(19)
(11)EP 1 883 969 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
24.11.2010 Bulletin 2010/47

(21)Application number: 06770975.8

(22)Date of filing:  24.05.2006
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H01L 27/146  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2006/019954
(87)International publication number:
WO 2006/127725 (30.11.2006 Gazette  2006/48)

(54)

ISOLATION PROCESS AND STRUCTURE FOR CMOS IMAGERS

VERFAHREN UND STRUKTUR ZUR ISOLIERUNG VON CMOS-BILDSENSOREN

STRUCTURE ET PROCEDE D'ISOLATION POUR DISPOSITIFS D'IMAGERIE CMOS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 24.05.2005 US 135517

(43)Date of publication of application:
06.02.2008 Bulletin 2008/06

(73)Proprietor: Aptina Imaging Corporation
Grand Cayman, Y1-1205 (KY)

(72)Inventor:
  • BRADY, Frederick, T.
    Meridian, ID 83642 (US)

(74)Representative: Tunstall, Christopher Stephen et al
Carpmaels & Ransford One Southampton Row
London WC1B 5HA
London WC1B 5HA (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A-00/21280
US-A1- 2004 235 215
US-A1- 2006 065 896
US-A1- 2002 121 655
US-A1- 2005 035 382
US-B1- 6 218 691
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to the field of semiconductor devices and, in particular, to high quantum efficiency CMOS image sensors.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] CMOS imagers are known in the art. A top-down view of a semiconductor wafer fragment of an exemplary CMOS sensor pixel four-transistor (4T) cell 10 is illustrated in Figure 1. As it will be described below, the CMOS sensor pixel cell 10 includes a photo-generated charge accumulating area 21 in an underlying portion of the substrate. This area 21 is formed as a pinned diode 11 (Figure 2). The pinned photodiode is termed "pinned" because the potential in the photodiode is pinned to a constant value when the photodiode is fully depleted. It should be understood, however, that the CMOS sensor pixel cell 10 may include a photogate or other image to charge converting device, in lieu of a pinned photodiode, as the initial accumulating area 21 for photo-generated charge.

    [0003] The CMOS image sensor 10 of Figure 1 has a transfer gate 30 for transferring photoelectric charges generated in tile charge accumulating region 21 to a floating diffusion region (sensing node) 25. The floating diffusion region 25 is further connected to a gate 50 of a source follower transistor. The source follower transistor provides an output signal to a row select access transistor having gate 60 for selectively gating the output signal to terminal 32. A reset transistor having gate 40 resets the floating diffusion region 25 from a supply voltage applied at a source/drain region between gates 40 and 50 to a specified charge level before each charge transfer from the charge accumulating region 21.

    [0004] A cross-sectional view of the exemplary CMOS image sensor 10 of Figure 1 taken along line 2-2' is illustrated in Figure 2. The charge accumulating region 21 is formed as a pinned photodiode 11 which has a photosensitive or p-n-p junction region formed by a p-type layer 24, an n-type region 26 and the p-type substrate 20. The pinned photodiode 11 includes two p-type regions 20, 24 so that the n-type photodiode region 26 is fully depleted at a pinning voltage. Impurity doped source/drain regions 22 (Figure 1), preferably having n-type conductivity, are provided on either side of the transistor gates 40, 50, 60. The floating diffusion region 25 adjacent the transfer gate 30 is also preferably n-type.

    [0005] Generally, in CMOS image sensors such as the CMOS image sensor cell 10 of Figures 1-2, incident light causes electrons to collect in region 26. A maximum output signal, which is produced by the source follower transistor having gate 50, is proportional to the number of electrons to be extracted from the region 26. The maximum output signal increases with increased electron capacitance or acceptability of the region 26 to acquire electrons. The electron capacity of pinned photodiodes typically depends on the doping level of the image sensor and the dopants implanted into the active layer.

