(19)
(11)EP 1 883 627 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
18.04.2018 Bulletin 2018/16

(21)Application number: 06741509.1

(22)Date of filing:  16.05.2006
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07D 207/08(2006.01)
A61K 31/40(2006.01)
C07D 403/12(2006.01)
C07K 5/062(2006.01)
A61P 35/00(2006.01)
C07D 401/12(2006.01)
C07D 207/09(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CA2006/000797
(87)International publication number:
WO 2006/122408 (23.11.2006 Gazette  2006/47)

(54)

BIR DOMAIN BINDING COMPOUNDS

AN DIE BIR-DOMÄNE BINDENDE VERBINDUNGEN

COMPOSES LIANTS DE DOMAINE BIR


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 18.05.2005 US 682000 P
14.09.2005 US 716489 P
12.10.2005 US 725280 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
06.02.2008 Bulletin 2008/06

(73)Proprietor: Pharmascience Inc.
Montreal, Quebec H4P 2T4 (CA)

(72)Inventors:
  • LAURENT, Alain
    Montréal, Québec H4C 1X1 (CA)
  • JARVIS, Scott
    Longueil, Québec J4G 2J9 (CA)
  • BOUDREAULT, Alain
    Dorval, Québec H9S 3A7 (CA)
  • BUREAU, Patrick
    Kirkland, Quebec H9J 2T3 (CA)
  • JAQUITH, James
    Pincourt, Québec J7V 9B6 (CA)
  • LABIT, Delphine
    Montreal, Quebec H2S 2X7 (CA)

(74)Representative: Muir, Justine Claire et al
BioScience Patents Ltd The Granary St Mary's Lane
Ticehurst East Sussex TN5 7AX
Ticehurst East Sussex TN5 7AX (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A-00/01726
WO-A-92/12168
WO-A2-01/34631
JP-A- 04 208 299
US-A- 5 750 646
US-A1- 2006 025 347
WO-A-92/02545
WO-A-2005/084317
WO-A2-2005/069888
JP-A- 61 183 297
US-A1- 2005 234 042
US-B1- 6 423 689
  
  • WEBER H CHRISTIAN ET AL: "A bombesin receptor subtype-3 peptide increases nuclear oncogene expression in a MEK-1 dependent manner in human lung cancer cells" EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY 20010119 NL, vol. 412, no. 1, 19 January 2001 (2001-01-19), pages 13-20, XP002561088 ISSN: 0014-2999
  • RICHARD F ET AL: "Agonism, inverse agonism, and neutral antagonism at the constitutively active human neurotensin receptor 2" MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY 2001 US, vol. 60, no. 6, 2001, pages 1392-1398, XP002561089 ISSN: 0026-895X
  • LEBAN J J ET AL: "Potent gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) antagonists derived from GRP (19- 27) with a C-terminal DPro[Psi][CH2NH]Phe-NH2 and N-terminal aromatic residues" JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 1994 US, vol. 37, no. 4, 1994, pages 439-445, XP002561090 ISSN: 0022-2623
  • OOST T K ET AL: "DISCOVERY OF POTENT ANTAGONISTS OF THE ANTIAPOPTOTIC PROTEIN XIAP FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER" JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, WASHINGTON, US, vol. 47, 31 July 2004 (2004-07-31), pages 4417-4426, XP002397669 ISSN: 0022-2623
  • MARIK ET AL. J. PEPTIDE RES. vol. 57, no. 5, 2001, pages 401 - 408, XP001025373
  • BUCHER ET AL. HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA vol. 78, no. 4, 1995, pages 935 - 946, XP003004161
  • Regis Vanderesse ET AL: "?-Aminoxy acids as building blocks for the oxime and hydroxylamine pseudopeptide links. Application to the synthesis of human elastase inhibitors", Journal of Peptide Science, vol. 9, no. 5, 1 May 2003 (2003-05-01), pages 282-299, XP055085606, ISSN: 1075-2617, DOI: 10.1002/psc.452
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention concerns pyrrolidine compounds that bind to IAP BIR domains, and more particularly the BIR2 and BIR3 domains, and are useful to treat proliferative disorders such as cancer.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, typically occurs in the development and maintenance of healthy tissues in multicellular organisms. Apoptotic pathways are known to play a critical role in embryonic development, viral pathogenesis, cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as other events. Alterations in an apoptotic response has been implicated in the development of cancer, autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosis and multiple sclerosis, and in viral infections, including those associated with herpes virus, poxvirus, and adenovirus.

[0003] Activated caspases, a class of cysteine proteases, are known to initiate apoptosis after they have been activated. In normal cells, the caspases are present as catalytically inactive zymogens. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are a family of proteins, which contain one to three baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, namely BIR1, BIR2, and BIR3, and may also contain a RING zinc finger domain at the C-terminus. The classical human IAPs, XIAP, HIAP1 (also referred to as cIAP2), and HIAP2 (clAP1) each have three BIR domains, and a carboxy terminal RING zinc finger. Other IAPs, for example NAIP has three BIR domains (BIR1, BIR2 and BIR3), but no RING domain, whereas Livin and ILP2 have a single BIR domain and a RING domain. The prototype X chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) can not only inactivate the activated caspases by directly binding to caspases 3, 7, and 9 via the BIR2 and BIR3 domains, but can also remove caspases and the second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) from the cytosol by the ubiquitylation-mediated proteasome pathway via the E3 ligase activity of a RING zinc finger domain. The BIR3 domain of XIAP binds and inhibits caspase-9, which is responsible for initiating the cascade in response to genotoxic damage and many other triggers. The linker-BIR2 domain of XIAP inhibits the activity of caspases-3 and -7, which are two downstream or effector caspases. The BIR domains have also been associated with the interactions of IAPs with tumor necrosis factor-associated factor (TRAFs)-1 and - 2, and to TAB1. The IAPs thus function as a 'constraint' on the caspase cascade, thereby preventing or inhibiting active caspases. Because of their central role, the IAPs are capable of suppressing cell death from a wide variety of triggers, including chemotherapeutic drugs and irradiation.

[0004] Overexpression of one or more of the IAPs has been documented in most established cancer cell lines, as well as in primary tumor biopsy samples. Chromosome amplification of the 11q21-q23 region, which encompasses both HIAP1 and HIAP2, has been observed in a variety of malignancies, including medulloblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, glioblastomas, and gastric carcinomas. Thus, the IAPs may directly contribute to tumor progression and resistance to pharmaceutical intervention.

[0005] Progress in the cancer field has now led to a new paradigm in cancer biology wherein neoplasia is viewed as a failure to execute normal pathways of apoptosis. Normal cells receive continuous feedback from their environment through various intracellular and extracellular factors, and "commit suicide" if removed from this context. Cancer cells, however, gain the ability to ignore or bypass this regulation and continue inappropriate proliferation.

[0006] The X-ray crystallographic structure of XIAP BIR2 and BIR3 reveals a critical binding pocket and groove on the surface of each BIR domain. Two mammalian mitochondrial proteins, namely second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) and Omi/Htra2, and four Drosophila proteins (Reaper, HID, Grim, and Sickle), which interfere with IAP function by binding to these sites on the BIR domain, have been identified. Each of these IAP inhibitors possesses a short amino-terminal tetrapeptide, AXPY or AVPI-like, sequence that fits into this binding pocket and disrupts protein/protein interactions such as IAP-caspase interactions. Although the overall folding of individual BIR domains is believed to be generally conserved, there are alterations in the amino acid sequences that form the binding pocket and groove that suggest that binding affinities might vary between each of the BIR domains.

[0007] Cancer therapies, including radiation therapy and chemotherapy, have traditionally been viewed as causing overwhelming cellular injury due to their lack of specificity. Therefore the need to improve the specificity of agents used to treat cancer, and indeed other proliferative disorders, is important because of the benefits in decreasing the side effects associated with administration of these agents.

[0008] A number of compounds have been disclosed that demonstrate down regulation of XIAP. The action of the compounds does not appear to be via direct interaction with XIAP. The down regulation of XIAP is likely a result of increased protein degradation.

[0009] A number of peptidic and non-peptidic compounds have been described, which bind XIAP BIR3 (Sun et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Let. 15 (2005) 793-797; Oost et al., J.Med.Chem.,2004, 47(18), 4417-4426; Park et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15 (2005) 771-775; Franklin et al., Biochemistry, Vol. 42, No. 27, 2003, 8223-8231; Kip et al., Biochemistry 2002, 41, 7344-7349; Wu et al., Chemistry and Biology, Vol. 10, 759-767 (2003); Glover et al., Analytical Biochemistry, 320 (2003) 157-169); United States published patent application number 20020177557; and United States published patent application number 20040180828).

[0010] The aforesaid compounds while they appear to target the BIR3 domain of XIAP, may have limited bioavailability and therefore limited therapeutic application. Moreover, the compounds may not be selective against other IAPs and indeed other BIR domains, such as BIR2; this lack of specificity may lead to unexpected side effects.

[0011] Thus, IAP BIR domains continue to remain an attractive target for the discovery and development of novel therapeutic agents, especially for the treatment of proliferative disorders such as cancer.

[0012] WO 2005/069888 A2 describes peptidomimetics of Smac which function as inhibitors of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. The invention also relates to the use of these peptidomimetics for inducing apoptotic cell death and for sensitizing cells to inducers of apoptosis.

[0013] Regis Vanderesse et al Journal of Peptide Science vol. 9, no 5, 1 May 2003 (2003-05-01), pages 282-299 describes the aminoxy acids NH2O-C-αHRCO-2H which are much more easily obtained in the enantiomerically pure form than the analogous hydrazino acids NH2NH-C-αHRCO-2H, and it has been shown that the isosteric amidoxy ψ[CO-NH-O] and hydrazide ψ[CO-NH-NH] amide surrogates induce two quite similar γ-like folded structures. An aminoxy acid can also be N-coupled to a peptide aldehyde to give the aldoxime ψ[CH=NO-O] link or to a peptide ketone to form the ketoxime ψ[CR=NO] link. The former can be further reduced into the hydroxylamine ψ[CH2NH-O] link which gives rise to reduced amidoxy peptides. The structural properties induced by these amide surrogates were studied, using IR and NMR spectroscopy, paying particular attention to the Z/E-isomerism of the oxime link. In order to investigate their inhibitory potency, the three amide surrogates were introduced in the Pro3-Val4 and Val4-Ala5 position of Z-Ala1-Ala2-Pro3-Val4-Ala5-Ala6-NHiPr, a substrate which is cleaved in the Val4-Ala5 position by human leukocyte elastase (HLE). The [Val4ψ[CONH-O-]Ala5] analogue was still a substrate, while the [Pro3ψ[CONH-O-]Val4] and [Val4ψ[CH=NO-]Ala5] pseudopeptides acted as HLE competitive inhibitors. Copyright © 2003 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[0014] Oost T K et al Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Washington US Vol 47, 31 July 2014 4417-4426 describes a novel series of XIAP antagonists. The most potent compounds in this series bind to the baculovirus IAP repeat 3 (BIR3) domain of XIAP with single-digit nanomolar affinity and promote cell death in several human cancer cell lines. In a MDA-MB-231 breast cancer mouse xenograft model, these XIAP antagonists inhibited the growth of tumors. Close structural analogues that showed only weak binding to the XIAP-BIR3 domain were inactive in the cellular assays and showed only marginal in vivo activity.

[0015] US 2006 025 347 A1 describes IAP binding molecules and compositions. The IAP binding molecules interact with IAPs (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins) in cells and may be used to modify apoptosis in cells treated with such molecules. Embodiments of these compounds have a Kd of less that 0.1 micromolar. Methods of using these IAP binding molecules for therapeutic, diagnostic, and assay purposes are also disclosed.

[0016] US 2005 234 042 A1 discloses novel compounds that inhibit the binding of the Smac protein to Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) of the formula I


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0017] We have discovered a novel series of pyrrolidine compounds that enhance cellular apoptosis through IAP modulation. The compounds are less peptidic in character because the proline in the previously described compounds has been replaced with a pyrrolidine and as such have pharmaceutically acceptable stability and bioavailability. The derivatives significantly reduce, or essentially eliminate, the interaction of activated apoptosis proteins, such as capase 3, capase 7, and capase 9, with the BIR domains of mammalian IAPs. Specifically, we have demonstrated that the compounds bind to the BIR domains of mammalian XIAP and promote apoptosis of cancer cells as a single agent or in combination with a chemotherapeutic agent. Moreover, the compounds were shown to modulate XIAP protein in cells and induce the proteolytic processing of XIAP and a change in cellular localization. Advantageously, the compounds described herein have anti-cancer activity in various cancer cell lines such as breast, pancreatic, colon and lung, and may also find application in other diseases where cells are resistant to apoptosis. Moreover, our data indicate that the derivatives also bind to the BIR 3 domains of other IAPs, such as cIAP-1 or cIAP-2, and thus may be useful in the treatment of sepsis, inflammation, cancer and the like. Furthermore, the derivatives described herein have improved selectivity for BIR3 and BIR2 of various IAPs compared to previously described compounds Also the compounds described herein can be administered in vivo and show anti-cancer activity. The following aspects of the disclosure are only to be considered part of the invention if they are included in the claims. An isomer, an enantiomer, a diastereoisomer, or a tautomer of a compound is also disclosed represented by Formula I:

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

p is 1 or 2;

Y is NH, O or S;

R1 and R1a are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R2 and R2a are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R3 and R3a

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

A is

  1. 1) -CH2-,
  2. 2) -CH2CH2-,
  3. 3) -C(CH3)2-,
  4. 4) -CH(C1-C6 alkyl)-,
  5. 5) -CH(C3-C7 cycloalkyl)-,
  6. 6) -C3-C7 cycloalkyl-, or
  7. 7) -CH(C1-C6 alkyl-C3-C7 cycloalkyl)-;

Q is

  1. 1) NR4R5,
  2. 2) OR11, or
  3. 3) S(O)mR11; or

Q is

wherein G is a 5, 6 or 7 membered ring which optionally incorporates one or more heteroatoms chosen from S, N or O, the ring being optionally substituted with one or more R12 substituents;

R4 and R5 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) ←C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) ←C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) ←C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) ←C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) ←C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) ←aryl,
  9. 9) ←heteroaryl,
  10. 10) ←heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) ←heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) ←C(O)(O)n-R11,
  13. 13) ←C(=Y)NR8R9, or
  14. 14) ←S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R6 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) haloalkyl,
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) aryl,
  11. 11) heteroaryl,
  12. 12) heterocyclyl,
  13. 13) heterobicyclyl,
  14. 14) OR7,
  15. 15) S(O)mR7,
  16. 16) NR8R9,
  17. 17) NR8S(O)2R11,
  18. 18) COR7,
  19. 19) C(O)OR7,
  20. 20) CONR8R9,
  21. 21) S(O)2NR8R9
  22. 22) OC(O)R7,
  23. 23) OC(O)Y-R11,
  24. 24) SC(O)R7, or
  25. 25) NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) -C(=Y)NR8R9, or
  13. 13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or
  14. 14) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) C(O)R11,
  13. 13) C(O)Y-R11, or
  14. 14) S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) B(OR13)(OR14),
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) haloalkyl,
  11. 11) OR7,
  12. 12) NR8R9,
  13. 13) SR7,
  14. 14) COR7,
  15. 15) C(O)OR7,
  16. 16) S(O)mR7,
  17. 17) CONR8R9,
  18. 18) S(O)2NR8R9,
  19. 19) aryl,
  20. 20) heteroaryl,
  21. 21) heterocyclyl, or
  22. 22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C12 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl, or
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, biphenyl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R12 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl,
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,
  11. 11) C(O)(O)n-R11,
  12. 12) C(O)NR8R9,
  13. 13)S(O)m-R11, or
  14. 14) C(=Y)NR8R9,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring;

or a prodrug, or a salt thereof; or the compound of Formula I is labeled with a detectable label or an affinity tag.



[0018] An intermediate compound represented by Formula 1-v is also disclosed:

wherein PG3 and PG5 are protecting groups, and R1, R2, R3 and R5 are as defined hereinabove.

[0019] An intermediate compound represented by Formula 2-i is also disclosed:

wherein PG5 is a protecting group, and R1, R2, R3, and R5 are as defined hereinabove.

[0020] An intermediate compound represented by Formula 4-i is also described:

wherein PG3 is a protecting group, and R1, R2, R3, and R5 are as defined hereinabove.

[0021] An intermediate compound represented by Formula 5-i is also described:

wherein PG3 and PG6 are protecting groups, and R1, R2, R3, R5 and R7 are as defined hereinabove.

[0022] An intermediate compound represented by Formula 5-ii is also described:

wherein PG6 is a protecting group, and R1, R2, R3, R5 and R7 are as defined hereinabove.

[0023] An intermediate compound represented by Formula 6-i is also described:

wherein PG3 is a protecting group, and R1, R2, R3, R5 and R7 are as defined hereinabove.

[0024] An intermediate compound represented by Formula 7-ix or Formula 7-x is also described:

wherein PG3 is a protecting group, and R1, R2, R3, R11, and n are as defined hereinabove.

[0025] A process for producing compounds represented by Formula I, described hereinabove, the process comprising: in a solvent, either singly or doubly deprotecting the intermediate of Formula 1-v:

so as to produce compounds of Formula 1, wherein PG3 and PG5 are protecting groups, and R1, R2, R3 and R5 are as defined hereinabove is also described.

[0026] A process for producing compounds represented by Formula I, described hereinabove, the process comprising:
  1. a) coupling an intermediate represented by Formula 4-i:

    and LG-C(O)-R11 or LG-S(O)2-R11 in a solvent at room temperature; and
  2. b) removing the protecting group so as to form compounds of Formula 1, wherein PG3 is a protecting group, LG is a leaving group, and R1, R2, R3, and R5 are as defined herein is also described.


[0027] A process for producing compounds represented by Formula I, described hereinabove, the process comprising:

in a solvent, deprotecting the intermediate of Formula 5-ii:

so as to produce compounds of Formula 1, wherein PG6 is a protecting group, and R1, R2, R3, R5 and R7 are as defined hereinabove is also described.



[0028] A process for producing compounds represented by Formula I, described hereinabove, the process comprising:

in a solvent, deprotecting the intermediate of Formula 5-i:

so as to produce compounds of Formula 1, wherein and R1, R2, R3, R5 and R7 are as defined hereinabove is also described.



[0029] A process for producing compounds represented by Formula I, described hereinabove, the process comprising:
  1. a) coupling an intermediate represented by Formula 6-i:

    and LG-C(O)-R11, LG-S(O)2-R11, or R11NCO in a solvent at room temperature; and
  2. b) removing the protecting group so as to form compounds of Formula 1,
wherein PG3 is a protecting group, LG is a leaving group, and R1, R2, R3, R5 and R7 are as defined herein is also described.

[0030] A process for producing compounds represented by Formula I, described hereinabove, the process comprising:

in a solvent, deprotecting the intermediate of Formula 7-ix or Formula 7-x:

so as to produce compounds of Formula 1, wherein PG3 is a protecting group, and R1, R2, R3, R11 and n are as defined hereinabove is also described.



[0031] A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound, as described above, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or excipient is also described.

[0032] A pharmaceutical composition adapted for administration as an agent for treating a proliferative disorder in a subject, comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound, as described above is also described.

[0033] A method of preparing a pharmaceutical composition, the method comprising: mixing a compound, as described above, with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or excipient is also described.

[0034] A method of treating a disease state characterized by insufficient apoptosis, the method comprising: administering to a subject in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition, as described above, so as to treat the disease state, is also described.

[0035] A method of modulating IAP function, the method comprising: contacting a cell with a compound disclosed herein so as to prevent binding of a BIR binding protein to an IAP BIR
domain thereby modulating the IAP function is also described.

[0036] A method of treating a proliferative disease, the method comprising: administering to a subject in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition, as described above, so as to treat the proliferative disease is also disclosed.

[0037] A method of treating a proliferative disease, the method comprising: administering to a subject in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition, as described above, in combination with a death receptor agonist so as to treat the proliferative disease is also disclosed.

[0038] A method of treating cancer, the method comprising: administering to a subject in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition, as described above, so as to treat the cancer, is also disclosed.

[0039] A method of treating cancer, the method comprising: administering to the subject in need thereof, a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition, as described above, in combination or sequentially with an agent selected from:

a) an estrogen receptor modulator,

b) an androgen receptor modulator,

c) retinoid receptor modulator,

d) a cytotoxic agent,

e) an antiproliferative agent,

f) a prenyl-protein transferase inhibitor,

g) an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor,

h) an HIV protease inhibitor,

i) a reverse transcriptase inhibitor,

k) an angiogenesis inhibitor,

l) a PPAR-.γ agonist,

m) a PPAR-.δ agonist,

n) an inhibitor of inherent multidrug resistance,

o) an anti-emetic agent,

p) an agent useful in the treatment of anemia,

q) agents useful in the treatment of neutropenia,

r) an immunologic-enhancing drug.

s) a proteasome inhibitor;

t) an HDAC inhibitor;'

u) an inhibitor of the chemotrypsin-like activity in the proteasome; or

v) E3 ligase inhibitors;

or in combination or sequentially with radiation therapy, so as to treat the cancer is also disclosed.

[0040] An enantimoer, a diastereoisomer, or a tautomer of a compound represented by Formula I, or a salt thereof, for the manufacture of a medicament to treat a poliferative disorder in a subject, is also disclosed.

[0041] An enantiomer, a diastereoisomer, or a tautomer of a compound represented by Formula I, or a salt thereof, for the manufacture of a medicament to treat cancer in a subject, is also disclosed.

[0042] A pharmaceutical composition, as described above, for the manufacture of a medicament to treat a proliferative disorder in a subject, is also disclosed.

[0043] A pharmaceutical composition, as described above, for the manufacture of a medicament to treat cancer in a subject, is also disclosed.

[0044] The use of pharmaceutical composition, as described above, in combination or sequentially with an agent selected from:

a) an estrogen receptor modulator,

b) an androgen receptor modulator,

c) retinoid receptor modulator,

d) a cytotoxic agent,

e) an antiproliferative agent,

f) a prenyl-protein transferase inhibitor,

g) an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor,

h) an HIV protease inhibitor,

i) a reverse transcriptase inhibitor,

k) an angiogenesis inhibitor,

l) a PPAR-.γ agonist,

m) a PPAR-.δ agonist,

n) an inhibitor of inherent multidrug resistance,

o) an anti-emetic agent,

p) an agent useful in the treatment of anemia,

q) agents useful in the treatment of neutropenia,

r) an immunologic-enhancing drug.

s) a proteasome inhibitor;

t) an HDAC inhibitor;'

u) an inhibitor of the chemotrypsin-like activity in the proteasome; or

v) E3 ligase inhibitors;

or in combination or sequentially with radiation therapy, for the manufacture of a medicament to treat cancer in a subject, is also described.

[0045] The use of an isomer, an enantiomer, a diasteraoisomer, or a tautomer of a compound represented by Formula I, or a salt thereof, for the manufacture of a medicament to treat a proliferative disorder in a subject, is also described.

[0046] The use of an isomer, an enantiomer, a diastereoisomer, or a tautomer of a compound represented by Formula I, or a salt thereof, to treat cancer in a subject, is also described.

[0047] The use of a pharmaceuitical composition, as described above, to treat a proliferative disorder in a subject, is also described.

[0048] The use of a pharmaceutical composition, as described above, to treat cancer in a subject, is also described.

