(19)
(11)EP 1 868 256 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
04.12.2019 Bulletin 2019/49

(21)Application number: 07109653.1

(22)Date of filing:  05.06.2007
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H01L 51/52  (2006.01)

(54)

Encapsulation for organic device

Einkapselung für eine organische Vorrichtung

Encapsulation pour dispositif organique


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 13.06.2006 DE 102006027393

(43)Date of publication of application:
19.12.2007 Bulletin 2007/51

(73)Proprietors:
  • Applied Materials GmbH & Co. KG
    63755 Alzenau (DE)
  • FAP Forschungs- und Applikationslabor Plasmatechnik GmbH
    01217 Dresden (DE)
    Designated Contracting States:
    DE 

(72)Inventors:
  • Hoffmann, Uwe
    63755 Alzenau (DE)
  • Dieguez-Campo, Jose Manuel
    63457 Hanau (DE)
  • Stahr, Frank
    01477 Arnsdorf (DE)
  • Schade, Klaus
    01468 Moritzburg (DE)

(74)Representative: Zimmermann & Partner Patentanwälte mbB 
Postfach 330 920
80069 München
80069 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 1 531 502
JP-A- 2005 100 815
US-A1- 2005 285 521
WO-A2-2006/014591
US-A1- 2003 203 210
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention concerns a thin-film encapsulation structure for electronic devices with organic substances, especially OLEDs or other organic, optoelectronic devices as well as a method for the production of such thin-film encapsulation structures and electrotechnical parts fitted therewith.

    PRIOR ART



    [0002] For organic electronic devices, especially OLEDs (organic light emitting diodes), gastight and moisture-proof encapsulation is needed in order that oxygen and especially moisture from the environment may be kept away from the sensitive organic substances and the electrodes, which are often reactive. To this end, it is widely established practice to provide hermetic housings of glass and metal using inserts of so-called gettering materials in order that oxygen and moisture may be kept at bay or at least intercepted by the gettering materials before they reach the organic substances. However, such hermetic housings have large masses and corresponding dimensions, such that they are unsuitable for certain applications and in addition entail high manufacturing effort. Moreover, the metals lack transparency, so that they are also unsuitable for certain applications.

    [0003] A well-known method for preventing such disadvantages is thin-film encapsulation in which a housing is dispensed with and, instead, stacks of various thin layers are applied for the purpose of limiting or preventing transmission of water and/or oxygen.

    [0004] Thin-film encapsulation of this kind is described, for example, in WO 03/050894 A2 , which proposes a plurality of different dielectric layers. The dielectric layers are preferably formed from inorganic layers that have a high barrier effect. Since, however, the inorganic layers have low elasticity and thus make hardly any contribution to dissipation of the mechanical stresses, stacks of inorganic layers readily lead to cracking, such that water and oxygen can penetrate via the cracks. For this reason, provision between the inorganic layers of organic layers or polymer layers that have a higher elasticity and thus counteract cracking is already known. Such a layer structure is proposed, for example, in WO 03/016589 A1.

    [0005] The combining of organic and inorganic layers in stack of layers is also known from EP 777 280, US 6,198,217, DE 102 22 958 and US 2005/0029513 A1.

    [0006] Although good results are obtained thereby, the layers of the prior art have the disadvantage that the plurality of the layers entails high production effort. In addition, it has transpired that, despite all kinds of layers, the sealing function is ultimately unsatisfactory.

    [0007] WO 2006/014591 A2 describes permeation barriers for flexible electronics. In fig. 2, a cross section of a permeation barrier is shown. An inorganic thin film is applied to a substrate by a conventional deposition technique. Thereafter, an ALD defect healing layer is applied. Thin film acts as a primary barrier layer and contains defects. The permeation barriers may be used in conjunction with a planarization layer to create a smooth surface prior to application of the first inorganic layer, a decoupling layer to reduce defect propagation and improve flexibility, and/or a stress balancing film deposited on the back side of the flexible substrate to prevent curling from residual stress in the ALD and/or conventional layers.

    [0008] US 2003/0203210 A1 describes barrier coatings and methods of making same. A foundation stack includes a foundation barrier layer deposited onto the flexible substrate and an organic layer deposited over the foundation barrier layer. One or more barrier stacks are deposited over the foundation stack. Each barrier stack includes a barrier-stack barrier layer and an organic layer.

    [0009] JP 2005 100815 A describes an organic electroluminescent device suitably used for a light-emitting element used in a display or an electrophotographic apparatus.

    DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION


    OBJECT OF THE INVENTION



    [0010] It is therefore the object of the present invention to provide thin-film encapsulation as well as a method for the production of the same, which, with small outlay, i.e. with as few layers as possible, exhibits improved sealing relative to the prior art, while maintaining at the same time the other fundamental conditions, for example high transmission of light in the visible wavelength range or simple process control.

    SOLUTION OF THE OBJECT



    [0011] This object is achieved with a thin-film encapsulation structure having the characteristics of claim 1, an electrotechnical component with a corresponding encapsulation structure in accordance with claim 10 as well as a method for the production of a thin-film encapsulation structure having the characteristics of claim 12. Advantageous embodiments are the object of the dependent claims.

    [0012] The invention is characterised by the fact that the inventors have recognized that an essential aspect is that roughness, particulate deposits - for example through particle generation in vacuum coating installations themselves - or structures on the surface to be encapsulated can negatively affect the encapsulation properties. Since, especially in the case of OLEDs, such surface unevenness or roughness in the form of steps or recesses are present due to corresponding structurings and since cost pressures preclude manufacturing conditions in a dust-free environment comparable to that of semiconductor circuit fabrication, it is essential, for the purpose of an effective and simple encapsulation structure, to eliminate the unevenness or roughness by means of a planarization layer.

    [0013] Additionally, the present invention is characterised by the fact that the planarization layer is arranged only after a primary barrier layer on the surface to be encapsulated or the organic device, since that allows a simple production process to be realized. The effect of the primary, inorganic barrier layer is to protect the organic substances against the influences of subsequent layer deposition. This facilitates effective and simple application of the planarization layer, which is of importance for effective encapsulation by means of the secondary barrier layer subsequently arranged on the planar surface of the planarization layer.

    [0014] The overall approach therefore consists in first arranging a primary, inorganic barrier layer directly on the device to be protected or the surface to be encapsulated in order that initial protection may be provided for the device or the surface to be encapsulated. Subsequently, an organic planarization layer is applied, which compensates surface unevenness, layer growth defects or structurings and mechanical stresses and forms the basis whereby an effective barrier effect may be obtained with a few subsequent barrier layers. Accordingly, the invention provides for a secondary barrier layer on the planarization layer, said barrier layer, due to the non-presence or lesser formation of unevennesses, such as steps, recesses and the like, capable of being applied in a very effective way.

    [0015] In order that it may be ensured that the organic planarization layer may provide for a point-defect-eliminating compensation of surface unevenness or structures, its thickness is selected such that it is thicker than the simple value of the distance between the highest peak and the deepest valley of the surface of the primary barrier layer or the surface of the device or the surface to be encapsulated that is beneath the primary barrier layer.

    [0016] The simple value of the distance between the highest peak and the deepest valley of each surface to be coated is determined in accordance with the usual standard for the maximum profile height Ry (ISO/JIS/DIN 4762) and is defined as the sum of the distances of the highest peak and the deepest valley from the centre line.

    [0017] Preferably, the secondary barrier layer has several sublayers, with especially two or more inorganic sublayers being provided, which exhibit particularly favourable barrier effects for moisture and oxygen. The provision of several sublayers ensures that any defects in one of the sublayers do not lead to a leakage.

    [0018] Preferably, at least one organic, preferably several, especially two organic sublayers, are provided in the secondary barrier layer, which are especially arranged between the inorganic sublayers or sandwich these between them. Through the increased elasticity of the organic sublayers relative to the inorganic sublayers, these also contribute to the dissipation of mechanical stresses and thus prevent cracking, which would likewise lead to leakage.

    [0019] The sublayers of the secondary barrier layer, especially the organic sublayers, are preferably formed such that their thickness corresponds at least to the adjacent layer or sublayer in the encapsulation structure in the direction of the device or the surface to be protected, or at least amounts to the simple value of the distance between the highest peak and the deepest valley of the adjacent layer or sublayer in the encapsulation structure in the direction of the device or the surface to be protected.

    [0020] The setting of a corresponding thickness ensures that the encapsulation does not fail in the event of any defects.

    [0021] Preferably, the organic sublayers are adjusted such that they correspond to the thickness of adjacent inorganic sublayers especially in the direction of the device or the surface to be protected, while the thickness of the inorganic sublayers amounts to at least the simple value of the distance between the highest peak and the deepest valley of the surface lying in the direction of the device or the surface to be protected, preferably, however, at least 20 nm.

    [0022] In an example, a hydrophobic layer is arranged at least on the second or secondary barrier layer for the purpose of avoiding accumulation of water or moisture on the surface in order that moisture penetration may be avoided from the outset. Accordingly, the hydrophobic layer is chosen such that its surface energy is so large that the contact angle with water is preferably greater than 80°. The hydrophobic layer may be formed especially from polymers, based on hydrocarbon monomers, fluorocarbon monomers or organosilicon monomers, with application being effected, for example, by plasma polymerization.

