(19)
(11)EP 1 794 503 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.08.2014 Bulletin 2014/34

(21)Application number: 05779327.5

(22)Date of filing:  26.08.2005
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F23R 3/42(2006.01)
F02C 3/14(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CA2005/001308
(87)International publication number:
WO 2006/021098 (02.03.2006 Gazette  2006/09)

(54)

HEAT SHIELD-LESS COMBUSTOR

BRENNKAMMER OHNE WÄRMESCHILD

CHAMBRE DE COMBUSTION SANS BOUCLIER THERMIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
DE FR GB

(30)Priority: 27.08.2004 US 927516

(43)Date of publication of application:
13.06.2007 Bulletin 2007/24

(73)Proprietor: PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA CORP.
Longueuil, Quebec J4G 1A1 (CA)

(72)Inventors:
  • SAMPATH, Parthasarathy
    Mississauga, Ontario L5L 4X1 (CA)
  • PATEL, Bhawan
    Mississauga, Ontario L5M 6K4 (CA)
  • MORENKO, Oleg
    Oakville, Ontario L6J 2R6 (CA)
  • STASTNY, Honza
    Georgetown, Ontario L7G 5P5 (CA)
  • ZHOU, Jiam-Ming
    Mississauga, Ontario L5M 7K8 (CA)

(74)Representative: Hull, James Edward et al
Dehns St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
DE-B- 1 216 022
US-A- 2 840 989
US-A- 5 129 231
US-A- 5 331 805
US-A- 2 840 989
US-A- 3 656 298
US-A- 5 307 637
US-A1- 2003 213 249
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates generally to gas turbine engine combustors and, more particularly, to a low cost combustor configuration having improved performance.

    [0002] Gas turbine combustors are the subject of continual improvement, to provide better cooling, better mixing, better fuel efficiency, better performance, etc. at a lower cost. Also, a new generation of very small gas turbine engines is emerging (i.e. a fan diameter of 20 inches (50.8 cm) or less, with about 2500 lbs. (1135 kg) thrust or less), however larger designs cannot simply be scaled-down, since many physical parameters do not scale linearly, or at all, with size (droplet size, drag coefficients, manufacturing tolerances, etc.). There is, therefore, a continuing need for improvements in gas turbine combustor design.

    [0003] A prior art annular combustor is shown in US-5331805.

    [0004] In accordance with the present invention there is provided a gas turbine engine combustor as claimed in claim 1.

    [0005] Also disclosed is a method of combusting fuel in a gas turbine combustor, the method comprising the steps of injecting a mixture of fuel and air into the combustor along an axis, igniting the mixture to create at least one combustion zone in which the mixture is combusted, and directing air into the combustor around said axis in a spiral pattern.

    [0006] Further details of these and other aspects of the present invention will be apparent from the detailed description and Figures included below.

    [0007] Reference is now made to the accompanying Figures depicting aspects of the present invention, in which:

    Figure 1 shows a schematic cross-section of a turbofan engine having an annular combustor;

    Figure 2 shows an enlarged view of the combustor of Figure 1;

    Figure 3 shows an enlarged view of an alternate embodiment of a combustor of the present invention, schematically depicting a subset of the holes which may be provided therein;

    Figure 4 shows an inside end view of the dome of the combustor of Figure 2;

    Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 2, schematically depicting the device in use;

    Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 3, schematically depicting an aspect of the device in use; and

    Figure 7 is similar to Figure 6, but showing one effect of the one aspect of the present invention.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS



    [0008] Figure 1 illustrates a gas turbine engine 10 preferably of a type provided for use in subsonic flight, generally comprising in serial flow communication a fan 12 through which ambient air is propelled, a multistage compressor 14 for pressurizing the air, an annular combustor 16 in which compressed air is mixed with fuel and ignited for generating an annular stream of hot combustion gases which is then redirected by combustor 16 to a turbine section 18 for extracting energy from the combustion gases.

    [0009] Referring to Figure 2, the combustor 16 is housed in a plenum 20 defined partially by a gas generator case 22 and supplied with compressed air from compressor 14 by a diffuser 24. Combustor 16 comprises generally a liner 26 composed of an outer liner 26A and an inner liner 26B defining a combustion chamber 32 therein. Combustor 16 preferably has a generally flat dome 34, as will be described in more detail below. Outer liner 26A includes a outer dome panel portion 34A, a relatively small radius transition portion 36A, a cylindrical body panel portion 38A, long exit duct portion 40A, while inner liner 26B includes an inner dome panel portion 34B, a relatively small radius transition portion 36B, a cylindrical body panel portion 38B, and a small exit duct portion 40B. The exit ducts 40A and 40B together define a combustor exit 42 for communicating with turbine section 18. The combustor liner 26 is preferably sheet metal. A plurality of holes 44 are provided in liner 26, a plurality of holes 46 and 46' (see Figure 4) are provided in dome 34, and a plurality of holes 48 are provided in transitions 36, as will be described further below.

