1 discloses a separator for a Li-ion polymer battery having a thickness of 30 to 80 micrometer comprising three layers 40a, 40b and 40c. Layer 40b provides structural support to layers 40a and 40c. Layers 40a, 40b and 40c are formed by a polymer, a plasticizer and a filler.

    [0012] US 2006/0078791 A1 discloses a separator for an electrochemical cell, comprising a flexible perforate support and a porous ceramic material which fills the perforations in the support and is suitable for receiving an ion-conducting electrolyte, wherein the porous ceramic material comprises a first porous layer which is characterized by an average pore size and also at least one second porous layer for contacting with an electrode, the second porous layer having an average pore size which is smaller than the average pore size of the first porous layer.

    [0013] EP 0 848 435 A1 is directed to a battery comprising a porous separator disposed between a positive electrode and a negative electrode, wherein the porous separator comprises at least one layer of an aggregate form of particles of at least one insulating substance, wherein the at least one layer of the aggregate form of particles has a three-dimensional network of voids which function as pores in said porous separator and which are capable of passing ions there through.

    [0014] US 5,882,721 provides a process for fabricating a composite separator layer having electrolyte fillable voids for an electrochemical cell which includes an electrode, comprising the steps of disposing a solution of separator precursor on said electrode wherein said solution comprises a solid particulate material and a polymer binder, and transforming the solution of separator precursor so that voids form between particles of said solid particulate material.

    [0015] JP 7-220759 A discloses a porous protecting film in a battery between positive and negative electrode.

    [0016] JP 10-241656 A discloses a separator consisting of insulation material particle aggregated layer in which insulation substance particles are coupled with a binder which is fixed to active material layers of a positive electrode and/or a negative electrode.

    [0017] JP 2000-228223 A discloses electron non-conductive particles interposed between the opposite positive and negative electrode, and a gap there between is filled with an electrolytic solution.

    Disclosure of Invention


    Technical Problem



    [0018] We have found that an organic/inorganic composite porous separator, formed by using
    (1) a heat resistant porous substrate, (2) inorganic particles and (3) a binder polymer, improves poor thermal safety of a conventional polyolefin-based separator. Additionally, we have found that because the organic/inorganic composite porous film has pore structures present both in the porous substrate and in an active layer formed of the inorganic particles and the binder polymer coated on the porous substrate, it provides an increased volume of space, into which a liquid electrolyte infiltrates, resulting in improvements in lithium ion conductivity and degree of swelling with electrolyte.

    [0019] Therefore, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator can improve the quality and safety of an electrochemical device using the same as separator.

    [0020] Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide an organic/inorganic composite porous separator capable of improving the quality and safety of an electrochemical device, and an electrochemical device comprising the same.

    Technical Solution



    [0021] According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided an organic/ inorganic composite porous separator, which comprises (a) a porous substrate having pores, which has a pore size of 0.01- 50 µm; and (b) an organic/inorganic composite porous active layer coated directly on a surface of the substrate, the active layer comprising a mixture of inorganic particles having a particle size of between 0.001 µm and 10 µm and a binder polymer, wherein the inorganic particles are present in the mixture of inorganic particles with the binder polymer in an amount of 60-99 wt % based on 100 wt % of the mixture, wherein the inorganic particles in the active layer are interconnected among themselves and are fixed by the binder polymer and permit interstitial volumes to be formed among them, and interstitial volumes among the inorganic particles form a pore structure that permits lithium ions to move therethrough, wherein, as the size of the inorganic particles increases, interstitial distance among the inorganic particles increases, thereby increasing the pore size. There is also provided an electrochemical device (preferably, a lithium secondary battery) comprising the same.

    [0022] Further embodiments are disclosed in the dependent claims.

    [0023] Hereinafter, the present invention will be explained in more detail.

    [0024] The present invention is characterized in that it provides an organic/inorganic composite porous separator, which serves sufficiently as separator to prevent electrical contact between a cathode and an anode of a battery and to pass ions therethrough, improves poor thermal safety related with a conventional polyolefin-based separator, and shows excellent lithium ion conductivity and a high degree of swelling with electrolyte.

    [0025] The organic/inorganic composite porous separator is obtained by coating a mixture of inorganic particles with a binder polymer on the surface of a porous substrate (preferably, a heat resistant substrate having a melting point of 200°C or higher). The pores present in the substrate itself and a uniform pore structure formed in the active layer by the interstitial volumes among the inorganic particles permit the organic/ inorganic composite porous film to be used as separator. Additionally, if a polymer capable of being gelled when swelled with a liquid electrolyte is used as the binder polymer component, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator can serve also as electrolyte.

    [0026] Particular characteristics of the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator are as follows.
    1. (1) Conventional solid electrolytes formed by using inorganic particles and a binder polymer have no pore structure or, if any, have an irregular pore structure having a pore size of several angstroms. Therefore, they cannot serve sufficiently as spacer, through which lithium ions can pass, resulting in degradation in the quality of a battery. On the contrary, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention has uniform pore structures both in the porous substrate and in the active layer as shown in FIGs. 1 and 2, and the pore structures permit lithium ions to move smoothly therethrough. Therefore, it is possible to introduce a large amount of electrolyte through the pore structures so that a high degree of swelling with electrolyte can be obtained, resulting in improvement of battery quality.
    2. (2) Conventional separators or polymer electrolytes are formed in the shape of free standing films and then assembled together with electrodes. On the contrary, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention is formed by coating it directly on the surface of a porous substrate having pores so that the pores on the porous substrate and the active layer can be anchored to each other, thereby providing a firm physical bonding between the active layer and the porous substrate. Therefore, problems related with mechanical properties such as brittleness can be improved. Additionally, such increased interfacial adhesion between the porous substrate and the active coating layer can decrease the interfacial resistance. In fact, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention includes the organic/inorganic composite active layer bonded organically to the porous substrate. Additionally, the active layer does not affect the pore structure present in the porous substrate so that the structure can be maintained. Further, the active layer itself has a uniform pore structure formed by the inorganic particles (see FIGs. 1 and 2). Because the above-mentioned pore structures are filled with a liquid electrolyte injected subsequently, interfacial resistance generated among the inorganic particles or between the inorganic particles and the binder polymer can be decreased significantly.
    3. (3) The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention shows improved thermal safety by virtue of the heat resistant substrate and inorganic particles.
      In other words, although conventional polyolefin-based separators cause heat shrinking at high temperature because they have a melting point of 120-140°C, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator does not cause heat shrinking due to the heat resistance of the porous substrate having a melting point of 200°C or higher and the inorganic particles. Therefore, an electrochemical device using the above organic/ inorganic composite porous separator causes no degradation in safety resulting from an internal short circuit between a cathode and an anode even under extreme conditions such as high temperature, overcharge, etc. As a result, such electrochemical devices have excellent safety characteristics compared to conventional batteries.
    4. (4) Nonwoven webs made of PET having a mixed layer of alumina (Al O) and silica (SiO) are known to one skilled in the art. However, such composite films use no binder polymer for supporting and interconnecting inorganic particles. Additionally, there is no correct understanding with regard to the particle diameter and homogeneity of the inorganic particles and a pore structure formed by the inorganic particles. Therefore, such composite films according to the prior art have a problem in that they cause degradation in the quality of a battery (see, FIG. 4). More particularly, when the inorganic particles have a relatively large diameter, the thickness of an organic/ inorganic coating layer obtained under the same solid content increases, resulting in degradation in mechanical properties. Additionally, in this case, there is a great possibility of internal short circuit during charge/discharge cycles of a battery due to an excessively large pore size. Further, due to the lack of a binder that serves to fix the inorganic particles on the substrate, a finally formed film is deteriorated in terms of mechanical properties and has a difficult in applying to a practical battery assemblage process. For example, the composite films according to the prior art may not be amenable to a lamination process. On the contrary, we have recognized that control of the porosity and pore size of the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention is one of the factors affecting the quality of a battery. Therefore, we have varied and optimized the particle diameter of the inorganic particles or the mixing ratio of the inorganic particles with the binder polymer. In addition, according to the present invention, the binder polymer used in the active layer can serve, as binder, to interconnect and stably fix the inorganic particles among themselves, between the inorganic particles and the surface of the heat resistant porous substrate, and between the inorganic particles and a part of the pores in the substrate, thereby preventing degradation in mechanical properties of a finally formed organic/inorganic composite porous separator.
    5. (5) When the inorganic particles used in the active layer of the organic/inorganic composite porous separator have high dielectric constant and/or lithium ion conductivity, the inorganic particles can improve lithium ion conductivity as well as heat resistance, thereby contributing to improvement of battery quality.
    6. (6) When the binder polymer used in the organic/inorganic composite porous separator is one showing a high degree of swelling with electrolyte, the electrolyte injected after assemblage of a battery can infiltrate into the polymer and the resultant polymer containing the electrolyte infiltrated therein has a capability of conducting electrolyte ions. Therefore, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention can improve the quality of an electrochemical device compared to conventional organic/inorganic composite electrolytes. Additionally, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator provides advantages in that wettablity with an electrolyte for battery is improved compared to conventional hydrophobic polyolefin-based separators, and use of a polar electrolyte for battery can be permitted.
    7. (7) Finally, if the binder polymer is one capable of being gelled when swelled with electrolyte, the polymer reacts with the electrolyte injected subsequently and is gelled, thereby forming a gel type organic/inorganic composite electrolyte. Such electrolytes are produced with ease compared to conventional gel-type electrolytes and show excellent ion conductivity and a high degree of swelling with electrolyte, thereby contributing to improve the quality of a battery.


