(19)
(11)EP 1 877 350 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
10.06.2015 Bulletin 2015/24

(21)Application number: 06754926.1

(22)Date of filing:  28.04.2006
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C03C 17/34(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2006/061935
(87)International publication number:
WO 2006/117345 (09.11.2006 Gazette  2006/45)

(54)

COATED SUBSTRATE AND PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A COATED SUBSTRATE

BESCHICHTETES SUBSTRAT UND VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG EINES BESCHICHTETEN SUBSTRATS

SUBSTRAT REVETU ET PROCEDE DE PRODUCTION D'UN TEL SUBSTRAT


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 29.04.2005 EP 05103609

(43)Date of publication of application:
16.01.2008 Bulletin 2008/03

(73)Proprietor: AGC Glass Europe
1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (BE)

(72)Inventors:
  • SCHUTZ, Alain
    B-5190 Moustier (BE)
  • JACOT, Pieter
    B-5190 Moustier (BE)
  • MARIAGE, Fabian
    B-6040 Jumet (BE)

(74)Representative: Larangé, Françoise et al
AGC Glass Europe Technovation Centre IP Department Rue Louis Blériot, 12
6041 Gosselies
6041 Gosselies (BE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A- 1 201 616
US-A- 5 073 451
US-A- 5 897 957
WO-A-2004/102677
US-A- 5 667 880
US-A1- 2004 121 165
  
  • PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 014, no. 535 (C-0781), 26 November 1990 (1990-11-26) -& JP 02 225345 A (NIPPON SHEET GLASS CO LTD), 7 September 1990 (1990-09-07)
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to a glass-type transparent substrate coated with a stack of thin layers and to a process for the production of a coated substrate. In particular, the coated substrate exhibits properties of low emissivity and low haze.

[0002] Tin oxide-based layers are known. For example, layers based on tin oxide doped with fluorine are known for their properties of low emissivity and electrical conductivity. On one hand, these materials provide an increased reflection of the electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths in the range between 3 and 50 µm and therefore allow reflection of infrared radiation. On the other hand, antimony doped tin oxide layers are known both for their property of low emissivity and for their more pronounced absorption in wavelengths in the visible range than fluorine doped tin oxide layers and are used for antisolar and/or thermal insulation applications.

[0003] It is also known that tin oxide-based layers deposited onto glass by pyrolysis (in vapour phase - chemical vapour deposition (CVD), in liquid phase (sputtering) or in solid phase (powder sputtering)) generally give a whitish "haze" (Applied Surface Science, 185 (2002) 161-171, J. Szanyi "The origin of haze in CVD tin oxide thin films"). This haze is caused by scattering of the light. This article describes, for example, SnO2:Sb layers with a thickness of 264 and 215 nm, which respectively give a haze of 1.55 and 3.95%.

[0004] The standard ASTM D 1003-61 defines the "haze" as the percentage of transmitted light, which, while passing through the sample, deviates from the incident beam by an angle of more than 2.5°.

[0005] In order to improve the infrared reflection properties of the tin oxide-based layer, it is generally necessary to increase its thickness. However, the greater the thickness of the deposited tin oxide layer, the more the haze increases. Typically, a tin oxide layer of 500 nanometres gives a haze of 2 to 20%. This haze gives a whitish aspect to the vision in transmission and is therefore redhibitory.

[0006] WO 2004/102677 A discloses a substrate with a layer of titanium oxide, a layer of silicon oxide and a layer of fluorine doped tin oxide deposited in this order by chemical vapour deposition. However for tin oxide thicknesses comprised between 500 and 900 nm the haze of this substrate is comprised between 20 and 60% measured according to standard JIS K7105-1981.

[0007] Moreover, it is known that the industrial production of such products causes undesirable variations or non-homogeneity. For example, some zones or isolated points can present an increased haze. These localised faults may be visible to the naked eye and render the product unacceptable.

[0008] Therefore, there is a need to provide a glass-type substrate coated with a tin oxide-based layer, which is highly reflective in the range of 3 to 50 µm (reflection in the infrared electromagnetic radiation) and highly conductive, while also preventing an increase in haze and maintaining the optical properties in the visible range (Light Reflection (LR), Light Transmission (LT), colour in reflection) within acceptable values.

[0009] Therefore, the aim of the present invention is to provide glass products that simultaneously exhibit a low emissivity, a favourable electrical conductivity, a haze as low as possible and an excellent homogeneous visual appearance.