    [0010] A plurality of air-guided fuel nozzles 50, having supports 52 and supplied with fuel from internal manifold 54, communicate with the combustion chamber 32 through nozzle openings 56 to deliver a fuel-air mixture 58 to the chamber 32. As depicted in Figure 2, the fuel-air mixture is delivered in a cone-shaped spray pattern, and therefore referred to in this application as fuel spray cone 58.

    [0011] In use, high-speed compressed air enters plenum 20 from diffuser 24. The air circulates around combustor 16, as will be discussed in more detail below, and eventually enters combustion chamber 32 through a plurality of holes 44 in liner 26, holes 46 and 46' in dome 34, and holes 48 in transition 36. Once inside the combustor 16, the air is mixed with fuel and ignited for combustion. Combustion gases are then exhausted through exist 42 to turbine section 18.

    [0012] Referring to Figure 3, as mentioned combustor 16 has holes 44, 46 and 48 therein (represented schematically in this Figure by the indication of their centrelines only) provided for cooling of the liner 26. (For clarity of explanation, holes 46' will be temporarily ignored.) It will be understood that effusion cooling is often achieved by directing air though angled holes in a combustor liner. Therefore, holes 46 in dome panel 34 are angled outwardly away from nozzle 50, while holes 44 are angled downstream in the combustor. Holes 48 in transition portions 36A,B are provided generally parallelly to body panel portion 38A,B to direct cooling air in a louver-like fashion along the interior of body panel portions 38A,B to cool them. It will be noted in this embodiment that transition portions 36A,B are frustoconical with relatively small radii connections to their respective dome and body panels.

    [0013] Referring now to Figure 4, holes 46 in dome panels 34A, B, include holes 46', which provided preferably in a concentric circular configuration around nozzle opening 56 and angled generally tangentially relative to an associated opening 56 to deliver air in a circular or helical pattern around opening 56. The entry/exit angle of holes 46' is indicated by the arrows in Figure 4, and is noted to be generally tangential to opening 56 when viewed in this plane. The patterns of holes 46' around openings 56 may interlace, for example as in region 62 indicated in Figure 4. Holes 46 may also interlace with holes 46' in a region, such as region 62 for example.

    [0014] Referring to Figure 5, in use, air entering combustor 16 through holes 46' will tend to spiral around nozzle opening 56 in a helical fashion, and thus create a vortex around fuel spray cone 58, as will be discussed in further detail below. Holes 46' are preferably provided in the flat end portion of dome panels 34, to provide better control over the vortex created, as will also be discussed further below.

    [0015] The combustor 16 is preferably provided in sheet metal, and may be made by any suitable method. Holes 44, 46, and 48 are preferably drilled in the sheet metal, such as by laser drilling. It will be appreciated in light of the description, however, that holes 48 in transition 36 are provided quite close to body panels 38A,B, and necessarily are so to provide good film cooling of body panels 38A,B. This configuration, however, makes manufacturing difficult since the drilling of holes 48 may inadvertently compromise the body panel behind this hole, and thereby result in a scrapped part. While drilling can be controlled with great precision, such precision adds to the cost of the part. According to the present invention, however, providing combustor 16 with small radius transition portions 36A,B and a flat dome permits drilling to completed less precisely and with minimal risk of damaging the adjacent body panels. This is because manufacturing tolerances for drilled holes provided on curved or conical surfaces are much larger than the comparable tolerances for drilling on a flat, planar surface. Thereby, maximizing the flat area of the combustor dome, the present invention provides an increase area over which cooling holes may be more accurately provided. This is especially critical in heat shield-less combustor designs (i.e. in which the liner has no inner heat shield, but rather the dome is directly exposed to the combustion chamber), since the cooling of the dome therefore become critical, and the cooling pattern must be precisely provided therein. By improving the manufacturing tolerances of the combustor dome, the chance of holes not completely drilled-through, or drilling damage occurring on a liner surface downstream of the drilled hole (i.e. caused by the laser or drilling mechanism hitting the liner after completing the hole) are advantageously reduced. Thus, by making the dome end flat, holes may be drilled much closed to the "corners" (i.e. the intersection between the dome and the side walls), with reduced risk of accidentally damaging the liner side walls downstream of the hole (i.e. by over-drilling). Although a flat dome, depending on its configuration, may present dynamic or buckling issues in larger-sized configurations, the very small size of a combustor for a very small gas tribune engine will in part reduce this tendency. This aspect of the invention is thus particularly suited for use in very small gas turbine engines. In contrast, conventional annular reverse-flow combustors have curved domes to provide stability against dynamic forces and buckling. However, as mentioned, this typical combustor shape presents interference and tolerance issues, particularly when providing an heat shield-less combustor dome.