    [0027] In the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention, there is no particular limitation in the substrate coated with the mixture of inorganic particles and binder polymer, as long as it is a porous substrate having pores. However, it is preferable to use a heat resistant porous substrate having a melting point of 200°C or higher. Such heat resistant porous substrates can improve the thermal safety of the organic/inorganic composite porous film under external and/or internal thermal impacts.

    [0028] Non-limiting examples of the porous substrate that may be used include polyethylene terephthalate, polybutylene terephthalate, polyester, polyacetal, polyamide, polycarbonate, polyimide, polyetherether ketone, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfidro, polyethylene naphthalene or mixtures thereof. However, other heat resistant engineering plastics may be used with no particular limitation.

    [0029] Although there is no particular limitation in thickness of the porous substrate, the porous substrate preferably has a thickness of between 1 µm and 100 µm, more preferably of between 5 µm and 50 µm. When the porous substrate has a thickness of less than 1 µm, it is difficult to maintain mechanical properties. When the porous substrate has a thickness of greater than 100 µm, it may function as resistance layer.

    [0030] Although there is no particular limitation in pore size and porosity of the porous substrate, the porous substrate preferably has a porosity of between 5% and 95%. The pore size (diameter) preferably ranges from 0.01 µm to 50 µm, more preferably from 0.1 µm to 20 µm. When the pore size and porosity are less than 0.01 µm and 5%, respectively, the porous substrate may function as resistance layer. When the pore size and porosity are greater than 50 µm and 95%, respectively, it is difficult to maintain mechanical properties.

    [0031] The porous substrate may take the form of a membrane or fiber. When the porous substrate is fibrous, it may be a nonwoven web forming a porous web (preferably, spunbond type web comprising long fibers or melt blown type web).

    [0032] A spunbond process is performed continuously through a series of steps and provides long fibers formed by heating and melting, which is stretched, in turn, by hot air to form a web. A melt blown process performs spinning of a polymer capable of forming fibers through a spinneret having several hundreds of small orifices, and thus provides three-dimensional fibers having a spider-web structure resulting from interconnection of microfibers having a diameter of 10 µm or less.

    [0033] In the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention, one component present in the active layer formed on the surface of the porous substrate or on a part of the pores in the porous substrate is inorganic particles currently used in the art. The inorganic particles permit an interstitial volume to be formed among them, thereby serving to form micropores and to maintain the physical shape as spacer. Additionally, because the inorganic particles are characterized in that their physical properties are not changed even at a high temperature of 200°C or higher, the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator using the inorganic particles can have excellent heat resistance.

    [0034] There is no particular limitation in selection of inorganic particles, as long as they are electrochemically stable. In other words, there is no particular limitation in inorganic particles that may be used in the present invention, as long as they are not subjected to oxidation and/or reduction at the range of drive voltages (for example, 0-5 V based on Li/Li+) of a battery, to which they are applied. Particularly, it is preferable to use inorganic particles having ion conductivity as high as possible, because such inorganic particles can improve ion conductivity and quality in an electrochemical device. Additionally, when inorganic particles having a high density are used, they have a difficulty in dispersion during a coating step and may increase the weight of a battery to be manufactured. Therefore, it is preferable to use inorganic particles having a density as low as possible. Further, when inorganic particles having a high dielectric constant are used, they can contribute to increase the dissociation degree of an electrolyte salt in a liquid electrolyte, such as a lithium salt, thereby improving the ion conductivity of the electrolyte.

    [0035] For these reasons, it is preferable to use inorganic particles having a high dielectric constant of 5 or more, preferably of 10 or more, inorganic particles having lithium conductivity or mixtures thereof.

    [0036] Particular non-limiting examples of inorganic particles having a dielectric constant of 5 or more include BaTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), Pb1-xLaxZr1-yTiyO3 (PLZT), PB(Mg Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), hafnia (HfO2), SrTiO3, SnO2, CeO2, MgO, NiO, CaO, ZnO, ZrO2, Y2O3, Al2O3, TiO2 or mixtures thereof.

    [0037] As used herein, "inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity" are referred to as inorganic particles containing lithium elements and having a capability of conducting lithium ions without storing lithium. Inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity can conduct and move lithium ions due to defects present in their structure, and thus can improve lithium ion conductivity and contribute to improve battery quality. Non-limiting examples of such inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity include: lithim phosphate (Li3PO4), lithium titanium phosphate (LixTiy(PO4)3, 0<x<2, 0<y<3), lithium aluminium titanium phosphate (LixAlyTiz(PO4)3, 0<x<2, 0< y<1, 0<z<3), (LiAlTiP)xOy type glass (0<x<4, 0<y<13) such as 14Li2O-9Al2O3-38TiO2-39P2O5, lithium lanthanum titanate (LixLayTiO3, 0<x<2, 0<y<3), lithium germanium thiophosphate (LixGeyPzSw, 0<x<4, 0<y<1, 0<z<1, 0<w<5), such as Li3.25Ge0.25P.075S4, lithium nitrides(LixNy, 0<x<4, 0<y<2) such as Li3N, SiS2 type glass (LixSiySz, 0<x<3, 0 <y<2, 0<z<4) such as Li3PO4-Li2S-SiS2, P2S5 type glass (LixPySz, 0<x<3, 0<y<3, 0<z< 7) such as LiI-Li2S-P2S5, or mixtures thereof.