[0010] According to one of its aspects, the subject matter of the present invention is a transparent glass-type substrate coated with a stack of thin layers comprising:
  1. i) at least one titanium oxide-based underlayer, and
  2. ii) a main tin oxide-based layer with a thickness of more than 250 nm,
the coated substrate having a haze measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61 of less than 2%, preferably less than 1.5 % and further preferred less than 1%.

[0011] The haze values are given for unpolished coated products.

[0012] Preferably, the haze is very uniform over the entire surface of the product : it advantageously has a variation of less than 10 % on the surface of the coated substrate between a point where its value is at its maximum and another point where its value is at its minimum.

[0013] Advantageously, the tin oxide-based layer ii) has a thickness of more than 350 nm, preferably more than 400 nm and further preferred more than 500 nm. There is no maximum thickness since the thicker the layer will be, the lower its conductivity will be. Practically, the tin oxide layer is generally lower than 1 µm.

[0014] It has been found that the thickness of the titanium oxide-based layer i) is advantageously higher than 3 nm, preferably higher than 5 and further preferred higher than 7 nm and lower than 45 nm, preferably lower than 25 nm and further preferred lower than 15 nm.

[0015] This layer is preferably deposited directly onto the glass.

[0016] The tin oxide-based layer ii) is preferably doped with one or more elements selected among fluorine, antimony, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, magnesium, nickel, vanadium and zinc, preferably among fluorine and antimony. Those layers generally give to the coated product a reflection in the infrared of more than 80%, preferably more than 85 or 88%. When the tin-oxide based layer is doped with fluorine, the coated substrate can have a light transmittance (under illuminant C) higher than 70%, 75, or 77% when the substrate is a 4 mm clear soda-lime glass.

[0017] However, other substrates can be used, such as coloured or ultra-clear glasses of different thicknesses.

[0018] The sheet resistance of the coated product is advantageously as low as possible and preferably lower than 40 ohms/square, preferably lower than 15 ohms/square and further preferred lower than 12 ohms/square. The normal emissivity of the coated substrate is advantageously as low as possible and preferably lower than 0.3, preferably lower than 0.15 and further preferred lower than 0.12.

[0019] The coated substrate according to the invention can either reach a very good normal emissivity (for example lower than 0.12) together with a reasonably low haze (less than 2%, preferably 1% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61) or a very low haze (for example less than 1% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61) together with a reasonably good normal emissivity (lower than 0.3, preferably lower than 0.15).

[0020] In the same manner, the coated substrate can either reach a very low sheet resistance (for example lower than 12 ohms/square) together with a reasonably low haze (less than 2%, preferably less than 1% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61) or can reach a very low haze (for example less than 1% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61) together with a reasonably low sheet resistance (lower than 40 ohms/square, preferably lower than 20 ohms/square).

[0021] The layers of the stack are deposited preferably by gas phase pyrolysis (CVD) although other known methods can be used, for example liquid phase pyrolysis (spray).

[0022] The underlayer (i) of the coated product is preferably deposited in the float bath.

[0023] According to one particular embodiment, the underlayer (i) comprises a first, titanium oxide-based layer (ia) and a second, silicon oxide-based layer (ib) which has preferably a thickness higher than 15 nm, preferably higher than 20 nm and lower than 50 nm, preferably lower than 40 nm.

[0024] The coated substrate can advantageously reach a neutral colour in reflection. In particular, the colorimetric indices a and b (Hunter Lab system, C/2°) of the colour in reflection are comprised between -10 and + 2, preferably between -5 and 0.

[0025] The coated substrate according to the invention can undergo a thermal treatment, for example a thermal toughening or bending.

[0026] Other layers can be added, e.g. as a top coat. In particular, smooth tin oxide topcoat can for example be deposited for increasing the haze while keeping its uniformity.

[0027] According to another aspect, the subject matter of the present invention is a process for the production of a coated substrate, characterised by the following steps:
  1. a) at least one metal oxide-based underlayer (i) is deposited on a transparent glass-type substrate by chemical vapour deposition;
  2. b) a tin oxide-based layer (ii) of more than 250 nm is deposited by chemical vapour deposition using a vaporised mixture of the following precursors: a tin source, a fluorine source and water, the volumetric ratio of water/tin source being lower than 10, preferably lower than 5 and further preferred lower than 1.