[0049] The use of a pharmaceutical composition, as described above, in combination or sequentially with an agent selected from:

a) an estrogen receptor modulator,

b) an androgen receptor modulator,

c) retinoid receptor modulator,

d) a cytotoxic agent,

e) an antiproliferative agent,

f) a prenyl-protein transferase inhibitor,

g) an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor,

h) an HIV protease inhibitor,

i) a reverse transcriptase inhibitor,

k) an angiogenesis inhibitor,

l) a PPAR-.γ agonist,

m) a PPAR-.δ agonist,

n) an inhibitor of inherent multidrug resistance,

o) an anti-emetic agent,

p) an agent useful in the treatment of anemia,

q) agents useful in the treatment of neutropenia,

r) an immunologic-enhancing drug.

s) a proteasome inhibitor;

t) an HDAC inhibitor;'

u) an inhibitor of the chemotrypsin-like activity in the proteasome; or

v) E3 ligase inhibitors;

or in combination or sequentially with radiation therapy, to treat cancer in a subject, is also described.

[0050] A probe, the probe being a compound of Formula I above, the compound being labeled with a detectable label or an affinity tag, is also described.

[0051] A method of identifying compounds that bind to an IAP BIR domain, the method comprising:
  1. a) contacting an IAP BIR domain with a probe to form a probe:BIR domain complex;
  2. b) measuring a signal from the probe so as to establish a reference level;
  3. c) incubating the probe:BIR domain complex with test compound;
  4. d) measuring the signal from the probe;
  5. e) comparing the signal from step d) with the reference level, a modulation of the signal being an indication that the test compound binds to the BIR domain, wherein the probe is a compound of Formula I labeled with a detectable label or an affinity label is also described.


[0052] A method of identifying compounds that bind to an IAP BIR domain, the method comprising:
  1. a) contacting an IAP BIR domain with a compound of Formula I or a probe to form either a probe or a compound: BIR domain complex;
  2. b) measuring the amount the probe or the compound bound to the BIR domain, is also described.


[0053] A method of measuring the binding of IAP proteins to a BIR binding compound, the method of comprising:
  1. a) contacting an IAP BIR domain with a probe to form a probe:BIR domain complex;
  2. b) washing non-bound protein;
  3. c) extracting the bound protein from the probe either with a test compound or eluent,
wherein the probe is a compound of Formula I labeled with an affinity label, is also described.

[0054] A method of identifying compounds that bind to a protein containing a BIR domain, the method of comprising:

contacting an IAP protein or fragment thereof with ancIAP binding protein to form an IAP protein:BIR domain complex, the IAP protein being displaceable by a test compound, is also described.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0055] As long as not defined otherwise, all groups, substituents, indices such as, for example, R1, R2, R2a, R3, R3a, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11, R12, R13, R14, Y, A, Q, n, m, p have the meanings which are defined hereinabove and hereinbelow. In the following description, typical embodiments of the groups, substituents, and indices according to the present invention are provided. Only parts which fall within the claims are to be considered part of the invention. An isomer, an enantiomer, a diastereoisomer, or a tautomer of a compound represented by Formula I:

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

Y is NH, O or S;

R1 and R1a are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R2 and R2a are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R3, and R3a

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

A is -CH2-;

Q is

  1. 1) NR4R5,
  2. 2) OR11, or
  3. 3) S(O)mR11;

R4 and R5 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) ←C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) ←C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) ←C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) ←C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) ←C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) ←aryl,
  9. 9) ←heteroaryl,
  10. 10) ←heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) ←heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) ←C(O)(O)n-R11,
  13. 13) ←C(=Y)NR8R9, or
  14. 14) ←S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R6 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) haloalkyl,
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) aryl,
  11. 11) heteroaryl,
  12. 12) heterocyclyl,
  13. 13) heterobicyclyl,
  14. 14) OR7,
  15. 15) S(O)mR7,
  16. 16) NR8R9,
  17. 17) NR8S(O)2R11,
  18. 18) COR7,
  19. 19) C(O)OR7,
  20. 20) CONR8R9,
  21. 21) S(O)2NR8R9
  22. 22) OC(O)R7,
  23. 23) OC(O)Y-R11,
  24. 24) SC(O)R7, or
  25. 25) NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) R8R9NC(=Y),
  13. 13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or
  14. 14) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) C(O)R11,
  13. 13) C(O)Y-R11, or
  14. 14) S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) B(OR13)(OR14),
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) haloalkyl,
  11. 11) OR7,
  12. 12) NR8R9,
  13. 13) SR7,
  14. 14) COR',
  15. 15) C(O)OR7,
  16. 16) S(O)mR7,
  17. 17) CONR8R9,
  18. 18) S(O)2NR8R9,
  19. 19) aryl,
  20. 20) heteroaryl,
  21. 21) heterocyclyl, or
  22. 22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl, or
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring;

or a salt thereof.

Backbone:



[0056] One subset of the compounds of Formula I include an isomer, an enantiomer, a diastereoisomer, or a tautomer of compounds of the following Formula 1.1

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

Y is NH, O or S;

R1 and R1a are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R2 is

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R3 is

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

A is -CH2-;

Q is

  1. 1) NR4R5,
  2. 2) OR11, or
  3. 3) S(O)mR11;

R4 and R5 are each independently

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) ←C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) ←C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) ←C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) ←C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) ←C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) ←aryl,
  8. 8) ←heteroaryl,
  9. 9) ←heterocyclyl,
  10. 10) ←heterobicyclyl,
  11. 11) ←C(O)(O)n-R11,
  12. 12) ←C(=Y)NR8R9, or
  13. 13) ←S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R6 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) haloalkyl,
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) aryl,
  11. 11) heteroaryl,
  12. 12) heterocyclyl,
  13. 13) heterobicyclyl,
  14. 14) OR7,
  15. 15) S(O)mR7,
  16. 16) NR8R9,
  17. 17) NR8S(O)2R11,
  18. 18) COR7,
  19. 19) C(O)OR7,
  20. 20) CONR8R9,
  21. 21) S(O)2NR8R9
  22. 22) OC(O)R7,
  23. 23) OC(O)Y-R11,
  24. 24) SC(O)R7, or
  25. 25) NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) R8R9NC(=Y),
  13. 13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or
  14. 14) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) C(O)R11,
  13. 13) C(O)Y-R11, or
  14. 14) S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) B(OR13)(OR14),
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) haloalkyl,
  11. 11) OR7,
  12. 12) NR8R9,
  13. 13) SR7,
  14. 14) COR7,
  15. 15) C(O)OR7,
  16. 16) S(O)mR7,
  17. 17) CONR8R9,
  18. 18) S(O)2NR8R9,
  19. 19) aryl,
  20. 20) heteroaryl,
  21. 21) heterocyclyl, or
  22. 22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl, or
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring;

or a salt thereof.

[0057] Another subset of the compounds of Formula 1 includes an isomer, an enantiomer, a diastereoisomer, or a tautomer of compounds of the following Formula 1.2 and 1.3



wherein R1, R1a, R2, R3, A and Q are as defined herein; or a prodrug, or a salt thereof; and wherein compounds of Formula 1.2 are typical.

[0058] The invention typically relates to an isomer, an enantiomer, a diastereoisomer, or a tautomer of a compound of Formula 1.2

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

Y is NH, O or S;

R1 and R1a are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C3 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent;

R2 is

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C3 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent;

R3 is C1-C3 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent;

A is -CH2-;

Q is

  1. 1) NR4R5,
  2. 2) OR11, or
  3. 3) S(O)mR11;

R4 and R5 are each independently

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) ←C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) ←C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) ←C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) ←C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) ←C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) ←aryl,
  8. 8) ←heteroaryl,
  9. 9) ←heterocyclyl,
  10. 10) ←heterobicyclyl,
  11. 11) ←C(O)(O)n-R11,
  12. 12) ←(=Y)NR8R9, or
  13. 13) ←S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R6 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) haloalkyl,
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) aryl,
  11. 11) heteroaryl,
  12. 12) heterocyclyl,
  13. 13) heterobicyclyl,
  14. 14) OR7,
  15. 15) S(O)mR7,
  16. 16) NR8R9,
  17. 17) NR8S(O)2R11,
  18. 18) COR7,
  19. 19) C(O)OR7,
  20. 20) CONR8R9,
  21. 21) S(O)2NR8R9
  22. 22) OC(O)R7,
  23. 23) OC(O)Y-R11,
  24. 24) SC(O)R7, or
  25. 25) NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) R8R9NC(=Y), or
  13. 13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or
  14. 14) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) C(O)R11,
  13. 13) C(O)Y-R11, or
  14. 14) -S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) B(OR13)(OR14),
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) haloalkyl,
  11. 11) OR7,
  12. 12) NR8R9,
  13. 13) SR7,
  14. 14) COR7,
  15. 15) C(O)OR7,
  16. 16) S(O)mR7,
  17. 17) CONR8R9,
  18. 18) S(O)2NR8R9,
  19. 19) aryl,
  20. 20) heteroaryl,
  21. 21) heterocyclyl, or
  22. 22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl, or
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring;

or a salt thereof.

[0059] One example of the aforesaid compounds includes compounds of Formula 1.2a

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

Y is NH, O or S;

R1 and R1a are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent;

R2 is

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent;

R3 is

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent;

R4 and R5 are each independently

1) haloalkyl,

2) ←C1-C6 alkyl,

3) ←C2-C6 alkenyl,

3) ←C2-C6 alkenyl,

4) ←C2-C4 alkynyl,

5) ←C3-C7 cycloalkyl,

6) ←C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,

7) ←aryl,

8) ←heteroaryl,

9) ←heterocyclyl,

10) ←heterobicyclyl,

11) ←C(O)(O)n-R11,

12) ←C(=Y)NR8R9, or

13) ←S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R6 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) haloalkyl,
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) aryl,
  11. 11) heteroaryl,
  12. 12) heterocyclyl,
  13. 13) heterobicyclyl,
  14. 14) OR7,
  15. 15) S(O)mR7,
  16. 16) NR8R9,
  17. 17) NR8S(O)2R11,
  18. 18) COR7,
  19. 19) C(O)OR7,
  20. 20) CONR8R9,
  21. 21) S(O)2NR8R9
  22. 22) OC(O)R7,
  23. 23) OC(O)Y-R11,
  24. 24) SC(O)R7, or
  25. 25) NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

1) H,

2) haloalkyl,

3) C1-C6 alkyl,

4) C2-C6 alkenyl,

5) C2-C4 alkynyl,

6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,

6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,

7) aryl,

8) heteroaryl,

9) heterocyclyl,

10) heterobicyclyl,

11) R8R9NC(=Y), or

12) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or

13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) C(O)R11,
  13. 13) C(O)Y-R11, or
  14. 14) S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) B(OR13)(OR14),
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) haloalkyl,
  11. 11) OR7,
  12. 12) NR8R9,
  13. 13) SR7,
  14. 14) COR7,
  15. 15) C(O)OR7,
  16. 16) S(O)mR7,
  17. 17) CONR8R9,
  18. 18) S(O)2NR8R9,
  19. 19) aryl,
  20. 20) heteroaryl,
  21. 21) heterocyclyl, or
  22. 22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl, or
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring; or a salt thereof.



[0060] Compounds of Formula 1.2b are also disclosed:

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

Y is NH, O or S;

R1 and R1a are both H;

R2 is CH3;

R3 is CH(CH3)2;

R6 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) haloalkyl,
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) aryl,
  11. 11) heteroaryl,
  12. 12) heterocyclyl,
  13. 13) heterobicyclyl,
  14. 14) OR7,
  15. 15) S(O)mR7,
  16. 16) NR8R9,
  17. 17) NR8S(O)2R11,
  18. 18) COR7,
  19. 19) C(O)OR7,
  20. 20) CONR8R9,
  21. 21) S(O)2NR8R9
  22. 22) OC(O)R7,
  23. 23) OC(O)Y-R11,
  24. 24) SC(O)R7, or
  25. 25) NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) R8R9NC(=Y), or
  13. 13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or
  14. 14) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) C(O)11,
  13. 13) C(O)Y-R11, or
  14. 14) S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) B(OR13 )(OR14),
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) haloalkyl,
  11. 11) OR7,
  12. 12) NR8R9,
  13. 13) SR7,
  14. 14) COR7,
  15. 15) C(O)OR7,
  16. 16) S(O)mR7,
  17. 17) CONR8R9,
  18. 18) S(O)2NR8R9,
  19. 19) aryl,
  20. 20) heteroaryl,
  21. 21) heterocyclyl, or
  22. 22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl, or
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring; or a salt thereof.



[0061] Compounds of Formula 1.2c are also disclosed:

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

Y is NH, O or S;

R1 and R1a are both H;

R2 is CH3;

R3 is CH(CH3)2;

R6 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) haloalkyl,
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) aryl,
  11. 11) heteroaryl,
  12. 12) heterocyclyl,
  13. 13) heterobicyclyl,
  14. 14) OR7,
  15. 15) S(O)m,R7,
  16. 16) NR8R9,
  17. 17) NR8S(O)2R11,
  18. 18) COR7,
  19. 19) C(O)OR7,
  20. 20) CONR8R9,
  21. 21) S(O)2NR8R9
  22. 22) OC(O)R7,
  23. 23) OC(O)Y-R11,
  24. 24) SC(O)R7, or
  25. 25) NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) R8R9NC(=Y), or
  13. 13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or
  14. 14) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) C(O)R11,
  13. 13) C(O)Y-R11, or
  14. 14) S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) B(OR13)(OR14),
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) haloalkyl,
  11. 11) OR7,
  12. 12) NR8R9,
  13. 13) SR7,
  14. 14) COR7,
  15. 15) C(O)OR7,
  16. 16) S(O)mR7,
  17. 17) CONR8R9,
  18. 18) S(O)2NR8R9,
  19. 19) aryl,
  20. 20) heteroaryl,
  21. 21) heterocyclyl, or
  22. 22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl, or
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring; or a salt thereof.



[0062] Compounds of Formula 1.2d are also disclosed:

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

Y is NH, O or S;

R1 and R1a are both H;

R2 is CH3;

R3 is CH(CH3)2 or C(CH3)2;

R6 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) haloalkyl,
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) aryl,
  11. 11) heteroaryl,
  12. 12) heterocyclyl,
  13. 13) heterobicyclyl,
  14. 14) OR7,
  15. 15) S(O)mR7,
  16. 16) NR8R9,
  17. 17) NR8S(O)2R11,
  18. 18) COR7,
  19. 19) C(O)OR7,
  20. 20) CONR8R9,
  21. 21) S(O)2NR8R9
  22. 22) OC(O)R7,
  23. 23) OC(O)Y-R11,
  24. 24) SC(O)R7, or
  25. 25) NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) -C(=Y)NR8R9, or
  13. 13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or
  14. 14) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) aryl,
  9. 9) heteroaryl,
  10. 10) heterocyclyl,
  11. 11) heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) C(O)R11,
  13. 13) C(O)Y-R11, or
  14. 14) S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

  1. 1) halogen,
  2. 2) NO2,
  3. 3) CN,
  4. 4) B(OR13)(OR14),
  5. 5) C1-C6 alkyl,
  6. 6) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  7. 7) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  8. 8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  9. 9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  10. 10) haloalkyl,
  11. 11) OR7,
  12. 12) NR8R9,
  13. 13) SR7,
  14. 14) COR7,
  15. 15) C(O)OR7,
  16. 16) S(O)mR7,
  17. 17) CONR8R9,
  18. 18) S(O)2NR8R9,
  19. 19) aryl,
  20. 20) heteroaryl,
  21. 21) heterocyclyl, or
  22. 22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

  1. 1) haloalkyl,
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) C2-C6 alkenyl,
  4. 4) C2-C4 alkynyl,
  5. 5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  6. 6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  7. 7) aryl,
  8. 8) heteroaryl,
  9. 9) heterocyclyl, or
  10. 10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring; or a salt thereof.


R1 and R1a:



[0063] In one subset R1 and R1a are each independently
  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C3 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent.


[0064] In one example R1 and R1a are both H.

[0065] In an alternative example R1 is H and R1a is CH3.

R2 and R2a:



[0066] In one subset it is preferred that R2 and R2a are each independently
  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C3 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent.


[0067] In one example, R2a is H and R2 is C1-C2 alkyl.

R3 and R3a:



[0068] In one subset, R3 and R3a are each independently
  1. 1) H, or
  2. 2) C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents.


[0069] In one example of the present invention, R3a is H and R3 is C1-C6 alkyl optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents.

A:



[0070] In one subset, A is -CH2-.

Q:



[0071] In one subset, Q is NR4R5 wherein R4 and R5 are each independently
  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) haloalkyl,
  3. 3) ←C1-C6 alkyl,
  4. 4) ←C2-C6 alkenyl,
  5. 5) ←C2-C4 alkynyl,
  6. 6) ←C3-C7 cycloalkyl,
  7. 7) ←C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,
  8. 8) ←aryl,
  9. 9) ←heteroaryl,
  10. 10) ←heterocyclyl,,
  11. 11) ←heterobicyclyl,
  12. 12) ←C(O)(O)n-R11,
  13. 13) ←C(=Y)NR8R9, or
  14. 14) ←S(O)2-R11,
wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents.

[0072] In one example, R4 and R5 are each independently
  1. 1) H,
  2. 2) ←C1-C6 alkyl,
  3. 3) ←aryl,
  4. 4) ←heteroaryl,
  5. 5) ←C(O)(O)n-R11,
  6. 6) ←C(=Y)NR8R9, or
  7. 7) ←S(O)2-R11,
wherein the alkyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, and heteroaryl is optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents.

[0073] In another example, R4 is ←C(O)(O)n-R11 and R5 is ←C1-C6 alkyl substituted with an R6 substituent.
In an alternative example, R4 is ←C(=Y)NR8R9 and R5 is ←C1-C6 alkyl substituted with an R6 substituent.
In an alternative example, R4 is ←C(O)(O)n-R11 and R5 is ←aryl.

[0074] Specific examples of compounds are provided in Table 1 described hereinafter.

[0075] If any variable, such as R6, R10 and the like, occurs more than one time in any constituent structure, the definition of the variable at each occurrence is independent at every other occurrence. If a substituent is itself substituted with one or more substituents, it is to be understood that that the one or more substituents may be attached to the same carbon atom or different carbon atoms. Combinations of substituents and variables defined herein are allowed only if they produce chemically stable compounds.

[0076] In a first aspect the invention relates to the compounds claimed in claim 1.

[0077] Preferred features of the invention are detailed in claims 2 to 5.

[0078] In another aspect the invention relates to the compounds claimed in claims 6 or 7.

[0079] In another aspect the invention relates to the process claimed in claims 8 or 9. In a further aspect the invention relates to the compositions claimed in claim 10, 11, 21 or 22. In a further aspect the invention relates to the method claimed in claim 12. In a further aspect the invention relates to the probe claimed in claim 13. In a further aspect the invention relates to the method claimed in claim 14-17. In a further aspect the invention relates to the compounds claimed in claims 18-20.

Definitions



[0080] Unless otherwise specified, the following definitions apply:

The singular forms "a", "an" and "the" include corresponding plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.



[0081] As used herein, the term "comprising" is intended to mean that the list of elements following the word "comprising" are required or mandatory but that other elements are optional and may or may not be present.

[0082] As used herein, the term "consisting of" is intended to mean including and limited to whatever follows the phrase "consisting of". Thus the phrase "consisting of" indicates that the listed elements are required or mandatory and that no other elements may be present.

[0083] As used herein, the term "alkyl" is intended to include both branched and straight chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon groups having the specified number of carbon atoms, for example, C2-C6 as in C1-C6- alkyl is defined as including groups having 1,2,3,4,5 or 6 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement, and C1-C4 as in C1-C4 alkyl is defined as including groups having 1, 2, 3, or 4 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement, and C1-C3 as in C1-C3 alkyl is defined as including groups having 1, 2, or 3 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement. Examples of alkyl as defined above include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, i-butyl, pentyl and hexyl.

[0084] As used herein, the term, "alkenyl" is intended to mean unsaturated straight or branched chain hydrocarbon groups having the specified number of carbon atoms therein, and in which at least two of the carbon atoms are bonded to each other by a double bond, and having either E or Z regeochemistry and combinations thereof. For example, C2-C6 as in C2-C6 alkenyl is defined as including groups having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement, at least two of the carbon atoms being bonded together by a double bond. Examples of C2-C6 alkenyl include ethenyl (vinyl), 1-propenyl, 2-propenyl, 1-butenyl and the like.

[0085] As used herein, the term "alkynyl" is intended to mean unsaturated, straight chain hydrocarbon groups having the specified number of carbon atoms therein and in which at least two carbon atoms are bonded together by a triple bond. For example C2-C4 as in C2-C4 alkynyl is defined as including groups having 2, 3, or 4 carbon atoms in a chain, at least two of the carbon atoms being bonded together by a triple bond.

[0086] As used herein, the term "cycloalkyl" is intended to mean a monocyclic saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon group having the specified number of carbon atoms therein, for example, C3-C7 as in C3-C7cycloalkyl is defined as including groups having 3,4,5,6, or 7 carbons in a monocyclic arrangement. Examples of C3-C7 cycloalkyl as defined above include, but are not limited to, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl and cycloheptyl.

[0087] As used herein, the term "cycloalkenyl" is intended to mean a monocyclic saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon group having the specified number of carbon atoms therein, for example, C3-C7 as in C3-C7cycloalkenyl is defined as including groups having 3,4,5,6, or 7 carbons in a monocyclic arrangement. Examples of C3-C7 cycloalkenyl as defined above include, but are not limited to, cyclopentenyl, and cyclohexenyl.

[0088] As used herein, the term "halo" or "halogen" is intended to mean fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

[0089] As used herein, the term "haloalkyl" is intended to mean an alkyl as defined above, in which each hydrogen atom may be successively replaced by a halogen atom. Examples of haloalkyls include, but are not limited to, CH2F, CHF2 and CF3.

[0090] As used herein, the term "aryl", either alone or in combination with another radical, means a carbocyclic aromatic monocyclic group containing 6 carbon atoms which may be further fused to a second 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic group which may be aromatic, saturated or unsaturated. Aryl includes, but is not limited to, phenyl, indanyl, 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl and tetrahydronaphthyl. The fused aryls may be connected to another group either at a suitable position on the cycloalkyl ring or the aromatic ring. For example:





[0091] Arrowed lines drawn from the ring system indicate that the bond may be attached to any of the suitable ring atoms.

[0092] As used herein, the term "heteroaryl" is intended to mean a monocyclic or bicyclic ring system of up to ten atoms, wherein at least one ring is aromatic, and contains from 1 to 4 hetero atoms selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S. The heteroaryl substituent may be attached either via a ring carbon atom or one of the heteroatoms. Examples of heteroaryl groups include, but are not limited to thienyl, benzimidazolyl, benzo[b]thienyl, furyl, benzofuranyl, pyranyl, isobenzofuranyl, chromenyl, xanthenyl, 2H-pyrrolyl, pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, pyridyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, indolizinyl, isoindolyl, 3H-indolyl, indolyl, indazolyl, purinyl, 4H-quinolizinyl, isoquinolyl, quinolyl, phthalazinyl, napthyridinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinazolinyl, cinnolinyl, pteridinyl, isothiazolyl, isochromanyl, chromanyl, isoxazolyl, furazanyl, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, thiazolo[4,5-b]-pyridine, and



[0093] As used herein, the term "heterocycle", "heterocyclic" or "heterocyclyl" is intended to mean a 5, 6, or 7 membered non-aromatic ring system containing from 1 to 4 heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of O, N and S. Examples of heterocycles include, but are not limited to pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, piperidyl, pyrrolinyl, piperazinyl, imidazolidinyl, morpholinyl, imidazolinyl, pyrazolidinyl, pyrazolinyl, and



[0094] As used herein, the term "heterobicycle" either alone or in combination with another radical, is intended to mean a heterocycle as defined above fused to another cycle, be it a heterocycle, an aryl or any other cycle defined herein. Examples of such heterobicycles include, but are not limited to, coumarin, benzo[d][1,3]dioxole, 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxine and 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]dioepine.