    [0038] According to the present invention, inorganic particles having relatively high dielectric constant are used instead of inorganic particles having no reactivity or having a relatively low dielectric constant. Further, the present invention also provides a novel use of inorganic particles as separators.

    [0039] The above-described inorganic particles, that have never been used as separators, for example Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), Pb1-xLaxZr1-yTiyO3 (PLZT), Pb(Mg3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), hafnia (HfO2), etc., have a high dielectric constant of 100 or more. The inorganic particles also have piezoelectricity so that an electric potential can be generated between both surfaces by the charge formation, when they are drawn or compressed under the application of a certain pressure. Therefore, the inorganic particles can prevent internal short circuit between both electrodes, thereby contributing to improve the safety of a battery. Additionally, when such inorganic particles having a high dielectric constant are combined with inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity, synergic effects can be obtained.

    [0040] The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention can form pores having a size of several micrometers by controlling the size of inorganic particles, content of inorganic particles and the mixing ratio of inorganic particles and binder polymer. It is also possible to control the pore size and porosity.

    [0041] Inorganic particles preferably have a size of 0.001-10 µm for the purpose of forming a film having a uniform thickness and providing a suitable porosity. When the size is less than 0.001 µm, inorganic particles have poor dispersibility so that physical properties of the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator cannot be controlled with ease. When the size is greater than 10 µm, the resultant organic/inorganic composite porous separator has an increased thickness under the same solid content, resulting in degradation in mechanical properties. Furthermore, such excessively large pores may increase a possibility of internal short circuit being generated during repeated charge/discharge cycles.

    [0042] The inorganic particles are present in the mixture of the inorganic particles with binder polymer forming the organic/inorganic composite porous separator in an amount of 60-99 wt%, more particularly in an amount of 60-95 wt% based on 100 wt% of the total weight of the mixture. When the content of the inorganic particles is less than 50 wt%, the binder polymer is present in such a large amount as to decrease the interstitial volume formed among the inorganic particles and thus to decrease the pore size and porosity, resulting in degradation in the quality of a battery. When the content of the inorganic particles is greater than 99 wt%, the polymer content is too low to provide sufficient adhesion among the inorganic particles, resulting in degradation in mechanical properties of a finally formed organic/inorganic composite porous separator.

    [0043] In the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention, another component present in the active layer formed on the surface of the porous substrate or on a part of the pores in the porous substrate is a binder polymer currently used in the art. The binder polymer preferably has a glass transition temperature (Tg) low as possible, more preferably Tg of between -200°C and 200°C. Binder polymers g having a low Tg as described above are preferable, because they can improve g mechanical properties such as flexibility and elasticity of a finally formed separator. The polymer serves as binder that interconnects and stably fixes the inorganic particles among themselves, and thus prevents degradation in mechanical properties of a finally formed organic/inorganic composite porous separator.

    [0044] When the binder polymer has ion conductivity, it can further improve the quality of an electrochemical device. However, it is not essential to use a binder polymer having ion conductivity. Therefore, the binder polymer preferably has a dielectric constant as high as possible. Because the dissociation degree of a salt in an electrolyte depends on the dielectric constant of a solvent used in the electrolyte, the polymer having a higher dielectric constant can increase the dissociation degree of a salt in the electrolyte used in the present invention. The dielectric constant of the binder polymer may range from 1.0 to 100 (as measured at a frequency of 1 kHz), and is preferably 10 or more.

    [0045] In addition to the above-described functions, the binder polymer used in the present invention may be further characterized in that it is gelled when swelled with a liquid electrolyte, and thus shows a high degree of swelling. Therefore, it is preferable to use a polymer having a solubility parameter of between 15 and 45 MPa , more preferably of between 15 and 25 MPa , and between 30 and 45 MPa . Therefore, hydrophilic polymers having a lot of polar groups are more preferable than hydrophobic polymers such as polyolefins. When the binder polymer has a solubility parameter of less than 15 Mpa or greater than 45 Mpa , it has a difficulty in swelling with a conventional liquid electrolyte for battery.

    [0046] Non-limiting examples of the binder polymer that may be used in the present invention include polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene, polyvinylidene fluoride-co-trichloroethylene, polymethylmethacrylate, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl acetate, polyethylene-co- vinyl acetate, polyethylene oxide, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate, cyanoethylpullulan, cyanoethyl polyvinylalcohol, cyanoethylcellulose, cyanoethylsucrose, pullulan, carboxymetyl cellulose, acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene copolymer, polyimide or mixtures thereof. Other materials may be used alone or in combination, as long as they satisfy the above characteristics.

    [0047] The organic/inorganic composite porous seperator may further comprise additives other than the inorganic particles and binder polymer as still another component of the active layer.

    [0048] As described above, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator formed by coating the mixture of inorganic particles with binder polymer onto the porous substrate has pores contained in the porous substrate itself and forms pore structures in the substrate as well as in the active layer due to the interstitial volume among the inorganic particles, formed on the substrate. The pore size and porosity of the organic/inorganic composite porous film mainly depend on the size of inorganic particles. For example, when inorganic particles having a particle diameter of 1 µm or less are used, pores formed thereby also have a size of 1 µm or less. The pore structure is filled with an electrolyte injected subsequently and the electrolyte serves to conduct ions. Therefore, the size and porosity of the pores are important factors in controlling the ion conductivity of the organic/inorganic composite porous film. Preferably, the pores size and porosity of the organic/inorganic composite porous film according to the present invention range from 0.01 to 10 µm and from 5 to 95%, respectively.

    [0049] There is no particular limitation in thickness of the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention. The thickness may be controlled depending on the quality of a battery. According to the present invention, the separator preferably has a thickness of between 1 and 100 µm, more preferably of between 2 and 30 µm. Control of the thickness of the film may contribute to improve the quality of a battery.

    [0050] The organic/inorganic composite porous separator may be applied to a battery together with a microporous separator (for example, a polyolefin-based separator), depending on the characteristics of a finally formed battery.

    [0051] The organic/inorganic composite porous separator may be manufactured by a conventional process known to one skilled in the art. A method for manufacturing the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention, includes the steps of: (a) dissolving a binder polymer into a solvent to form a polymer solution; (b) adding inorganic particles to the polymer solution obtained from step (a) and mixing them; and (c) coating the mixture of inorganic particles with binder polymer obtained from step (b) on the surface of a substrate having pores or on a part of the pores in the substrate, followed by drying.

