(19)
(11)EP 1 859 864 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
28.11.2007 Bulletin 2007/48

(21)Application number: 07018288.6

(22)Date of filing:  21.12.2005
(51)Int. Cl.: 
B01J 35/00  (2006.01)
F01N 3/28  (2006.01)
F01N 3/035  (2006.01)
F01N 3/022  (2006.01)
F01N 3/023  (2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
DE FR GB

(30)Priority: 24.12.2004 JP 2004372665

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
05028051.0 / 1679119

(71)Applicant: Cataler Corporation
Shizuoka-ken 437-1492 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • Endo, Takayuki
    Kakegawa-city Shizuoka-pref. 437-1492 (JP)
  • Aono, Norihiko
    Kakegawa-city Shizuoka-pref. 437-1492 (JP)

(74)Representative: Becker Kurig Straus 
Patentanwälte Bavariastrasse 7
80336 München
80336 München (DE)

 
Remarks:
This application was filed on 11 - 10 - 2007 as a divisional application to the application mentioned under INID code 62.
 


(54)Filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine and its method of production


(57) The present invention has as its object the improvement of the efficiency of purification of the hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides, in particular, particulate matter PM, contained in the exhaust gas of diesel engines; further, the filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine having a filter structure carrying a precious metal of the present invention is comprised of a filter structure having an upstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows in, a downstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows out, and a midstream portion positioned between the upstream portion and downstream portion, carrying the precious metal at the upstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows in at a high concentration, and carrying it at the downstream portion at a low concentration; and the method of production of the present invention has, in particular, a step of immersing the filter structure from the end face of the upstream portion to the downstream portion in a solution of the precious metal and a step of immersing only the upstream portion in a solution of the precious metal.




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to a filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification use of a diesel engine improving the purification efficiency of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides, in particular, particulate matter PM, contained in the exhaust gas of a diesel engine and improved in the years of service life of the filter catalyst and its method of production.

BACKGROUND ART



[0002] The harmful substances contained in the exhaust gas of an engine are purified by various catalysts and methods. In particular, the exhaust gas of a diesel engine contains particulate matter PM etc., so purification is more difficult than with a gasoline engine.

[0003] Japanese Patent Publication (A) No. 2002-001124 discloses an exhaust gas purification catalyst of a diesel engine carrying a large amount of a hydrocarbon absorbent constituted by zeolite at the upstream side of the flow of exhaust gas and carrying a large amount of oxide absorbents constituted by nickel oxide and iron oxide at the downstream side. International Publication WO98/47605 discloses an exhaust gas purification catalyst carrying zeolite at the upstream side of the flow of exhaust gas and carrying platinum at the downstream side.

[0004] The diesel particulate trapping filter disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication (A) No. 61-57223 is a filter able to burn off the trapped diesel particulate by an external ignition means or other suitable means. This trapping filter is comprised of a substrate of a ceramic foam filter or honeycomb filter at the inside wall surfaces of the pores of which a y-alumina layer is coated. This alumina layer carries 5 to 20 g of copper oxide and platinum, palladium, or another platinum group-based oxidation catalyst per liter filter capacity as a catalyst component.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION



[0005] When a catalyst structure for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine has a precious metal catalyst evenly present throughout the catalyst structure, it is difficult to secure the temperature for burning the particulate matter, that is, the PM, throughout the catalyst structure. In particular, at the time of engine startup, the temperature is low, so the burn rate of the PM conspicuously deteriorates, the particulate matter PM builds up, and the pressure loss ends up rising.

[0006] The filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine of the present invention improves the burn rate of the particulate matter PM etc. at the time of a low temperature by carrying the precious metal catalyst at a high concentration at the upstream portion of the filter structure at the exhaust gas inflow side so as to cause the metal catalyst and the reactive substances in the exhaust gas to sufficiently react, use the heat of reaction to further raise the temperature, secure sufficient temperature in the filter catalyst structure as a whole, and burn off the particulate matter PM.

[0007] The filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine and its method of production of the present invention are shown specifically below.