    [0006] Figure 2 also illustrates trench isolation regions 15 formed in a substrate layer 20 in which the charge accumulating region 21 is formed. The substrate layer 20 may be an epitaxial layer provided over a silicon base layer. The trench isolation regions 15 are typically formed using a conventional STI process or by using a Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS) process. Trench isolation regions 15 provide a physical barrier between adjacent pixels and help isolate pixels optically and electrically from one another. For example, as shown in Figure 2, trench isolation region 15 provides surface electrical isolation of the pinned photodiode 11 of pixel region A from the photosensitive elements of adjacent pixel region B.

    [0007] Another problem associated with the formation of the above-described trench isolation regions 15 is that, when ions are implanted in the substrate close to bottom 17 and edges or sidewalls 16 (Figure 2) of the trench, current leakage can occur at the junction between the active device regions and the trench. In addition, the dominant crystallographic planes along the bottom 17 and sidewalls 16 of the trench isolation regions 15 have a higher silicon density than the adjacent silicon substrate and, therefore, create a high density of trap sites along the trench bottom 17 and sidewalls 16. These trap sites are normally uncharged but become charged when electrons and holes become trapped in the trap sites. As a result of these trap sites formed along the bottom 17 and sidewalls 16 of the trench isolation regions 15, current generation near and along the trench bottom 17 and sidewalls 16 can be very high and can reduce the photogenerated charge otherwise available from light captured by the photodevice. Current generated from trap sites inside or near the photodiode depletion region also causes undesired dark current.

    [0008] Minimizing dark current in the photodiode is important in CMOS image sensor fabrication. Dark current is generally attributed to leakage in the charge collection region 21 of the pinned photodiode 11, which is strongly dependent on the doping implantation conditions of the CMOS image sensor. In addition and as explained above, defects and trap sites inside or near the photodiode depletion region strongly influence the magnitude of dark current generated. In sum, dark current is a result of current generated from trap sites inside or near the photodiode depletion region , surface leakage at silicon/surface interface; band-to-band tunneling induced carrier generation as a result of high fields in the depletion region; junction leakage coming from the lateral sidewall of the photodiode; and leakage from isolation corners, for example, stress induced and trap assisted tunneling.

    [0009] CMOS imagers also typically suffer from poor signal to noise ratios and poor dynamic range as a result of the inability to fully collect and store the electric charge collected in the region 26. Since the size of the pixel electrical signal is very small due to the collection of photons in the photo array, the signal to noise ratio and dynamic range of the pixel should be as high as possible.

    [0010] There is needed, therefore, an improved CMOS imager that exhibits reduced pixel spacing between adjacent pixel sensor cells, reduced cross-talk and blooming, as well as reduced dark current and increased photodiode capacitance. There is also needed an isolation region for a CMOS imager and that (i) has minimum width to increase the pixel fill factor (pixel density) while providing electrical and physical separation between photosensitive elements of adjacent pixels of the CMOS imager; (ii) prevents current generation or current leakage; and (iii) acts as a reflective barrier to electrons generated by light absorption in a photodiode back to the charge collection region of the photodiode of a pixel sensor cell.

    [0011] A method of fabricating active pixel photosensors exhibiting these improvements is also needed, as well as an isolation technique that eliminates dark current and reduces cross-talk between adjacent pixel sensor cells of a CMOS imager.

    [0012] US2005/0035382 describes a solid state imaging device which comprises a plurality of pixels. The structure described comprises p-type isolation layers, p well layers and a heavily doped p-type buried layer which surround the n-type epitaxial region which acts as a cathode and provide electrical isolation between the photodiodes of adjacent pixels.

    [0013] US6218691 describes an image sensor comprising a plurality of pixels which are isolated from each other by an N-type buried layer.

    [0014] WO00/21280 describes an active pixel/sensor wherein isolation rings are formed around the photodetector by implanting dopants of a second conductivity type.

    BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0015] In one aspect, the invention provides a pixel struture according to claim 1 with a barrier implanted region of a first conductivity type formed in lieu of an isolation region of a pixel sensor cell that provides physical and electrical isolation of photosensors of adjacent pixel sensor cells of a CMOS imager. The barrier implanted region comprises a first region having a first width and a second region located below the first region and having a second width greater than the first width. The first region is laterally spaced from doped regions of a second conductivity type of adjacent photodiodes of pixel sensor cells of a CMOS imager. The first region has a width of less than about 0.4 micrometer, preferably of less than about 0.2 micrometers which provides minimum spacing between elements of adjacent pixel cells, such as between photosensors of adjacent pixel cells, and improves the pixel density of the CMOS imager.