    [0023] The primary and/or secondary barrier layer preferably have inorganic sublayers of silicon nitride, silicon carbide, silicon oxynitride or organo-silicon oxides, which are preferably applied by low-temperature PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition) at temperatures below 180°C, preferably below 140°C.

    [0024] The planarization layer is formed in a preferable embodiment from radiation-curable polymers, photoresist or organic monomers, which are applied either by evaporation or mechanical application of a liquid or flowable polymer by means of spin-coating, spray coating or printing or by vacuum coating technology, especially plasma-enhanced vacuum coating technology.

    [0025] Advantageously, the planarization layer may also be post-treated by means of radiation, e.g. UV, IR or electron beam treatment in order that polymerization or curing may be effected, as a result of which harmful thermal stressing of the optoelectronic device or substrate is prevented.

    [0026] The organic sublayers of the secondary barrier layer are preferably formed from hexamethyldisiloxanes (HMDSO), hydrocarbon monomers, radiation-curable monomers, photoresists and/or polymers. These layers, too, may preferably be applied by plasma-enhanced application methods.

    [0027] With an inventive thin-film encapsulation structure, water transmission rates of < 10 10-6 g/m2∗day, especially 5 10-6g/m2∗day as well as light transmission in the visible wavelength range of more than 80%, preferably 85%, may preferably be achieved.

    [0028] The structure also ensures simple production which can be performed, for example, in an in-line installation.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



    [0029] Further advantages, characteristics and features become apparent from the following detailed description of an embodiment using the enclosed drawings. The drawings show in purely schematic form:
    Fig. 1
    a schematic cross-section of the layer structure of an inventive OLED part, and in
    Fig. 2
    a schematic side view of an installation for the production of an inventive thin-film encapsulation structure.

    PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS



    [0030] Figure 1 shows an OLED part with a thin-film encapsulation structure 12 in accordance with the present invention.

    [0031] Provided between two electrode layers 2 and 4 on a substrate 1, which may be, for example, a suitable glass pane or a flexible, transparent film, is an organic electroluminescent unit 3, which may consist of several sublayers, which are not shown here. The layers 2 to 4 form an organic optoelectronic device 13, which, in the embodiment shown in Fig. 1, is an OLED. However, other organic electronic devices, for example photovoltaic devices, are also conceivable.

    [0032] For the purpose of protecting the organic optoelectronic device 13, an inventive thin-film encapsulation structure 12 is applied.

    [0033] The thin-film encapsulation structure 12 comprises a total of six layers 5 to 10, which are described in detail in the following.

    [0034] A primary barrier layer 5 made from an inorganic substance, for example silicon nitride, silicon carbide, silicon oxynitride or a silicon compound made from an organo-silicon oxide, is applied to the electrode layer 4 of the organic device 13. Since, as shown for illustration purposes at the electrode layer 4 only, the organic device 13 has a structuring 11 or particulate deposits, structures 11, such as steps, recesses and the like, are formed at the boundary surface between electrode layer 4 and the primary barrier layer 5. These structures may also be caused by an unevenness of the substrate 1 or from its surface which is not planarized by the layer structure of the organic device 13. Said structures re-form on application of the primary barrier layer 5 at the surface of the primary barrier layer then formed.

    [0035] To compensate these structures or unevenness, the invention provides for the application of a planarization layer 6, e.g. of a liquid or flowable polymer, which compensates the structures 11, such that a smooth or planar surface of the planarization layer 6 is formed at the surface opposite the primary barrier layer 5. A secondary barrier layer 14, formed from the sublayers 7 to 9, is formed on the planarization layer 6.

    [0036] The sublayers 7 to 9 are formed by two inorganic sublayers 7 and 9, which in turn may be formed from silicon nitride, silicon carbide, silicon oxynitride or a compound made from an organo-silicon oxide, as well as an organic intermediate or compensation layer 8, for example from a polymer produced by plasma polarization. This compensation layer 8 serves to compensate stresses and has greater elasticity than the inorganic layers 7 and 9.

    [0037] Finally, the upper side of the thin-film encapsulation structure 12 is provided with a hydrophobic layer 10, which especially has a surface energy of such nature that the contact angle with water ≥ 80°. In this way, the tendency of moisture to deposit on the thin-film encapsulation structure 12 is reduced.