Examples of



[0095] 

wherein G is a 5, 6 or 7 membered ring which optionally incorporates one or more heteroatoms selected from S, N or O and p is 1 or 2, and is optionally substituted with one or more R12 substituents, include, but are not limited to:

and



[0096] As used herein, the term "heteroatom" is intended to mean O, S or N.

[0097] As used herein, the term "detectable label" is intended to mean a group that may be linked to a compound of the present invention to produce a probe or to an IAP BIR domain, such that when the probe is associated with the BIR domain, the label allows either direct or indirect recognition of the probe so that it may be detected, measured and quantified.

[0098] Examples of detectable labels include, but are not limited to, radioisotopes, fluorescent labels, colorimetric labels, chemiluminescent labels, or enzymatic markers and the like.

[0099] As used herein, the term "affinity tag" is intended to mean a ligand or group, which is linked to either a compound of the present invention or to an IAP BIR domain to allow another compound to be extracted from a solution to which the ligand or group is attached. Examples of affinity tags include, but are not limited to, biotin and polyhistidine.

[0100] As used herein, the term "probe" is intended to mean a compound of Formula I which is labeled with either a detectable label or an affinity tag, and which is capable of binding, either covalently or non-covalently, to an IAP BIR domain. When, for example, the probe is non-covalently bound, it may be displaced by a test compound. When, for example, the probe is bound covalently, it may be used to form cross-linked adducts, which may be quantified and inhibited by a test compound or extracting media such as Leamli buffer, SDS and the like.

[0101] As used herein, the term "optionally substituted with one or more substituents" or its equivalent term "optionally substituted with at least one substituent" is intended to mean that the subsequently described event of circumstances may or may not occur, and that the description includes instances where the event or circumstance occurs and instances in which it does not. The definition is intended to mean from zero to five substituents.

[0102] If the substituents themselves are incompatible with the synthetic methods of the present invention, the substituent may be protected with a suitable protecting group (PG) that is stable to the reaction conditions used in these methods. The protecting group may be removed at a suitable point in the reaction sequence of the method to provide a desired intermediate or target compound. Alternatively, the protectiong group may be maintained and represent a substituent of an active compound. Suitable protecting groups and the methods for protecting and de-protecting different substituents using such suitable protecting groups are well known to those skilled in the art; examples of which may be found in T. Greene and P. Wuts, Protecting Groups in Chemical Synthesis (3rd ed.), John Wiley & Sons, NY (1999), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Examples of protecting groups used throughout include, but are not limited to Fmoc, Bn, Boc and CBz. In some instances, a substituent may be specifically selected to be reactive under the reaction conditions used in the methods of this invention. Under these circumstances, the reaction conditions convert the selected substituent into another substituent that is either useful in an intermediate compound in the methods of this invention or is a desired substituent in a target compound.

[0103] As used herein, the term "amino acid" is intended to mean any of the following α-amino acids:
Amino acidAbbreviation
α-Amino butyric acid Abu
Alanine Ala
Arginine Arg
Aspartic acid Asp
Asparagine Asn
Cysteine Cys
Glutamic acid Glu
Glutamine Gin
Glycine Gly
Isoleucine Ile
Histidine His
Leucine Leu
Lysine Lys
Methionine Met
Phenylalanine Phe
Proline Pro
Serine Ser
Threonine Thr
Tryptophan Trp
Tyrosine Tyr
Valine Val


[0104] As used herein, the term "residue" when referring to α-amino acids is intended to mean a radical derived from the corresponding α-amino acid by eliminating the hydroxyl of the carboxy group and one hydrogen of the α-amino group. For example, the terms Gin, Ala, Gly, Ile, Arg, Asp, Phe, Ser, Leu, Cys, Asn, and Tyr represent the residues of L-glutamine, L-alanine, glycine, L-isoleucine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, L-phenylalanine, L-serine, L-leucine, L-cysteine, L-asparagine, and L-tyrosine, respectively.

[0105] As used herein, the term "subject" is intended to mean humans and non-human mammals such as primates, cats, dogs, swine, cattle, sheep, goats, horses, rabbits, rats, mice and the like.

[0106] As used herein, the term "prodrug" is intended to mean a compound that may be converted under physiological conditions or by solvolysis to a biologically active compound of the present invention. Thus, the term "prodrug" refers to a metabolic precursor of a compound of the invention that is pharmaceutical acceptable. A prodrug may be inactive or display limited activity when administered to a subject in need thereof, but is converted in vivo to an active compound of the present invention. Typically, prodrugs are transformed in vivo to yield the compound of the invention, for example, by hydrolysis in blood or other organs by enzymatic processing. The prodrug compound often offers advantages of solubility, tissue compatibility or delayed release in the subject (see, Bundgard, H., Design of Prodrugs (1985), pp. 7-9, 21-24 (Elsevier, Amsterdam). The definition of prodrug includes any covalently bonded carriers which release the active compound of the invention in vivo when such prodrug is administered to a subject. Prodrugs of a compound of the present invention may be prepared by modifying functional groups present in the compound of the invention in such a way that the modifications are cleaved, either in routine manipulation or in vivo, to a parent compound of the invention.

[0107] As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or excipient" is intended to mean, without limitation, any adjuvant, carrier, excipient, glidant, sweetening agent, diluent, preservative, dye/colorant, flavor enhancer, surfactant, wetting agent, dispersing agent, suspending agent, stabilizer, isotonic agent, solvent, emulsifier, or encapsulating agent, such as a liposome, cyclodextrins or encapsulating polymeric delivery systems, which is acceptable for use in the subject, preferably humans.

[0108] As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" is intended to mean both acid and base addition salts.

[0109] As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt" is intended to mean those salts which retain the biological effectiveness and properties of the free bases, which are not biologically or otherwise undesirable, and which are formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and the like, and organic acids such as acetic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, propionic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, oxalic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, salicylic acid, and the like.

[0110] As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable base addition salt" is intended to mean those salts which retain the biological effectiveness and properties of the free acids, which are not biologically or otherwise undesirable. These salts are prepared from addition of an inorganic base or an organic base to the free acid. Salts derived from inorganic bases include, but are not limited to, the sodium, potassium, lithium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, aluminum salts and the like. Salts derived from organic bases include, but are not limited to, salts of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, substituted amines including naturally occurring substituted amines, cyclic amines and basic ion exchange resins, such as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, diethylamine, triethylamine, tripropylamine, ethanolamine, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, 2-diethylaminoethanol, dicyclohexylamine, lysine, arginine, histidine, caffeine, procaine, hydrabamine, choline, betaine, ethylenediamine, glucosamine, methylglucamine, theobromine, purines, piperazine, piperidine, N-ethylpiperidine, polyamine resins and the like.

[0111] As used herein, the term "BIR domain binding" is intended to mean a compound or the action of a compound of the present invention, which blocks or diminishes the binding of IAPs to BIR binding proteins or is involved in displacing BIR binding proteins from an IAP. Examples of BIR binding proteins include, but are not limited to, caspases and mitochondrially derived BIR binding proteins such as Smac, Omi/WTR2A and the like.

[0112] As used herein, the term "insufficient apoptosis" is intended to mean a state wherein a disease is caused or continues because cells deleterious to the subject have not apoptosed. This includes, but is not limited to, cancer cells that survive in a subject without treatment, cancer cells that survive in a subject during or following anti-cancer treatment, or immune cells whose action is deleterious to the subject, and includes, neutrophils, monocytes and auto-reactive T-cells.

[0113] As used herein, the term "therapeutically effective amount" is intended to mean an amount of a compound of Formula I or a salt thereof, which, when administered to a subject is sufficient to effect treatment for a disease-state associated with insufficient apoptosis. The amount of the compound of Formula I will vary depending on the compound, the condition and its severity, and the age of the subject to be treated, but can be determined routinely by one of ordinary skill in the art having regard to his own knowledge and to this disclosure.

[0114] As used herein, the term "treating" or "treatment" is intended to mean treatment of a disease-state associated with insufficient apoptosis, as disclosed herein, in a subject, and includes: (i) preventing a disease or condition associated with insufficient apoptosis from occurring in a subject, in particular, when such mammal is predisposed to the disease or condition but has not yet been diagnosed as having it; (ii) inhibiting a disease or condition associated with insufficient apoptosis, i.e., arresting its development; or (iii) relieving a disease or condition associated with insufficient apoptosis, i.e., causing regression of the condition.

[0115] As used herein, the term "treating cancer" is intended to mean the administration of a pharmaceutical composition of the present invention to a subject, preferably a human, which is afflicted with cancer to cause an alleviation of the cancer by killing, inhibiting the growth, or inhibiting the metastasis of the cancer cells.

[0116] As used herein, the term "preventing disease" is intended to mean, in the case of cancer, the post-surgical, post-chemotherapy or post-radiotherapy administration of a pharmaceutical composition of the present invention to a subject, preferably a human, which was afflicted with cancer to prevent the regrowth of the cancer by killing, inhibiting the growth, or inhibiting the metastasis of any remaining cancer cells. Also included in this definition is the prevention of prosurvival conditions that lead to diseases such as asthma, MS and the like.

[0117] As used herein, the term "apoptosis" or "programmed cell death" is intended to mean the regulated process of cell death wherein a dying cell displays a set of well-characterized biochemical hallmarks that include cell membrane blebbing, cell soma shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA laddering, as well as any caspase-mediated cell death.

[0118] As used herein, the term "BIR domain" or "BIR" are used interchangeably throughout and are intended to mean a domain which is characterized by a number of invariant amino acid residue including conserved cysteines and one conserved hisitidine residue within the sequence Cys-(Xaa1)2Cys-(Xaa1)16His-(Xaa1)6-8Cys. Typically, the amino acid sequence of the consensus sequence is: Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Arg-Leu-Xaa1-Thr-Phe-Xaa1-Xaa1-Trp -Pro-Xaa2-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa2-Xaa2-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-leu-Ala-Xaa1-Ala-Gly-Phe-Tyr-Tyr-Xaa1-Gly-Xaa1-Xaa1-Asp-Xaa1-Val-Xaa1-Cys-Phe-Xaa1-Cys-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Trp-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Asp-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-His-Xaa- 1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Pro-Xaa1-Cys-Xaa1-Phe-Val, wherein Xaa1 is any amino acid and Xaa2 is any amino acid or is absent. Preferably the sequence is substantially identical to one of the BIR domain sequences provided for XIAP, HIAP1, or HIAP2 herein. The BIR domain residues are listed below (see Genome Biology (2001) 1-10):
 XIAPHIAP-1HIAP-2
BIR1 21-93 41-113 24-96
BIR2 159-230 179-250 164-235
BIR3 258-330 264-336 250-322
Seq. # P98170 XP-006266 XP-006267


[0119] As used herein, the term "ring zinc finger" or "RZF" is intended to mean a domain having the amino acid sequence of the consensus sequence: Glu-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa-1-Xaa2-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Cys-Lys-Xaa3-Cys-Met-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa3-X-aa1-Phe-Xaa1-Pro-Cys-Gly-His-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Cys-Xaa1-Xaa1-Cys-Ala-Xaa1-Xaa-1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Xaa1-Cys-Pro-Xaa1-Cys, wherein Xaa1 is any amino acid, Xaa2 is Glu or Asp, and Xaa3 is Val or Ile.

[0120] As used herein, the term "IAP" is intended to mean a polypeptide or protein, or fragment thereof, encoded by an IAP gene. Examples of IAPs include, but are not limited to human or mouse NAIP (Birc 1), HIAP-1 (clAP2, Birc 3), HIAP-2 (clAP1, Birc 2), XIAP (Birc 4), survivin (Birc 5), livin (ML-IAP, Birc 7), ILP-2 (Birc 8) and Apollon/BRUCE (Birc 6) (see for example US Patent Numbers 6,107,041; 6,133,437; 6,156,535; 6,541,457; 6,656,704; 6,689,562; Deveraux and Reed, Genes Dev. 13, 239-252, 1999; Kasof and Gomes, J. Biol. Chem., 276, 3238-3246, 2001; Vucic et al., Curr. Biol. 10, 1359-1366, 2000; Ashab et al. FEBS Lett., 495, 56-60, 2001.

[0121] As used herein, the term "IAP gene" is intended to mean a gene encoding a polypeptide having at least one BIR domain and which is capable of modulating (inhibiting or enhancing) apoptosis in a cell or tissue. The IAP gene is a gene having about 50% or greater nucleotide sequence identity to at least one of human or mouse NAIP (Birc 1), HIAP-1 (cIAP2, Birc 3), HIAP-2 (cIAP1, Birc 2), XIAP (Birc 4), survivin (Birc 5), livin (ML-IAP, Birc 7), ILP-2 (Birc 8) and Apollon/BRUCE (Birc 6). The region of sequence over which identity is measured is a region encoding at least one BIR domain and a ring zinc finger domain. Mammalian IAP genes include nucleotide sequences isolated from any mammalian source.

[0122] As used herein, the term "IC50" is intended to mean an amount, concentration or dosage of a particular compound of the present invention that achieves a 50% inhibition of a maximal response, such as displacement of maximal fluorescent probe binding in an assay that measures such response.

[0123] As used herein, the term "EC50" is intended to mean an amount, concentration or dosage of a particular compound of the present invention that achieves a 50% inhibition of cell survival.

[0124] As used herein, the term "modulate" or "modulating" is intended to mean the treatment, prevention, suppression, enhancement or induction of a function or condition using the compounds of the present invention. For example, the compounds of the present invention can modulate IAP function in a subject, thereby enhancing apoptosis
by significantly reducing, or essentially eliminating the interaction of activated apoptotic proteins, such as caspase-3, 7 and 9, with the BIR domains of mammalian IAPs.

[0125] As used herein, the term "enhancing apoptosis" is intended to mean increasing the number of cells that apoptose in a given cell population either in vitro or in vivo. The cell population may include, but is not limited to, ovarian cancer cells, colon cancer cells, breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, pancreatic cancer cells, or T cells and the like. It will be appreciated that the degree of apoptosis enhancement provided by an apoptosis-enhancing compound of the present invention in a given assay will vary, but that one skilled in the art can determine the statistically significant change in the level of apoptosis that identifies a compound that enhances apoptosis otherwise limited by an IAP. Preferably "enhancing apoptosis" means that the increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis is at least 25%, more preferably the increase is 50%, and most preferably the increase is at least one-fold. Preferably the sample monitored is a sample of cells that normally undergo insufficient apoptosis (i.e., cancer cells). Methods for detecting the changes in the level of apoptosis (i.e., enhancement or reduction) are described in the Examples and include methods that quantitate the fragmentation of DNA, methods that quantitate the translocation phosphatoylserine from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular side of the membrane, determination of activation of the caspases and methods quantitate the release of cytochrome C and the apoptosis inhibitory factor into the cytoplasm by mitochondria. As used herein, the term "proliferative disease" or "proliferative disorder" is intended to mean a disease that is caused by or results in inappropriately high levels of cell division, inappropriately low levels of apoptosis, or both. For example, cancers such as lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer, and autoimmune disoders are all examples of proliferative diseases.
The compounds disclosed herein, or their pharmaceutically acceptable salts may contain one or more asymmetric centers, chiral axes and chiral planes and may thus give rise to enantiomers, diastereomers, and other stereoisomeric forms and may be defined in terms of absolute stereochemistry, such as (R)- or (S)- or, as (D)- or (L)-for amino acids. The compounds disclosed herein are intended to include all such possible isomers, as well as, their racemic and optically pure forms. Optically active (+) and (-), (R)- and (S)-, or (D)- and (L)-isomers may be prepared using chiral synthons or chiral reagents, or resolved using conventional techniques, such as reverse phase HPLC. The racemic mixtures may be prepared and thereafter separated into individual optical isomers or these optical isomers may be prepared by chiral synthesis. The enantiomers may be resolved by methods known to those skilled in the art, for example by formation of diastereoisomeric salts which may then be separated by crystallization, gas-liquid or liquid chromatography, selective reaction of one enantiomer with an enantiomer specific reagent. It will also be appreciated by those skilled in the art that where the desired enantiomer is converted into another chemical entity by a separation technique, an additional step is then required to form the desired enantiomeric form. Alternatively specific enantiomers may be synthesized by asymmetric synthesis using optically active reagents, substrates, catalysts, or solvents or by converting one enantiomer to another by asymmetric transformation.

[0126] Certain compounds disclosed herein may exist in Zwitterionic form and the present invention includes Zwitterionic forms of these compounds and mixtures thereof.

Utilities



[0127] The compounds disclosed herein are useful as IAP BIR domain binding compounds and as such the compounds, compositions and method described herein include application to the cells or subjects afflicted with or having a predisposition towards developing a particular disease state, which is characterized by insufficient apoptosis. Thus, the compounds, compositions and methods disclosed herein are used to treat cellular proliferative diseases/disorders, which include, but are not limited to, i) cancer, ii) autoimmune disease, iii) inflammatory disorders, iv) proliferation induced post medical procedures, including, but not limited to, surgery, angioplasty, and the like.

[0128] The compounds disclosed herein may also be useful as antiulcerous agents. Down-regulation of the TRAIL (TNF-alpha-related apoptosis inducing ligand) system, in the context of H. pylori infection, may limit exaggerated apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells and destruction of tissue and, therefore, may enable H. pylori to maintain its niche, thus the compounds disclosed herein may be useful in the treatment of bacterial infection and/or recurrent infection that may have develop due to the down-regulation of the TRAIL system. (see Nou et al. J. Infectious Diseases (2005) 571-8).

[0129] The compounds disclosed herein may also be useful in the treatment of primary varicosis. Data suggest (see Ducass et al. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovac. Surg (2005) 316-323) that primary varicose veins are associated with inhibition of programmed cell death involving the defect in intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Thus the BIR domain binding compounds disclosed herein may be useful in the treatment of this pathology.

[0130] The compounds disclosed herein may also be useful in the treatment of diseases in which there is a defect in the programmed cell-death or the apoptotic machinery (TRAIL, FAS, apoptosome), such as multiple sclerosis, asthma, artherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity and the like.

[0131] The treatment involves administration to a subject in need thereof a compound disclosed herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutical carrier and a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

[0132] In particular, the compounds, compositions and methods of the present invention are useful for the treatment of cancer including solid tumors such as skin, breast, brain, lung, testicular carcinomas, and the like. Cancers that may be treated by the compounds, compositions and methods disclosed herein include, but are not limited to the following:
TissueExample
Adrenal gland neuroblastoma
Bone osteogenic sarcoma (osteosarcoma), fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant lymphoma (reticulum cell sarcoma), multiple myeloma, malignant giant cell tumor chordoma, osteochronfroma (osteocartilaginous exostoses), benign chondroma, chondroblastoma, chondromyxofibroma, osteoid osteoma and giant cell tumors
Cardiac sarcoma (angiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, liposarcoma), myxoma, rhabdomyoma, fibroma, lipoma and teratoma
Gastrointestinal esophagus (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, lymphoma), stomach (carcinoma, lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma), pancreas (ductal adenocarcinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma, carcinoid tumors, vipoma), small bowel (adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, carcinoid tumors, Karposi's sarcoma, leiomyoma, hemangioma, lipoma, neurofibroma, fibroma), large bowel (adenocarcinoma, tubular adenoma, villous adenoma, hamartoma, leiomyoma)
Genitourinary tract kidney (adenocarcinoma, Wilm's tumor [nephroblastoma], lymphoma, leukemia), bladder and urethra (squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma), prostate (adenocarcinoma, sarcoma), testis (seminoma, teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratocarcinoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, interstitial cell carcinoma, fibroma, fibroadenoma, adenomatoid tumors, lipoma)
Gynecological uterus (endometrial carcinoma), cervix (cervical carcinoma, pre-tumor cervical dysplasia), ovaries (ovarian carcinoma [serous cystadenocarcinoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, unclassified carcinoma], granulosa-thecal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, dysgerminoma, malignant teratoma), vulva (squamous cell carcinoma, intraepithelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, fibrosarcoma, melanoma), vagina (clear cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, botryoid sarcoma (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma), fallopian tubes (carcinoma)
Hematologic blood (myeloid leukemia [acute and chronic], acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, myeloproliferative diseases, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome), Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [malignant lymphoma]
Liver hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma), cholangiocarcinoma, hepatoblastoma, angiosarcoma, hepatocellular adenoma, hemangioma
Lung bronchogenic carcinoma (squamous cell, undifferentiated small cell, undifferentiated large cell, adenocarcinoma), alveolar (bronchiolar) carcinoma, bronchial adenoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, chondromatous hamartoma, mesothelioma
Nervous system skull (osteoma, hemangioma, granuloma, xanthoma, osteitis deformans), meninges (meningioma, meningiosarcoma, gliomatosis), brain (astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, glioma, ependymoma, germinoma [pinealoma], glioblastoma multiform, oligodendroglioma, schwannoma, retinoblastoma, congenital
  tumors), spinal cord neurofibroma, meningioma, glioma, sarcoma)
Skin malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, Karposi's sarcoma, moles dysplastic nevi, lipoma, angioma, dermatofibroma, keloids


[0133] The compounds described herein, or their pharmaceutically acceptable salts or their prodrugs, may be administered in pure form or in an appropriate pharmaceutical composition, and can be carried out via any of the accepted modes of Galenic pharmaceutical practice.
The pharmaceutical compositions described herein, can be prepared by admixing a compound of the present invention with an appropriate pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or excipient, and may be formulated into preparations in solid, semi-solid, liquid or gaseous forms, such as tablets, capsules, powders, granules, ointments, solutions, suppositories, injections, inhalants, gels, microspheres, and aerosols. Typical routes of administering such pharmaceutical compositions include, without limitation, oral, topical, transdermal, inhalation, parenteral (subcutaneous injections, intravenous, intramuscular, intrasternal injection or infusion techniques), sublingual, ocular, rectal, vaginal, and intranasal. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention are formulated so as to allow the active ingredients contained therein to be bioavailable upon administration of the composition to a subject. Compositions that will be administered to a subject or patient take the form of one or more dosage units, where for example, a tablet may be a single dosage unit, and a container of a compound of the present invention in aerosol form may hold a plurality of dosage units. Actual methods of preparing such dosage forms are known, or will be apparent, to those skilled in this art; for example, see Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed., (Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1990). The composition to be administered will, in any event, contain a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for treatment of a disease-state as described above.

[0134] A pharmaceutical composition described herein, may be in the form of a solid or liquid. Optionally, the carrier(s) are particulate, so that the compositions are, for example, in tablet or powder form. The carrier(s) may be liquid, with the compositions being, for example, an oral syrup, injectable liquid or an aerosol, which is useful in, for example inhalatory administration.

[0135] For oral administration, the pharmaceutical composition is preferably in either solid or liquid form, where semi-solid, semi-liquid, suspension and gel forms are included within the forms considered herein as either solid or liquid.

[0136] As a solid composition for oral administration, the pharmaceutical composition may be formulated into a powder, granule, compressed tablet, pill, capsule, chewing gum, wafer or the like form. Such a solid composition will typically contain one or more inert diluents or edible carriers. In addition, one or more of the following may be present: binders such as carboxymethylcellulose, ethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, gum tragacanth or gelatin; excipients such as starch, lactose or dextrins, disintegrating agents such as alginic acid, sodium alginate, Primogel, corn starch and the like; lubricants such as magnesium stearate or Sterotex; glidants such as colloidal silicon dioxide; sweetening agents such as sucrose or saccharin; a flavoring agent such as peppermint, methyl salicylate or orange flavoring; and a coloring agent.