    [0052] Hereinafter, the method for manufacturing the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention will be explained in detail.
    1. (1) First, a binder polymer is dissolved in a suitable organic solvent to provide a polymer solution.
      It is preferable that the solvent has a solubility parameter similar to that of the polymer to be used and a low boiling point. Such solvents can be mixed uniformly with the polymer and can be removed easily after coating the polymer. Non-limiting examples of the solvent that may be used include acetone, tetrahydrofuran, methylene chloride, chloroform, dimethylformamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, cyclohexane, water or mixtures thereof.
    2. (2) Next, inorganic particles are added to and dispersed in the polymer solution obtained from the preceding step to provide a mixture of inorganic particles with binder polymer.
      It is preferable to perform a step of pulverizing inorganic particles after adding the inorganic particles to the binder polymer solution. The time needed for pulverization is suitably 1-20 hours. The particle size of the pulverized particles ranges preferably from 0.001 and 10 µm. Conventional pulverization methods, preferably a method using a ball mill, may be used.
      The composition of the mixture containing inorganic particles and binder polymer, can contribute to control the thickness, pore size and porosity of the organic/inorganic composite porous separator to be formed finally.
      In other words, as the weight ratio (I/P) of the inorganic particles (I) to the polymer (P) increases, porosity of the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention increases. Therefore, the thickness of the organic/inorganic composite porous separator increases under the same solid content (weight of the inorganic particles + weight of the binder polymer). Additionally, the pore size increases in proportion to the pore formation among the inorganic particles. When the size (particle diameter) of the inorganic particles increases, interstitial distance among the inorganic particles increases, thereby increasing the pore size.
    3. (3) The mixture of inorganic particles with binder polymer is coated on the heat resistant porous substrate, followed by drying to provide the organic/inorganic composite porous separator.


    [0053] In order to coat the porous substrate with the mixture of inorganic particles and binder polymer, any methods known to one skilled in the art may be used. It is possible to use various processes including dip coating, die coating, roll coating, comma coating or combinations thereof. Additionally, when the mixture containing inorganic particles and polymer is coated on the porous substrate, either or both surfaces of the porous substrate may be coated.

    [0054] The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention, obtained as described above, may be used as separator in an electrochemical device, preferably in a lithium secondary battery. If the binder polymer used in the separator is a polymer capable of being gelled when swelled with a liquid electrolyte, the polymer may react with the electrolyte injected after assembling a battery by using the
    separator, and thus be gelled to form a gel type organic/inorganic composite electrolyte.

    [0055] The gel type organic/inorganic composite electrolyte is prepared with ease compared to gel type polymer electrolytes according to the prior art, and has a large space to be filled with a liquid electrolyte due to its mi- croporous structure, thereby showing excellent ion conductivity and a high degree of swelling with electrolyte, resulting in improvement in the quality of a battery.

    [0056] Further, the present invention provides an electrochemical device comprising: (a) a cathode; (b) an anode; (c) the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention, interposed between the cathode and anode; and (d) an electrolyte.

    [0057] Such electrochemical devices include any devices in which electrochemical reactions occur and particular examples thereof include all kinds of primary batteries, secondary batteries, fuel cells, solar cells or capacitors. Particularly, the electrochemical device is a lithium secondary battery including a lithium metal secondary battery, lithium ion secondary battery, lithium polymer secondary battery or lithium ion polymer secondary battery.

    [0058] According to the present invention, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator contained in the electrochemical device serves as separator. If the polymer used in the separator is a polymer capable of being gelled when swelled with electrolyte, the separator may serve also as electrolyte. In addition to the above organic/inorganic composite porous separator, a microporous separator, for example a polyolefin-based separator may be used together.

    [0059] The electrochemical device may be manufactured by a conventional method known to one skilled in the art. In one embodiment of the method for manufacturing the electrochemical device, the electrochemical device is assembled by using the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator interposed between a cathode and anode, and then an electrolyte is injected.

    [0060] The electrode that may be applied together with the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention may be formed by applying an electrode active material on a current collector according to a method known to one skilled in the art. Particularly, cathode active materials may include any conventional cathode active materials currently used in a cathode of a conventional electrochemical device. Particular non-limiting examples of the cathode active material include lithium intercalation materials such as lithium manganese oxides, lithium cobalt oxides, lithium nickel oxides, lithium iron oxides or composite oxides thereof. Additionally, anode active materials may include any conventional anode active materials currently used in an anode of a conventional electrochemical device. Particular non-limiting examples of the anode active material include lithium intercalation materials such as lithium metal, lithium alloys, carbon, petroleum coke, activated carbon, graphite or other carbonaceous materials. Non-limiting examples of a cathode current collector include foil formed of aluminum, nickel or a combination thereof. Non- limiting examples of an anode current collector include foil formed of copper, gold, nickel, copper alloys or a combination thereof.

    [0061] The electrolyte that may be used in the present invention includes a salt represented by the formula of A+B, wherein A+ represents an alkali metal cation selected from the group consisting of Li+, Na+, K+ and combinations thereof, and B- represents an anion selected from the group consisting of PF6-, BF4-, Cl-, Br-, I-, ClO3-, AsF6-, CH3CO2-, CF3SO3-, N(CF3SO2)2-, C(CF2SO2)3- and combinations thereof, the salt being dissolved or dissociated in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of propylene carbonate (PC), ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), dipropyl carbonate (DPC), dimethyl sulfoxide, acetonitrile, dimethoxyethane, diethoxy ethane, tetrahydrofuran, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and mixtures thereof. However, the electrolyte that may be used in the present invention is not limited to the above examples.

    [0062] More particularly, the electrolyte may be injected in a suitable step during the manufacturing process of an electrochemical device, according to the manufacturing process and desired properties of a final product. In other words, electrolyte may be injected, before an electrochemical device is assembled or in a final step during the assemblage of an electrochemical device.

    [0063] Processes that may be used for applying the organic/inorganic composite porous separator to a battery include not only a conventional winding process but also a lamination (stacking) and folding process of a separator and electrode.

    [0064] When the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention is applied to a lamination process, it is possible to significantly improve the thermal safety of a battery, because a battery formed by a lamination and folding process generally shows more severe heat shrinking of a separator compared to a battery formed by a winding process. Additionally, when a lamination process is used, there is an advantage in that a battery can be assembled with ease by virtue of excellent adhesion of the polymer present in the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention. In this case, the adhesion can be controlled de pending on the content of inorganic particles and content and properties of the polymer. More particularly, as the polarity of the polymer increases and as the glass transition temperature (Tg) or melting point (Tm) of the polymer decreases, higher adhesion between the organic/inorganic composite porous separator and electrode can be obtained.

    Advantageous Effects



    [0065] As can be seen from the foregoing, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention can solve the problem of poor thermal safety occurring in a conventional polyolefin-based separator by using a heat resistant porous substrate. Additionally, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention has pore structures formed in the porous substrate itself as well as in the active layer formed on the substrate by using inorganic particles and a binder polymer, thereby increasing the space to be filled with an electrolyte, resulting in improvement in a degree of swelling with electrolyte and lithium ion conductivity. Therefore, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention contributes to improve the thermal safety and quality of a lithium secondary battery using the same as separator.