    [0038] As the structure of the thin-film encapsulation structure 12 shows, the primary barrier layer ensures that the organic device 13 is protected from environmental influences prior to further application or encapsulation. The planarization layer 6 serves the purpose of compensating the roughness and unevenness, which are caused by the substrate 1 or the structuring of the organic device 13, since the surface structures would impair subsequent application of barrier layers.

    [0039] Due to the planar surface provided by the planarization layer 6, it is possible with a few sublayers to apply an effective second barrier layer 14 that effectively prevents the penetration of moisture or oxygen into the organic device 13. The combination of several sublayers of the second barrier layer 14 ensures that any defects which might arise do not extend continuously through the entire barrier layer. The compensation layer 8 especially affords the possibility of dissipating mechanical stresses that may also result from the sublayers 7 and 9, which are preferably composed of inorganic material. The overall outcome is thus a layer structure, which, on the organic device 13, first provides a primary barrier layer made from an inorganic material 5, then a planarization layer 6, preferably made from an organic material, followed by an inorganic sublayer 7 of the secondary barrier layer 14. On top of that is arranged an organic compensation or sublayer 8, which in turn is followed by an inorganic sublayer 9 of the secondary barrier layer 14. Finally, a hydrophobic functional layer 10 is provided.

    [0040] The thickness of the planarization layer 6 is selected especially to be thicker than the simple value of the distance between highest peak and deepest valley of the structures 11 present on the surface of the primary barrier layer, which are due to roughness of the substrate or structurings of the organic device 13 or particulate deposits.

    [0041] The inorganic sublayer 7 of the secondary barrier layer 14 is preferably formed with a thickness greater than 20 nm.

    [0042] The organic intermediate layer or compensation layer 8 preferably has the same thickness as the adjacent inorganic sublayer 7.

    [0043] Fig. 2 is a schematic representation of an installation for the production of a thin-film encapsulation structure, as shown in Fig. 1. Such a thin-film encapsulation structure can be manufactured in accordance with the present invention in an in-line installation 100, as shown in Fig. 2.

    [0044] The in-line installation 100 comprises a vacuum process chamber 104, in which the primary barrier layer is deposited by low-temperature PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The plasma can be generated, for example, by a high-frequency alternating voltage, for which purpose is provided in the vacuum process chamber 104 an electrode 102, which, together with the substrate carrier 101 functioning as counter-electrode and the voltage source 114, can generate a corresponding plasma. The necessary process gases are introduced into the vacuum process chamber 104 via the inlet 103.

    [0045] After application of the primary barrier layer by means of low-temperature PECVD, the substrate to be coated is transported on the substrate carrier 101 into an adjacent chamber 105, in which, for example, vacuum conditions need not be present. Accordingly, a corresponding lock mechanism may be provided between the two chambers 104 and 105.

    [0046] In the processing chamber 105, the set atmosphere is preferably an inert gas only, in which the planarization layer 6 is applied, for example by spray coating through a spray nozzle 106. However, other application methods are conceivable, such as spin-coating, printing, evaporation or the like.

    [0047] Subsequently, the substrate on the substrate carrier 101 is brought into the other vacuum coating chambers 107, 108, 109 and 110 where the remaining layers 7 to 10 are applied by plasma-enhanced methods. Accordingly, each of the respective treatment chambers 107 to 110 has an electrode 111 and a corresponding power connection 112 for the substrate carrier 101. Additionally, inlets 113 are also arranged in each in order that the corresponding process gases for the low-temperature PECVD deposition or the plasma polymerization may be introduced into the corresponding process chambers.

    [0048] Thus, the inorganic sublayer 7 in the treatment chamber 107 is deposited in turn by low-temperature PECVD, while the organic sublayer 8 is formed in the treatment chamber 108 by plasma polymerization. After application of a further inorganic sublayer 9 in the treatment chamber 109, again by low-temperature PECVD, the hydrophobic layer 10 is deposited in the treatment chamber 110, again by plasma polymerization.

    [0049] In the following, an embodiment is described that exemplifies the manufacturing process for the encapsulation structure 12.

    [0050] The vacuum chamber 104 is evacuated to a starting pressure below 1 Pa, and then process gases are introduced into the process chamber 104 at a flow rate of 100 sccm for SiH4, of 300 sccm for NH3, and of 300 sccm for N2. A high frequency voltage with an output of 500 W is applied and a plasma is ignited for 60 seconds, which leads to the deposition of a silicon nitride layer.

    [0051] Afterwards, a photoresist is applied in the treatment chamber 105 by spray coating, printing or spin-coating. Subsequently, in the same manner as in the vacuum process chamber 104, an inorganic layer, especially silicon nitride, is in turn applied in the treatment chambers 107 and 109

    [0052] In the treatment chamber 108, a hydrocarbon layer is deposited in a plasma polymerization step using a carbon-containing gas, such as CH4 at a flow rate of 400 sccm, and an HF output of 100 W for 60 seconds.