[0137] When the pharmaceutical composition is in the form of a capsule, e.g., a gelatin capsule, it may contain, in addition to materials of the above type, a liquid carrier such as polyethylene glycol or oil such as soybean or vegetable oil.
The pharmaceutical composition may be in the form of a liquid, e.g., an elixir, syrup, solution, emulsion or suspension. The liquid may be for oral administration or for delivery by injection, as two examples. When intended for oral administration, preferred composition contain, in addition to the present compounds, one or more of a sweetening agent, preservatives, dye/colorant and flavor enhancer. In a composition intended to be administered by injection, one or more of a surfactant, preservative, wetting agent, dispersing agent, suspending agent, buffer, stabilizer and isotonic agent may be included.
The liquid pharmaceutical compositions, whether they be solutions, suspensions or other like form, may include one or more of the following adjuvants: sterile diluents such as water for injection, saline solution, preferably physiological saline, Ringer's solution, isotonic sodium chloride, fixed oils such as synthetic mono or diglycerides which may serve as the solvent or suspending medium, polyethylene glycols, glycerin, propylene glycol or other solvents; antibacterial agents such as benzyl alcohol or methyl paraben; antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or sodium bisulfite; chelating agents such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; buffers such as acetates, citrates or phosphates and agents for the adjustment of tonicity such as sodium chloride or dextrose. The parenteral preparation can be enclosed in ampoules, disposable syringes or multiple dose vials made of glass or plastic. An injectable pharmaceutical composition is preferably sterile.

[0138] A liquid pharmaceutical composition used for either parenteral or oral administration should contain an amount of a compound of the present invention such that a suitable dosage will be obtained. Typically, this amount is at least 0.01% of a compound of the present invention in the composition. When intended for oral administration, this amount may be varied to be between 0.1 and about 70% of the weight of the composition. For parenteral usage, compositions and preparations according to the present invention are prepared so that a parenteral dosage unit contains between 0.01 to 1% by weight of the compound of the present invention.

[0139] The pharmaceutical composition may be used for topical administration, in which case the carrier may suitably comprise a solution, emulsion, ointment or gel base. The base, for example, may comprise one or more of the following: petrolatum, lanolin, polyethylene glycols, bee wax, mineral oil, diluents such as water and alcohol, and emulsifiers and stabilizers. Thickening agents may be present in a pharmaceutical composition for topical administration. If intended for transdermal administration, the composition may include a transdermal patch or iontophoresis device. Topical formulations may contain a concentration of the compound of the present invention from about 0.1 to about 10% w/v (weight per unit volume).

[0140] The pharmaceutical composition may be used for rectal administration to treat for example, colon cancer, in the form, e.g., of a suppository, which will melt in the rectum and release the drug. The composition for rectal administration may contain an oleaginous base as a suitable nonirritating excipient. Such bases include, without limitation, lanolin, cocoa butter and polyethylene glycol.
The pharmaceutical composition may include various materials, which modify the physical form of a solid or liquid dosage unit. For example, the composition may include materials that form a coating shell around the active ingredients. The materials that form the coating shell are typically inert, and may be selected from, for example, sugar, shellac, and other enteric coating agents. Alternatively, the active ingredients may be encased in a gelatin capsule.

[0141] The pharmaceutical composition in solid or liquid form may include an agent that binds to the compound of the present invention and thereby assists in the delivery of the compound. Suitable agents that may act in this capacity include, but are not limited to, a monoclonal or polyclonal antibody, a protein or a liposome.

[0142] The pharmaceutical composition may consist of dosage units that can be administered as an aerosol. The term aerosol is used to denote a variety of systems ranging from those of colloidal nature to systems consisting of pressurized packages. Delivery may be by a liquefied or compressed gas or by a suitable pump system that dispenses the active ingredients. Aerosols of compounds of the present invention may be delivered in single phase, bi-phasic, or tri-phasic systems in order to deliver the active ingredient(s). Delivery of the aerosol includes the necessary container, activators, valves, subcontainers, and the like, which together may form a kit. One skilled in the art, without undue experimentation may determine preferred aerosols.

[0143] The pharmaceutical compositions may be prepared by methodology well known in the pharmaceutical art. For example, a pharmaceutical composition intended to be administered by injection can be prepared by admixing a compound of the present invention with sterile saline, distilled water for injection, and the like, so as to form a solution. A surfactant may be added to facilitate the formation of a homogeneous solution or suspension. Surfactants are compounds that non-covalently interact with the compound of the present invention so as to facilitate dissolution or homogeneous suspension of the compound in the aqueous delivery system.

[0144] The compounds described herein, or their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, are administered in a therapeutically effective amount, which will vary depending upon a variety of factors including the activity of the specific compound employed; the metabolic stability and length of action of the compound; the age, body weight, general health, sex, and diet of the patient; the mode and time of administration; the rate of excretion; the drug
combination; the severity of the particular disorder or condition; and the subject undergoing therapy. Generally, a therapeutically effective daily dose may be from about 0.1 mg to about 40 mg/kg of body weight per day or twice per day of a compound or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Combination therapy



[0145] The compounds described herein, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, may also be administered simultaneously with, prior to, or after administration of one or more of the therapeutic agents described below. Such combination therapy may include administration of a single pharmaceutical dosage formulation which contains a compound of the present invention and one or more additional agents given below, as well as administration of the compound of the present invention and each of additional agent in its own separate pharmaceutical dosage formulation. For example, a compound and another therapeutic agent can be administered to the patient either together in a single oral dosage composition such as a tablet or capsule, or each agent administered in separate oral dosage formulations or via intravenous injection. Where separate dosage formulations are used, the compounds and one or more additional agents can be administered at essentially the same time, i.e., concurrently, or at separately staggered times, i.e., sequentially; combination therapy is understood to include all these regimens.

[0146] Thus, the use of the compounds described herein, in combination with radiation therapy or one or more additional agents such as those described in WO 03/099211 (PCT/US03/15861), is envisaged.

[0147] Examples of such additional therapeutic agents include, but are not limited to the following:

a) an estrogen receptor modulator,

b) an androgen receptor modulator,

c) retinoid receptor modulator,

d) a cytotoxic agent,

e) an antiproliferative agent,

f) a prenyl-protein transferase inhibitor,

g) an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor,

h) an HIV protease inhibitor,

i) a reverse transcriptase inhibitor,

k) an angiogenesis inhibitor,

l) a PPAR-.γ agonist,

m) a PPAR-.δ agonist,

n) an inhibitor of inherent multidrug resistance,

o) an anti-emetic agent,

p) an agent useful in the treatment of anemia,

q) agents useful in the treatment of neutropenia,

r) an immunologic-enhancing drug.

s) a proteasome inhibitor such as Velcade and MG132 (7-Leu-Leu-aldehyde) (see He at al. in Oncogene (2004) 23, 2554-2558);

t) an HDAC inhibitor, such as sodium butyrate, phenyl butyrate, hydroamic acids, cyclin tetrapeptide and the like (see Rosato et al,. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2003, 1273-1284);'

u) an inhibitor of the chemotrypsin-like activity in the proteasome; and

v) E3 ligase inhibitors.



[0148] More specifically, the compounds disclosed herein can also be used in combination with one or more chemotherapeutic agents that disrupts or stabilizes microtubules is particularly effective in treating cancer and other neopolasms. Microtubule-disrupting agents (e.g., vinca alkaloids) and microtubule-stabilizing agents (e.g., taxanes) are described in greater detail below.

Vinca Alkaloids and Related Compounds



[0149] Vinca alkaloids that can be used in combination with the nucleobase oligomers described herein to treat cancer and other neoplasms include vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine, vinflunine, vinorelbine, and anhydrovinblastine.

[0150] Dolastatins are oligopeptides that primarily interfere with tubulin at the vinca alkaloid binding domain. These compounds can also be used in combination with the compounds described herein, to treat cancer and other neoplasms. Dolastatins include dolastatin-10 (NCS 376128), dolastatin-15, ILX651, TZT-1027, symplostatin 1, symplostatin 3, and
LU103793 (cemadotin).

[0151] Cryptophycins (e.g., cryptophycin 1 and cryptophycin 52 (LY355703)) bind tubulin within the vinca alkaloid-binding domain and induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Any of these compounds can be used in combination with the compounds disclosed herein, to treat cancer and other neoplasms.

[0152] Other microtubule disrupting compounds that can be used in conjunction with the compounds disclosed herein, to treat cancer and other neoplasms are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,458,765; 6,433,187; 6,323,315; 6,258,841; 6,143,721; 6,127,377; 6,103,698; 6,023,626; 5,985,837; 5,965,537; 5,955,423; 5,952,298; 5,939,527; 5,886,025; 5,831,002; 5,741,892; 5,665,860; 5,654,399; 5,635,483; 5,599,902; 5,530,097; 5,521,284; 5,504,191; 4,879,278; and 4,816,444, and U.S. patent application Publication Nos. 2003/0153505 A1; 2003/0083263 A1; and 2003/0055002 A1.

Taxanes and Other Micortubule Stabilizing Compounds



[0153] Taxanes such as paclitaxel, doxetaxel, RPR 109881A, SB-T-1213, SB-T-1250, SB-T-101187, BMS-275183, BRT 216, DJ-927, MAC-321, IDN5109, and IDN5390 can be used in combination with the compounds disclosed herein to treat cancer and other neoplasms. Taxane analogs (e.g., BMS-184476, BMS-188797) and functionally related non-taxanes (e.g., epothilones (e.g., epothilone A, epothilone B (EPO906), deoxyepothilone B, and epothilone B lactam (BMS-247550)), eleutherobin, discodermolide, 2-epi-discodermolide, 2-des-methyldiscodermolide, 5-hydroxymethyldiscoder- molide, 19-des-aminocarbonyldiscodermolide, 9(13)-cyclodiscodermolide, and laulimalide) can also be used in the methods and compositions of the invention.

[0154] Other microtubule stabilizing compounds that can be used in combination with the compounds disclosed herein to treat cancer and other neoplasms are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,624,317; 6,610,736; 6,605,599; 6,589,968; 6,583,290; 6,576,658; 6,515,017; 6,531,497; 6,500,858; 6,498,257; 6,495,594; 6,489,314; 6,458,976; 6,441,186; 6,441,025; 6,414,015; 6,387,927; 6,380,395; 6,380,394; 6,362,217; 6,359,140; 6,306,893; 6,302,838; 6,300,355; 6,291,690; 6,291,684; 6,268,381; 6,262,107; 6,262,094; 6,147,234; 6,136,808; 6,127,406; 6,100,411; 6,096,909; 6,025,385; 6,011,056; 5,965,718; 5,955,489; 5,919,815; 5,912,263; 5,840,750; 5,821,263; 5,767,297; 5,728,725; 5,721,268; 5,719,177; 5,714,513; 5,587,489; 5,473,057; 5,407,674; 5,250,722; 5,010,099; and 4,939,168; and U.S. patent application Publication Nos. 2003/0186965 A1; 2003/0176710 A1; 2003/0176473 A1; 2003/0144523 A1; 2003/0134883 A1; 2003/0087888 A1; 2003/0060623 A1; 2003/0045711 A1; 2003/0023082 A1; 2002/0198256 A1; 2002/0193361 A1; 2002/0188014 A1; 2002/0165257 A1; 2002/0156110 A1; 2002/0128471 A1; 2002/0045609 A1; 2002/0022651 A1; 2002/0016356 A1; 2002/0002292 A1.

[0155] Other chemotherapeutic agents that may be administered with a compound described herein are listed in the following Table:
Alkylating agents cyclophosphamide mechlorethamine
lomustine thiotepa
busulfan streptozocin
procarbazine chlorambucil
ifosfamide temozolomide
altretamine dacarbazine
melphalan semustine
estramustine phosphate carmustine
hexamethylmelamine  
 
Platinum agents cisplatin tetraplatin
carboplatinum BBR-3464 (Hoffmann-La Roche)
oxaliplatin Ormiplatin
ZD-0473 (AnorMED) SM-11355 (Sumitomo)
spiroplatinum iproplatin
lobaplatin (Aeterna) AP-5280 (Access)
carboxyphthalatoplatinum  
satraplatin (Johnson Matthey)  
 
Antimetabolites azacytidine 6-mercaptopurine
tomudex hydroxyurea
gemcitabine 6-thioguanine
trimetrexate decitabine (SuperGen)
capecitabine cytarabin
deoxycoformycin clofarabine (Bioenvision)
5-fluorouracil 2-fluorodeoxy
fludarabine cytidine
floxuridine irofulven (MGI Pharma) methotrexate
pentostatin DMDC (Hoffmann-La Roche)
2-chlorodeoxyadenosine idatrexate
raltitrexed ethynylcytidine (Taiho)
 
Topoisomerase inhibitors amsacrine TAS-103 (Taiho)
rubitecan (SuperGen) Topotecan
  epirubicin elsamitrucin (Spectrum) dexrazoxanet (TopoTarget)
  exatecan mesylate (Daiichi)
  etoposide J-107088 (Merck & Co)
  quinamed (ChemGenex) pixantrone (Novuspharma)
  teniposide or mitoxantrone BNP-1350 (BioNumerik)
  gimatecan (Sigma-Tau) rebeccamycin analogue (Exelixis)
  irinotecan (CPT-11) CKD-602 (Chong Kun Dang)
  diflomotecan (Beaufour-Ipsen) BBR-3576 (Novuspharma)
  7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin KW-2170 (Kyowa Hakko)
Antitumor antibiotics dactinomycin (actinomycin D) bleomycinic acid
amonafide idarubicin
  doxorubicin (adriamycin) bleomycin A
  azonafide rubidazone
  deoxyrubicin bleomycin B
  anthrapyrazole plicamycinp
  valrubicin mitomycin C
  oxantrazole porfiromycin
  daunorubicin (daunomycin) MEN-10755 (Menarini)
  losoxantrone cyanomorpholinodoxorubicin
  epirubicin GPX-100 (Gem Pharmaceuticals)
  bleomycin sulfate (blenoxane) mitoxantrone (novantrone)
  therarubicin  
 
Antimitotic agents paclitaxel RPR 109881A (Aventis)
SB 408075 (GlaxoSmithKline) ZD 6126 (AstraZeneca)
  docetaxel TXD 258 (Aventis)
  E7010 (Abbott) PEG-paclitaxel (Enzon)
  Colchicines epothilone B (Novartis)
  PG-TXL (Cell Therapeutics) AZ10992 (Asahi)
  vinblastine T 900607 (Tularik)
  IDN 5109 (Bayer) IDN-5109 (Indena)
  Vincristine T 138067 (Tularik)
  A 105972 (Abbott) AVLB (Prescient NeuroPharma)
  Vinorelbine cryptophycin 52 (Eli Lilly)
  A 204197 (Abbott) azaepothilone B (BMS)
  Vindesine vinflunine (Fabre)
  LU 223651 (BASF) BNP-7787 (BioNumerik)
  dolastatin 10 (NCI) auristatin PE (Teikoku Hormone)
  D 24851 (ASTAMedica) CA-4 prodrug (OXiGENE)
  rhizoxin (Fujisawa) BMS 247550 (BMS)
  ER-86526 (Eisai) dolastatin-10 (NIH)
  mivobulin (Warner-Lambert) BMS 184476(BMS)
  combretastatin A4 (BMS) CA-4 (OXiGENE)
  cemadotin (BASF) BMS 188797 (BMS)
  isohomohalichondrin-B (PharmaMar) taxoprexin (Protarga)
 
Aromatase inhibitors Aminoglutethimide Exemestane Letrozole atamestane (BioMedicines) anastrazole YM-511 (Yamanouchi) formestane
Thymidylate synthase inhibitors pemetrexed (Eli Lilly) nolatrexed (Eximias) ZD-9331 (BTG) CoFactor™ (BioKeys)
DNA antagonists trabectedin (PharmaMar) albumin + 32P (Isotope Solutions)
mafosfamide (Baxter International) 06 benzyl guanine (Paligent)
glufosfamide (Baxter International) thymectacin (NewBiotics) edotreotide (Novartis)
apaziquone (Spectrum Pharmaceuticals)
Farnesyltransfer ase inhibitors arglabin (NuOncology Labs) perillyl alcohol (DOR BioPharma)
tipifarnib (Johnson & Johnson) BAY-43-9006 (Bayer)
lonafarnib (Schering-Plough)  
     
Pump inhibitors CBT-1 (CBA Pharma) tariquidar (Xenova)
zosuquidar trihydrochloride (Eli Lilly) biricodar dicitrate (Vertex)
MS-209 (Schering AG)
     
Histone acetyltransferase inhibitors tacedinaline (Pfizer) depsipeptide (Fujisawa)
pivaloyloxymethyl butyrate (Titan) MS-275 (Schering AG)
SAHA (Aton Pharma)  
     
Metalloproteinas e inhibitors Neovastat (Aeterna Laboratories) marimastat (British Biotech) BMS-275291 (Celltech)
CMT-3 (CollaGenex)  
     
Ribonucleoside reductase inhibitors gallium maltolate (Titan) triapine (Vion)
tezacitabine (Aventis) didox (Molecules for Health)
     
TNF alpha agonists/antagon ists virulizin (Lorus Therapeutics) CDC-394 (Celgene)
revimid (Celgene)  
     
Endothelin A receptor antagonist atrasentan (Abbott) ZD-4054 (AstraZeneca)
YM-598 (Yamanouchi)  
     
Retinoic acid receptor agonists fenretinide (Johnson & Johnson) LGD-1550 (Ligand)
alitretinoin (Ligand)  
Immunomodulators Interferon norelin (Biostar)
dexosome therapy (Anosys) IRX-2 (Immuno-Rx)
oncophage (Antigenics) BLP-25 (Biomira)
pentrix (Australian Cancer Technology) PEP-005 (Peplin Biotech)
MGV (Progenics)
GMK (Progenics) synchrovax vaccines (CTL Immuno)
ISF-154 (Tragen) beta.-alethine (Dovetail)
adenocarcinoma vaccine (Biomira) melanoma vaccine (CTL Immuno)
cancer vaccine (Intercell) CLL therapy (Vasogen)
CTP-37 (A VI BioPharma) p21 RAS vaccine (GemVax)
Hormonal and antihormonal agents estrogens bicalutamide
Prednisone testosterone propionate;
conjugated estrogens fluoxymesterone
  methylprednisolone flutamide
  ethinyl estradiol methyltestosterone
  prednisolone octreotide
  chlortrianisen diethylstilbestrol
  aminoglutethimide nilutamide
  idenestrol megestrol
  leuprolide mitotane tamoxifen
  hydroxyprogesterone caproate P-04 (Novogen)
  goserelin Toremofine
  medroxyprogesterone 2-methoxyestradiol (EntreMed)
  leuporelin dexamethasone
  testosterone arzoxifene (Eli Lilly)
 
Photodynamic agents talaporfin (Light Sciences) motexafin
Pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Yeda) gadolinium (Pharmacyclics)
Theralux (Theratechnologies) hypericin
lutetium texaphyrin (Pharmacyclics)  
 
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors imatinib (Novartis) C225 (ImClone)
kahalide F (PharmaMar) ZD4190 (AstraZeneca)
  leflunomide (Sugen/Pharmacia) rhu-Mab (Genentech)
  CEP-701 (Cephalon) ZD6474 (AstraZeneca)
  ZD1839 (AstraZeneca) MDX-H210 (Medarex)
  CEP-751 (Cephalon) vatalanib (Novartis)
  erlotinib (Oncogene Science) 2C4 (Genentech)
  MLN518 (Millenium) PKI166 (Novartis)
  canertinib (Pfizer) MDX-447 (Medarex)
  PKC412 (Novartis) GW2016 (GlaxoSmithKline)
  squalamine (Genaera) ABX-EGF (Abgenix)
  phenoxodiol () EKB-509 (Wyeth)
  SU5416 (Pharmacia) IMC-1C11 (ImClone)
  trastuzumab (Genentech) EKB-569 (Wyeth)
  SU6668 (Pharmacia)  
Miscellaneous agents
SR-27897 (CCK A inhibitor, Sanofi-Synthelabo) gemtuzumab (CD33 antibody, Wyeth Ayerst)
CCI-779 (mTOR kinase inhibitor, Wyeth)
BCX-1777 (PNP inhibitor, BioCryst) PG2 (hematopoiesis enhancer, Pharmagenesis)
tocladesine (cyclic AMP agonist, Ribapharm) exisulind (PDE V inhibitor, Cell Pathways)
ranpirnase (ribonuclease stimulant, Alfacell) Immunol™ (triclosan oral rinse, Endo)
alvocidib (CDK inhibitor, Aventis) CP-461 (PDE V inhibitor, Cell Pathways)
galarubicin (RNA synthesis inhibitor, Dong-A) triacetyluridine (uridine prodrug, Wellstat)
CV-247 (COX-2 inhibitor, Ivy Medical) AG-2037 (GART inhibitor, Pfizer)
tirapazamine (reducing agent, SRI International) SN-4071 (sarcoma agent, Signature BioScience)
P54 (COX-2 inhibitor, Phytopharm) WX-UK1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor, Wilex)
N-acetylcysteine (reducing agent, Zambon)
CapCell™ (CYP450 stimulant, Bavarian Nordic) TransMID-107 .TM. (immunotoxin, KS Biomedix)
R-flurbiprofen (NF-kappaB inhibitor, Encore) PBI-1402 (PMN stimulant, ProMetic LifeSciences)
GCS-100 (gal3 antagonist, GlycoGenesys)
3CPA (NF-kappaB inhibitor, Active Biotech) PCK-3145 (apoptosis promotor, Procyon)
G17DT immunogen (gastrin inhibitor, Aphton) bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor, Millennium)
seocalcitol (vitamin D receptor agonist, Leo) doranidazole (apoptosis promotor, Pola)
efaproxiral (oxygenator, Allos Therapeutics) SRL-172 (T cell stimulant, SR Pharma) CHS-828 (cytotoxic agent, Leo)
131-I-TM-601 (DNA antagonist, TransMolecular)
TLK-286 (glutathione S transferase inhibitor, Telik)
PI-88 (heparanase inhibitor, Progen)
eflornithine (ODC inhibitor, ILEX Oncology) trans-retinoic acid (differentiator, NIH)
tesmilifene (histamine antagonist, YM BioSciences) PT-100 (growth factor agonist, Point Therapeutics)
minodronic acid (osteoclast inhibitor, Yamanouchi) MX6 (apoptosis promotor, MAXIA)
midostaurin (PKC inhibitor, Novartis)
histamine (histamine H2 receptor agonist, Maxim) apomine (apoptosis promotor, ILEX Oncology)
bryostatin-1 (PKC stimulant, GPC Biotech)
indisulam (p53 stimulant, Eisai) urocidin (apoptosis promotor, Bioniche)
tiazofurin (IMPDH inhibitor, Ribapharm) CDA-II (apoptosis promotor, Everlife)
aplidine (PPT inhibitor, PharmaMar) Ro-31-7453 (apoptosis promotor, La Roche)
cilengitide (integrin antagonist, Merck KGaA) SDX-101 (apoptosis promotor, Salmedix)
rituximab (CD20 antibody, Genentech) brostallicin (apoptosis promotor, Pharmacia)
SR-31747 (IL-1 antagonist, Sanofi-Synthelabo) ceflatonin (apoptosis promotor, ChemGenex)


[0156] Additional combinations may also include agents which reduce the toxicity of the aforesaid agents, such as hepatic toxicity, neuronal toxicity, nephprotoxicity and the like.