[0008] A filter catalyst of the first aspect of the present invention is a filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine having a filter structure carrying a precious metal, comprised of a filter structure having an upstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows in, a downstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows out, and a midstream portion positioned between the upstream portion and downstream portion, carrying a precious metal at the upstream portion of the side where the exhaust gas flows in at a high concentration and at the downstream portion in a low concentration.

[0009] Further, in the filter catalyst of the first aspect of the present invention, when expressing the amounts of the precious metal carried at the different portions by relative concentrations indexed to the average carried amount comprised of the total amount of the precious metal carried at the filter structure upstream portion at a high concentration and at the downstream portion at a low concentration averaged for the different portions as "1" and calculating standard deviation from said relative concentrations, the filter structure having the upstream portion, midstream portion, and downstream portion has a standard deviation of the content of the precious metal of 0.10 or more.

[0010] Further, the filter catalyst of the first aspect of the present invention has a filter structure having an upstream portion, a downstream portion, and a midstream portion in which, when indexed to the total length of the filter structure as "100", the length of the upstream portion is not more than 50.

[0011] Further, the filter catalyst of the first aspect of the present invention has a filter structure having an upstream portion, a downstream portion, and a midstream portion in which, when indexed to the amount of precious metal carried in the total length of the filter structure as "100", the amount of precious metal carried of the upstream portion is 150 or more.

[0012] A method of production of a filter catalyst of a second aspect of the present invention is a method of production of a filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine having a filter structure carrying a precious metal, including a step of preparing a filter structure, a step of coating a slurry including an oxide powder over the filter structure, then drying and firing it, a step of immersing the coated filter structure from the end face of the upstream portion to the downstream portion in a solution of the precious metal to make it carry the precious metal, then taking out and drying the filter structure, and a step of immersing the precious metal-coated filter structure from the end face of the upstream portion to only the upstream portion in a solution of the precious metal to make it carry the precious metal, then taking out and drying the filter structure.

[0013] Further, the filter catalyst of the present invention contains as the precious metal carried on the filter structure at least one element selected from the group of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Ag, and Au as an active ingredient.

[0014] Further, the filter structure provided in the filter catalyst of the present invention is formed by any of a cordierite wall flow filter, silicon carbide wall flow filter, ceramic wall flow filter or a ceramic foam other than cordierite and silicon carbide, and metal nonwoven fabric filter.

[0015] Further, the solute used for the slurry coating the filter structure of the present invention is at least one type of Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, CeO2, a Ba compound, an oxide of a transition metal other than a transition metal contained in these oxides, a rare earth metal oxide, an alkali metal oxide, an alkali earth metal, and complex oxides of the same.

[0016] The filter catalyst of the present invention has the filter structure used for this catalyst carry the precious metal at the upstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows in at a high concentration and carry the precious metal at the downstream portion at a low concentration so that the precious metal catalyst carried at the high temperature side of the exhaust gas more easily reacts with in particular the CO, HC, NOx, and PM and that heat of reaction further raises the reaction temperature of the catalyst.

[0017] The filter catalyst of the present invention in particular is improved in purification of particulate matter (PM), so exhibits a superior effect in purification of the exhaust gas of diesel engines which discharge large amounts of particulate matter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0018] 

FIG. 1 shows a filter structure used for a filter catalyst of the present invention.

FIG. 2 shows a filter structure used in a conventional filter catalyst.

FIG. 3 shows the distribution of a precious metal at different portions in an example and comparative example by relative concentration.

FIG. 4 shows the relationship of the PM burn rate at different temperatures of Example 1 in the case indexed to the PM burn rate of Comparative Example 1 at the different temperatures as "1" and the temperatures.


BEST MODE FOR WORKING THE INVENTION



[0019] In the filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine of the present invention, the reaction between the precious metal catalyst and exhaust gas is promoted at the exhaust gas inflow side where the exhaust gas is high in temperature by, as shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 3, carrying a high concentration of the precious metal catalyst only at an upstream portion 2 of a filter structure 1 at the side where the exhaust gas flows in and carrying relatively low concentrations of the precious metal catalyst at the filter structure's midstream portion 3 and downstream portion 4. Further, the filter catalyst of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 3, carries a high concentration of the precious metal catalyst at the upstream portion 2 of the filter structure 1, but makes the precious metal catalyst carried at the midstream portion 3 and the downstream portion 4 low in concentration so as to enable it to obtain substantially the same amount of the precious metal carried as the total amount used in a conventional filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification use of a diesel engine.