    [0016] The second region of the barrier implanted region is located below and in contact with the first region and has a width greater than the first width, of about 0.6 to about 1.2 micrometer, more preferably of about 0.8 micrometer. The first and second regions of the barrier implanted region are formed by conducting a plurality of implants of the first conductivity type at different energies and doping levels below the substrate surface.

    [0017] In another aspect, the invention provides a method of forming pixel semor cells according to claim 27, the method comprises forming a barrier implanted region below a substrate surface of a CMOS imager and adjacent photosensors of pixel sensor cells. The barrier implanted region is formed by (i) conducting a first implant to form a first implanted region having a first width of less than about 0.4 micrometers preferably of less than about 0.2 micrometers below the substrate surface; and (ii) conducting a second implant to form a second implanted region be w the first implanted region and having a second width greater than the first width, the second width being preferably about 0.6 to about 1.2 micrometers more preferably of about 0.8 micrometers.

    [0018] These and other features and advantages of the invention will be more apparent from the following detailed description that is provided in connection with the accompanying drawings and illustrated exemplary embodiments of the invention.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0019] Figure 1 is a top plan view of an exemplary conventional CMOS image sensor pixel.

    [0020] Figure 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the CMOS image sensor of Figure 1 taken along line 2-2'.

    [0021] Figure 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a CMOS image sensor pixel illustrating the fabrication of a barrier implanted region in accordance with the present invention and at an initial stage of processing.

    [0022] Figure 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the CMOS image sensor fragment of Figure 3 at a stage of processing subsequent to that shown in Figure 3 and in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

    [0023] Figure 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the CMOS image sensor pixel of Figure 3 at a stage of processing subsequent to that shown in Figure 4.

    [0024] Figure 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the CMOS image sensor pixel of Figure 3 at a stage of processing subsequent to that shown in Figure 5.

    [0025] Figure 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the CMOS image sensor pixel of Figure 3 at a stage of processing subsequent to that shown in Figure 6.

    [0026] Figure 8 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the CMOS image sensor pixel of Figure 3 at a stage of processing subsequent to that shown in Figure 7.

    [0027] Figure 9 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the CMOS image sensor pixel of Figure 3 at a stage of processing subsequent to that shown in Figure 8.

    [0028] Figure 10 illustrates a schematic diagram of a computer processor system incorporating a CMOS image sensor fabricated according to the present invention.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0029] In the following detailed description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings which form a part hereof, and in which is shown by way of illustration specific embodiments in which the invention may be practiced. These embodiments are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the

    [0030] The terms "wafer" and "substrate" are to be understood as a semiconductor-based material including silicon, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) technology, doped and undoped semiconductors, epitaxial layers of silicon supported by a base semiconductor foundation, and other semiconductor structures. Furthermore, when reference is made to a "wafer" or "substrate" in the following description, previous process steps may have been utilized to form regions or junctions in or over the base semiconductor structure or foundation. In addition, the semiconductor need not be silicon-based, but could be based on silicon-germanium, silicon-on-insulator, silicon-on-sapphire, germanium, or gallium arsenide, or other semiconductor materials.

    [0031] The term "pixel" refers to a picture element unit cell containing a photosensor and transistors for converting electromagnetic radiation to an electrical signal. For purposes of illustration, portions of representative pixels are illustrated in the figures and description herein and, typically, fabrication of all imager pixels in an imager will proceed simultaneously in a similar fashion.

    [0032] The term "minimally spaced" refers to the minimal distance between at least two adjacent pixels spaced from one another in accordance with the embodiments of the present invention. For purposes of the present invention, the term "minimally spaced" refers to a distance of less than about 0.4 micrometers preferably of less than about 0.2 micrometers.