[0157] Moreover, our in vitro results suggest that the compounds disclosed herein may well work with TRAIL and proteasome inhibitors such as MG132 and Velcade currently used in human clinical trials for multiple myeloma may be used in combination with the compounds disclosed herein.

Screening assays



[0158] The compounds disclosed herein may also be used in a method to screen for other compounds that bind to an IAP BIR domain. Generally speaking, to use the compounds of the invention in a method of identifying compounds that bind to an IAP BIR domain, the IAP is bound to a support, and a compound is added to the assay. Alternatively, the compound of the invention may be bound to the support and the IAP is added.

[0159] There are a number of ways in which to determine the binding of a compound to the BIR domain. In one way, the compound, for example, may be fluorescently or radioactively labeled and binding determined directly. For example, this may be done by attaching the IAP to a solid support, adding a detectably labeled compound of the invention, washing off excess reagent, and determining whether the amount of the detectable label is that present on the solid support. Numerous blocking and washing steps may be used, which are known to those skilled in the art.

[0160] In some cases, only one of the components is labeled. For example, specific residues in the BIR domain may be labeled. Alternatively, more than one component may be labeled with different labels; for example, using I125 or Eu3+ for the BIR domain, and a fluorescent label for the probe.

[0161] The compounds described herein may also be used as competitors to screen for additional drug candidates or test compounds. As used herein, the terms "drug candidate" or "test compounds" are used interchangeably and describe any molecule, for example, protein, oligopeptide, small organic molecule, polysaccharide, polynucleotide, and the like, to be tested for bioactivity. The compounds may be capable of directly or indirectly altering the IAP biological activity.

[0162] Drug candidates can include various chemical classes, although typically they are small organic molecules having a molecular weight of more than 100 and less than about 2,500 Daltons. Candidate agents typically include functional groups necessary for structural interaction with proteins, for example, hydrogen bonding and lipophilic binding, and typically include at least an amine, carbonyl, hydroxyl, ether, or carboxyl group. The drug candidates often include cyclical carbon or heterocyclic structures and/or aromatic or polyaromatic structures substituted with one or more functional groups.

[0163] Drug candidates can be obtained from any number of sources including libraries of synthetic or natural compounds. For example, numerous means are available for random and directed synthesis of a wide variety of organic compounds and biomolecules, including expression of randomized oligonucleotides. Alternatively, libraries of natural compounds in the form of bacterial, fungal, plant and animal extracts are available or readily produced. Additionally, natural or synthetically produced libraries and compounds are readily modified through conventional chemical, physical and biochemical means.

[0164] Competitive screening assays may be done by combining an IAP BIR domain and a probe to form a probe:BIR domain complex in a first sample followed by adding a test compound from a second sample. The binding of the test is determined, and a change, or difference in binding between the two samples indicates the presence of a test compound capable of binding to the BIR domain and potentially modulating the IAP's activity.

[0165] In one case, the binding of the test compound is determined through the use of competitive binding assays. In this embodiment, the probe is labeled with an an affinity label such as biotin. Under certain circumstances, there may be competitive binding between the test compound and the probe, with the probe displacing the candidate agent.

[0166] In one case, the test compound may be labeled. Either the test compound, or a compound of the present invention, or both, is added first to the IAP BIR domain for a time sufficient to allow binding to form a complex.

[0167] Formation of the probe:BIR domain complex typically require Incubations of between 4 °C and 40 °C for between 10 minutes up to 24 hours to allow for high-throughput screening. Any excess of reagents are generally removed or washed away. The test compound is then added, and the presence or absence of the labeled component is followed, to indicate binding to the BIR domain.

[0168] In one case, the probe is added first, followed by the test compound. Displacement of the probe is an indication the test compound is binding to the BIR domain and thus is capable of binding to, and potentially modulating, the activity of IAP. Either component can be labeled. For example, the presence of probe in the wash solution indicates displacement by the test compound. Alternatively, if the test compound is labeled, the presence of the probe on the support indicates displacement.

[0169] In one case, the test compound may be added first, with incubation and washing, followed by the probe. The absence of binding by the probe may indicate the test compound is bound to the BIR domain. Thus, if the probe is detected on the support, coupled with a lack of test compound binding, may indicate the test compound is capable of binding to the BIR domain.

[0170] Modulation is tested by screening for a test compound's ability to modulate the activity of IAP and includes combining a test compound with an IAP BIR domain, as described above, and determining an alteration in the biological activity of the IAP. Therefore in this case, the test compound should both bind to the BIR domain (although this may not be necessary), and alter its biological activity as defined herein.

[0171] Positive controls and negative controls may be used in the assays. All control and test samples are performed multiple times to obtain statistically significant results. Following incubation, all samples are washed free of non-specifically bound material and the amount of bound probe determined. For example, where a radiolabel is employed, the samples may be counted in a scintillation counter to determine the amount of bound compound.

[0172] Typically, the signals that are detected in the assay may include fluorescence, resonance energy transfer, time resolved fluorescence, radioactivity, fluorescence polarization, plasma resonance, or chemiluminescence and the like, depending on the nature of the label. Detectable labels useful in performing screening assays in this invention include a fluorescent label such as Fluorescein, Oregon green, dansyl, rhodamine, tetramethyl rhodamine, texas red, Eu3+; colorimetric labels; enzymatic markers such as luciferase, alkaline phosphatase, or HAP; or radioisotopes such as tritium, I125 and the like

[0173] Affinity tags, which may be useful in performing the screening assays of the present invention include be biotin, polyhistidine and the like.

SYNTHESIS AND METHODOLOGY



[0174] General methods for the synthesis of the compounds described herein are shown below and are disclosed merely for the purpose of illustration and are not meant to be interpreted as limiting the processes to make the compounds by any other methods.

[0175] Those skilled in the art will readily appreciate that a number of methods are available for the preparation of the compounds described herein.

[0176] Schemes 1 to 6 illustrate general synthetic procedures for the preparation of compounds described herein.

[0177] Intermediate 1-v was prepared by the following sequence. The prolinal derivative 1-i was treated with amine R5NH2, followed by reduction with an appropriate hydride to provide intermediate 1-ii. Protection of the amine with PG5, followed by deprotection of PG1, yields intermediate 1-iii. PG2(H)N(R3)CHCO2H is coupled to 1-iii using amino acid coupling agents, followed by deprotection of PG2 yields intermediate 1-iv. Similarly, PG3(R1)N(R2)CHCO2H is coupled to 1-iv using amino acid coupling agents yields intermediate 1-v.



[0178] Deprotection of PG3 provides active compounds of formula 2-i



[0179] Deprotection of PG5 followed by deprotection of PG3, or vise versa, provides active compounds of formula 3-i. In cases where PG3 is the same as PG5 a double deprotection can be carried out in one step.



[0180] Scheme 4 illustrated the introduction of acyl or sulfonyl moieties at the R4 position. Intermediate 1-v can be converted to intermediate 4-i by deprotection of PG5. Acylation of 4-i with LG-C(O)R11, followed by deprotection of PG3 provides compounds of formula 4-ii. Similarly, sulfonylation of 4-i with LG-S(O)2R11, followed by deprotection of PG3 provides compounds of formula 4-iii. In these examples -C(O)R11 and -S(O)2R11 represent a subset of R5 as defined herein.



[0181] Scheme 5 illustrates the introduction of amino acids at the R4 position. Coupling of PG6(H)N(R7)(H)CCO2H to intermediate 4-i using amino acid coupling reagents provides intermediate 5-i. Deprotection of PG3 provides compounds of formula 5-ii. Deprotection of PG3 followed by deprotection of PG6, or vise versa, provides active compounds of formula 5-iii. In cases where PG3 is the same as PG6 a double deprotection can be carried out in one step to convert intermediate 5-i to compound 5-iii.



[0182] Intermediate 6-i is prepared from intermediate 5-i by deprotection of PG6. Acylation of 6-i with LG-C(O)R11, followed by deprotection of PG3 provides compounds of formula 6-ii. Similarly, sulfonylation of 6-i with LG-S(O)2R11, followed by deprotection of PG3 provides compounds of formula 6-iii. Treatment of intermediate 6-i with R11CNO, followed by deprotection of PG6, provides compounds of formula 6-iv.

[0183] In these examples -C(O)R11 and -S(O)2R11 represent a subset of R4 as defined herein



[0184] Thioester, sulfoxide and sulfone derivates may be prepared as illustrated in Scheme 7. The alcohol moiety of the prolinol derivative 7-i is converted to a leaving group by, for example, by treated with MsCl to provide intermediate 7-ii. Treatment of intermediate 7-ii with a HSR11 provides intermediate 7-iii. Deprotection of PG1 yields intermediate 7-iv. Oxidation of 7-iii to sulfoxide 7-v (m=1) or sulfone 7-v (m=2) is followed by deprotection f PG1 to yield sulfoxide 7-vi (m=1) or sulfone 7-vi (m=2), respectively. PG2(H)N(R3)CHCO2H is coupled to either 7-iv or 7-vi using amino acid coupling agents, followed by deprotection of PG2 yields intermediates 7-vii or 7-vii, respectively. Similarly, PG3(R1)N(R2)CHCO2H is coupled to intermediates 7-vii or 7-vii using amino acid coupling agents yields intermediates 7-xi or 7-x, respectively. Deprotection of PG3 provides compounds 7-xi or 7-xii, respectively



[0185] Similar chemistry may be performed using alcohols (HOR11) in the place of thiols (HSR11) to provide ether derivatives such as compounds of formula I defined below:



[0186] Compounds of formula 8-i may be functionalized on the left hand side by reductive amination by the treatment of compound 8-i with aldehyde R1CHO, and reduction of the resulting imide intermediate with a hydride source, to yield compounds of formula 8-ii.


EXAMPLES



[0187] Only examples falling within the claims are to be considered part of the invention. The following abbreviations are used throughout:
Boc:
t-butoxycarbonyl;
Boc-NMe-Ala-OH:
N-butoxycarbonyl-N-methly-alanine
Boc-tBuGly-OH:
N-butoxycarbonyl-α-tert-butylglycine
CBz:
benzyloxycarbonyl;
DCM:
dichloromethane;
DIPEA:
diisopropylethylamine;
DMAP:
4-(dimethylamino)pyridine;
DMF:
N,N-dimethylformamide;
DTT:
dithiothreitol;
EDC:
3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride;
EDTA:
ethylenediaminetetracetic acid;
Fmoc:
N-(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl);
HBTU:
O-(benzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N,N-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate;
HCl:
hydrochloric acid;
HOAc:
acetic acid;
HOBt:
1-hydroxybenzotriazole;
HPLC:
high performance liquid chromatography;
LCMS:
liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer;
m-CPBA:
meta-chloroperbenzoic acid
MeOH:
methanol;
MgSO4:
magnesium sulfate;
MS:
mass spectrum;
NaHCO3:
sodium hydrogen carbonate;
Pd/C:
palladium on carbon;
TEA:
triethylamine;
TFA:
trifluoroacetic acid; and
THF:
tetrahydrofuran.

1. Synthesis of intermediate 1-4b


Step A:



[0188] 


Step a)



[0189] To a solution of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-prolinal 1-1 (10.0 g, 50.2 mmol) in methylene chloride (150 mL) was added phenethylamine (6.52 mL, 50.2 mmol). After stirring for 1 hr sodium triacetoxyborohydride (21.0 g, 100.3 mmol) and methanol (50 mL) were added and the reaction mixture was then stirred at room temperature overnight. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 1-2a as colorless oil. MS (m/z) M+1= 305.2

Step b)



[0190] To a solution of 1-2a (8.1 g, 26.6 mmol) in methylene chloride (80 mL) cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added triethylamine (7.4 mL, 53.3 mmol), benzyl chloroformate (4.1 mL, 29.3 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 hrs at room temperature. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 1-2b as colorless oil.

Step c)



[0191] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) was added to 1-2b (11.5 g, 26.2 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 1-2c·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 339.2

Step B



[0192] 


Step a)



[0193] To a solution of Boc-tBu-Gly-OH (5.7 g, 24.5 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (16.9 mL, 94.3 mmol), HOBt (3.3 g, 24.5 mmol) and HBTU (9.3 g, 24.5 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 1-2c·HCl (6.4 g, 18.8 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 1-3a as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0194] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) was added to 1-3a (8.3 g, 15.0 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 1-3b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 452.3

Step C



[0195] 


Step a)



[0196] To a solution of Boc-NMe-Ala-OH (4.2 g, 20.7 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (14.3 mL, 79.8 mmol), HOBt (2.8 g, 20.7 mmol) and HBTU (7.9 g, 20.7 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 1-3b·HCl (7.2 g, 15.9 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 1-4a as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0197] To a solution of 1-4a (3.0 g, 4.7 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (100 mL) and stirred under N2 was added 10 % Pd/C (200 mg). The reaction mixture was purged with H2 and stirred for 1 hr. The reaction was then filtered through celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. Purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 1-4b as colorless oil. MS (m/z) M+1= 503.4

2. Synthesis of compound 47·HCl



[0198] 


Step a)



[0199] To a solution of 1-4b (210 mg, 0.4 mmol) in THF (10 mL) cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (160 µL, 0.8 mmol), benzoyl chloride (75 µL, 0.6 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 2-1 as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0200] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) was added to 2-1 (350 mg, 0.70 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 47·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 507.3

3. Synthesis of compound 68·HCl



[0201] 


Step a)



[0202] To a solution of 1-4b (220 mg, 0.4 mmol) in THF (10 mL) cooled to 0°C were sequentially added DIPEA (160 µL, 0.8 mmol) and α-toluenesulfonyl chloride (101 mg, 0.9 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hrs. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 3-1 as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0203] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) was added to 3-1 (350 mg, 0.53 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 68·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 507.3

4. Synthesis of compound 32·2HCl



[0204] 


Step a)



[0205] To a solution of Boc-Gly-OH (303 mg, 1.7 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (1.2 mL, 6.6 mmol), HOBt (234 mg, 1.7 mmol) and HBTU (656 mg, 1.7 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 1-4b (670 mg, 1.3 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 4-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0206] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) was added to 4-1 (250 mg, 0.38 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 32·2HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 460.3

5. Synthesis of compound 42·2HCl



[0207] 


Step a)



[0208] To a solution of Boc-D-Phe-OH (207 mg, 0.8 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (300 µL, 1.8 mmol), HOBt (96 mg, 0.7 mmol) and HBTU (204 mg, 0.6 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 1-4b (183 mg, 0.3 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 5-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0209] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) was added to 5-1 (217 mg, 0.30 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 42·2HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 550.4

6. Synthesis of compound 50·2HCl



[0210] 


Step a)



[0211] To a solution of Boc-D-Pro-OH (130 mg, 0.6 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (300 µL, 1.8 mmol), HOBt (92 mg, 0.6mmol) and HBTU (230 mg, 0.6 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 1-4b (150 mg, 0.3 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 6-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0212] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added to 6-1 (200 mg, 0.28 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 50·2HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 500.4

7. Synthesis of compound 54·2HCl



[0213] 


Step a)



[0214] To a solution of Boc-D-Tyr(Me)-OH (153 mg, 0.5 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (358 µL, 2.0 mmol), HOBt (70 mg, 0.5 mmol) and HBTU (196 mg, 0.5 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 1-4b (200 mg, 0.4 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 7-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0215] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added to 7-1 (234 mg, 0.30 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 54·2HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 580.4

8. Synthesis of compound 55·3HCl



[0216] 


Step a)



[0217] To a solution of Boc-3-(3'-pyridyl)-D-alanine (102 mg, 0.38 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (240 µL, 1.4 mmol), HOBt (62 mg, 0.4 mmol) and HBTU (128 mg, 0.40 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 1-4b (146 mg, 0.3 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 8-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0218] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added to 8-1 (163 mg, 0.20 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 55·3HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 551.4

9. Synthesis of compound 59·HCl


Step A



[0219] 


Step a)



[0220] To a solution of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-prolinal 1-1 (1.37 g, 6.8 mmol) in methylene chloride (20 mL) was added (R)-β-Methylphenethylamine (1.0 mL, 6.9 mmol) and after stirring for 1 hr sodium triacetoxy-borohydride (2.3 g, 10.9 mmol) and methanol (10 mL) were added and the reaction mixture was then stirred at room temperature overnight. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 9-1a as colorless oil. MS (m/z) M+1= 319.2

Step b)



[0221] To a solution of 9-1a (2.5 g, 7.8 mmol) in methylene chloride (80 mL) cooled to 0° C were sequentially added triethylamine (2.0 mL, 14.3 mmol), benzyl chloroformate (1.7 mL, 10.7 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 hrs at room temperature. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 9-1b as colorless oil.

Step c)



[0222] 4 N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added to 9-1b (2.62 g, 5.8 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 9-1c·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 353.2

Step B



[0223] 


Step a)



[0224] To a solution of Boc-tBu-Gly-OH (310 mg, 1.3 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (970 µL, 5.6 mmol), HOBt (219 mg, 1.6 mmol) and HBTU (425 mg, 1.3 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 9-1c (428 mg, 1.1 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 9-2a as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0225] 4 N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5.0 mL) was added to 9-2a (523 mg, 0.9 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 9-2b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 466.3.

Step C



[0226] 


Step a)



[0227] To a solution of Boc-N-MeAla-OH (364 mg, 1.8 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (1.0 mL, 5.7 mmol), HOBt (372 mg, 2.7 mmol) and HBTU (556 mg, 1.8 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 9-2b (446 g, 0.9 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 9-3 as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0228] 4 N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (4.0 mL) was added to 9-3 (130 mg, 0.2 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 59·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 551.3

10. Synthesis of compound 15·HCl


Step A



[0229] 


Step a)



[0230] To a solution of Boc-Val-OH (4.2 g, 19.2 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (13.2 mL, 73.3 mmol), HOBt (2.6 g, 19.2 mmol) and HBTU (7.3 g, 19.2 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 1-2c (5.0 g, 14.7 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 10-1a as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0231] 4 N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (15 mL) was added to 10-1a (7.1 g, 13.2 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 10-1b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 438.3

Step B



[0232] 


Step a)



[0233] To a solution of Boc-Ala-OH (3.9 g, 14.4 mmol) in DMF were sequentially added DIPEA (9.9 mL, 55.4 mmol), HOBt (1.9 g, 14.4 mmol) and HBTU (5.4 g, 14.4 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 10-1b (4.8 g, 11.1 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added; the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 10-2 as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0234] 4 N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added to 10-2 (1.0 g, 1.6 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 15·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 509.3

11. Synthesis of compound 20·HCl


Step A



[0235] 


Step a)



[0236] To a solution of 1-2a (370 mg, 1.3 mmol) in methylene chloride (20 mL) cooled to 0° C were sequentially added triethylamine (355 µL, 2.6 mmol), trifluoroacetic anhydride (270 µL, 1.9 mmol) DMAP (catalytic) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 hrs at room temperature. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 11-1a as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0237] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added to 11-1a (480 mg, 1.2 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 11-1b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 301.2

Step B



[0238] 


Step a)



[0239] To a solution of Boc-Val-OH (332 mg, 1.5 mmol) in methylene chloride were sequentially added DIPEA (844 µL, 4.7 mmol), HOBt (207 mg, 1.5 mmol) and EDC (294 mg, 1.5 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 11-1b·HCl (356 mg, 1.2 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 11-2a as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0240] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (3 mL) was added to 11-2a (389 mg, 0.9 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 11-2b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 400.2

Step C



[0241] 


Step a)



[0242] To a solution of Boc-Ala-OH (113 mg, 0.6 mmol) in methylene chloride were sequentially added DIPEA (322 µL, 1.8 mmol), HOBt (77 mg, 0.6 mmol) and EDC (109 mg, 0.6 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 11-2b (180 mg, 0.4 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 11-3 as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0243] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (3 mL) was added to 11-3 (171 mg, 0.3 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 20·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 471.3

12. Synthesis of compound 9·HCl


Step A



[0244] 


Step a)



[0245] To a solution of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-prolinal 1-1 (4.0 g, 20.1 mmol) in methylene chloride (20 mL) was added (R)-(-)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthylamine (2.9 g, 20.1 mmol) and after stirring for 1 hr sodium cyano-borohydride (1.9 g, 30.1 mmol) and methanol (10 mL) were added and the reaction mixture was then stirred at room temperature overnight. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 12-1a as colorless oil. MS (m/z) M+1= 331.2

Step b)



[0246] To a solution of 12-1a (5.2 g, 15.7 mmol) in methylene chloride (50 mL) cooled to 0° C were sequentially added triethylamine (4.4 mL, 31.5 mmol), acetic anhydride (2.2 mL, 23.6 mmol), DMAP (catalytic) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 hrs at room temperature. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 12-1b as colorless oil.

Step c)



[0247] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added to 12-1b (4.50 g, 12.1 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 12-1c·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 273.2

Step B



[0248] 


Step a)



[0249] To a solution of Boc-Val-OH (2.1 g, 9.7 mmol) in methylene chloride were sequentially added DIPEA (6.7 mL, 37.5 mmol), HOBt (1.3 g, 9.7 mmol) and EDC (1.8 g, 9.7 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 12-1c·HCl (2.0 g, 7.5 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 12-2a as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0250] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) was added to 12-2a (2.82 g, 6.0 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 12-2b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 371.3

Step C



[0251] 


Step a)



[0252] To a solution of Boc-Abu-OH (280 mg, 1.4 mmol) in methylene chloride were sequentially added DIPEA (950 µL, 5.3 mmol), HOBt (185 mg, 1.4 mmol) and EDC (262 mg, 1.4 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 12-2b·HCl (400 mg, 1.0 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 12-3 as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0253] 4 N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (3 mL) was added to 12-3 (334 mg, 0.6 mmol) at room temperature and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 9·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 457.3

13. Synthesis of Intermediate 13-2b


Step A



[0254] 


Step a)



[0255] To a solution of Boc-L-homophenylalanine (6.3 g, 22.5 mmol) in DMF cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (15 mL, 87 mmol), HOBt (3.0 g, 22.5 mmol) and HBTU (8.6 g, 22.5 mmol). After stirring for 5 min 1-2c (6.5 g, 17.3 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 13-1a as a yellow solid.

Step b)



[0256] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (15 ml) was added to 13-1a (8.0 g, 13.3 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 3 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 13-1b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=500.4.

Step B



[0257] 


Step a)



[0258] To a solution of Boc-N-methyl-L-alanine (2.4 g, 11.9 mmol) in DMF cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (8 mL, 46 mmol), HOBt (1.6 g, 11.9 mmol) and HBTU (4.5 g, 11.9 mmol). After stirring for 5 min 13-1b·HCl (4.9 g, 9.1 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 13-2a as a white solid.

Step b)



[0259] To a solution of 13-2a (3.3 g, 4.8 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (100 ml) and stirred under N2 was added 10% Pd/C (300 mg). The reaction mixture was purged with H2 and stirred for 1 hr, then filtered through celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 13-2b as colorless oil. MS (m/z) M+1=551.4.

14. Synthesis of Compound 108·HCl



[0260] 


Step a)



[0261] To a solution of N-Cbz-D-phenylalanine (521 mg, 1.74 mmol) in DMF cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (1.2 ml, 6.7 mmol), HOBt (235 mg, 1.74 mmol) and HBTU (660 mg, 1.74 mmol). After stirring for 5 min 13-2b (740 mg, 1.34 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 14-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0262] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (2 mL) was added to 14-1 (150 mg, 0.18 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 108·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=732.4.

15. Synthesis of Compound 111·2HCl



[0263] 


Step a)



[0264] To a solution of Boc-4-chloro-D-phenylalanine (71 mg, 0.24 mmol) in DMF cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (160 µl, 0.91 mmol), HOBt (32 mg, 0.24 mmol) and HBTU (90 mg, 0.24 mmol). After stirring for 5 min 13-2b (100 mg, 0.18 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 15-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0265] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (2 ml) was added to 15-1 (143 mg, 0.17 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 111·2HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=632.4.