    Brief Description of the Drawings



    [0066] The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

    FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing an organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention;

    FIG. 2 is a photograph taken by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showing the organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3) according to Example 1;

    FIG. 3 is a photograph taken by SEM showing a polyolefin-based separator (PP/PE/PP) used in Comparative Example 1;

    FIG. 4 is a photograph taken by SEM showing a conventional film (Al2O3-SiO2/ PET nonwoven) using no binder polymer according to the prior art;

    FIG. 5 is a photograph showing the organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3) according to Example 1 compared to a currently used PP/PE/PP separator and the organic/inorganic composite porous film (PVdF-HFP/BaTiO3) according to Comparative Example 3, which has an inorganic material layer formed on a PP/PE/PP separator, after each of the samples are maintained at 150°C for 1 hour;

    FIG. 6 is a picture and graph showing the results of an overcharge test for the lithium secondary battery including a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 1 and the lithium secondary battery including the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3) according to Example 1;

    FIG. 7 is a graph showing the high rate discharge characteristics (C -rate) of the lithium secondary battery including a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 1 and the lithium secondary battery including the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3) according to Example 1; and

    FIG. 8 is a graph showing the cycle characteristics of the lithium secondary battery including a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 1 and the lithium secondary battery including the organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3) according to Example 1.


    Mode for the Invention



    [0067] Reference will now be made in detail to the preferred embodiments of the present invention. It is to be understood that the following examples are illustrative only and the present invention is not limited thereto.

    [EXAMPLE 1-6] Preparation of organic/inorganic composite porous separator and Manufacture of lithium secondary battery using the same


    Example 1


    1-1. Preparation of organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3)



    [0068] PVdF-CTFE polymer (polyvinylidene fluoride-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer) was added to acetone in the amount of about 5 wt% and dissolved therein at 50°C for about 12 hours or more to form a polymer solution. To the polymer solution obtained as described above, BaTiO3 powder was added with the concentration of 20 wt% on the solid content basis. Then, the BaTiO3 powder was pulverized into a size of about 300 nm and dispersed for about 12 hours or more by using a ball mill method to form slurry. Then, the slurry obtained as described above was coated on a porous polyethylene terephthalate substrate (porosity: 80%) having a thickness of about 20 µm by using a dip coating process to a coating layer thickness of about 2 µm. After measuring with a porosimeter, the active layer impregnated into and coated on the porous polyethylene terephthalate substrate had a pore size of 0.3 µm and a porosity of 55%.

    1-2. Manufacture of lithium secondary battery


    (Manufacture of cathode)



    [0069] To N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent, 92 wt% of lithium cobalt composite oxide (LiCoO2) as cathode active material, 4 wt% of carbon black as conductive agent and 4 wt% of PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) as binder were added to form slurry for a cathode. The slurry was coated on Al foil having a thickness of 20 µm as cathode collector and dried to form a cathode. Then, the cathode was subjected to roll press.

    (Manufacture of anode)



    [0070] To N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent, 96 wt% of carbon powder as anode active material, 3 wt% of PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) as binder and 1 wt% of carbon black as conductive agent were added to form mixed slurry for an anode. The slurry was coated on Cu foil having a thickness of 10 µm as anode collector and dried to form an anode. Then, the anode was subjected to roll press.

    (Manufacture of battery)



    [0071] The cathode and anode obtained as described above were stacked with the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator obtained as described in Example 1-1 to form an assembly. Then, an electrolyte (ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethylemethyl carbonate (EMC)= 1:2 (volume ratio) containing IM of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6)) was injected thereto to provide a lithium secondary battery.

    Example 2



    [0072] Example 1 was repeated to provide a lithium secondary battery, except that PMNPT (lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) powder was used instead of BaTiO3 powder to obtain an organic/inorganic composite porous seprator (PVdF-CTFE/PMNPT). After measuring with a porosimeter, the active layer impregnated into and coated on the porous polyethylene terephthalate substrate had a pore size of 0.4 µm and a porosity of 60%.

    Example 3



    [0073] Example 1 was repeated to provide a lithium secondary battery, except that mixed powder of BaTiO3 and Al2O3 (weight ratio= 30:70) was used instead of BaTiO3 powder to obtain an organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3-Al2O3). After measuring with a porosimeter, the active layer impregnated into and coated on the porous polyethylene terephthalate substrate had a pore size of 0.2 µm and a porosity of 50%.

    Example 4



    [0074] Example 1 was repeated to provide a lithium secondary battery, except that PVdF-CTFE was not used but about 2 wt% of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) polymer was added to water and dissolved therein at 60°C for about 12 hours or more to form a polymer solution, and the polymer solution was used to obtain an organic/inorganic composite porous separator (CMC/BaTiO3). After measuring with a porosimeter, the active layer impregnated into and coated on the porous polyethylene terephthalate substrate had a pore size of 0.4 µm and a porosity of 58%.

    Example 5



    [0075] Example 1 was repeated to provide a lithium secondary battery, except that neither PVdF-CTFE nor BaTiO3 powder was used, and PVDF-HFP and lithium titanium phosphate (LiTi2(PO4)3) powder were used to obtain an organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-HFP/ LiTi2(PO4)3) comprising a porous polyethylene terephthalate substrate (porosity: 80%) having a thickness of about 20 µm coated with an active layer having a thickness of about 2 µm. After measuring with a porosimeter, the active layer impregnated into and coated on the porous polyethylene terephthalate substrate had a pore size of 0.4 µm and a porosity of 58%.

    Example 6



    [0076] Example 1 was repeated to provide a lithium secondary battery, except that neither PVdF-CTFE nor BaTiO3 powder was used, and PVDF-HFP and mixed powder of BaTiO3 and LiTi2(PO4)3 (weight ratio= 50:50) were used to obtain an organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-HFP/LiTi2)(PO4)3-BaTiO3). After measuring with a porosimeter, the active layer impregnated into and coated on the porous polyethylene terephthalate substrate had a pore size of 0.3 µm and a porosity of 53%.

    [Comparative Examples 1-3]


    Comparative Example 1



    [0077] Example 1 was repeated to provide a lithium secondary battery, except that a conventional poly propylene/polyethylene/polypropylene (PP/PE/PP) separator (see, FIG. 3) was used. The separator had a pore size of 0.01 µm or less and a porosity of about 5%.

    Comparative Example 2



    [0078] Example 1 was repeated to provide a lithium secondary battery, except that LiTi2 (PO4)3 and PVDF-HFP were used with a weight ratio of 10:90 to obtain an organic/ inorganic composite porous separator. After measuring with a porosimeter, the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator had a pore size of 0.01 µm or less and a porosity of about 5%.

    Comparative Example 3



    [0079] Example 1 was repeated to provide a lithium secondary battery, except that PP/ PE/PP separator was used as porous substrate, and BaTiO3 and PVDF-HFP were used with a weight ratio of 10:90 to obtain an organic/inorganic composite porous separator. After measuring with a porosimeter, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator had a pore size of 0.01 µm or less and a porosity of about 5%.

    Experimental Example 1. Surface Analysis of organic/inorganic composite porous separator



    [0080] The following test was performed to analyze the surface of an organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention.

    [0081] The sample used in this test was PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3 obtained according to Example 1. As control, a PP/PE/PP separator was used.