    [0053] Finally, a hydrophobic fluorohydrocarbon layer is then applied in the treatment chamber 110 using a fluorine-containing working gas, such as CHF3, an HF output of 100 W and plasma ignition for 10 seconds.

    [0054] The layer thicknesses here are 20 to 100 nm for the primary barrier layer 5, 3 to 100 µm for the planarization layer 6, 20 to 100 nm for the sublayer 7, 3 to 100 µm for the sublayer 8, 20 to 100 nm for the sublayer 9 and 5 to 100000 nm for the hydrophobic layer 10.

    [0055] Although the present invention was described in detail with the preceding embodiments, it is clear to a person skilled in the art that the invention is not limited thereby, but that, in the context of the attached claims, variations and alterations are possible, which are likewise covered by the scope of protection of the claims. Especially, different characteristics of the invention may be combined or exchanged and individual characteristics may also be omitted, without departing from the protective scope of the present invention.


    Claims

    1. Thin-film encapsulation structure (12) for electronic devices with organic substances, especially OLEDs or other organic optoelectronic devices, with a primary, inorganic barrier layer (5), which is directly arranged on the device or the surface to be encapsulated; a planarization layer (6) arranged on the primary, inorganic barrier layer, the thickness of said planarization layer selected such that it is thicker than the simple value of the distance between highest peak and deepest valley of the surface of the primary barrier layer or the surface of the device under the primary, inorganic barrier layer or the surface to be encapsulated, characterized in that a secondary barrier layer (14) comprises exactly two inorganic sublayers (7, 9) with an organic sublayer (8) arranged between them, the secondary barrier layer (14) being arranged on the planarization layer, wherein arranged on the secondary barrier (14) is a hydrophobic layer (10), whose surface energy is such that the contact angle with water is greater than 80 deg.
     
    2. Encapsulation structure in accordance with claim 1, wherein the secondary barrier layer (14) has at least one organic sublayer (8), which is arranged between inorganic sublayers (7, 9), with the surface of the organic sublayer being such that it has a contact angle with water greater than 80 deg.
     
    3. Encapsulation structure in accordance with claim 1 or 2, wherein the sublayers are formed such that their thickness at least amounts to the simple value of the distance between highest peak and deepest valley of the adjacent layer or sublayer in the direction of the device in the encapsulation structure.
     
    4. Encapsulation structure in accordance with claim 2, wherein the thickness of the organic sublayer is at least the thickness of the adjacent inorganic sublayer in the direction of the device.
     
    5. Encapsulation structure in accordance with claim 1, wherein the thickness of at least one of the inorganic sublayers is at least 20 nm.
     
    6. Encapsulation structure in accordance with claim 1, wherein the hydrophobic layer (10) comprises one or more elements of the group, which comprises polymers, fluorocarbon monomers, fluorohydrocarbons, hydrocarbons and organosilicon monomers and compounds thereof.
     
    7. Encapsulation structure in accordance with any the previous claims, wherein the primary and/or secondary barrier layer comprises one or more elements of the group, which comprises silicon nitride, silicon carbide, silicon oxynitride and compounds made from organosilicon oxide.
     
    8. Encapsulation structure in accordance with any the previous claims, wherein the planarization layer (6) comprises one or more elements of the group, which comprises polymers, photoresists, hydrocarbons, fluorohydrocarbons, radiation-curable monomers and organic monomers.
     
    9. Encapsulation structure in accordance with any the previous claims, wherein an organic sublayer of the secondary barrier layer comprises one or more elements of the group, which comprises organosilicon compounds, hexamethyldisiloxanes (HMDSO), hydrocarbon monomers and polymers.
     
    10. Electrotechnical component with at least one organic substance, especially OLED, on one side of which is an encapsulation structure in accordance with any of the previous claims.
     
    11. Component in accordance with claim 10, wherein it has a substrate, on which is provided an organic optoelectronic device, with the encapsulation structure on the optoelectronic device and/or the substrate being provided especially as fully encapsulating.
     
    12. Method for the production of thin-film encapsulation structures (12) for electronic devices with organic substances, especially OLEDs or other organic optoelectronic devices, or corresponding electronic components, wherein on the electronic device (13) and/or electronic component the following layers are applied in the order of the list:
    a primary inorganic barrier layer (5), an organic planarization layer (6) arranged on the primary inorganic barrier layer (5), the thickness of said planarization layer being selected such that it is thicker than the simple value of the distance between highest peak and deepest valley of the surface of the primary barrier layer or the surface of the electronic device or electronic component under the primary barrier layer, and a secondary barrier layer (14) comprising exactly two inorganic sublayers (7, 9) with an organic sublayer (8) arranged between them, the secondary barrier layer (14) being arranged on the planarization layer, wherein arranged on the secondary barrier (14) is a hydrophobic layer (10), whose surface energy is such that the contact angle with water is greater than 80 deg.
     