    [0016] Referring to Figure 6, in some combustor installations, flow restrictions may exist upstream of dome 34, which may be caused, for example, by a small clearance h between case 22 and combustor 16 (in this case) and/or by the presence of airflow obstructions outside the combustor outside the combustor dome, such as (referring again to Figure 2) the supports 52, the fuel manifold 54 and/or igniters (not shown) or other obstructions. These flow restrictions typically result in higher flow velocity between case 22 and liner 26 than is present in engines without such geometries, and these velocities are especially high around the outer liner/dome intersection, and may result in a "wake area" being generated (designated schematically by the shaded region 60), in which the air pressure will be lower than the surrounding flow. Consequently, air entering combustor 16 through effusion holes 46 adjacent wake area 60 will have relatively lower momentum (represented schematically by the relative thickness of flow arrows in Figure 6), which negatively impacts cooling performance. This problem is particularly acute in the next generation of very small gas turbofan engines, having a fan diameter of 20 inches (50·8 cm) or less, 2500 lbs (1135 kg). thrust or less. Larger prior art gas turbines have the luxury" of a relatively larger cavity around the liner and thus may avoid such restrictions altogether. However, in very small turbofans, space is at an absolute a premium, and such flow restrictions are all but unavoidable.

    [0017] Referring again to Figures 3 and 6, exacerbating the problem created by the wake area, in a combustor configuration where the effusion cooling holes 46 in the upper half of dome 34A are directed away from the combustor centre, air entering these holes must thus essentially reverse direction relative to the air flow outside the combustor adjacent the wake area. This further reduces the momentum of air entering in the combustion chamber in this area. Consequently, very low cooling effectiveness results adjacent this area inside the liner, and thus can undesirably permit the flame to stabilize close to the combustor outer wall. This results in the upper half of the dome and combustor outer liner being very hot compared to bottom half/inner liner, since the dome cooling holes in this portion of the combustor have the same general direction as the air flow in plenum 22.

    [0018] To address this problem, the cooling hole pattern of the present invention improves the flow in the wake area by reducing the overall drag coefficient (Cd) in the wake area by providing holes 46' in addition to holes 46, and thus permitting more direct entry of air into the combustor (since holes 46' are not angled as harshly relative to the primary flow in plenum 20, and thus air may enter combustor 16 at a higher momentum though holes 46' than through holes 46. This higher momentum air exiting from holes 46' assists holes 46 in pushing away fuel from the liner walls to impede flame stabilization near the wall liner wall.

    [0019] Perhaps more importantly, however, the spiral or helical flow also helps to constrain the lateral extent of fuel spray cone 58. Referring again to Figure 5, as mentioned above the pattern of holes 46' causes air inside the liner to spiral or spin in a vortex around the fuel nozzle and away from dome 34 and into combustion chamber 32. This helps keep the fuel spray away from dome panel 34 as well as the upstream portions of the outer and inner liner panels adjacent to the dome by narrowing the width of the fuel spray cone. Although the skilled reader will appreciate that the size of fuel spray cone 58 can also be controlled by the nozzle characteristics (e.g. the spray cone can be narrowed by using more air in the nozzle swirler, or providing a nozzle having a narrower nozzle cone), such nozzle-based modes of control are less preferable than the present solution, since the present invention makes use of cooling air already in use to cool the combustor wall (which permits improved efficiency over using increase guide air), and permits a shorter combustor length since a narrower spray generated from the nozzle swirler will require a longer combustor liner or otherwise cause burning of the LED 40A by fuel impingement of fuel thereon. Thus, the present invention facilitates both efficiency and size reduction improvements.

    [0020] The spiral flow inside the liner also provides better fuel/air mixing and thus also improves the re-light characteristic of the engine, because the spiral flow 'attacks' the outer shell of the fuel spray cone, which is consists of the lower density of fuel particles, and thus improves fuel-air mixing in the combustion chamber.

    [0021] As a result of the hole pattern of the present invention, a novel combustor air flow pattern results. Conventionally, combustor internal aerodynamics provide either single torroidal or double torroidal flows inside the liner, however the present invention results in new aerodynamic pattern due to spiral flow introduced inside the liner.