[0020] As another mode, a filter structure carrying an initially low concentration of precious metal is immersed from the end face of the upstream portion to only the upstream portion in a solution of the precious metal to make it carry the precious metal and thereby form a filter structure carrying a high concentration of the precious metal at the upstream portion of the filter structure.

[0021] On the other hand, the filter structure of a conventional filter catalyst, as shown in FIG. 2, has the precious metal uniformly distributed and carried at the filter structure from the side where the exhaust gas flows in to the side where it flows out, so as shown in Comparative Example 1 of Table 2 and FIG. 3, the relative concentration of the precious metal is also uniformly distributed. Therefore, it is difficult to promote a reaction between the catalyst and the substances to be purified at the upstream portion of the filter structure at the side where the exhaust gas flows in. When the filter structure is a diameter of 129 mm and a length of 150 mm in size and the average distribution of the precious metal of the catalyst at the different portions is "1", as shown in FIG. 3, the standard deviation of the relative concentration of Example 1 at the upstream portion, midstream portion, and downstream portion is 1.253, while the standard deviation in Comparative Example 1 where the precious metal catalyst is uniformly distributed and carried is 0.013.

Example 1



[0022] The filter structure used in the filter catalyst of Example 1 is made of cordierite having 300 cells per square centimeter and having a thickness of 300 µm. The filter structure is formed from a cordierite material having a diameter of 129 mm, a length of 150 mm, and a volume of 2000 cm3 and having alternately sealed end faces. This filter structure was wash coated by alumina, ceria, zirconia, and barium oxide.

[0023] Specifically, this wash coating was performed as follows. First, alumina powder, ceria powder, zirconia powder, barium oxide, and water were mixed to a slurry (aqueous suspension) state to prepare a solution. The above filter structure was immersed in this solution so as to coat this filter structure with alumina. The alumina etc.-coated filter structure was taken out from this solution, blown with air to remove excess solution, then was dried and fired to obtain an alumina-coated filter structure. The obtained filter structure contained, in 1 liter volume of the filter structure, coated alumina in an amount of 50 g, ceria in an amount of 20 g, zirconia in an amount of 50 g, and barium oxide in an amount of 20 g.

[0024] Further, to make the obtained alumina-coated filter structure carry Pt, the filter structure was immersed from the end of the upstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows in to the downstream end in 4000 cm3 of a low concentration Pt aqueous solution in which a predetermined Pt salt was dissolved for 60 minutes, then dried. Further, the filter structure was immersed from the upstream end at the side where the exhaust gas flows in down to 30 cm in 100 cm3 of a Pt aqueous solution in which a predetermined Pt salt was dissolved, then dried to obtain the Pt-carrying filter structure of this example. The value of the standard deviation based on the relative concentration of Pt of the obtained Pt-carrying filter structure was, as shown in Table 2, more than 1.0, that is, 1.253.

Example 2



[0025] The material of the filter structure used in the filter catalyst of Example 2 is a cordierite material similar to that of Example 1. This filter structure was treated by the same steps as in Example 1 except for using titania for wash coating. Further, the obtained titania-coated filter structure was made to carry Pt by steps similar to Example 1 for carrying Pt. The value of the standard deviation based on the relative concentration of Pt of the obtained Pt-carrying titania coating was, as shown in Table 2, more than 1.0, that is, 1.323.

Comparative Example 1



[0026] Like in Example 1, this filter structure was wash coated by alumina, ceria, zirconia, and barium oxide.

[0027] The obtained filter structure contained, in 1 liter volume of the filter structure, coated alumina in an amount of 50 g, ceria in an amount of 20 g, zirconia in an amount of 50 g, and barium oxide in an amount of 20 g.

[0028] Further, to make the obtained filter structure carry Pt, the filter structure was immersed from the end of the upstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows in to the downstream end in 4000 cm3 of a Pt aqueous solution in which a predetermined Pt salt was dissolved for 60 minutes, then dried. The value of the standard deviation based on the relative concentration of Pt at the upstream portion of the obtained Pt-carrying structure at the side where the exhaust gas flows in was less than 0.10, that is, 0.032.