[0028] Preferably, the underlayer (i) is deposited onto the ribbon of glass when this is at a temperature in the range between 600 and 750°C, preferably between 620 and 720°C and further preferred between 650 and 700°C.

[0029] The precursor used for depositing the underlayer (i) is preferably a non-chlorinated precursor, in particular a metal alcolate, in particular a titanium alcolate and the precursor used for depositing the layer (ii) is an organic and/or halogenated tin compound.

Comparative Examples - Known Stacks of Layers:



[0030] Glass / SnO2 (20 nm) / SiO2 (25 nm) / SnO2:F (400 nm)
normal emissivity: 0.13
haze: 0.8% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61
sheet resistance: 12 ohms per square


[0031] While it would be conceivable in this stack of layers to attempt to increase the thickness of the SnO2:F layer to decrease the emissivity and electric resistance, that would lead to a significant increase in haze higher than 1% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61.

[0032] Glass / SiOxCy (75 nm) / SnO2:F (320 nm)
normal emissivity: 0.15
haze: 0.5% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61
sheet resistance : 14 ohms per square


[0033] The emissivity of this product is relatively high and increases substantially after toughening: up to values of 0.18 or 0.20, for example.
Glass / SnO2: F (500 nm)
normal emissivity: 0.13
haze : 10% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61
sheet resistance : 40-100 ohms per square

Examples according to the Invention:


Example 1



[0034] An underlayer of TiO2 with a thickness of 10 nm was deposited on a ribbon of clear soda-lime float glass (4 mm thickness) by CVD. The precursor used was titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). The layer was deposited in the float tank when the ribbon of glass is at a temperature of about 660-700°C.

[0035] A second layer of tin oxide doped with fluorine of 500 nm was deposited on the first layer at the head of the lehr when the ribbon of glass was at a temperature of about 600-640°C. The precursor used was monobutyl-tin-trichloride (MBTC) combined with a fluorine source such as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), ammonium bifluoride (NH4F.HF) or hydrofluoric acid (HF), for example.

[0036] The coated substrate had a haze of about 0.3 to 0.5% measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61, a normal emissivity of about 0.10-0.11 and a sheet resistance of about 9 ohms per square.

[0037] It has been unexpectedly found that despite the very important thickness of the SnO2:F layer, the haze was maintained at very low values and was very uniform over the entire surface of the product.

[0038] The optical characteristics are: LT: 78%, LR: 14.5%,
Colour in reflection: a=-7; b=-3 (Hunter Lab system, illuminant C/2°)

Example 2



[0039] A layer of TiO2 with a thickness of 9 nm was deposited by CVD, using the same precursor as in Example 1, on a ribbon of clear soda-lime float glass with a thickness of 4 mm. The layer was deposited in the float tank when the glass ribbon is at a temperature of about 700°C.

[0040] A second layer of silicon oxide with a thickness of 37 nm was deposited on the first layer also by CVD. The precursors used precursors are silane, oxygen and a carrier gaz (N2). The layer is deposited in the float bath when the glass ribbon is at a temperature of about 650°C.

[0041] A layer of tin oxide doped with fluorine with a thickness of 440 nm was deposited on the second layer.

[0042] The coated substrate had a haze of about 0.8 % measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61, a normal emissivity of about 0.1 and a sheet resistance of about 8.6 ohms per square.

[0043] The optical characteristics are: LT: 80.5 %, LR: 10.4%.
Colour in reflection: a=-3; b=-1 ((Hunter Lab system, illuminant C/ 2°)

[0044] The use of the intermediate layer of SiO2 presents the advantage of enabling the production of a coated glass with a lower level of colour in reflection while maintaining the relatively low haze and a good conductivity.


Claims

1. Transparent glass-type substrate coated with a stack of thin layers comprising:

i) at least one titanium oxide-based underlayer, and

ii) a main tin oxide-based layer with a thickness of more than 250 nm, deposited by gas phase pyrolysis using a vaporised mixture of the following precursors: a tin source, a fluorine source and water, the volumetric ratio of water/tin source being lower than 10, preferably lower than 5 and further preferred lower than 1;

the coated substrate having a haze measured with standard ASTM D 1003-61 of less than 2%, preferably less than 1.5% and further preferred less than 1%.
 