    [0022] The present invention is believed to be best implemented with a combustor having a flat dome panel. Although the invention may also be applied to conical, curved or other shaped dome panels, it is believed that the spiral flow which is introduced inside the liner will be inferior to that provided by the present hole pattern in a flat dome panel.

    [0023] The above description is meant to be exemplary only, and one skilled in the art will recognize that further changes may be made to the embodiments described without departing from the scope of the invention disclosed. For example, the invention may be provided in any suitable annular combustor configuration, and is not limited to application in turbofan engines. It will also be understood that holes 46' need not be provided in a concentric circular configuration, but in any suitable pattern. Holes 46 and 46' need not be provided in distinct regions of the dome 34, and may instead be interlaced in overlapping regions. Holes 46' around adjacent nozzle openings 56 may likewise be interlaced with one another. The direction of vortex flow around each nozzle is preferably in the same direction, though not necessarily so. Each nozzle does not require a vortex, though it is preferred. Still other modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art, in light of a review of this disclosure, and such modifications are intended to fall within the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A gas turbine engine combustor (16) comprising a liner (26) enclosing a combustion chamber (32), the liner (26) including a dome portion (34) at an upstream end thereof, the dome portion (34) having defined therein a plurality of openings (56) each adapted to receive a fuel nozzle (50) and a plurality of holes (46') defined around each opening (56), each opening (56) having an axis generally aligned with a fuel injection axis of a fuel nozzle (50) received by the opening (56), the holes (46') being adapted to direct air into the combustion chamber (32) in a spiral around the axis of an associated one of said openings (56),
    characterised in that:

    the holes (46') are defined in a plurality of rows around at least one opening (56).


     
    2. The combustor (16) of claim 1, wherein the holes (46') are defined substantially circumferentially around the openings (56).
     
    3. The combustor (16) of claim 1, wherein the holes (46') are defined concentrically around the axis of its associated opening (56).
     
    4. The combustor (16) of claim 3, wherein the rows are concentric with one another.
     
    5. The combustor (16) of any preceding claim, wherein the combustor (16) includes a region (62) wherein at least some holes (46') associated with one opening (56) are interlaced with at least some holes (46') associated with another opening (56).
     
    6. The combustor (16) of any preceding claim, wherein the combustor (16) includes a region wherein at least some holes (46') associated with one opening (56) are interlaced with a second set of holes (44), said second set (44) adapted to direct a non-spiralling flow of air into the combustor (16).
     
    7. The combustor (16) of any preceding claim, wherein the holes (46') are angled to admit air into the combustor (16) generally tangentially relative to the opening (56).
     
    8. The combustor (16) of any preceding claim, wherein the holes (46') are adapted to direct air into a vortex of sufficient strength to, in use, constrain a lateral extent of fuel (58) entering the combustor (16) via said fuel nozzles (50).
     
    9. The combustor (16) of any preceding claim, wherein the openings (56) and holes (46') are provided in a portion of the dome portion (34) which is substantially perpendicular to the axis.
     
    10. The combustor (16) of any preceding claim, wherein the openings (56) and holes (46') are provided in a generally planar portion of the dome portion (34).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Gasturbinenmaschinenverbrenner (16) aufweisend eine einen Brennraum (32) umschließende Ummantelung (26), wobei die Ummantelung (26) einen Kuppelbereich (34) an einem stromaufwärtigen Ende aufweist, wobei der Kuppelbereich (34) eine darin definierte Mehrzahl von Öffnungen (56) aufweist, wobei jede ausgebildet ist, um eine Treibstoffdüse (50) aufzunehmen, und eine Mehrzahl von Löchern (46'), die um jede Öffnung herum definiert sind, wobei jede Öffnung (56) eine Achse aufweist, die allgemein gemäß einer Treibstoffeinspritzachse einer in der Öffnung (56) aufgenommenen Treibstoffdüse (50) ausgerichtet ist, wobei die Löcher (46') dazu ausgebildet sind, Luft spiralförmig um die Achse einer jeweils Zugeordneten der Öffnungen (56) in den Brennraum (32) zu leiten,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass
    die Löcher (46') in einer Mehrzahl von Reihen um wenigstens eine Öffnung (56) angeordnet sind.
     
    2. Verbrenner (16) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Löcher (46') im Wesentlichen um die Öffnungen (56) herum angeordnet sind.
     
    3. Verbrenner (16) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Löcher (46') konzentrisch um die Achse ihrer jeweils zugehörigen Öffnung (56) angeordnet sind.
     