Comparative Example 2



[0029] The material of the filter structure used in the filter catalyst of Comparative Example 2 is a cordierite material similar to that of Comparative Example 1. This filter structure was treated by the same steps as in Comparative Example 1 except for using titania for wash coating. Further, the obtained titania-coated filter structure was made to carry Pt by steps similar to Comparative Example 1 for carrying Pt. The value of the standard deviation based on the relative concentration of Pt at the upstream portion of the obtained Pt-carrying titania-coated filter structure at the side where the exhaust gas flows in was less than 0.10, that is, 0.030.

[0030] Table 1 shows the amounts of Pt carried at the upstream portions, midstream portions, and downstream portions of the filter catalysts prepared in Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2 and their average values. The filter structure of each filter catalyst was divided into three equal parts from the side where the exhaust gas flows in. These were designated the upstream portion, midstream portion, and downstream portion. The amounts of Pt carried at the different portions of the filter structures were measured by a fluorescent X-ray measurement apparatus. Based on the results of measurement of the amounts of Pt carried, the relative concentrations of the different parts indexed to that average value as "1" and the standard deviations are shown in Table 2. The filter structures of the filter catalysts of Examples 1 and 2 had standard deviations of the relative values of 1.2 or more compared with the filter structures of Comparative Examples 1 and 2.
Table 1
 Ex. 1Ex. 2Comp. Ex. 1Comp. Ex. 2
Upstream portion 12.30 12.70 4.97 4.98
Midstream portion 1.65 1.50 5.05 5.07
Downstream portion 1.25 1.00 5.1 5.1
Average value 5.07 5.07 5.04 5.05
Table 2
 Ex. 1Ex. 2Comp. Ex. 1Comp. Ex. 2
Upstream portion 2.46 2.54 0.986 0.986
Midstream portion 0.33 0.3 1.002 1.004
Downstream portion 0.25 0.2 1.012 1.01
Average value 1.253 1.323 0.013 0.012


[0031] The PM burn test of the filter structures prepared by Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2 was measured by the following method.

[0032] Before the measurements of the PM burn test of the filter structures used for the filter catalysts, the filter catalysts were pseudo-degraded by holding them in a 700°C electric oven for 50 hours. After that, for testing in an exhaust system of a turbocharged type liter direct-injection diesel engine, each filter catalyst was mounted in this exhaust system using a special container. The diesel engine was run at 2000 rpm and the torque changed to trap the PM, then a PM burn test was conducted in the steady state in the temperature range of 200 to 500°C. The results of the PM burn test for Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 shown in the following Table 3 are shown in FIG. 4.

[0033] The weight of the filter catalyst after trapping PM and the weight of the filter catalyst after the steady state in the temperature range of 200 to 500°C were measured. Based on the weights (g), the following equation (1) for calculating the PM purification rate was used to calculate the burn rate.



[0034] Table 3 shows the relative concentrations of PM burned of Examples 1 and 2 and Comparative Example 2 at different temperatures when indexed to the PM burn rates of Comparative Example 1 at different temperatures as "1". Further, FIG. 4 shows the relationship between the PM burn rate of Example 1 at different temperatures when indexed to the PM burn rate of Comparative Example 1 at different temperatures as "1" and temperatures. As clear from Table 3 and FIG. 4, the PM burn rates of Examples 1 and 2 are particularly superior compared with those of Comparative Examples 1 and 2.
Table 3
Temp. (°C)Ex. 1Ex. 2Comp. Ex. 1Comp. Ex. 2
200 1.5 1.7 1 1.3
300 2.1 2.3 1 1.5
400 2.6 2.7 1 1
500 1.1 1.1 1 1