    [0033] Referring now to the drawings, where like elements are designated by like reference numerals, Figures 3-9 illustrate exemplary embodiments of methods of forming barrier implanted region 200 located below the surface of substrate 110 and adjacent charge collection regions 126, 126a of photosensors formed as photodiodes 188, 188a, of adjacent four-transistor (4T) pixel sensor cells 100, 100a (Figure 9). As explained in detail below, the barrier implanted region 200 is formed by implanting dopants of a first conductivity type at different energies and/or dosages below the surface of p-type epitaxial (epi) layer 110a to form a first implanted region 199 having a first width, and a second implanted region 299 having a second width greater than the first width. The second implanted region 299 is located below the first implanted region and connects the first implanted region to the upper surface of P+ substrate 110b, providing therefore reduced cross-talk between adjacent pixels and reduced blooming.

    [0034] It should be noted that, although the invention will be described below in connection with use in a four-transistor (4T) pixel cell, the invention also has applicability to any CMOS imager including, for example, a three-transistor (3T) cell which differs from the 4T cell in the omission of a charge transfer transistor, and to pixel cells having more than four transistors.

    [0035] Figures 3-9 illustrate a substrate 110 along a cross-sectional view which is the same view as in Figure 2. For exemplary purposes, Figures 3-9 illustrate the substrate 110 as comprising an epitaxial layer supported by a base semiconductor. If a p+ epitaxial substrate layer is desired, a p-type epitaxial (epi) layer 110a (Figure 3) is formed over a highly doped P+ substrate 110b, as illustrated in Figure 3. The p-type epitaxial layer 110a may be formed to a thickness of about 2 micrometers to about 12 micrometers more preferably of about 2 micrometers to about 7 micrometers, and may have a dopant concentration in the range of about 1 x1014 to about 5 x1016 atoms per cm3, more preferably of about 5 x1014 to about 5 x1015 atoms per cm3. The P+ substrate 110b is a highly doped substrate with an electrical resistivity of about 0.001 Ω-cm to about 1 Ω-cm, more preferably of about 0.01 Ω-cm to about 0.1 Ω-cm.

    [0036] Figure 3 also illustrates multi-layered transfer gate stacks 130, 130a formed over the p-type epitaxial layer 110a, each corresponding to first and second adjacent pixel regions A and B, respectively. The elements of the transfer gate stack 130 are similar to those of the transfer gate stack 130a and thus, for simplicity, a description of only the elements of the gate stack 130 is provided below.

    [0037] The transfer gate stack 130 comprises a first gate oxide layer 131 of grown or deposited silicon oxide on the p-type epitaxial layer 110a, a conductive layer 132 of doped polysilicon or other suitable conductor material, and a second insulating layer 133, which may be formed of, for example, silicon oxide (silicon dioxide), nitride (silicon nitride), oxynitride (silicon oxynitride), ON (oxide-nitride), NO (nitride-oxide), or ONO (oxide-nitride-oxide). The first and second insulating layers 131, 133 and the conductive layer 132 may be formed by conventional deposition and etching methods, for example, blanket chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), followed by a patterned etch, among many others.

    [0038] If desired, a silicide layer (not shown) may be also formed in the multi-layered gate stack 130, between the conductive layer 132 and the second insulating layer 133. Advantageously, the gate structures of all other transistors in the imager circuit design may have this additionally formed silicide layer. This silicide layer may be titanium silicide, tungsten silicide, cobalt silicide, molybdenum silicide, or tantalum silicide. The silicide layer could also be a barrier layer/refractory metal such as TiN/W or WNx/W or it could be entirely formed of WNx.

    [0039] Reference is now made to Figure 4. Subsequent to the formation of the gate stacks 130, 130a, a first photoresist layer 167 is formed over the structure of Figure 3 to a thickness of about 100nm, to about 5000nm. The first photoresist layer 167 is patterned to obtain a first opening 168 over an area 101 (Figure 4) of the p-type epitaxial layer 110a between the adjacent pixels where a first implanted region will be formed in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. As illustrated in Figure 4, the first photoresist layer 167 is patterned so that, on one side of the first opening 168, the photoresist layer 167 extends by a distance "W1/2" within each of the first and second pixel regions A and B. The distance W1 is of less than about 0.4 micrometers more preferably less than about 0.2 micrometers which represents the width W1 of the first implanted region 199 (Figure 6).