2. Substrate according to the preceding claim, characterised in that the tin oxide-based layer ii) has a thickness of more than 350 nm, preferably more than 400 nm and further preferred more than 500 nm.
 
3. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the thickness of the titanium oxide-based layer i) is higher than 3 nm, preferably higher than 5 and further preferred higher than 7 nm and lower than 45 nm. preferably lower than 25 nm and further preferred lower than 15 nm.
 
4. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the titanium oxide-based layer i) is deposited directly onto the glass.
 
5. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the tin oxide-based layer ii) is doped with one or more elements selected among fluorine, antimony, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, magnesium, nickel, vanadium and zinc, preferably among fluorine and antimony.
 
6. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the sheet resistance of the stack of layers is lower than 40 ohms/square, preferably lower than 15 ohms/square and further preferred lower than 12 ohms/square.
 
7. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the normal emissivity of the coated substrate is lower than 0.3, preferably lower than 0.15 and further preferred lower than 0.12.
 
8. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the normal emissivity of the coated substrate is lower than 0.12 and the haze is less than 2%, preferably 1%.
 
9. Substrate according to any one of Claims 1 to 7, characterised in that the haze is less than 1% and the normal emissivity of the coated substrate is lower than 0.3, preferably lower than 0.15.
 
10. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the sheet resistance of the coated substrate is lower than 12 ohms/square and the haze is less than 2%, preferably less than 1%.
 
11. Substrate according to any one of Claims 1 to 9, characterised in that the haze is less than 1% and the resistance per square is lower than 4 ohms/square, preferably lower than 20 ohms/square.
 
12. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that layers of the stack are deposited by gas phase pyrolysis (CVD).
 
13. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the underlayer (i) is deposited in the float bath.
 
14. Substrate according to any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the underlayer (i) comprises a first, titanium oxide-based layer (ia) and a second, silicon oxide-based layer (ib).
 
15. Substrate according to the preceding claim, characterised in that the silicon oxide-based layer (ib) has a thickness in the range of between 15 and 50 nm, preferably between 20 and 40 nm.
 
16. Process for the production of a coated substrate, characterised by the following steps:

a) at least one metal oxide-based underlayer (i) is deposited on a transparent glass-type substrate by gas phase pyrolysis;

b) a tin oxide-based layer (ii) of more than 250 nm is deposited by gas phase pyrolysis using a vaporised mixture of the following precursors: a tin source, a fluorine source and water, the volumetric ratio of water/tin source being lower than 10, preferably lower than 5 and further preferred lower than 1.


 
17. Process according to the preceding claim, characterised in that the at least one metal oxide based underlayer (i) is deposited using non-chlorinated precursors.
 
18. Process according to the any one of Claim 16 and 17, characterised in that the underlayer is deposited onto the ribbon of glass when this is at a temperature in the range of between 600 and 750°C, preferably between 620 and 720°C and further preferred between 650 and 700°C.
 
19. Process according to any one of Claims 17 to 18, characterised in that the precursor used for depositing the underlayer (i) is a metal, in particular titanium.
 
20. Process according to any one of Claims 16 to 19, characterised in that the precursor used for depositing the layer (ii) is an organic and/or halogenated tin compound.
 


Ansprüche

1. Transparentes Substrat vom Glas-Typ, beschichtet mit einem Stapel von dünnen Schichten umfassend:

i) wenigstens eine Unterschicht auf Titanoxid-Basis und

ii) eine Hauptschicht auf Zinnoxid-Basis mit einer Dicke von mehr als 250 nm, abgeschieden durch Gasphasenpyrolyse unter Verwendung eines verdampften Gemischs der folgenden Vorläuferstoffe: einer Zinnquelle, einer Fluorquelle und Wasser, wobei das volumetrische Verhältnis von Wasser/Zinnquelle kleiner als 10 ist, vorzugsweise kleiner als 5 und bevorzugter kleiner als 1;

wobei das beschichtete Substrat eine nach ASTM-Standard D 1003-61 gemessene Trübung von weniger als 2 % aufweist, vorzugsweise weniger als 1,5 % und bevorzugter weniger als 1 %.
 
2. Substrat gemäß dem vorstehenden Anspruch, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Schicht auf Zinnoxid-Basis ii) eine Dicke von mehr als 350 nm aufweist, vorzugsweise mehr als 400 nm und bevorzugter mehr als 500 nm.
 
3. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Dicke der Schicht auf Titanoxid-Basis i) größer als 3 nm ist, vorzugsweise größer als 5 und bevorzugter größer als 7 nm, sowie kleiner als 45 nm, vorzugsweise kleiner als 25 nm und bevorzugter kleiner als 15 nm.
 
4. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Schicht auf Titanoxid-Basis i) direkt auf dem Glas abgeschieden ist.
 
5. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Schicht auf Zinnoxid-Basis ii) mit einem oder mehreren Elementen ausgewählt aus Fluor, Antimon, Aluminium, Chrom, Kobalt, Eisen, Mangan, Magnesium, Nickel, Vanadium und Zink, vorzugsweise aus Fluor und Antimon, dotiert ist.
 
6. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Flächenwiderstand des Schichtstapels weniger als 40 Ohm/Quadrat beträgt, vorzugsweise weniger als 15 Ohm/Quadrat und bevorzugter weniger als 12 Ohm/Quadrat.
 
7. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der normale Emissionsgrad des beschichteten Substrats kleiner als 0,3 ist, vorzugsweise kleiner als 0,15 und bevorzugter kleiner als 0,12.
 
8. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der normale Emissionsgrad des beschichteten Substrats kleiner als 0,12 ist und die Trübung weniger als 2 %, vorzugsweise 1 %, beträgt.
 
9. Substrat gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Trübung weniger als 1 % beträgt und der normale Emissionsgrad des beschichteten Substrats kleiner als 0,3 ist, vorzugsweise kleiner als 0,15.
 
10. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Flächenwiderstand des beschichteten Substrats weniger als 12 Ohm/Quadrat beträgt und die Trübung weniger als 2 %, vorzugsweise 1 %, beträgt.
 
11. Substrat gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Trübung weniger als 1 % beträgt und der Widerstand pro Quadrat weniger als 4 Ohm/Quadrat beträgt, vorzugsweise weniger als 20 Ohm/Quadrat.
 
12. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass Schichten des Stapels durch Gasphasenpyrolyse (CVD) abgeschieden sind.
 
13. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Unterschicht (i) in einem Floatbad abgeschieden ist.
 
14. Substrat gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Unterschicht (i) eine erste Schicht auf Titanoxid-Basis (ia) und eine zweite Schicht auf Siliciumoxid-Basis (ib) umfasst.
 
15. Substrat gemäß dem vorstehenden Anspruch, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Schicht auf Siliciumoxid-Basis (ib) eine Dicke im Bereich zwischen 15 und 50 nm aufweist, vorzugsweise zwischen 20 und 40 nm.
 
16. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines beschichteten Substrats, gekennzeichnet durch folgende Schritte:

a) wenigstens eine Unterschicht auf Metalloxid-Basis (i) wird durch Gasphasenpyrolyse auf ein transparentes Substrat vom Glas-Typ abgeschieden;

b) eine Schicht auf Zinnoxid-Basis (ii) von über 250 nm wird durch Gasphasenpyrolyse unter Verwendung eines verdampften Gemischs der folgenden Vorläuferstoffe abgeschieden: einer Zinnquelle, einer Fluorquelle und Wasser, wobei das volumetrische Verhältnis von Wasser/Zinnquelle kleiner als 10 ist, vorzugsweise kleiner als 5 und bevorzugter kleiner als 1.


 
17. Verfahren gemäß dem vorstehenden Anspruch, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die wenigstens eine Unterschicht auf Metalloxid-Basis (i) unter Verwendung von chlorfreien Vorläuferstoffen abgeschieden wird.
 
18. Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 16 und 17, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Unterschicht auf das Glasband abgeschieden wird, wenn sich dieses bei einer Temperatur im Bereich von zwischen 600 und 750 °C befindet, vorzugsweise zwischen 620 und 720 °C und bevorzugter zwischen 650 und 700 °C.
 
19. Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 17 bis 18, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der zum Abscheiden der Unterschicht (i) verwendete Vorläuferstoff ein Metall ist, insbesondere Titan.
 
20. Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 16 bis 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der zum Abscheiden der Schicht (ii) verwendete Vorläuferstoff eine organische und/oder halogenierte Zinnverbindung ist.
 