    [0082] When analyzed by using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 1 showed a conventional microporous structure (see, FIG. 3). On the contrary, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention showed a pore structure formed in the porous
    substrate itself and pore structure formed by the surface of the porous substrate as well as a part of the pores in the porous substrate, which are coated with inorganic particles (see, FIG. 2).

    Experimental Example 2. Evaluation of heat shrinkage of organic/inorganic composite porous separator



    [0083] The following experiment was performed to compare the organic/inorganic composite porous separator with a conventional separator.

    [0084] The organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3) obtained by using a heat resistant porous substrate according to Example 1 was used as sample. The conventional PP/PE/PP separator and the organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-HFP/BaTiO3) obtained by using a conventional polyolefin-based separator according to Comparative Example 3 were used as controls.

    [0085] Each of the test samples were checked for its heat shrinkage after stored at a high temperature of 150°C for 1 hour. The test samples provided different results after the lapse of 1 hour at 150°C. The PP/PE/PP separator as control was shrunk due to high temperature to leave only the outer shape thereof. Similarly, the separator according to Comparative Example 3 having a layer of inorganic particles formed on the PP/PE/PP separator was shrunk significantly. This indicates that even if heat resistant inorganic particles are used, a conventional polyolefine-based separator having poor thermal stability cannot provide improved thermal safety by itself. On the contrary, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention showed good results with no heat shrinkage (see, FIG. 5)

    [0086] As can be seen from the foregoing, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention has excellent thermal safety.

    Experimental Example 3. Evaluation for safety of lithium secondary battery



    [0087] The following test was performed to evaluate the safety of each lithium secondary battery comprising the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention.

    [0088] Lithium secondary batteries according to Examples 1-6 were used as samples. As controls, used were the battery using a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 1, the battery using the LiTi2(PO4)3/PVdF-HFP film (weight ratio= 10:90 on the wt% basis) as separator according to Comparative Example 2, and the battery using the film comprising BaTiO3/PVdF-HFP coating layer (weight ratio= 10:90 on the wt% basis) formed on a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 3.

    3-1. Hot box test



    [0089] Each battery was stored at high temperatures of 150°C and 160°C for 1 hour and then checked. The results are shown in the following Table 1.

    [0090] After storing at high temperatures, each of the batteries using a currently used PP/ PE/PP separator according to Comparative Examples 1 and 3 caused explosion when stored at 160°C for 1 hour. This indicates that polyolefin-based separators cause extreme heat shrinking, melting and breakage when stored at high temperature, resulting in internal short circuit between both electrodes (i.e., a cathode and anode) of a battery. On the contrary, lithium secondary batteries comprising the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention showed such a safe state as to prevent firing and burning even at a high temperature of 160°C (see, Table 1).

    [0091] Therefore, it can be seen that the lithium secondary battery comprising an organic/ inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention has excellent thermal safety.
    Table 1
     Hot Box Test Conditions
    150°C / 1hr160°C / 1hr
    Ex. 1 O O
    Ex. 2 O O
    Ex. 3 O O
    Ex.4 O O
    Ex. 5 O O
    Ex. 6 O O
    Comp. Ex. 1 O X
    Comp. Ex. 2 O O
    Comp. Ex. 3 O X

    3-2. Overcharge test



    [0092] Each battery was charged under the conditions of 6V/1A and 10V/ IA and then checked. The results are shown in the following Table 2.

    [0093] After checking the batteries comprising a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Examples 1 and 3, they exploded (see, FIG. 6). This indicates that the polyolefin-based separator is shrunk by overcharge of the battery to cause short circuit between electrodes, resulting in degradation in safety of the battery. On the contrary, each lithium secondary battery comprising an organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention showed excellent safety under overcharge conditions (see, Table 2 and FIG. 6).
    Table 2
     Overcharge Test Conditions
    6V/ 1A10V/ 1A
    Ex. 1 O O
    Ex. 2 O O
    Ex. 3 O O
    Ex. 4 O O
     
    Ex. 5 O O
    Ex. 6 O O
    Comp. Ex. 1 X X
    Comp. Ex. 2 O O
    Comp. Ex. 3 X X

    Experimental Example 4. Evaluation for quality of lithium secondary battery



    [0094] The following tests were performed in order to evaluate high-rate discharge characteristics and cycle characteristics of each lithium secondary battery comprising an organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention.

    4- 1. Evaluation for C-rate characteristics



    [0095] Lithium secondary batteries according to Examples 1-6 were used as samples. As controls, used were the battery using a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 1, the battery using the LiTi2(PO4)3/PVdF-HFP film (weight ratio= 10:90 on the wt % basis) as separator according to Comparative Example 2. and the battery using the film comprising BaTiO3/PVdF-HFP coating layer (weight ratio= 10:90 on the wt % basis) formed on a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 3.

    [0096] Each battery having a capacity of 760 mAh was subjected to cycling at a discharge rate of 0.5C, 1C and 2C. The following Table 3 shows the discharge capacity of each battery, the capacity being expressed on the basis of C-rate characteristics.

    [0097] After performing the test, the batteries according to Comparative Examples 2 and 3, each using, as separator, an organic/inorganic composite porous separator that includes a mixture containing inorganic particles with a high dielectric constant or inorganic particles with lithium ion conductivity and a binder polymer in a ratio of 10:90 (on the wt% basis), showed a significant drop in capacity depending on discharge rates, as compared to the batteries using, as separators, the organic/inorganic composite porous separator obtained from the above Examples according to the present invention and a conventional polyolefin-based separator (see, Table 3). This indicates that such relatively low amount of inorganic particles compared to the polymer may decrease the pore size and porosity in the pore structure formed by interstitial volume among the inorganic particles, resulting in degradation in the quality of a battery.

    [0098] On the contrary, lithium secondary batteries comprising the organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention showed C-rate characteristics comparable to those of the battery using a conventional polyolefin-based separator under a discharge rate of up to 2C (see, Table 3 and FIG. 7).
    Table 3
     Discharge Rate (mAh)
    0.5C1C2C
    Ex. 1 756 745 692
    Ex. 2 757 747 694
    Ex. 3 758 746 693
    Ex. 4 755 742 691
    Ex. 5 756 745 792
    Ex. 6 757 747 791
    Comp. Ex. 1 752 741 690
    Comp. Ex. 2 630 582 470 434
    Comp. Ex. 3 612 551

    4-2. Evaluation for cycle characteristics



    [0099] The lithium secondary battery using the organic/inorganic composite porous separator (PVdF-CTFE/BaTiO3) according to Example 1 and the lithium secondary battery using a currently used PP/PE/PP separator according to Comparative Example 1 were used. Each battery was charged at a temperature of 23°C with an electric current of 0.5C under a voltage of 4.2-3V. Then, initial capacity of each battery was measured and each battery was subjected to 300 charge/discharge cycles.

    [0100] After performing the test, the lithium secondary battery using an organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention as separator showed an efficiency of 80% or more even after 300 cycles. In other words, the lithium secondary battery according to the present invention showed cycle characteristics comparable to those of the battery using a conventional polyolefin-based separator (see, FIG. 8). Therefore, it can be seen that the electrochemical device comprising the organic/ inorganic composite porous separator according to the present invention shows long service life.