    13. Method in accordance with claim 12 wherein the primary and/or secondary barrier layer are produced by means of low-temperature PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapour phase deposition), at a substrate temperature below 180 deg. C
     
    14. Method in accordance with any of claims 12 and 13, wherein the organic layers are produced by plasma polymerisation.
     
    15. Method in accordance with any of claims 12 to 14, wherein the planarization layer and/or organic sublayers are produced by evaporation or mechanical application of a liquid or fluid polymer, by spin-coating, spray- coating or printing, or by vacuum coating technology or by plasma-enhanced vacuum coating technology.
     
    16. Method in accordance with any of claims 12 to 15, wherein the planarization layer and/or organic sublayers are post-treated by means of radiation.
     
    17. Method in accordance with any of claims 12 to 16, wherein the method is performed in an in-line installation.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Dünnschicht-Einkapselungsstruktur (12) für elektronische Bauteile mit organischen Substanzen, insbesondere OLEDs oder andere organische, optoelektronische Bauteile, mit einer primären, anorganischen Sperrschicht (5), die direkt auf dem Bauteil oder der einzukapselnden Fläche angeordnet ist; einer Planarisierungsschicht (6), die auf der primären, anorganischen Sperrschicht angeordnet ist, wobei die Dicke der Planarisierungsschicht so ausgewählt ist, dass sie dicker ist als der einfache Wert des Abstands zwischen dem höchsten Gipfel und dem tiefsten Tal der Fläche der primären Sperrschicht oder der Fläche des Bauteils unter der primären, anorganischen Sperrschicht oder der einzukapselnden Fläche,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass eine sekundäre Sperrschicht (14) genau zwei anorganische Teilschichten (7, 9) mit einer zwischen diesen angeordneten organischen Teilschicht (8) umfasst, wobei die sekundäre Sperrschicht (14) auf der Planarisierungsschicht angeordnet ist, wobei auf der sekundären Sperrschicht (14) eine hydrophobe Schicht (10) angeordnet ist, deren Oberflächenenergie dergestalt ist, dass der Kontaktwinkel mit Wasser größer als 80 Grad ist.
     
    2. Einkapselungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1, wobei die sekundäre Sperrschicht (14) mindestens eine organische Teilschicht (8) hat, die zwischen anorganischen Teilschichten (7, 9) angeordnet ist, wobei die Oberfläche der organischen Teilschicht dergestalt ist, dass sie einen Kontaktwinkel mit Wasser von größer als 80 Grad hat.
     
    3. Einkapselungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Teilschichten so ausgebildet sind, dass ihre Dicke zumindest den einfachen Wert des Abstands zwischen dem höchsten Gipfel und dem tiefsten Tal der angrenzenden Schicht oder Teilschicht in der Richtung des Bauteils in der Einkapselungsstruktur ausmacht.
     
    4. Einkapselungsstruktur nach Anspruch 2, wobei die Dicke der organischen Teilschicht mindestens die Dicke der angrenzenden anorganischen Teilschicht in der Richtung des Bauteils ist.
     
    5. Einkapselungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Dicke von mindestens einer der anorganischen Teilschichten mindestens 20 nm beträgt.
     
    6. Einkapselungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1, wobei die hydrophobe Schicht (10) ein oder mehrere Element/e aus der Gruppe umfasst, die Polymere, Fluorkohlenstoffmonomere, Fluorkohlenwasserstoffe, Kohlenwasserstoffe und siliciumorganische Monomere und Verbindungen von diesen umfasst.
     
    7. Einkapselungsstruktur nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die primäre und/oder sekundäre Sperrschicht ein oder mehrere Element/e aus der Gruppe umfasst bzw. umfassen, die Siliciumnitrid, Siliciumcarbid, Siliciumoxinitrid und aus siliciumorganischem Oxid hergestellte Verbindungen umfasst.
     
    8. Einkapselungsstruktur nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Planarisierungsschicht (6) ein oder mehrere Element/e aus der Gruppe umfasst, die Polymere, Fotolacke, Kohlenwasserstoffe, Fluorkohlenwasserstoffe, strahlungshärtbare Monomere und organische Monomere umfasst.
     