Revendications

1. Substrat de type verre transparent revêtu d'un empilement de couches minces comprenant :

i) au moins une sous-couche à base d'oxyde de titane ; et

ii) une couche principale à base d'oxyde d'étain avec une épaisseur de plus de 250 nm, déposée par pyrolyse en phase gazeuse en utilisant un mélange vaporisé des précurseurs suivants : une source d'étain, une source de fluor et de l'eau, le rapport volumétrique eau/source d'étain étant inférieur à 10, de préférence inférieur à 5 et mieux encore inférieur à 1 ;

le substrat revêtu ayant un voile mesuré avec la norme ASTM D 1003-61 de moins de 2 %, de préférence moins de 1,5 % et mieux encore moins de 1 %.
 
2. Substrat selon la revendication précédente, caractérisé en ce que la couche à base d'oxyde d'étain ii) a une épaisseur de plus de 350 nm, de préférence plus de 400 nm et mieux encore plus de 500 nm.
 
3. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que l'épaisseur de la couche à base d'oxyde de titane i) est supérieure à 3 nm, de préférence supérieure à 5 et mieux encore supérieure à 7 nm et inférieure à 45 nm, de préférence inférieure à 25 nm et mieux encore inférieure à 15 nm.
 
4. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que la couche à base d'oxyde de titane i) est directement déposée sur le verre.
 
5. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que la couche à base d'oxyde d'étain ii) est dopée avec un ou plusieurs éléments choisis parmi le fluor, l'antimoine, l'aluminium, le chrome, le cobalt, le fer, le manganèse, le magnésium, le nickel, le vanadium et le zinc, de préférence parmi le fluor et l'antimoine.
 
6. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que la résistance de surface de l'empilement de couches est inférieure à 40 ohms/carré, de préférence inférieure à 15 ohms/carré et mieux encore inférieure à 12 ohms/carré.
 
7. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que l'émissivité normale du substrat revêtu est inférieure à 0,3, de préférence inférieure à 0,15 et mieux encore inférieure à 0,12.
 
8. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que l'émissivité normale du substrat revêtu est inférieure à 0,12 et le voile est de moins de 2 %, de préférence 1 %.
 
9. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, caractérisé en ce que le voile est de moins de 1 % et l'émissivité normale du substrat revêtu est inférieure à 0,3, de préférence inférieure à 0,15.
 
10. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que la résistance de surface du substrat revêtu est inférieure à 12 ohms/carré et le voile est de moins de 2 %, de préférence moins de 1 %.
 
11. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, caractérisé en ce que le voile est de moins de 1 % et la résistance par carré est inférieure à 4 ohms/carré, de préférence inférieure à 20 ohms/carré.
 
12. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que des couches de l'empilement sont déposées par pyrolyse en phase vapeur (CVD).
 
13. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que la sous-couche (i) est déposée dans le bain de flottage.
 
14. Substrat selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que la sous-couche (i) comprend une première couche, à base d'oxyde de titane (ia) et une deuxième couche, à base d'oxyde de silicium (ib).
 
15. Substrat selon la revendication précédente, caractérisé en ce que la couche à base d'oxyde de silicium (ib) a une épaisseur dans la fourchette entre 15 et 50 nm, de préférence entre 20 et 40 nm.
 
16. Procédé de production d'un substrat revêtu, caractérisé par les étapes suivantes :

a) au moins une sous-couche à base d'oxyde métallique (i) est déposée sur un substrat de type verre transparent par pyrolyse en phase vapeur;

b) une couche à base d'oxyde d'étain (ii) de plus de 250 nm est déposée par pyrolyse en phase gazeuse en utilisant un mélange vaporisé des précurseurs suivants : une source d'étain, une source de fluor et de l'eau, le rapport volumétrique eau/source d'étain étant inférieur à 10, de préférence inférieur à 5 et mieux encore inférieur à 1.


 
17. Procédé selon la revendication précédente, caractérisé en ce que l'au moins une sous-couche à base d'oxyde métallique (i) est déposée en utilisant des précurseurs non chlorés.
 
18. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 16 et 17, caractérisé en ce que la sous-couche est déposée sur le ruban de verre quand celui-ci est à une température dans la fourchette entre 600 et 750 °C, de préférence entre 620 et 720 °C et mieux encore entre 650 et 700 °C.
 
19. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 17 à 18, caractérisé en ce que le précurseur utilisé pour déposer la sous-couche (i) est un métal, en particulier du titane.
 
20. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 16 à 19, caractérisé en ce que le précurseur utilisé pour déposer la couche (ii) est un composé d'étain organique et/ou halogéné.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description