    Claims

    1. An organic/inorganic composite porous separator for an electrochemical device, which comprises:

    (a) a porous substrate having pores, which has a pore size of 0.01- 50 µm; and

    (b) an organic/inorganic composite porous active layer coated directly on a surface of the substrate, the active layer comprising a mixture of inorganic particles having a particle size of between 0.001 µm and 10 µm and a binder polymer, wherein the inorganic particles are present in the mixture of inorganic particles with the binder polymer in an amount of 60-99 wt % based on 100 wt % of the mixture,

    wherein the inorganic particles in the active layer are interconnected among themselves and are fixed by the binder polymer and permit interstitial volumes to be formed among them, and interstitial volumes among the inorganic particles form a pore structure that permits lithium ions to move therethrough,
    wherein, as the size of the inorganic particles increases, interstitial distance among the inorganic particles increases, thereby increasing the pore size.
     
    2. The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to Claim 1, wherein the inorganic particles are at least one selected from the group consisting of: (a) inorganic particles having a dielectric constant of 5 or more; and (b) inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity.
     
    3. The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to Claim 2, wherein the inorganic particles having a dielectric constant of 5 or more are BaTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), Pb1-xLaxZr1-yTiyO3 (PLZT), Pb(Mg3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), hafnia (HfO2), SrTiO3, SnO2, CeO2, MgO, NiO, CaO, ZnO, ZrO2, Y2O3, Al2O3 or TiO2.
     
    4. The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to Claim 2, wherein the inorganic particles having lithium ion conductivity are at least one selected from the group consisting of: lithim phosphate (Li3PO4), lithium titanium phosphate (LixTiy(PO4)3, 0<x<2, 0<y<3), lithium aluminium titanium phosphate (LixAlyTiz(PO4)3, 0<x<2, 0<y<1, 0<z<3), (LiAlTiP)xOy type glass (0<x<4, 0<y<13), lithium lanthanum titanate (LixLayTiO3, 0<x<2, 0<y<3), lithium germanium thiophosphate (LixGeyPzSw, 0<x<4, 0<y<1, 0<z<1, 0<w<5), lithium nitrides (LixNy, 0<x<4, 0<y<2), SiS2 type glass (LixSiySz, 0<x<3, 0<y<2, 0<z<4) and P2S5 type glass (LixPySz, 0<x<3, 0<y<3, 0<z<7).
     
    5. The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to Claim 1, wherein the binder polymer is at least one selected from the group consisting of polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene, polyvinylidene fluoride-co-trichloroethylene, polymethylmethacrylate, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl acetate, polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate, polyethylene oxide, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellulose acetate propionate, cyanoethylpullulan, cyanoethyl polyvinylalcohol, cyanoethylcellulose, cyanoethylsucrose, pullulan, carboxymetyl cellulose, acrylonitrile-styrene-butadiene copolymer and polyimide.
     
    6. The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to claim 1, wherein the porous substrate having pores shows a melting point of 200°C or higher.
     
    7. The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to Claim 6, wherein the porous substrate having a melting point of 200°C or higher is at least one selected from the group consisting of polyethylene terephthalate, polybutylene terephthalate, polyester, polyacetal, polyamide, polycarbonate, polyimide, polyetherether ketone, polyether sulfone, polyphenylene oxide, polyphenylene sulfidro and polyethylene naphthalene.
     
    8. The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to Claim 1, which has a porosity of between 5% and 95%.
     
    9. The organic/inorganic composite porous separator according to Claim 1, which has a thickness of between 1 and 100 µm.
     
    10. An electrochemical device comprising:

    (a) a cathode;

    (b) an anode;

    (c) an organic/inorganic composite porous separator as defined in any one of Claims 1 to 9, which is interposed between the cathode and anode; and

    (d) an electrolyte.


     
    11. The electrochemical device according to Claim 10, which is a lithium secondary battery.
     
    12. The electrochemical device according to Claim 10, which further comprises a microporous separator.
     
    13. The electrochemical device according to Claim 12, wherein the microporous separator is a polyolefin-based separator.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Organischer/ anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator für eine elektrochemische Vorrichtung, welcher umfasst:

    (a) ein poröses Substrat mit Poren, die eine Porengröße von 0,01-50 µm aufweisen; und

    (b) eine organische/anorganische poröse Verbundaktivschicht, die direkt auf einer Oberfläche des Substrats beschichtet ist, wobei die Aktivschicht eine Mischung aus anorganischen Teilchen mit einer Teilchengröße zwischen 0,001 µm und 10 µm und ein Binderpolymer umfasst, wobei die anorganischen Teilchen in der Mischung aus anorganischen Teilchen mit dem Binderpolymer in einer Menge von 60-99 Gew.-%, basierend auf 100 Gew.-% der Mischung, vorhanden sind,

    wobei die anorganischen Teilchen in der Aktivschicht untereinander verbunden sind und durch das Binderpolymer fixiert sind und die Bildung von interstitiellen Räumen unter diesen erlauben, und wobei interstitielle Räume unter den anorganischen Teilchen eine Porenstruktur bilden, die es Lithiumionen erlaubt, sich durch diese zu bewegen,
    wobei, wenn die Größe der anorganischen Teilchen zunimmt, interstitieller Abstand zwischen den anorganischen Teilchen zunimmt, wodurch die Porengröße erhöht wird.
     
    2. Organischer/anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator nach Anspruch 1, wobei die anorganischen Teilchen wenigstens eines sind, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus: (a) anorganischen Teilchen mit einer Dielektrizitätskonstante von 5 oder mehr; und (b) anorganischen Teilchen mit Lithiumionenleitfähigkeit.
     
    3. Organischer/anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator nach Anspruch 2, wobei die anorganischen Teilchen mit einer Dielektrizitätskonstante von 5 oder mehr BaTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), Pb1-xLaxZr1-yTiyO3 (PLZT), Pb(Mg3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), Hafniumoxid (HfO2), SrTiO3, SnO2, CeO2, MgO, NiO, CaO, ZnO, ZrO2, Y2O3, Al2O3 oder TiO2 sind.
     
    4. Organischer/anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator nach Anspruch 2, wobei die anorganischen Teilchen mit Lithiumionenleitfähigkeit wenigstens eines sind, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Lithiumphosphat (Li3PO4), Lithiumtitanphosphat (LixTiy(PO4)3, 0<x<2, 0<y<3), Lithiumaluminiumtitanphosphat (LixAlyTiz(PO4)3, 0<x<2, 0<y<1, 0<z<3), (LiAlTiP)xOy-artigemGlas (0<x<4, 0<y<13), Lithiumlanthantitanat (LixLayTiO3, 0<x<2, 0<y<3), Lithiumgermaniumthiophosphat (LixGeyPzSw, 0<x<4, 0<y<1, 0<z<1, 0<w<5), Lithiumnitriden (LixNy, 0<x<4, 0<y<2), SiS2-artigem Glas (LixSiySz, 0<x<3, 0<y<2, 0<z<4) und P2S5-artigem Glas (LixPySz, 0<x<3, 0<y<3, 0<z<7).
     