16. Synthesis of Compound 115·HCl



[0266] 


Step a)



[0267] To a solution of 13-2b (200 mg, 0.36 mmol) in dichloromethane cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (160 µl, 0.91 mmol) isobutyryl chloride (38 µl, 0.36 mmol) and the reaction was then stirred for 3 hrs at room temperature. Aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 16-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0268] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (3 ml) was added to 16-1 (200 mg, 0.36 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 115·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=521.4.

17. Synthesis of Intermediate 17-1



[0269] 


Step a)



[0270] To a solution of 14-1 (760 mg, 0.91 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (20 ml) and stirred under N2 was added 10% Pd/C (150 mg). The reaction mixture was purged with H2 and stirred for 5 hrs, then filtered through celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give the expected intermediate 17-1 as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=698.4.

18. Synthesis of Compound 109·HCl



[0271] 


Step a)



[0272] To a solution of 17-1 (125 mg, 0.18 mmol) in dichloromethane cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added TEA (75 µl, 0.18 mmol) and methanesulfonyl chloride (14 µl, 0.18 mmol) and the reaction was then stirred for 1 hr at room temperature. Aqueous NaHCO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/ethyl acetate gradient provided the expected intermediate 18-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0273] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (2 ml) was added to 18-1 (80 mg, 0.10 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 1 hr at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 109·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=676.4

19. Synthesis of Compound 110·2TFA



[0274] 


Step a)



[0275] To a solution of 17-1 (125 mg, 0.18 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran cooled to 0 °C was added ethylisocyanate (14 µl, 0.18 mmol) and the reaction was then stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient to provide the expected intermediate 19-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0276] Intermediate 19-1 was dissolved in a mixture of CH2Cl2 (0.8 mL) and TFA (0.2 mL).The solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 110·2TFA as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=669.4

20. Synthesis of Compound 167·2TFA



[0277] 


Step a)



[0278] To a solution of 17-1 (125 mg, 0.18 mmol) in dichloromethane cooled to 0°C were sequentially added NEt3 (27 µl, 0.19 mmol) and N-N'-di-Boc-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxamidine (58 mg, 0.18 mmol) and the reaction was then stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/ethyl acetate gradient to provide the expected intermediate 20-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0279] Intermediate 19-1 (159 mg, 0.17 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of CH2Cl2 (1.0 mL) and TFA (1.0 mL).The solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected compound 167·2TFA as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=640.4

21. Synthesis of intermediate 21-2b


Step A



[0280] 


Step a)



[0281] To a solution of Boc-Orn(Z)-OH (3.1 g, 8.5 mmol) in DMF cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (5.2 ml, 34.0 mmol), HOBt (1.42 g, 11.0mmol) and HBTU (4.58 g, 12.0 mmol). After stirring for 5 min 11-1b·HCl (3.0 g, 8.9 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 21-1a as a white solid.

Step b)



[0282] Intermediate 21-1 was dissolved in a mixture of CH2Cl2 (5.0 mL) and TFA (5.0 mL).The solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 21-1b·TFA as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=549.2

Step B



[0283] 


Step a)



[0284] To a solution of Boc-N-MeAla-OH (2.3 g, 11.4 mmol) in DMF cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (6.1 ml, 35.0 mmol), HOBt (1.8 g, 13.2mmol) and HBTU (4.7 g,12.3 mmol). After stirring for 5 min 11-1b·HCl (5.5 g, 8.5 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 21-2a as a white solid.

Step b)



[0285] To a solution of 21-2a (1.0 g, 1.4 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (20 mL) and stirred under N2 was added 10 % Pd/C (200 mg). The reaction mixture was purged with H2 and stirred for 5 hrs. The reaction was then filtered through celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. Purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided the expected intermediate 21-2b as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 600.4

22. Synthesis of compound 157·HCl



[0286] 


Step a)



[0287] To a solution of 21-1b (100 mg, 0.17 mmol) in dichloromethane cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (89 µl, 0.5 mmol), benzenesulfonyl chloride (26 µl, 0.2 mmol) DMAP (catalytic) and the reaction was then stirred for 3 hrs at room temperature. Ethyl acetate and 10% citric acid were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided intermediate 22-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0288] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (1 mL) was added to 22-1 (100 mg, 0.13 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 1 hr at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide compound 157·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 640.2.

23. Synthesis of compound 158·2HCl



[0289] 


Step a)



[0290] To a solution of 21-2b (100 mg, 0.17 mmol) in dichloromethane cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DiPEA (89 µl, 0.5 mmol) and phenylisocyanate (22 µl, 0.2 mmol), the reaction was then stirred for 16 hrs at room temperature. Ethyl acetate and 10 % citric acid were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/THF gradient provided intermediate 23-1 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0291] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (1 mL) was added to 23-1 (100 mg, 0.14 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 1 hr at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide compound 158·2HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 619.4.

24. Synthesis of compound 169



[0292] 



[0293] To a solution of compound 10 (100 mg, 0.19 mmol) in dichloromethane was added 2-pyridine carboxaldehyde (18 µl, 0.21 mmol). After stirring for 2 hrs at room temperature. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (48 mg, 0.23 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hrs at room temperature. Ethyl acetate and 10 % citric acid were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by Amine-silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/tetrahydrofuran gradient provided compound 169 as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1= 576.4.

25. Synthesis of compound 66


Step A



[0294] 



[0295] To a solution of Boc-prolinol (2.13 g, 10.6mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) were sequentially added triethylamine (3 mL, 21.5 mmol), methanesulfonic anhydride (2.88 g, 16.5 mmol), and 4-(N,N-dimethyl)aminopyridine (58mg, 0.47 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Saturated aqueous NaHCO3 was added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10% citric acid and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography, eluting with a hexane/ethyl acetate gradient, to provide intermediate 25-2 as colorless oil.

Step B



[0296] 


Step a)



[0297] To a solution of 25-2 (1.30 g, 4.65 mmol) in DME (10 mL) was added potassium iodide (1.6 g, 9.6 mmol) and the mixture was stirred for 1 hr at room temperature. Benzenethiol (630 µL, 4.7 mmol) and sodium hydride (186 mg, 4.7 mmol) in DME (10 mL) were then added and the reaction was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/ethyl acetate gradient to provide intermediate 25-3a as colorless oil.

Step b)



[0298] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (4 ml) was added to 25-3a (384 mg, 1.2 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide intermediate 25-3b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=222.2

Step C



[0299] 


Step a)



[0300] To a solution of Cbz-Ala-Val-OH (377 mg, 1.17 mmol) in DMF cooled to 0 °C were sequentially added DIPEA (515 µL, 2.96 mmol), HOBt (176 mg, 1.30 mmol) and HBTU (369 mg, 1.15 mmol). After stirring for 5 min 25-3b·HCl (153 mg, 0.59 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/Ethyl acetate gradient provided intermediate 25-4 as a white solid.

Step b)



[0301] To a solution of 25-4 (150 mg, 0.28 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (20 ml) and stirred under N2 was added 10% Pd/C (210 mg). The reaction mixture was purged with H2 and stirred for 3 hrs, then filtered through celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to provide the compound 66 as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=392.3

26-Synthesis of compound 67


Step A



[0302] 


Step a)



[0303] To a solution of 25-3a (290 mg, 0.9 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) cooled to 0°C was added m-CPBA (523 mg, 2.29 mmol) and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. 10% aqueous Na2SO3 and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/EtOAc gradient provided the expected intermediate 26-1a as a white solid.

Step b)



[0304] 4N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (4 ml) was added to 26-1a (335 mg, 0.94 mmol) and the solution was stirred for 2 hrs at room temperature. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated with diethyl ether to provide the expected intermediate 26-1b·HCl as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=254.2

Step B



[0305] 


Step a



[0306] To a solution of Cbz-Ala-Val-OH (275 mg, 0.85 mmol) in DMF cooled to °C were sequentially added DIPEA (430 µL, 2.47 mmol), HOBt (122 mg, 0.90 mmol) and HBTU (275 mg, 0.85 mmol). After stirring for 5 min 26-1b·HCl (180 mg, 0.0.62 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Water and ethyl acetate were added, the organic layer was separated, washed with 10 % citric acid, saturated aqueous NaHCO3 and brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by silica gel chromatography eluting with a hexane/Ethyl acetate gradient provided the expected intermediate 26-2b as a white solid.

Step b)



[0307] To a solution of 26-2b (155 mg, 0.28 mmol) in anhydrous MeOH (20 ml) added 10% Pd/C (58 mg). The reaction mixture was purged with H2 and stirred for 3 hrs, then filtered through celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to provide compound 67 as a white solid. MS (m/z) M+1=424.2

[0308] Representative compounds were prepared by simple modification of the above procedures and are illustrated in Table 1:
TABLE 1
Compound #StructureMS m/z (M +H)
1

485.3
2

389.3
3

497.3
4

497.3
5

431.3
6

467.3
7

431.4
8

404.2
9

457.3
10

499.3
11

431.3
12

471.3
13

485.3
14

403.3
15

509.3
16

403.3
17

453.3
18

375.3
19

417.3
20

471.3
21

507.4
22

445.3
23

493.3
24

479.3
25

447.3
26

537.3
27

535.4
28

509.3
29

447.3
30

432.3
31

521.3
32

460.3
33

474.3
34

474.3
35

503.1
36

474.4
37

474.4
38

488.4
39

488.4
40

536.4
41

488.4
42

550.4
43

502.4
44

550.4
45

550.4
46

488.4
47

507.3
48

549.4
49

536.4
50

500.4
51

500.4
52

564.4
53

568.4
54

580.4
55

551.4
56

551.4
57

521.3
58

564.4
59

551.3
60

551.3
61

513.2
62

511.2
63

362
64

376
65

551.4
66

392.3
67

424.2
68

557.3
69

543.3
70

522.6
71

466.6
72

564.6
73

575.6
74

537.3
75

525.3
76

446.5
77

488.6
78

474.3
79

446.3
80

594.4
81

356.3
82

577.4
83

585.4
84

628.4
85

488.4
86

451.3
87

398.3
88

500.4
89

598.4
90

508.4
91

540.4
92

536.4
93

516.4
94

472.3
95

440.4
96

496.3
97

383.3
98

439.3
99

517.4
100

573.4
101

415.3
102

549.4
103

556.4
104

502.5
105

536.4
106

600.4
107

648.4
108

732.4
109

676.4
110

669.4
111

632.4
112

666.2
113

599.4
114

536.4
115

521.4
116

569.4
117

605.4
118

631.4
119

585.4
120

556.4
121

556.4
122

556.4
123

621.4
124

606.4
125

591.2
126

529.2
127

455.4
128

555.4
129

493.4
130

575.4
131

575.4
132

621.4
133

561.4
134

611.4
135

425.4
136

462.7
137

481.4
138

515.4
139

482.4
140

591.6
141

501.2
142

659.2
143

577.2
144

445.4
145

549.2
146

639.3
147

531.4
148

490.4
149

463.4
150

481.4
151

473.4
152

625.4
153

481.4
154

611.2
155

642.4
156

685.4
157

640.2
158

619.4
159

634.4
160

562.4
161

551.4
162

547.2
163

618.4
164

550.4
165

488.4
166

566.4
167

640.4
168

629.4
169

576.4
170

551.3
171

542.4
172

502.2
173

486.2
174

872.4
175

468.4 (M+2)/2
176

486.4 (M+2)/2
177

451.4 (M+2)/2
178

506.4 (M+2)/2


[0309] The following compounds in Tables 3, 4, and 5 may also be synthesized using the aforesaid synthetic methods or modifications thereof:
TABLE 3
Structure












































TABLE 4


and R3 and R4 are as defined herein and R5 is chosen from:
R5










R10=F, Cl, Br, I, N(CH3)2, OMe, OH, N(H)Ac


R10 =F, Cl, Br, I, N(CH3)2, OMe, OH, N(H)Ac


R10=F, Cl, Br, I. N(CH3)2, OMe, OH, N(H)Ac










R10=F, Cl, Br, I, N(CH3)2, OMe, OH, N(H)Ac


R10=F, Cl, Br, I, N(CH3)2, OMe, OH, N(H)Ac




R10=F, Cl, Br, I, N(CH3)2, OMe, OH, N(H)Ac





















Assays


27. Molecular constructs for expression



[0310] GST-XIAP BIR3RING: XIAP coding sequence amino acids 246-497 cloned into PGEX2T1 via BamH1 and AVA I. The plasmid was transformed into E. coli DH5α for use in protein expression and purification.

[0311] GST-HIAP2 (cIAP-1) BIR 3: HIAP2 coding sequence from amino acids 251-363 cloned into PGex4T3 via BamH1 and Xhol. The plasmid was transformed into E. coli DH5α for use in protein expression and purification.

[0312] GST-HIAP1(cIAP-2) BIR 3: HIAP1 coding sequence from amino acids 236-349, cloned into PGex4T3 via BamH1 and Xhol. The plasmid was transformed into E. coli DH5α for use in protein expression and purification.

[0313] GST- linker BIR 2 BIR3Ring: XIAP coding sequence from amino acids 93-497 cloned into PGex4T1 via BamH1 and Xhol. Amino acids 93-497 were amplified from full length XIAP in pGex4t3, using the primers: TTAATAGGATCCATCAACGGCTTTTATC and GCTGCATGTGTGTCAGAGG, using standard PCR conditions. The PCR fragment was TA cloned into pCR-2.1 (invitrogen). Linker BIR 2 BIR 3Ring was subcloned into pGex4T1 by BamHI/XhoI digestion. The plasmid was transformed into E. coli DH5α for use in protein expression and purification.

[0314] GST-XIAP linker BIR 2: XIAP linker BIR 2 coding sequence from amino acids 93-497 cloned into pGex4T3 via BamHI and Xhol. The plasmid was transformed into E. coli DH5α for use in protein expression and purification.

28. Synthesis of fluorescent probe for FP assay



[0315] A fluorescent peptide probe, Fmoc-Ala-Val-Pro-Phe-Tyr(t-Bu)-Leu-Pro-Gly(t-Bu)-Gly-OH was prepared using standard Fmoc chemistry on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (Int. J. Pept. Prot. Res. 38:555-561, 1991). Cleavage from the resin was performed using 20% acetic acid in dichloromehane (DCM), which left the side chain still blocked. The C-terminal protected carboxylic acid was coupled to 4'-(aminomethy)fluorescein (Molecular Probes, A-1351; Eugene, Oreg.) using excess diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC) in dimethylformamide (DMF) at room temperature and was purified by silica gel chromatography (10% methanol in DCM). The N-terminal Fmoc protecting group was removed using piperidine (20%) in DMF, and purified by silica gel chromatography (20% methanol in DCM, 0.5% HOAc). Finally, the t-butyl side chain protective groups were removed using 95% trifluoroacetic acid containing 2.5% water and 2.5% triisopropyl silane. The peptide obtained displayed a single peak by HPLC (>95% pure). Compound # 174 was also used as a fluorescent probe in this assay.

29. Expression and purification of recombinant proteins


A. Recombinant Proteins expression



[0316] Glutathione S-transferase (GST) tagged proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli strains DH5-alpha. For expression of the XIAP-BIR's, cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and Livin transformed bacteria were cultured overnight at 37°C in Luria Broth (LB) medium supplemented with 50 ug/ml of ampicillin. The overnight culture was then diluted 25 fold into fresh LB ampicillin supplemented media and bacteria were grown up to A600 = 0.6 then induced with 1 mM isopropyl-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside for 3 hours. Upon induction, cells were centrifuged at 5000 RPM for 10 minutes and the media was removed. Each pellet obtained from a 1 liter culture received 10 ml of lysis buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, 200 mM NaCl, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM PMSF, 2 mg/ml of lysosyme), was incubated at 4 °C with gentle shaking. After 20 minutes of incubation, the cell suspension was placed at -80 °C overnight or until needed.

B. Purification of recombinant proteins



[0317] For purification of recombinant proteins, the IPTG-induced cell lysate was thaw and 100 ul of DNAase solution (100 ug/ml) was added to the cell lysate and incubated at 4°C for 30 minutes with gentle rocking. Cell lysate was then passed four times through a Bio-Neb Cell disruptor device (Glas-col) set at 100 Psi with Nitrogen gas. The resulting cell extract was centrifuged at 4°C at 15000 RPM in a SS-34 Beckman rotor for 30 minutes. The resulting supernatant from 500 ml cell culture was then mixed with 2 ml of glutathione-Sepharose beads (Pharmacia) for 1 hour at 4°C. Upon incubation, the beads were washed 3 times with 1X Tris-Buffered Saline (TBS). Elution of the retained proteins was done with 3 washes of 2 ml of 50 mM TRIS pH 8.0 containing 10 mM reduced glutathione. The eluted proteins were pooled and precipitated with 604g/liter of ammonium sulfate and the resulting pellet re-suspended into an appropriate buffer. As judged by SDS-PAGE the purified proteins were >90% pure. The protein concentration of purified proteins was determined from the Bradford method.

[0318] His-tag proteins were expressed in the E. Coli strain in E. coli AD494 cells using a pet28ACPP32 construct. The soluble protein fraction was prepared as described above. For protein purification, the supernatant was purified by affinity chromatography using chelating-Sepharose (Pharmacia) charged with NiSO4 according to the manufacturer's instructions. Purity of the eluted protein was >90% pure as determined by SDS-PAGE. The protein concentration of purified proteins was determined from the Bradford assay.

Binding assay


30. Fluorescence polarization-based competition assay



[0319] For all assays, the fluorescence and fluorescence-polarization was evaluated using a Tecan Polarion instrument with the excitation filter set at 485 nm and the emission filter set at 535 nm. For each assay, the concentration of the target protein was first establish by titration of the selected protein in order to produce a linear dose-response signal when incubated alone in the presence of the fluorescent probe. Upon establishing these conditions, the compounds potency (IC50) and selectivity, was assessed in the presence of a fix defined- amount of target protein and fluorescent probe and a 10 point serial dilution of the selected compounds. For each IC50 curve, the assays were run as followed: 25 ul/well of diluted compound in 50 mM MES buffer pH 6.5 were added into a black 96 well plate then 25 ul/well of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 0.5 mg/ml in 50 mM MES pH 6.5. Auto-fluorescence for each compound was first assessed by performing a reading of the compound/BSA solution alone. Then 25 ul of the fluorescein probe diluted into 50 mM MES containing 0.05 mg/ml BSA were added and a reading to detect quenching of fluorescein signal done. Finally 25 ul/well of the target or control protein (GST- BIRs) diluted at the appropriate concentration in 50 mM MES containing 0.05 mg/ml BSA were added and the fluorescence polarization evaluated.

31. Determination of IC50 and Inhibitory constants



[0320] For each assay the relative polarization-fluorescence units were plotted against the final concentrations of compound and the IC50 calculated using the Grad pad prism software and/or Cambridge soft. The ki value were derived from the calculated IC50 value as described above and according to the equation described in Nikolovska-Coleska, Z. (2004) Anal Biochem 332, 261-273.

[0321] Compounds exemplified in Table 6 were tested and found to have IC50s in the following ranges: A: >10µM; B: <10µM; C: <1µM using the fluorescence polarization assay, as shown in Table 5. Each of the IC50s was calculated from Graph Pad.
TABLE 6
Cpd #Bir3-RING XIAPBir3 cIAP-1Bir3 cIAP-2
1 B C C
2 B B B
3 B B B
4 B B B
5 B C C
6 A A A
7 A    
8 A B B
9 B A A
10 C C C
11 B B B
12 B A A
13 B B A
14 A A A
15 C C C
16 B C B
17 B C C
18 C C C
19 C C C
20 C C C
21 C C C
22 C C C
23 C C C
24 C C C
25 B C C
26 C C C
27 C C C
28 C C C
29 B C C
30 C C C
31 C C C
32 C C C
33 C C C
34 C C C
35 C C C
36 B C C
37 C C C
38 C C C
39 C C C
40 C C C
41 B C C
42 C C C
43 C C C
44 B C C
45 C C C
46 C C C
47 C C C
48 C C C
49 C C C
50 C C C
51 C C C
52 C C C
53 C C C
54 C C C
55 C C C
56 C C C
57 C C C
58 B C C
59 C C C
60 C C B
61 C C C
63 B B A
64 B B B
65 C C C
66 B B B
67 A B B
68 C C C
69 C C C

32. Caspase-3 linker BIR2 or Linker- BIR2- BIR3-RING derepression assay



[0322] In order to determine the relative activity of the selected compound against BIR2, an in vitro assay was used where caspase-3 was inhibited by linker- BIR2 or linker BIR2-BIR3-RING of XIAP. Briefly, 1.5 ul of the enzyme, 0.25 uM to 2 uM of GST-Xiap fusion protein (GST-linker BIR2, GST-linker BIR2BIR3RING) were co-incubated with serial dilutions of compound (80 uM - 0.04 uM). Caspase 3 activity was measured by overlaying 25 ul of a 0.4mM DEVD-AMC solution. Final reaction volume was 100ul. All dilutions were performed in caspase buffer (50 mM Hepes pH 7.4, 100mM NaCl, 10% sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM DTT, 0.1% CHAPS (Stennicke, H.R., and Salvesen, G.S. (1997). Biochemical characteristics of caspase-3, -6, -7, and -8. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 25719-25723)).

[0323] The fluorescent AMC released from the caspase-3 hydrolysis of the substrate was measured in a TECAN spectrophotometer at 360 nm excitation and 444 nm emission, on a kinetic cycle of 30 minutes with readings taken every 2 minutes. Caspase activity was calculated as Vo of AMC fluorescence/sec. Caspase de-repression by our compounds were compared to caspase-3 alone and caspase 3 repressed by the presence of XIAP fusion protein.

33A: Pull-down assay



[0324] Compound #168 was dissolved in DMSO at 20 mM and used as the stock solution. Prior to the pull-down assay the compound 168-affinity-agarose beads were prepared as follows:

300 ul of avidine-agarose beads prepared as 50% slurry in buffer A were incubated with 40 ul compound 168 (2.5 mM final) for 6 hrs at 4 °C with shaking. Upon incubation the beads were washed 3 times with buffer A.



[0325] On the day of the pull-down assay, cells such as MDA-MB-231 or 293A were collected and lyzed with a buffer A containing 20 mM TrisHCl, 150 mM NaCl, 10% Glycerol 1% NP-40 and Protease inhibitor cocktail obtained from Sigma with a final protein concentration between 3 to 30 ug/ul.

[0326] For the pull-down assay, 60 ul of the compound 168-beads preparation were incubated with 300 ug cells lysate and 10ul compound 107 (0.36mM final) or as control with 10 ul of buffer A to get a final volume of 550ul. The mixture was then incubated at 4C over night with shaking. The following day, the beads were washed three times with the buffer A and the final bead pellet was re-suspended in 50ul of 2X Leamli buffer. The samples were then centrifuged and the supernatant was collected for western blot analysis directed against XIAP of the other IAP's.

[0327] Alternatively a similar protocol was performed with AVPI-Biotin and IPVA-Biotin probes.

[0328] Results: Using the compound 168-beads and AVPI-beads, XIAP BIR3 was pulled-down by Western-blot, according to Method 33A.

33B: Assay to evaluate direct IAP binding compounds



[0329] A direct IAP binding molecule is used to identify IAP binding compounds by contacting the test compound with an IAP protein which is either fixed or non-fixed on a solid support. The non-binding interacting molecules are washed away and the bound compounds are identified using analytical techniques that can either identify directly the compound such as mass spectrometry, surface plasma resonance or can a evaluate a change of conformation or structure in the target molecule induced by the test compound or using techniques that can monitor the molecular interaction between the test compound and the target molecule such as NMR and protein crystallography.