    4. Verbrenner (16) nach Anspruch 3, wobei die Reihen konzentrisch zueinander sind.
     
    5. Verbrenner (16) nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei der Verbrenner (16) einen Bereich (62) aufweist, in dem wenigstens einige Löcher (46'), die einer jeweiligen Öffnung (56) zugeordnet sind, sich mit wenigstens ein paar Löchern (46'), die einer anderen Öffnung (56) zugeordnet sind, kreuzen.
     
    6. Verbrenner (16) nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei der Verbrenner (16) einen Bereich aufweist, in den wenigstens einige Löcher (46'), die einer jeweiligen Öffnung (56) zugeordnet sind, sich mit einem zweiten Satz von Löchern (44) kreuzen, wobei der zweite Satz (44) ausgebildet ist, um einen nicht drehenden Luftstrom in den Verbrenner (16) zu leiten.
     
    7. Verbrenner (16) nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei die Löcher (46') winkelig sind, um Luft generell tangential relativ zu der Öffnung (56) in den Verbrenner (16) einzulassen.
     
    8. Verbrenner (16) nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei die Löcher (46') ausgebildet sind, um Luft in einen Wirbel mit ausreichender Kraft einzuleiten, um während des Betriebs eine laterale Ausdehnung von in den Verbrenner (16) über die Treibstoffdüsen (50) eingeleitetem Treibstoff (58) zu beschränken.
     
    9. Verbrenner (16) nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei die Öffnungen (56) und Löcher (46') in einem Bereich des Kuppelbereichs (34) vorgesehen sind, welcher im Wesentlichen senkrecht zu der Achse ist.
     
    10. Verbrenner (16) nach einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei die Öffnungen (56) und Löcher (46') in einem generell ebenen Bereich des Kuppelbereichs (34) vorgesehen sind.
     


    Revendications

    1. Dispositif de combustion de moteur à turbine à gaz (16) comprenant une chemise (26) englobant une chambre de combustion (32), la chemise (26) incluant une partie formant dôme (34) au niveau d'une extrémité amont de celle-ci, la partie formant dôme (34) ayant définies en son sein une pluralité d'ouvertures (56) chacune conçue pour recevoir une buse de carburant (50) et une pluralité de trous (46') définis autour de chaque ouverture (56), chaque ouverture (56) ayant un axe aligné de manière générale sur un axe d'injection de carburant d'une buse de carburant (50) reçu par l'ouverture (56), les trous (46') étant conçus pour diriger de l'air dans la chambre de combustion (32) dans une spirale autour de l'axe d'une ouverture associée desdites ouvertures (56),
    caractérisé en ce qui :

    les trous (46') sont définis dans une pluralité de rangées autour d'au moins une ouverture (56).


     
    2. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les trous (46') sont définis sensiblement de manière circonférentielle autour des ouvertures (56).
     
    3. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les trous (46') sont définis de manière concentrique autour de l'axe de son ouverture associée (56).
     
    4. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel les rangées sont concentriques entre elles.
     
    5. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon n'importe quelle revendication précédente, dans lequel le dispositif de combustion (16) inclut une région (62) dans laquelle au moins certains trous (46') associés à une ouverture (56) sont entrelacés avec au moins certains trous (46') associés à une autre ouverture (56).
     
    6. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon n'importe quelle revendication précédente, dans lequel le dispositif de combustion (16) inclut une région dans laquelle au moins certains trous (46') associés à une ouverture (56) sont entrelacés avec un second ensemble de trous (44), ledit second ensemble (44) étant conçu pour diriger un flux non en spirale d'air dans le dispositif de combustion (16).
     
    7. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon n'importe quelle revendication précédente, dans lequel les trous (46') sont inclinés pour admettre de l'air dans le dispositif de combustion (16) globalement de manière tangentielle quant à l'ouverture (56).
     
    8. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon n'importe quelle revendication précédente, dans lequel les trous (46') sont conçus pour diriger de l'air dans un tourbillon de force suffisante pour, en fonctionnement, contraindre une étendue latérale de carburant (58) pénétrant dans le dispositif de combustion (16) via lesdites buses de carburant (50).
     
    9. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon n'importe quelle revendication précédente, dans lequel les ouvertures (56) et les trous (46') sont réalisés dans une partie de la partie formant dôme (34) qui est sensiblement perpendiculaire à l'axe.
     
    10. Dispositif de combustion (16) selon n'importe quelle revendication précédente, dans lequel les ouvertures (56) et les trous (46') sont disposés dans une partie globalement plane de la partie formant dôme (34).
     




    Drawing























    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description