    5. Organischer/anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Binderpolymer wenigstens eines ist, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Polyvinylidenfluorid-co-Hexafluorpropylen, Polyvinylidenfluorid-co-Trichlorethylen, Polymethylmethacrylat, Polyacrylnitril, Polyvinylpyrrolidon, Polyvinylacetat, Polyethylen-co-Vinylacetat, Polyethylenoxid, Celluloseacetat, Celluloseacetatbutyrat, Celluloseacetatpropionat, Cyanoethylpullulan, Cyanoethylpolyvinylalkohol, Cyanoethylcellulose, Cyanoethylsaccharose, Pullulan, Carboxymethylcellulose, Acrylonitril-Styrol-Butadien-Copolymer und Polyimid.
     
    6. Organischer/anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator nach Anspruch 1, wobei das poröse Substrat mit Poren einen Schmelzpunkt von 200°C oder höher zeigt.
     
    7. Organischer/anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator nach Anspruch 6, wobei das poröse Substrat mit einem Schmelzpunkt von 200°C oder höher wenigstens eines ist, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Polyethylenterephthalat, Polybutylenterephthalat, Polyester, Polyacetat, Polyamid, Polycarbonat, Polyimid, Polyetheretherketon, Polyethersulfon, Polyphenylenoxid, Polyphenylensulfidro und Polyethylennaphthalen.
     
    8. Organischer/anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator nach Anspruch 1, der eine Porosität zwischen 5% und 95% aufweist.
     
    9. Organischer/anorganischer poröser Verbundseparator nach Anspruch 1, der eine Dicke zwischen 1 und 100 µm aufweist.
     
    10. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung, umfassend:

    (a) eine Kathode;

    (b) eine Anode;

    (c) einen organischen/anorganischen porösen Verbundseparator, wie er in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9 definiert ist, der zwischen der Kathode und der Anode angefügt ist; und

    (d) einen Elektrolyten.


     
    11. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 10, welches eine Lithiumsekundärbatterie ist.
     
    12. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 10, welche ferner einen mikroporösen Separator umfasst.
     
    13. Elektrochemische Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 12, wobei der mikroporöse Separator ein Separator auf Polyolefin-Basis ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Séparateur poreux composite organique/inorganique pour un dispositif électrochimique, qui comprend :

    (a) un substrat poreux ayant des pores, qui a une taille de pores de 0,01 à 50 µm ; et

    (b) une couche active poreuse composite organique/inorganique appliquée directement sur une surface du substrat, la couche active comprenant un mélange de particules inorganiques ayant une taille de particules comprise entre 0,001 µm et 10 µm et un polymère liant, les particules inorganiques étant présentes dans le mélange de particules inorganiques avec le polymère liant en une quantité de 60 à 99 % en poids par rapport à 100 % en poids du mélange,

    les particules inorganiques de la couche active étant interconnectées entre elles et étant fixées par le polymère liant et permettant la formation de volumes interstitiels entre elles, et les volumes interstitiels entre les particules inorganiques formant une structure poreuse qui permet aux ions lithium de se déplacer à travers elles,
    où, à mesure que la taille des particules inorganiques augmente, la distance interstitielle entre les particules inorganiques augmente, augmentant ainsi la taille des pores.
     
    2. Séparateur poreux composite organique/inorganique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les particules inorganiques sont au moins une sélectionnées dans le groupe constitué : (a) de particules inorganiques ayant une constante diélectrique de 5 ou supérieure ; et (b) de particules inorganiques ayant une conductivité d'ions lithium.
     
    3. Séparateur poreux composite organique/inorganique selon la revendication 2, dans lequel les particules inorganiques ayant une constante diélectrique de 5 ou supérieure sont BaTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), Pb1-xLaxZr1-yTiyO3 (PLZT), Pb(Mg3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), hafnia (HfO2), SrTiO3, Sn02, CeO2, MgO, NiO, CaO, ZnO, ZrO2, Y2O3, A12O3 ou TiO2.
     
    4. Séparateur poreux composite organique/inorganique selon la revendication 2, dans lequel les particules inorganiques ayant une conductivité d'ions lithium sont au moins une sélectionnée dans le groupe constitué de : phosphate de lithim (L13PO4), phosphate de lithium-titane (LixTiy(PO4)3, 0 < x < 2, 0 < y < 3), phosphate de lithium-aluminium-titane (LixAlyTiz(PO4)3, 0 < x < 2, 0 < y < I, 0 < z < 3), verre de type (LiAlTiP)xOy (0 < x < 4, 0 < y < 13), titanate de lithium-lanthane (LixLayTiO3, 0 < x < 2, 0 < y < 3), thiophosphate de lithium et de germanium (LixGeyPzSw, 0 <x < 4, 0 < y < I, 0 < z < I, 0 < w < 5), nitrures de lithium (LixNy, 0 < x < 4, 0 < y < 2), verre de type SiS2 (LixSiySz, 0 < x < 3, 0 < y < 2, 0 < z < 4) et verre de type P2S5 (LixPySz, 0 < x < 3, 0 < y< 3, 0 < z < 7).
     
    5. Séparateur poreux composite organique/inorganique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le polymère liant est au moins un polymère sélectionné dans le groupe constitué de polyfluorure de vinylidène-co-hexafluoropropylène, de polyfluorure de vinylidène-co-trichloréthylène, de polyméthacrylate de méthyle, de polyacrylonitrile, de polyvinylpyrrolidone, d'acétate de polyvinyle, d'acétate de polyéthylène-co-vinyle, d'oxyde de polyéthylène, d'acétate de cellulose, d'acétate-butyrate de cellulose, d'acétate-propionate de cellulose, de cyanoéthylpullulane, d'alcool polyvinylique cyanoéthyle, de cyanoéthylcellulose, de cyanoéthylsucrose, de pullulane, de carboxyméthylcellulose, de copolymère acrylonitrile-styrène-butadiène et de polyimide.
     
    6. Séparateur composite organique/inorganique selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le substrat poreux ayant des pores présente un point de fusion de 200 ° C ou supérieur.
     
    7. Séparateur poreux composite organique/inorganique selon la revendication 6, dans lequel le substrat poreux ayant un point de fusion de 200 °C ou supérieur est au moins un élément sélectionné choisi dans le groupe constitué de polyéthylène téréphtalate, de polybutylène téréphtalate, de polyester, de polyacétal, de polyamide, de polycarbonate, de polyimide, de polyétheréthercétone, de polyéthersulfone, d'oxyde de polyphénylène, de sulfidro de polyphénylène et de polyéthylène naphtalène.
     
    8. Séparateur poreux composite organique/inorganique selon la revendication 1, qui a une porosité comprise entre 5 % et 95 %.
     
    9. Séparateur pooreux composite organique/inorganique selon la revendication 1, qui a une épaisseur comprise entre 1 et 100 µm.
     
    10. Dispositif électrochimique comprenant :

    (a) une cathode ;

    (b) une anode ;

    (c) un séparateur poreux composite organique/inorganique tel que défini dans les revendications 1 à 9, qui est interposé entre la cathode et l'anode ; et

    (d)un électrolyte.


     
    11. Dispositif électronique selon la revendication 10, qui est une batterie secondaire au lithium.
     
    12. Dispositif électrochimique selon la revendication 10, qui comprend en outre un séparateur microporeux.
     
    13. Dispositif électronique selon la revendication 12, dans lequel le séparateur microporeux est un séparateur à base de polyoléfine.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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