    9. Einkapselungsstruktur nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei eine organische Teilschicht der sekundären Sperrschicht ein oder mehrere Element/e aus der Gruppe umfasst, die Organosiliciumverbindungen, Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), Kohlenwasserstoffmonomere und polymere umfasst.
     
    10. Elektrotechnische Komponente mit mindestens einer organischen Substanz, insbesondere eine OLED, auf deren einer Seite sich eine Einkapselungsstruktur nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche befindet.
     
    11. Komponente nach Anspruch 10, wobei sie ein Substrat hat, auf dem ein organisches optoelektronisches Bauteil vorgesehen ist, wobei die Einkapselungsstruktur auf dem optoelektronischen Bauteil und/oder dem Substrat insbesondere als volleinkapselnd vorgesehen ist.
     
    12. Verfahren zur Herstellung von Dünnschicht-Einkapselungsstrukturen (12) für elektronische Bauteile mit organischen Substanzen, insbesondere von OLEDs oder anderen organischen optoelektronischen Bauteilen, oder entsprechenden elektronischen Komponenten, wobei auf das elektronische Bauteil (13) und/oder die elektronische Komponente die folgenden Schichten in der Reihenfolge der Auflistung aufgebracht werden:
    eine primäre, anorganische Sperrschicht (5), eine organische Planarisierungsschicht (6), die auf der primären, anorganischen Sperrschicht (5) angeordnet ist, wobei die Dicke der Planarisierungsschicht so ausgewählt ist, dass sie dicker ist als der einfache Wert des Abstands zwischen dem höchsten Gipfel und dem tiefsten Tal der Fläche der primären Sperrschicht oder der Fläche des elektronischen Bauteils oder der elektronischen Komponente unter der primären Sperrschicht, und eine sekundäre Sperrschicht (14), die genau zwei anorganische Teilschichten (7, 9) mit einer zwischen diesen angeordneten organischen Teilschicht (8) umfasst, wobei die sekundäre Sperrschicht (14) auf der Planarisierungsschicht angeordnet ist, wobei auf der sekundären Sperrschicht (14) eine hydrophobe Schicht (10) angeordnet ist, deren Oberflächenenergie dergestalt ist, dass der Kontaktwinkel mit Wasser größer als 80 Grad ist.
     
    13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 12, wobei die primäre und/oder sekundäre Sperrschicht mittels Niedertemperatur-PECVD (plasmaverstärkter chemischer Dampfphasenabscheidung) bei einer Substrattemperatur von unter 180° C hergestellt wird bzw. werden.
     
    14. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 12 und 13, wobei die organischen Schichten durch Plasmapolymerisierung hergestellt werden.
     
    15. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 12 bis 14, wobei die Planarisierungsschicht und/oder die organischen Teilschichten durch Aufdampfen oder mechanisches Auftragen eines flüssigen oder fluiden Polymers, durch Rotationsbeschichtung, Sprühbeschichtung oder Bedrucken, oder durch eine Vakuumbeschichtungstechnologie oder durch eine plasmaverstärkte Vakuumbeschichtungstechnologie hergestellt wird bzw. werden.
     
    16. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 12 bis 15, wobei die Planarisierungsschicht und/oder die organischen Teilschichten mittels Strahlung nachbehandelt wird bzw. werden.
     
    17. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 12 bis 16, wobei das Verfahren in einer Inline-Anlage ausgeführt wird.
     


    Revendications

    1. Structure d'encapsulation à film mince (12) pour dispositifs électroniques à substances organiques, en particulier des OLED ou autres dispositifs optoélectroniques organiques, présentant une couche barrière inorganique primaire (5) qui est directement agencée sur le dispositif ou la surface à encapsuler ; une couche de planarisation (6) agencée sur la couche barrière inorganique primaire, l'épaisseur de ladite couche de planarisation étant sélectionnée de telle sorte qu'elle soit plus épaisse que la valeur simple de la distance entre la crête la plus haute et le creux le plus profond de la surface de la couche barrière primaire ou de la surface du dispositif sous la couche barrière inorganique primaire ou la surface à encapsuler,
    caractérisée en ce qu'une couche barrière secondaire (14) comprend exactement deux sous-couches inorganiques (7, 9) avec une sous-couche organique (8) agencée entre elles, la couche barrière secondaire (14) étant agencée sur la couche de planarisation, sachant qu'une couche hydrophobe (10) dont l'énergie de surface est telle que l'angle de contact avec l'eau soit supérieur à 80 degrés est agencée sur la couche barrière secondaire (14).
     