[0035] Examples 3 to 6 show filter structures changed in length of the upstream portion to 10 to 60 when indexed to the total as "100" as shown in Table 4. Further, the amounts of Pt of the filter structures of Examples 3 to 6 were an amount of Pt carried at the upstream portion of the filter structure fixed to 7.5 g/liter and an amount of Pt carried of the filter structure as a whole of the same amount as Example 1, that is, 5 g/liter. The standard deviation of the amount of Pt carried when changing the length of the upstream portion of the filter structure between 10 to 60 changed from 0.284 to 1.083. However, there is a de facto limit to the amount of Pt carried at the upstream portion. Therefore, a standard deviation of about 2.5 is the upper limit.
Table 4
Fr Length Ratio
(Length of Upstream Portion Indexed to Total Length of Catalyst as "100")
Temp. (°C)10 Ex. 330 Ex. 450 Ex. 560 Ex. 6100 Comp. Ex. 1100 Comp. Ex. 2
200 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.1 1 1.1
300 2.1 2.3 2.2 1.2 1 1.2
400 2.6 2.7 2.7 1.2 1 1
500 1.1 1.1 1.2 1 1 1
Standard deviation 0.284 0.402 0.693 1.083    


[0036] The amounts of Pt carried in the filter structures of Examples 7 to 10 were changed to 120 to 450 at the upstream portions when indexed to the total as "100" as shown in Table 5. Further, the amounts of Pt of the filter structures of Examples 7 to 10 were the same amount as Example 1, that is, 5 g/liter, and the widths carrying Pt at the upstream portions of the filter structures were fixed to 30 mm in the same way as Example 1. In Examples 7 to 10, as shown in Table 5, when changing the relative value of the amount of Pt carried at the relative length 30 of the upstream portion to 120 to 450, the standard deviation of the amount of Pt carried changed from 0.140 to 1.595. There is a de facto limit to the amount of Pt carried at the upstream portion. Therefore, a standard deviation of the amount of Pt carried at the upstream portion of about 2.5 is the upper limit.
Table 5
Fr Relative Amount Carried
(Amount Carried at Upstream Portion Indexed to Amount Carried of Catalyst as "100")
Temp. (°C)100
Comp. Ex. 1
100
Comp. Ex. 2
120
Ex. 7
150
Ex. 8
300
Ex. 9
450
Ex. 10
200 1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.8
300 1 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.5
400 1 1 1.3 2.1 2.7 3
500 1 1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.4
Standard deviation     0.140 0.333 1.083 1.595



Claims

1. A filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine having a filter structure carrying a precious metal, comprised of a filter structure having an upstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows in, a downstream portion at the side where the exhaust gas flows out, and a midstream portion positioned between the upstream portion and downstream portion, carrying the precious metal at the upstream portion of the side where the exhaust gas flows in at a high concentration and carrying the precious metal at the downstream portion in a low concentration.
 
2. A filter catalyst as set forth in claim 1, wherein,
when expressing the amounts carried of the precious metal at the different portions by relative concentrations indexed to the average carried amount comprised of the total amount of the precious metal carried at the filter structure upstream portion at a high concentration and at the downstream portion at a low concentration averaged for the different portions as "1" and calculating standard deviation from said relative concentrations,
the filter structure having the upstream portion, midstream portion, and downstream portion has a standard deviation of the content of the precious metal of 0.10 or more.
 
3. A filter catalyst as set forth in claim 1 or 2, having a filter structure having an upstream portion, a downstream portion, and a midstream portion in which, when indexed to the total length of the filter structure as "100", the length of the upstream portion is not more than 50.
 
4. A filter catalyst as set forth in any one of claims 1 to 3, having a filter structure having an upstream portion, a downstream portion, and a midstream portion in which, when indexed to the amount of precious metal carried in the total length of said filter structure as "100", the amount of precious metal carried of said upstream portion is 150 or more.
 
5. A method of production of a filter catalyst for exhaust gas purification of a diesel engine having a filter structure carrying a precious metal, including
a step of preparing a filter structure,
a step of coating a slurry including an oxide powder over the filter structure, then drying and firing it,
a step of immersing the coated filter structure from the end face of the upstream portion to the downstream portion in a solution of the precious metal to make it carry the precious metal, then taking out and drying the filter structure, and
a step of immersing the precious metal-coated filter structure from the end face of the upstream portion to only the upstream portion in a solution of the precious metal to make it carry the precious metal, then taking out and drying the filter structure.
 




Drawing






















REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description