Cell-free assay


34. Caspase de-repression assay using cellular extracts (apoptosome)



[0330] 100 ug of 293 cell S100 extract and 0.25 uM-2 uM of GST-Xiap fusion protein (GST- BIR 3RING, GST- linker BIR2 BIR3RING) were co-incubated with serial dilutions of compound (0.02uM-40uM). Extracts were activated by adding 1 mM dATP, 0.1 mM ALLN, 133 ug Cytochrome C (final concentrations), and incubating at 37 °C for 25 minutes. All reactions - and dilutions used S100 buffer (50 mM Pipes pH 7.0, 50mM KCI, 0.5mM EGTA pH 8.0, 2mM MgCl2 supplemented with 1/1000 dilutions of 2 mg/ml Cytochalisin B, 2 mg/ml Chymotstatin, Leupeptin, Pepstatin, Antipain , 0.1M PMSF, 1M DTT). Final reaction volume was 30ul. Caspase-3 activity was measured by overlaying 30 ul of a 0.4 mM DEVD-AMC solution. AMC cleavage was measured in a TECAN spectrophotometer at 360 nm excitation and 444 nm emission, on a kinetic cycle of 1 hour with readings taken every 5 minutes. Caspase activity was calculated as Vo of AMC fluorescence/sec. Caspase de-repression by our compounds were compared to fully activated extract and activated extract repressed by the presence of XIAP fusion protein.

[0331] Results: Compounds were also tested in the apoptosome assay and the linker-BIR2/caspase-3 inhibition assay and found to have IC50s in the following ranges: A: >10µM; B: <10µM; C: <1µM, as shown in Table 7.
TABLE 7
Cpd #Apoptosome XIAP Bir3-RINGApoptosome XIAP Bir2-Bir3-RINGCaspase-3 Bir2-Bir3-RING
1 A    
2 A A  
3 C A B
4 A A A
5 C A B
6 C B A
7 C   A
8 C A A
9 C A A
10 B A A
11 C    
12 C A A
13 B A A
14 B A A
15 B A A
16 C A A
17 C A A
18 C A A
19 C A A
20 C A A
21 C A A
22 C A A
23 C A A
24 C   A
25 C   A
26 A   A
27 C B A
28 C   A
29 C B A
30 C A A
31 C A A
32 C   A
33 C   A
34 C   A
35 C   A

35. Cell Culture and Cell Death Assays


A. Cell culture



[0332] MDA-MD-231 (breast) and H460 (lung) cancer cells were cultured in RPMI1640 media supplemented with 10% FBS and 100 units/mL of Penicillin and Steptomycin.

B. Assays



[0333] Survival assays were routinely done on MDA-MB-231 and H460 cells. Cells were seeded in 96 well plates at a respective density of 5000 and 2000 cells per well and incubated at 37°C in presence of 5% CO2 for 24 hours. Selected compounds were diluted into the media at various concentration ranging from 0.01 uM up to 100 uM. Diluted compounds were added onto the MDA-MB-231 cells. For H460 cells, the compounds were added either alone or in presence of 3 ng/ml of TRAIL. After 72 hours cellular viability was evaluated by MTS based assays. A solution of [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] was added onto cells for a period of 1 to 4 hours. Upon incubation the amount of converted MTS was evaluated using a Tecan spectrophotometer set at 570 nm.

Results:



[0334] Various compounds, including compounds 16, 42, 44, 45, 48, 52, 53, 75, 84 and 89, were tested in the MDA-MB-231 breast derived cell line and found to have EC50 of <5 µM. Similarly, compounds of this instant invention also demonstrated synergistic killing of H460 breast derived cell line with TRAIL, demonstrating EC50s of < 10 µM. Also, various compounds 175, 176, 177 and 178 were tested against SKOV-3 cell line, and found to have EC50 of <5µM.

36. Cellular biochemistry:


A. Detection of XIAP and PARP/Caspase-3/Caspase-9



[0335] Detection of cell expressed XIAP and PARP were done by western blotting. Cells were plated at 300 000 cells/well in a 60 mm wells (6 wells plate dish). The next day the cells were treated with selected compound at the indicated concentration. 24 hours later cells the trypsinized cells, pelleted by centrifugation at 1800 rpm at 4 °C. The resulting pellet was rinsed twice with cold TBS. The final washed pellet of cells was the lysed with 250ul Lysis buffer (NP-40, glycerol, 1% of a protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma)), placed at 4°C for 25min with gentle shaking. The cells extract was centrifuged at 4 °C for 10min at 10 000 rpm. Both the supernatant and the pellet were kept for western blotting analysis as described below. From the supernatant, the protein content was evaluated and about 50ug of protein was fractionated onto a 10% SDS-PAGE. Pellets were washed with the lysis buffer and re-suspend into 50 ul of Lamelli buffer 1X, boiled and fractionated on SDS-PAGE. Upon electrophoresis each gel was electro-transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane at 0.6A for 2 hours. Membrane non-specific sites were blocked for 1 hours with 5% Skim milk in TBST (TBS containing 0.1% (v/v) Tween-20) at room temperature. For protein immuno-detection, membranes were incubated overnight with primary antibodies raised against XIAP clone 48 obtained from Becton-Dickison) or PARP: obtained from Cell signal or caspase-3 or caspase-9 primary antibodies were incubated at 4 °C with shaking at dilutions as follows:
XIAP clone 80 (Becton-Dickinson) 1/2500
PARP (Cell Signal) 1/2500
Caspase 3 (Sigma) 1/1500
Caspase 9 (Upstate) 1/1000


[0336] Upon overnight incubation, the membranes received three washes of 15 min in TBST then were incubated for 1 hour at room temperature in the presence of a secondary antibody coupled with HRP-enzyme (Chemicon) and diluted at 1/5 000. Upon incubation each membrane were washed three times with TBST and the immunoreactive bands were detected by addition of a luminescent substrate (ECL kit Amersham) and capture of signal on a X-RAY film for various time of exposure. Active compounds were shown to induce the cleavage of PARP and XIAP as well as to translocate XIAP into an insoluble compartment.

37. Hollow fiber model



[0337] Hollow fiber in vivo model were used to demonstrate in vivo efficacy of selected compounds against selected cell lines as single agent therapy or in combination with selected cytotoxic agents. At day 1, selected cell lines were cultured and the fiber filled at a cell density of about 40,000 cells/fiber. At the day of operation (day 4), three fibers are implanted sub-cutaneous into 28-35 Nu/Nu CD-1 male mice. On day 5, mice start to receive daily injection via sub-cutaneous route of control vehicle or vehicle containing the selected compound at the appropriate concentration and/or injection of cytotoxic agent via intra-peritoneal route. Upon 7 days of non-consecutive treatments, the animals are sacrificed, each fiber is removed and the metabolic viability of the remaining cells determined by MTT assay. Efficacy of the compound is define as the difference between the vehicle-treated animal and the animal treated with the compound alone or the compound given in combination of the cytotoxic agent

[0338] Compound 54 bis-HCl demonstated a reduction in MTT signal according to Method 37.

38. Combination anti-cancer therapy in vivo with taxotere and BIR domain binding compounds



[0339] Groups (n=9-10/grp):

Saline/Saline (n=9)

Taxotere (30mg/kg, ip)/Saline (n=9)

Taxotere (30mg/kg, ip)/compound 56 (2 x 5mg/kg, sc) (n=10)



[0340] Female CD-1 nude mice (approximately 20-25g) were subcutaneously injected with 1x106 H460 cells in the right flank. Animals were balanced into groups based on tumor size and drug therapy began when tumors were ∼30-50mm3. Animals that had no tumor or that were deemed outliers because of excessive tumor size at this time were removed from the study. The remaining animals received Taxotere (or equivalent volume of vehicle) at 30mg/kg, ip 2 times, one week apart. The compound was given two times per day (at 10 mg/kg, sc, approximately 6hrs apart), starting at the time of Taxotere, and continuing daily for the duration of the experiment. If dehydration occurred, animals received sc fluids (0.5ml). Tumor size was measured three times per week. Health assessments were performed at the time of the compound's delivery.

Results:



[0341] At a cumulative dose of 20 mg/kg, sc per day compound 54 bis-HCl had anti-tumor activity in combination with Taxotere. The compound 54 bis-HCl resulted in tumor suppression when combined with the chemotherapy agent Taxotere.

[0342] Without wishing to be bound by theory, we believe that the compounds of the present invention bind within the BIR domains of the IAPs. More specifically, compounds of the instant invention bind XIAP and prevent the interaction of the activated caspases with XIAP. Specifically, our data supports the notion that the compounds of the present invention can significantly reduce or essentially eliminate the interaction of XIAP with active caspase-9 and with active caspase-3. Since caspase-7 can also bind to the BIR2 site of XIAP, it is possible that the compounds can also prevent activated caspase-7 from binding to XIAP. Thus one possible mechanism of action of the compounds is to bind to the BIR motif and prevent the interaction with the caspase. In doing so the ratio of active/ non-bound caspase in the cells is believed to increase and prime the cells to apoptosis. Alternatively, the compounds of the present invention may bind to the IAPs and modify the global protein conformation and thus modulate its half-life or again prevent XIAP from binding to other proteins. For IAPs having RING domain/E3 ligase activity, the mechanism of action of the compounds may be to prevent the interaction of yet other unknown protein to interact with IAP domains and possibly preventing or inducing the ubiquination of these proteins.

24. Pharmacokinetic studies



[0343] Selected compounds were dissolved into normal saline (0.9% NaCl) at 10 mg/ml and injected at 40 mg/Kg under sub-cutaneous route of administration. At each selected time point, blood sample of three mice were taken and the plasma fraction was prepared and kept frozen until analysis by liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS). At the day of analysis, plasma samples were thawed and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction procedure using 75% acetonitrile-water solution. Each extracted sample was analyzed for the presence of the selected compound on an Agilent 1100 LC/MS equipped with a C18 reverse-phase column. Quantitation of the compound in the plasma was done relatively to a plasma standard curve using of the selected compound. Upon determining the plasma concentration for each time point, the calculated area under the curve (AUC) and the peak at maximum concentration (Cmax) were calculated using Kinetica Version 4.2 software (Innaphase).

[0344] Select compounds were shown to display pharmaceutically acceptable aqueous solubility and PK parameters when administered SC, IV, or PO.


Claims

1. A compound of Formula 1.2

wherein:

n is 0 or 1;

m is 0, 1 or 2;

Y is NH, 0 or S;

R1 and R1a are both H, or R1 is H and R1a is CH3;

R2 is C1-C2 alkyl;

R3 is C1-C3 alkyl optionally substituted with one R6 substituent;

A is -CH2-;

Q is -NR4R5,

R4 and R5 are each independently

1) haloalkyl,

2) C1-C6 alkyl,

3) C2-C6 alkenyl,

4) C2-C4 alkynyl,

5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,

6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,

7) aryl,

8) heteroaryl,

9) heterocyclyl,

10) heterobicyclyl,

11) -C(O)(O)n-R11,

12) -C(=Y)NR8R9,

13) -S(O)2-aryl,

14) -S(O)2-heteroaryl, or

15) -S(O)2-heterocyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl are optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl are optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R6 is

1) halogen,

2) -NO2,

3) -CN,

4) haloalkyl,

5) C1-C6 alkyl,

6) C2-C6 alkenyl,

7) C2-C4 alkynyl,

8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,

9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,

10) aryl,

11) heteroaryl,

12) heterocyclyl,

13) heterobicyclyl,

14) -OR7,

15) -S(O)mR7,

16) -NR8R9,

17) -NR8S(O)2R11,

18) -COR7,

19) -C(O)OR7,

20) -CONR8R9,

21) -S(O)2NR8R9

22) -OC(O)R7,

23) -OC(O)Y-R11,

24) -SC(O)R7, or

25) -NC(Y)NR8R9,

wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl are optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R7 is

1) H,

2) haloalkyl,

3) C1-C6 alkyl,

4) C2-C6 alkenyl,

5) C2-C4 alkynyl,

6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,

7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,

8) aryl,

9) heteroaryl,

10) heterocyclyl,

11) heterobicyclyl,

12) -C(=Y)NR8R9

13) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkenyl, or

14) C1-C6 alkyl-C2-C4 alkynyl, wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl are optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl are optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R8 and R9 are each independently

1) H,

2) haloalkyl,

3) C1-C6 alkyl,

4) C2-C6 alkenyl,

5) C2-C4 alkynyl,

6) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,

7) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,

8) aryl,

9) heteroaryl,

10) heterocyclyl,

11) heterobicyclyl,

12) -C(O)R11,

13) -C(O)Y-R11, or

14) -S(O)2-R11,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl are optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl are optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

or R8 and R9 together with the nitrogen atom to which they are bonded form a five, six or seven membered heterocyclic ring optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R10 is

1) halogen,

2) -NO2,

3) -CN,

4) -B(OR13)(OR14),

5) C1-C6 alkyl,

6) C2-C6 alkenyl,

7) C2-C4 alkynyl,

8) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,

9) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,

10) haloalkyl,

11) -OR7,

12) -NR8R9,

13) -SR7,

14) -COR7,

15) -C(O)OR7,

16) -S(O)mR7,

17) -CONR8R9,

18) -S(O)2NR8R9,

19) aryl,

20) heteroaryl,

21) heterocyclyl, or

22) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, and cycloalkenyl are optionally substituted with one or more R6 substituents;

R11 is

1) haloalkyl,

2) C1-C6 alkyl,

3) C2-C6 alkenyl,

4) C2-C4 alkynyl,

5) C3-C7 cycloalkyl,

6) C3-C7 cycloalkenyl,

7) aryl,

8) heteroaryl,

9) heterocyclyl, or

10) heterobicyclyl,

wherein the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl are optionally substituted with one or

more R6 substituents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclyl, and heterobicyclyl are optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents;

R13 and R14 are each independently

1) H, or

2) C1-C6 alkyl; or

R13 and R14 are combined to form a heterocyclic ring or a heterobicycle ring;

or a salt thereof.
 
2. The compound of claim 1, wherein R4 and R5 are independently

1) C1-C6 alkyl,

2) aryl,

3) heteroaryl,

4) -C(O)(O)n-R11,

5) -C(=Y)NR8R9,

6) -S(O)2-aryl,

7) -S(O)2-heteroaryl, or

8) -S(O)2-heterocyclyl,

wherein the alkyl is optionally substituted with one or more R6 substitutents; and wherein the aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclyl are optionally substituted with one or more R10 substituents.
 
3. The compound of claim 2, wherein R4 is -C(O)(O)n-R11 or C(=Y)NR8R9 and R5 is C1-C6 alkyl substituted with an R6 substituent.
 
4. The compound of claim 3, wherein R5 is C1-C6 alkyl substituted with an aryl.
 
5. The compound of claim 1 or 2, wherein R4 is -C(O)(O)n-R11 and R5 is an aryl.
 
6. A compound selected from the group consisting of:
Compound #Structure
1

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

15

17

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

82

83

84

85

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

99

100

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

172

173

174

and salts thereof.
 
7. An intermediate compound represented by Formula 1-v:

wherein PG3 and PG5 are protecting groups selected from Fmoc, Bn, Boc and CBz, and R1, R2, R3 and R5 are as defined according to claim 1; or Formula 2-i:

wherein PG5 is a protecting group selected from Fmoc, Bn, Boc and CBz, and R1, R2, R3, and R5 are as defined according to claim 1; or
Formula 4-i:

wherein PG3 is a protecting group selected from Fmoc, Bn, Boc and CBz, and R1, R2, R3, and R5 are as defined according to claim 1; or
 
8. A process for producing a compound of claim 1, the process comprising:

a) coupling an intermediate represented by Formula 4-i:

and LG-C(O)-R11, LG-SO2-aryl, LG-SO2-heteroaryl or LG-SO2-heterocyclyl in a solvent at room temperature; and

b) removing the protecting group so as to form a compound of claim 1, wherein PG3 is a protecting group, LG is a leaving group, and R1, R2, R3, R5 and R11 are as defined according to claim 1.


 
9. The process of claim 8 further comprising providing the compound of Formula 4-i by deprotecting a compound of Formula 1-v:

at PG5.
 
10. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any of claims 1-6, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or excipient.
 
11. A pharmaceutical composition for use in treating a proliferative disorder or cancer in a subject, comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or any of claims 1-6 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or excipient.
 
12. A method of preparing a pharmaceutical composition, according to claim 13 or 14, the method comprising: mixing a compound of any of claims 1-6 with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent or excipient.
 
13. A probe comprising a compound of any of claims 1-6 labeled with a detectable label or an affinity tag.
 
14. A method of identifying compounds in vitro that bind to an IAP BIR domain, the method comprising:

a) contacting an IAP BIR domain with the probe, according to claim 13 to form a probe:BIR domain complex, the probe being displaceable by a test compound;

b) measuring a signal from the probe so as to establish a reference level;

c) incubating the probe:BIR domain complex with the test compound;

d) measuring the signal from the probe;

e) comparing the signal from step d) with the reference level, a modulation of the signal being an indication that the test compound binds to the BIR domain.


 
15. A method of identifying a compound in vitro that binds to an IAP BIR domain, the method comprising:

a) contacting an IAP BIR domain with a compound of any of claims 1-6 or a probe, according to claim 13 to form either a probe:BIR domain complex or a compound:BIR domain complex;

b) measuring the amount of the probe or the compound bound to the BIR domain.


 
16. A method of measuring the binding of IAP proteins to a BIR binding compound in vitro, the method comprising:

a) contacting an IAP BIR domain with a probe of claim 13 to form a probe:BIR domain complex;

b) washing non-bound protein;

c) extracting the bound protein from the probe either with a test compound or eluent, wherein the probe is a compound of Formula I, according to claim 1, labeled with an affinity label.


 
17. A compound of any of claims 1-6 for use to treat: a) a proliferative disorder in a subject; or b) cancer in a subject.
 
18. A compound of any of claims 1-6 for use to treat a proliferative disorder or cancer in a subject in combination or sequentially with an agent selected from:

a) an estrogen receptor modulator,

b) an androgen receptor modulator,

c) retinoid receptor modulator,

d) a cytotoxic agent,

e) an antiproliferative agent,

f) a prenyl-protein transferase inhibitor,

g) an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor,

h) an HIV protease inhibitor,

i) a reverse transcriptase inhibitor,

k) an angiogenesis inhibitor,

l) a PPAR- δ agonist,

m) a PPAR- γ agonist,

n) an inhibitor of inherent multidrug resistance,

o) an anti-emetic agent,

p) an agent useful in the treatment of anemia,

q) agents useful in the treatment of neutropenia,

r) an immunologic-enhancing drug,

s) a proteasome inhibitor;

t) an HDAC inhibitor;

u) an inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity in the proteasome; or

v) E3 ligase inhibitors;

or in combination or sequentially with radiation therapy.
 
19. A compound of any of claims 1-6 for use to treat a proliferative disorder or cancer in a subject in combination or sequentially with a death receptor agonist.
 
20. A pharmaceutical composition, according to claim 10 or 11, for use to treat a proliferative disorder or cancer in a subject in combination or sequentially with an agent selected from:

a) an estrogen receptor modulator,

b) an androgen receptor modulator,

c) retinoid receptor modulator,

d) a cytotoxic agent,

e) an antiproliferative agent,

f) a prenyl-protein transferase inhibitor,

g) an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor,

h) an HIV protease inhibitor,

i) a reverse transcriptase inhibitor,

k) an angiogenesis inhibitor,

l) a PPAR-δ agonist,

m) a PPAR-γ agonist,

n) an inhibitor of inherent multidrug resistance,

o) an anti-emetic agent,

p) an agent useful in the treatment of anemia,

q) agents useful in the treatment of neutropenia,

r) an immunologic-enhancing drug,

s) a proteasome inhibitor,

t) an HDAC inhibitor,

u) an inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity in the proteasome, or

v) E3 ligase inhibitors,

or in combination or sequentially with radiation therapy.
 
21. A pharmaceutical composition, according to claim 10 or 11, for use to treat a proliferative disorder or cancer in a subject in combination or sequentially with a death receptor agonist.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verbindung der Formel 1.2

wobei:

n 0 oder 1 ist;

m 0, 1 oder 2 ist;

Y NH, O oder S ist;

R1 und R1a beide H sind, oder R1 H ist und R1a CH3 ist;

R2 C1-C2-Alkyl ist;

R3 C1-C3-Alkyl ist, das optional mit einem R6-Substituenten substituiert ist;

A -CH2- ist;

Q -NR4R5 ist;

R4 und R5 jeweils unabhängig Folgendes sind:

1) Halogenalkyl,

2) C1-C6-Alkyl,

3) C2-C6-Alkenyl,

4) C2-C4-Alkinyl,

5) C3-C7-Cycloalkyl,

6) C3-C7-Cycloalkenyl,

7) Aryl,

8) Heteroaryl,

9) Heterocyclyl,

10) Heterobicyclyl,

11) -C(O)(O)n-R11,

12) -C(=Y)NR8R9,

13) -S(O)2-Aryl,

14) -S(O)2-Heteroaryl oder

15) -S(O)2-Heterocyclyl,

wobei das Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Cycloalkyl und Cycloalkenyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R6-Substitutenten substituiert sind; und wobei das Aryl, Heteroaryl, Heterocyclyl und Heterobicyclyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R10-Substituenten substituiert sind;

R6 Folgendes ist:

1) Halogen,

2) -NO2,

3) -CN,

4) Halogenalkyl,

5) C1-C6-Alkyl,

6) C2-C6-Alkenyl,

7) C2-C4-Alkinyl,

8) C3-C7-Cycloalkyl,

9) C3-C7-Cycloalkenyl,

10) Aryl,

11) Heteroaryl,

12) Heterocyclyl,

13) Heterobicyclyl,

14) -OR7,

15) -S(O)mR7,

16) -NR8R9,

17) -NR8S(O)2R11,

18) -COR7,

19) -C(O)OR7,

20) -CONR8R9,

21) -S(O)2NR8R9,

22) -OC(O)R7,

23) -OC(O)Y-R11,

24) -SC(O)R7 oder

25) -NC(Y)NR8R9,

wobei das Aryl, Heteroaryl, Heterocyclyl und Heterobicyclyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R10-Substituenten substituiert sind;

R7 Folgendes ist:

1) H,

2) Halogenalkyl,

3) C1-C6-Alkyl,

4) C2-C6-Alkenyl,

5) C2-C4-Alkinyl,

6) C3-C7-Cycloalkyl,

6) C3-C7-Cycloalkenyl,

7) Aryl,

8) Heteroaryl,

9) Heterocyclyl,

10) Heterobicyclyl,

11) -C(=Y)NR8R9 oder

12) C1-C6-Alkyl-C2-C4-Alkenyl oder

13) C1-C6-Alkyl-C2-C4-Alkinyl, wobei das Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Cycloalkyl und Cycloalkenyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R6-Substituenten substituiert sind; und wobei das Aryl, Heteroaryl, Heterocyclyl und Heterobicyclyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R10-Substituenten substituiert sind;

R8 und R9 jeweils unabhängig Folgendes sind:

1) H,

2) Halogenalkyl,

3) C1-C6-Alkyl,

4) C2-C6-Alkenyl,

5) C2-C4-Alkinyl,

6) C3-C7-Cycloalkyl,

7) C3-C7-Cycloalkenyl,

8) Aryl,

9) Heteroaryl,

10) Heterocyclyl,

11) Heterobicyclyl,

12) -C(O)R11,

13) -C(O)Y-R11 oder

14) -S(O)2-R11,

wobei das Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Cycloalkyl und Cycloalkenyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R6-Substituenten substituiert sind; und wobei das Aryl, Heteroaryl, Heterocyclyl und Heterobicyclyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R10-Substituenten substituiert sind;

oder R8 und R9, zusammen mit dem Stickstoffatom, an das sie gebunden sind, einen fünf-, sechs- oder siebengliedrigen heterocyclischen Ring bilden, der optional mit einem oder mehreren R6-Substituenten substituiert ist;

R10 Folgendes ist:

1) Halogen,

2) -NO2,

3) -CN,

4) -B(OR13)(OR14),

5) C1-C6-Alkyl,

6) C2-C6-Alkenyl,

7) C2-C4-Alkinyl,

8) C3-C7-Cycloalkyl,

9) C3-C7-Cycloalkenyl,

10) Halogenalkyl,

11) -OR7,

12) -NR8R9,

13) -SR7,

14) -COR7,

15) -C(O)OR7,

16) -S(O)mR7,

17) -CONR8R9,

18) -S(O)2NR8R9,

19) Aryl,

20) Heteroaryl,

21) Heterocyclyl oder

22) Heterobicyclyl,

wobei das Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Cycloalkyl und Cycloalkenyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R6-Substituenten substituiert sind:

R11 Folgendes ist:

1) Halogenalkyl,

2) C1-C6-Alkyl,

3) C2-C6-Alkenyl,

4) C2-C4-Alkinyl,

5) C3-C7-Cycloalkyl,

6) C3-C7-Cycloalkenyl,

7) Aryl,

8) Heteroaryl,

9) Heterocyclyl oder

10) Heterobicyclyl,

wobei das Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Cycloalkyl, Cycloalkenyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R6-Substituenten substituiert sind; und wobei das Aryl, Heteroaryl, Heterocyclyl und Heterobicyclyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R10-Substituenten substituiert sind;

R13 und R14 jeweils unabhängig Folgendes sind:

1) H oder

2) C1-C6-Alkyl oder

R13 und R14 kombiniert sind, um einen heterocyclischen Ring oder einen heterobicyclischen Ring zu bilden;

oder ein Salz davon.
 
2. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, wobei R4 und R5 unabhängig Folgendes sind:

1) C1-C6-Alkyl,

2) Aryl,

3) Heteroaryl,

4) -C(O)(O)n-R11,

5) -C(=Y)NR8R9,

6) -S(O)2-Aryl,

7) -S(O)2-Heteroaryl oder

8) -S(O)2-Heterocyclyl,

wobei das Alkyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R6-Substitutenten substituiert ist; und wobei das Aryl, Heteroaryl und Heterocyclyl optional mit einem oder mehreren R10-substitutenten substituiert sind.
 
3. Verbindung nach Anspruch 2, wobei R4 -C(O)(O)n-R11 oder C(=Y)NR8R9 ist und R5 C1-C6-Alkyl ist, das mit einem R6-Substituent substituiert ist.
 
4. Verbindung nach Anspruch 3, wobei R5 C1-C6-Alkyl ist, das mit einem Aryl substituiert ist.
 
5. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei R4-C(O)(O)n-R11 ist und R5 ein Aryl ist.
 
6. Verbindung, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe, bestehend aus:
Verbindung Nr.Struktur
1

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

15

17

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

82

83

84

85

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

99

100

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

172

173

174

und Salze davon.
 
7. Zwischenverbindung, dargestellt durch Formel 1-v:

wobei PG3 und PG5 Schutzgruppen, ausgewählt aus Fmoc, Bn, Boc und CBz, sind und R1 R2, R3 und R5 wie nach Anspruch 1 definiert sind; oder
Formel 2-i:

wobei PG5 eine Schutzgruppe, ausgewählt aus Fmoc, Bn, Boc und CBz, ist und R1, R2, R3 und R5 wie nach Anspruch 1 definiert sind; oder
Formel 4-i;

wobei PG3 eine Schutzgruppe, ausgewählt aus Fmoc, Bn, Boc und CBz, ist und R1 R2, R3 und R5 wie nach Anspruch 1 definiert sind.
 
8. Prozess zum Produzieren einer Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Prozess Folgendes umfasst:

a) Koppeln eines Zwischenprodukts, dargestellt durch Formel 4-i:

und LG-C(O)-R11, LG-SO2-Aryl, LG-SO2-Heteroary oder LG-SO2-Heterocyclyl in einem Lösungsmittel bei Raumtemperatur; und

b) Entfernen der Schutzgruppe, um somit eine Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 zu bilden, wobei PG3 eine Schutzgruppe ist, LG eine Abgangsgruppe ist und R1, R2, R3, R5 und R11 wie nach Anspruch 1 definiert sind.


 
9. Prozess nach Anspruch 8, der ferner Folgendes umfasst: Bereitstellen der Verbindung von Formel 4-i durch Entschützen einer Verbindung der Formel 1-v:

an PG5.
 
10. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, die eine Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6 und einen pharmazeutisch verträglichen Träger, ein Verdünnungsmittel oder einen Hilfsstoff umfasst.
 
11. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer proliferativen Störung oder eines Krebses bei einem Individuum, die eine therapeutisch wirksame Menge einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6 und und einen pharmazeutisch verträglichen Träger, ein Verdünnungsmittel oder einen Hilfsstoff umfasst.
 
12. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer pharmazeutischen Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 11 oder 12, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst: Mischen einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6 mit einem pharmazeutisch verträglichen Träger, Verdünnungsmittel oder Hilfsstoff.
 
13. Sonde, die eine Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6 umfasst, die mit einer nachweisbaren Markierung oder einem Affinitäts-Tag markiert ist.
 
14. Verfahren zum Identifizieren von Verbindungen in vitro, die an eine IAP-BIR-Domäne binden, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

a) In-Kontakt-Bringen einer IAP-BIR-Domäne mit der Sonde nach Anspruch 13, um einen Sonden-BIR-Domänen-Komplex zu bilden, wobei die Sonde durch eine Testverbindung verdrängt werden kann;

b) Messen eines Signals von der Sonde, um ein Bezugsniveau zu etablieren;

c) Inkubieren des Sonden-BIR-Domänen-Komplexes mit der Testverbindung;

d) Messen des Signals von der Sonde;

e) Vergleichen des Signals aus Schritt d) mit dem Bezugsniveau, wobei eine Modulation des Signals darauf hinweist, dass die Testverbindung an die BIR-Domäne bindet.


 
15. Verfahren zum Identifizieren einer Verbindung in vitro, die an eine IAP-BIR-Domäne binden, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

a) In-Kontakt-Bringen einer IAP-BIR-Domäne mit einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6 oder einer Sonde nach Anspruch 13, um entweder einen Sonden-BIR-Domänen-Komplex oder einen Verbindungs-BIR-Domänen-Komplex zu bilden;

b) Messen der an die BIR-Domäne gebundenen Menge der Sonde oder der Verbindung.


 
16. Verfahren zum Messen der Bindung von IAP-Proteinen an eine BIR-bindende Verbindung in vitro, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

a) In-Kontakt-Bringen einer IAP-BIR-Domäne mit einer Sonde nach Anspruch 13, um einen Sonden-BIR-Domänen-Komplex zu bilden;

b) Waschen des nicht gebundenen Proteins;

c) Extrahieren des gebundenen Proteins aus der Sonde entweder mit einer Testverbindung oder einem Elutionsmittel, wobei die Sonde eine Verbindung der Formel I nach Anspruch 1 ist, die mit einer Affinitätsmarkierung markiert ist.


 
17. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung: a) einer proliferativen Störung bei einem Individuum; oder b) eines Krebses bei einem Individuum.
 
18. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer proliferativen Störung oder eines Krebses bei einem Individuum in Kombination oder aufeinanderfolgend mit einem Mittel, das aus den Folgenden ausgewählt ist:

a) einem Östrogenrezeptormodulator,

b) einem Androgenrezeptormodulator,

c) Retinoidrezeptormodulator,

d) einem zytotoxischen Mittel,

e) einem antiproliferativen Mittel,

f) einem Prenyl-Proteintransferasehemmer,

g) einem HMG-CoA-Reduktasehemmer,

h) einem HIV-Proteasehemmer,

i) einem Reverse-Transkriptasehemmer,

k) einem Angiogenesehemmer,

l) einem PPAR-δ-Agonisten,

m) einem PPAR-γ-Agonisten,

n) einem Hemmer inhärenter Resistenz gegen mehrere Arzneistoffe,

o) einem Antiemetikum,

p) einem bei der Behandlung von Anämie nützlichen Mittel,

q) bei der Behandlung von Neutropenie nützlichen Mitteln,

r) einem immunologisch verstärkenden Arzneistoff,

s) einem Proteasomhemmer;

t) einem HDAC-Hemmer;

u) einem Hemmer der chymotrypsinähnlichen Aktivität im Proteasom; oder

v) E3-Ligasehemmern;

oder in Kombination oder aufeinanderfolgend mit Strahlentherapie.
 
19. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1-6 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer proliferativen Störung oder eines Krebses bei einem Individuum in Kombination oder aufeinanderfolgend mit einem Todesrezeptoragonisten.
 
20. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 10 oder 11 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer proliferativen Störung oder eines Krebses bei einem Individuum in Kombination oder aufeinanderfolgend mit einem Mittel, das aus den Folgenden ausgewählt ist:

a) einem Östrogenrezeptormodulator,

b) einem Androgenrezeptormodulator,

c) Retinoidrezeptormodulator,

d) einem zytotoxischem Mittel,

e) einem antiproliferativen Mittel,

f) einem Prenyl-Proteintransferasehemmer,

g) einem HMG-CoA-Reduktasehemmer,

h) einem HIV-Proteasehemmer,

i) einem Reverse-Transkriptasehemmer,

k) einem Angiogenesehemmer,

l) einem PPAR-δ-Agonisten,

m) einem PPAR-γ-Agonisten,

n) einem Hemmer inhärenter Resistenz gegen mehrere Arzneistoffe,

o) einem Antiemetikum,

p) einem bei der Behandlung von Anämie nützlichen Mittel,

q) die bei der Behandlung von Neutropenie nützlichen Mitteln,

r) einem immunologisch verstärkenden Arzneistoff,

s) einem Proteasomhemmer,

t) einem HDAC-Hemmer,

u) einem Hemmer der chymotrypsinähnlichen Aktivität im Proteasom oder

v) E3-Ligasehemmern,

oder in Kombination oder aufeinanderfolgend mit Strahlentherapie.
 
21. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 10 oder 11 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer proliferativen Störung oder eines Krebses bei einem Individuum in Kombination oder aufeinanderfolgend mit einem Todesrezeptoragonisten.
 


Revendications

1. Composé de formule 1.2

dans lequel :

n est 0 ou 1 ;

m est 0, 1 ou 2 ;

Y est NH, O ou S ;

R1 et R1a sont tous les deux H, ou R1 est H et R1a est CH3 ;

R2 est alkyle en C1 à C2 ;

R3 est alkyle en C1 à C3 facultativement substitué avec un substituant R6 ;

A est -CH2- ;

Q est -NR4R5 ;

R4 et R5 sont chacun indépendamment

1) haloalkyle,

2) alkyle en C1 à C6,

3) alcényle en C2 à C6,

4) alcynyle en C2 à C4,

5) cycloalkyle en C3 à C7,

6) cycloalcényle en C3 à C7,

7) aryle,

8) hétéroaryle,

9) hétérocyclyle,

10) hétérobicyclyle,

11) -C(O)(O)n-R11,

12) -C(=Y)NR8R9,

13) -S(O)2-aryle,

14) -S(O)2-hétéroaryle, ou

15) -S(O)2-hétérocyclyle,

dans lequel l'alkyle, l'alcényle, l'alcynyle, le cycloalkyle, et le cycloalcényle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R6 ; et dans lequel l'aryle, l'hétéroaryle, l'hétérocyclyle, et l'hétérobicyclyle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R10 ;

R6 est

1) halogène,

2) -NO2,

3) -CN,

4) haloalkyle,

5) alkyle en C1 à C6,

6) alcényle en C2 à C6,

7) alcynyle en C2 à C4,

8) cycloalkyle en C3 à C7,

9) cycloalcényle en C3 à C7,

10) aryle,

11) hétéroaryle,

12) hétérocyclyle,

13) hétérobicyclyle,

14) -OR7,

15) -S(O)mR7,

16) -NR8R9,

17) -NR8S(O)2R11,

18) -COR7,

19) -C(O)OR7,

20) -CONR8R9,

21) -S(O)2NR8R9,

22) -OC(O)R7,

23) -OC(O)Y-R11,

24) -SC(O)R7 ou

25) -NC(Y)NR8R9,

dans lequel l'aryle, l'hétéroaryle, l'hétérocyclyle, et l'hétérobicyclyle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R10 ;

R7 est

1) H,

2) haloalkyle,

3) alkyle en C1 à C6,

4) alcényle en C2 à C6,

5) alcynyle en C2 à C4,

6) cycloalkyle en C3 à C7,

6) cycloalcényle en C3 à C7,

7) aryle,

8) hétéroaryle,

9) hétérocyclyle,

10) hétérobicyclyle,

11) -C(=Y)NR8R9, ou

12) alkyle en C1 à C6-alcényle en C2 à C4, ou

13) alkyle en C1 à C6-alcynyle en C2 à C4,

dans lequel l'alkyle, l'alcényle, l'alcynyle, le cycloalkyle, et le cycloalcényle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R6 ; et dans lequel l'aryle, l'hétéroaryle, l'hétérocyclyle, et l'hétérobicyclyle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R10 ;

R8 et R9 sont chacun indépendamment

1) H,

2) haloalkyle,

3) alkyle en C1 à C6,

4) alcényle en C2 à C6,

5) alcynyle en C2 à C4,

6) cycloalkyle en C3 à C7,

7) cycloalcényle en C3 à C7,

8) aryle,

9) hétéroaryle,

10) hétérocyclyle,

11) hétérobicyclyle,

12) -C(O)R11,

13) -C(O)Y-R11, ou

14) -S(O)2-R11,

dans lequel l'alkyle, l'alcényle, l'alcynyle, le cycloalkyle, et le cycloalcényle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R6 ; et dans lequel l'aryle, l'hétéroaryle, l'hétérocyclyle, et l'hétérobicyclyle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R10 ;

ou R8 et R9 ensemble avec l'atome d'azote auquel ils sont liés forment un noyau hétérocyclique de cinq, six ou sept éléments facultativement substitué avec un ou plusieurs substituants R6 ;

R10 est

1) halogène,

2) -NO2,

3) -CN,

4) -B(OR13)(OR14),

5) alkyle en C1 à C6,

6) alcényle en C2 à C6,

7) alcynyle en C2 à C4,

8) cycloalkyle en C3 à C7,

9) cycloalcényle en C3 à C7,

10) haloalkyle,

11) -OR7,

12) -NR8R9,

13) -SR7,

14) -COR7,

15) -C(O)OR7,

16) -S(O)mR7,

17) -CONR8R9,

18) -S(O)2NR8R9,

19) aryle,

20) hétéroaryle,

21) hétérocyclyle, ou

22) hétérobicyclyle,

dans lequel l'alkyle, l'alcényle, l'alcynyle, le cycloalkyle, et le cycloalcényle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R6 ;

R11 est

1) haloalkyle,

2) alkyle en C1 à C6,

3) alcényle en C2 à C6,

4) alcynyle en C2 à C4,

5) cycloalkyle en C3 à C7,

6) cycloalcényle en C3 à C7,

7) aryle,

8) hétéroaryle,

9) hétérocyclyle, ou

10) hétérobicyclyle,

dans lequel l'alkyle, l'alcényle, l'alcynyle, le cycloalkyle, et le cycloalcényle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R6 ; et dans lequel l'aryle, l'hétéroaryle, l'hétérocyclyle, et l'hétérobicyclyle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R10 ;

R13 et R14 sont chacun indépendamment

1) H, ou

2) alkyle en C1-C6 ; ou

R13 et R14 sont combinés pour former un noyau hétérocyclique ou un noyau hétérobicyclique ; ou un sel de celui-ci.


 
2. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel R4 et R5 sont indépendamment

1) alkyle en C1 à C6,

2) aryle,

3) hétéroaryle,

4) -C(O)(O)n-R11,

5) -C(=Y)NR8R9,

6) -S(O)2-aryle,

7) -S(O)2-hétéroaryle, ou

8) -S(O)2-hétérocyclyle,

dans lequel l'alkyle est facultativement substitué avec un ou plusieurs substituants R6 ; et dans lequel l'aryle, l'hétéroaryle, et l'hétérocyclyle sont facultativement substitués avec un ou plusieurs substituants R10.
 
3. Composé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel R4 est -C(O)(O)n-R11 ou -C(=Y)NR8R9 et R5 est alkyle en C1 à C6 substitué avec un substituant R6.
 
4. Composé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel R5 est alkyle en C1 à C6 substitué avec un aryle.
 
5. Composé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel R4 est -C(O)(O)n-R11 et R5 est un aryle.
 
6. Composé sélectionné dans le groupe constitué par :
Composé n°Structure
1

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

15

17

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

82

83

84

85

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

99

100

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

172

173

174

et les sels de celui-ci.
 
7. Composé intermédiaire représenté par la Formule 1-v :

dans lequel PG3 et PG5 sont des groupes protecteurs sélectionnés parmi Fmoc, Bn, Boc et CBz, et R1, R2, R3 et R5 sont tels que définis selon la revendication 1 ; ou
la Formule 2-i :

dans lequel PG5 est un groupe protecteur choisi parmi Fmoc, Bn, Boc et CBz, et R1, R2, R3, et R5 sont tels que définis selon la revendication 1 ; ou
la Formule 4-i :

dans lequel PG3 est un groupe protecteur choisi parmi Fmoc, Bn, Boc et CBz, et R1, R2, R3, et R5 sont tels que définis selon la revendication 1.
 
8. Procédé pour produire un composé selon la revendication 1, le procédé comprenant :

a) le couplage d'un intermédiaire représenté par la Formule 4-i :

et de LG-C(O)-R11, LG-SO2-aryle, LG-SO2-hétéroaryle, ou LG-SO2-hétérocyclyle dans un solvant à température ambiante ; et

b) le retrait du groupe protecteur de manière à former un composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel PG3 est un groupe protecteur, LG est un groupe labile, et R1, R2, R3, R5 et R11 sont tels que définis selon la revendication 1.


 
9. Procédé selon la revendication 8 comprenant en outre la fourniture du composé de Formule 4-i en déprotégeant un composé de Formule 1-v :

au niveau de PG5.
 
10. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, et un support, diluant ou excipient pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
11. Composition pharmaceutique pour utilisation dans le traitement d'un trouble proliférant ou du cancer chez un sujet, comprenant une quantité thérapeutiquement efficace d'un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6 et un support, diluant ou excipient pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
12. Procédé de préparation d'une composition pharmaceutique, selon la revendication 10 ou 11, le procédé comprenant : le mélange d'un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6 avec un support, diluant ou excipient pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
13. Sonde comprenant un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6 marqué avec une étiquette détectable ou un marqueur d'affinité.
 
14. Procédé d'identification de composés in vitro qui se lient à un domaine BIR d'IAP, le procédé comprenant :

a) la mise en contact d'un domaine BIR d'IAP avec la sonde, selon la revendication 13 pour former un complexe sonde/domaine BIR, la sonde pouvant être déplacée par un composé d'essai ;

b) la mesure d'un signal de la sonde de manière à établir un niveau de référence ;

c) l'incubation du complexe sonde/domaine BIR avec le composé d'essai ;

d) la mesure du signal de la sonde ;

e) la comparaison du signal de l'étape d) avec le niveau de référence, une modulation du signal étant une indication que le composé d'essai se lie au domaine BIR.


 
15. Procédé d'identification d'un composé in vitro qui se lie à un domaine BIR d'IAP, le procédé comprenant :

a) la mise en contact d'un domaine BIR d'IAP avec un composé de l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6 ou une sonde, selon la revendication 13 pour former soit un complexe sonde/domaine BIR ou un complexe composé/domaine BIR ;

b) la mesure de la quantité de la sonde ou du composé lié au domaine BIR.


 
16. Procédé de mesure de la liaison de protéines IAP à un composé de liaison aux BIR in vitro, le procédé comprenant :

a) la mise en contact d'un domaine BIR d'IAP avec une sonde selon la revendication 13 pour former un complexe sonde/domaine BIR ;

b) le lavage de la protéine non liée ;

c) l'extraction de la protéine liée de la sonde soit avec un composé d'essai ou un éluant,

dans lequel la sonde est un composé de Formule I, selon la revendication 1, marqué avec un marqueur d'affinité.
 
17. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6 pour utilisation pour traiter : a) un trouble proliférant chez un sujet ; ou b) le cancer chez un sujet.
 
18. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6 pour utilisation pour traiter un trouble proliférant ou le cancer chez un sujet en combinaison ou successivement avec un agent sélectionné parmi :

a) un modulateur du récepteur aux oestrogènes,

b) un modulateur du récepteur aux androgènes,

c) modulateur du récepteur aux rétinoïdes,

d) un agent cytotoxique,

e) un agent antiproliférant,

f) un inhibiteur de la prényle-protéine transférase,

g) un inhibiteur de la HMG-CoA réductase,

h) un inhibiteur de la protéase du VIH,

i) un inhibiteur de la transcriptase inverse,

k) un inhibiteur de l'angiogenèse,

l) un agoniste de PPAR-δ,

m) un agoniste de PPAR-γ,

n) un inhibiteur de la résistance inhérente à plusieurs médicaments,

o) un agent antiémétique,

p) un agent utile dans le traitement de l'anémie,

q) des agents utiles dans le traitement de la neutropénie,

r) un médicament immunostimulant,

s) un inhibiteur du protéasome ;

t) un inhibiteur de HDAC ;

u) un inhibiteur de l'activité similaire à la chymotrypsine dans le protéasome ; ou

v) des inhibiteurs de la ligase E3 ;

ou en combinaison ou successivement avec la radiothérapie.
 
19. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6 pour utilisation pour traiter un trouble proliférant ou le cancer chez un sujet en combinaison ou successivement avec un agoniste du récepteur de mort.
 
20. Composition pharmaceutique, selon la revendication 10 ou 11, pour utilisation pour traiter un trouble proliférant ou le cancer chez un sujet en combinaison ou successivement avec un agent sélectionné parmi :

a) un modulateur du récepteur aux oestrogènes,

b) un modulateur du récepteur aux androgènes,

c) modulateur du récepteur aux rétinoïdes,

d) un agent cytotoxique,

e) un agent antiproliférant,

f) un inhibiteur de la prényle-protéine transférase,

g) un inhibiteur de la HMG-CoA réductase,

h) un inhibiteur de la protéase du VIH,

i) un inhibiteur de la transcriptase inverse,

k) un inhibiteur de l'angiogenèse,

l) un agoniste de PPAR-δ,

m) un agoniste de PPAR-γ,

n) un inhibiteur de la résistance inhérente à plusieurs médicaments,

o) un agent antiémétique,

p) un agent utile dans le traitement de l'anémie,

q) des agents utiles dans le traitement de la neutropénie,

r) un médicament immunostimulant,

s) un inhibiteur du protéasome,

t) un inhibiteur de HDAC,

u) un inhibiteur de l'activité similaire à la chymotrypsine dans le protéasome, ou

v) des inhibiteurs de la ligase E3,

ou en combinaison ou successivement avec la radiothérapie.
 
21. Composition pharmaceutique, selon la revendication 10 ou 11, pour utilisation pour traiter un trouble proliférant ou le cancer chez un sujet en combinaison ou successivement avec un agoniste du récepteur de la mort.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description