    2. Structure d'encapsulation selon la revendication 1, sachant que la couche barrière secondaire (14) présente au moins une sous-couche organique (8) qui est agencée entre des sous-couches inorganiques (7, 9), la surface de la sous-couche organique étant telle qu'elle a un angle de contact avec l'eau supérieur à 80 degrés.
     
    3. Structure d'encapsulation selon la revendication 1 ou 2, sachant que les sous-couches sont formées de telle sorte que leur épaisseur soit au moins de la valeur simple de la distance entre la crête la plus haute et le creux le plus profond de la couche ou sous-couche adjacente dans la direction du dispositif dans la structure d'encapsulation.
     
    4. Structure d'encapsulation selon la revendication 2, sachant que l'épaisseur de la sous-couche organique est au moins l'épaisseur de la sous-couche inorganique adjacente dans la direction du dispositif.
     
    5. Structure d'encapsulation selon la revendication 1, sachant que l'épaisseur d'au moins une des sous-couches inorganiques est d'au moins 20 nm.
     
    6. Structure d'encapsulation selon la revendication 1, sachant que la couche hydrophobe (10) comprend un ou plusieurs éléments du groupe comprenant des polymères, des monomères de fluorocarbone, des fluorohydrocarbones, des hydrocarbones et des monomères d'organosilicium et des composés de ceux-ci.
     
    7. Structure d'encapsulation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, sachant que la couche barrière primaire et/ou secondaire comprend un ou plusieurs éléments du groupe comprenant du nitrure de silicium, du carbure de silicium, de l'oxynitrure de silicium et des composés issus d'oxyde d'organosilicium.
     
    8. Structure d'encapsulation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, sachant que la couche de planarisation (6) comprend un ou plusieurs éléments du groupe comprenant des polymères, des photorésists, des hydrocarbones, des fluorohydrocarbones, des monomères durcissables par rayonnement et des monomères organiques.
     
    9. Structure d'encapsulation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, sachant qu'une sous-couche organique de la couche barrière secondaire comprend un ou plusieurs éléments du groupe comprenant des composés d'organosilicium, des hexaméthyldisiloxanes (HMDSO), des monomères d'hydrocarbone et des polymères.
     
    10. Composant électrotechnique présentant au moins une substance organique, en particulier OLED, d'un côté duquel se trouve une structure d'encapsulation selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes.
     
    11. Composant selon la revendication 10, sachant qu'il présente un substrat sur lequel un dispositif optoélectronique organique est prévu, la structure d'encapsulation sur le dispositif optoélectronique et/ou le substrat étant prévue en particulier comme totalement encapsulante.
     
    12. Procédé de production de structures d'encapsulation à film mince (12) pour dispositifs électroniques à substances organiques, en particulier des OLED ou autres dispositifs optoélectroniques organiques, ou composants électroniques correspondants, sachant que les couches suivantes sont appliquées sur le dispositif électronique (13) et/ou le composant électronique dans l'ordre suivant :
    une couche barrière inorganique primaire (5), une couche de planarisation organique (6) agencée sur la couche barrière inorganique primaire (5), l'épaisseur de ladite couche de planarisation étant sélectionnée de telle sorte qu'elle soit plus épaisse que la valeur simple de la distance entre la crête la plus haute et le creux le plus profond de la surface de la couche barrière primaire ou de la surface du dispositif électronique ou du composant électronique sous la couche barrière primaire, et une couche barrière secondaire (14) comprenant exactement deux sous-couches inorganiques (7, 9) avec une sous-couche organique (8) agencée entre elles, la couche barrière secondaire (14) étant agencée sur la couche de planarisation, sachant qu'une couche hydrophobe (10) dont l'énergie de surface est telle que l'angle de contact avec l'eau soit supérieur à 80 degrés est agencée sur la couche barrière secondaire (14).
     
    13. Procédé selon la revendication 12, sachant que la couche barrière primaire et/ou la couche barrière secondaire sont produites par PECVD (dépôt chimique en phase vapeur assisté par plasma) à basse température, à une température de substrat inférieure à 180 °C.
     
    14. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 12 et 13, sachant que les couches organiques sont produites par polymérisation à plasma.
     
    15. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 12 à 14, sachant que la couche de planarisation et/ou les sous-couches organiques sont produites par évaporation ou application mécanique d'un polymère liquide ou fluide, par revêtement par centrifugation, revêtement par pulvérisation ou impression, ou par technique de revêtement sous vide ou par technique de revêtement sous vide assisté par plasma.
     
    16. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 12 à 15, sachant que la couche de planarisation et/ou les sous-couches organiques sont post-traitées par rayonnement.
     
    17. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 12 à 16, sachant que le procédé est effectué dans une installation en ligne.
     




    Drawing









    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description