    [0040] Next, the structure of Figure 4 is subjected to a first dopant implantation 169 (Figure 5) with a dopant of the first conductivity type, which for exemplary purposes is p-type. This way, p-type ions are implanted through opening 168 and into area 101 of the p-type epitaxial layer 110a to form a first p-type well region 199 (or a first implanted region 199), as illustrated in Figure 6. The first p-type well region 199 extends below surface 111a of the p-type epitaxial layer 110a, and is located adjacent active areas A and B of the substrate 110 where two adjacent photodiodes are to be formed, as will be described below. The depth into the substrate 110, shown as thickness T1 (Figure 6), of the first p-type well region 199 is of about 0.5 to about 2 micrometers, more preferably of about 1 micrometers.

    [0041] The dopant implantation 169 is conducted to implant p-type ions, such as boron or indium, into area 101 of the p-type epitaxial layer 110a to form the first p-type well region 199 (Figure 6). The ion implantation 169 may be conducted at an energy of 50 keV to about 1 MeV, more preferably of about 100 keV to about 500 keV. The implant dose in the first p-type well region 199 is within the range of about 5 x 1011 to about 5 x 1013 atoms per cm2, and is preferably within the range of about 1 x 1012 to about 5 x 1012 atoms per cm2. If desired, multiple implants may be used to tailor the profile of the first p-type well region 199. In addition, the implant or the multiple implants forming the first p-type well region 199 may be angled or used in connection with at least one angled implant.

    [0042] Subsequent to the formation of the first p-type well region 199 shown in Figure 6, the first patterned photoresist 167 is removed by conventional techniques, such as oxygen plasma for example. The structure at this point is depicted in Figure 6.

    [0043] A second masked dopant implantation is conducted with a dopant of the first conductivity type, which for exemplary purposes is p-type, to implant ions in the area of the substrate directly beneath, and in contact with, the first p-type well region 199 and to form a second p-type well region 299, as illustrated in Figure 8. For this, a second photoresist layer 267 (Figure 7) having a thickness of about 1,300nm to about 10,000nm is formed over the structure of Figure 6 and patterned to obtain a second opening 268, as shown in Figure 7. As illustrated in Figure 7, the second photoresist layer 267 is patterned so that, on one side of the second opening 268, the photoresist layer 267 extends by a distance "W2/2" within each of the first and second pixel regions A and B. Preferably, the distance W2 is of about 0.6 to about 1.2 micrometers, more preferably of about 0.8 micrometers and represents the upper width W2 of the second implanted region 299 (Figure 8). As shown, the width W2 of the opening 268 is wider than the width W1 of the opening 168.

    [0044] The second dopant implantation 269 is conducted to implant p-type ions, such as boron or indium, into area 102 of the p-type epitaxial layer 110a to form the second p-type well region 299 (Figure 8). The second dopant implantation 269 may be conducted by placing the substrate 110 in an ion implanter and implanting appropriate p-type dopant ions through the opening 268. The ion implantation 269 may be conducted at an energy of 50 keV to about 3 MeV, more preferably of about 200 keV to about 1.5 MeV. The implant dose in the second p-type well region 299 may be the same as or different from the implant dose in the first p-type well region 199. For exemplary purposes only, the implant dose in the second p-type well region 299 is within the range of about 5 x 1011 to about 5 x 1013 atoms per cm2, and is preferably within the range of about 1 x 1012 to about 5 x 1012 atoms per cm2. If desired, multiple implants may be used to tailor the profile of the second p-type well region 299. In addition, the implant or the multiple implants forming the second p-type well region 299 may be angled or used in connection with at least one angled implant.

    [0045] As illustrated in Figure 8 and according to an exemplary embodiment, the second p-type well region 299 has a trapezoidal cross-section with upper width W2 of about 0.6 to about 1.2 micrometers more preferably of about 0.8 micrometers, and lower width W3 of about 0.8 to about 1.4 micrometers, more preferably of about 1.0 micrometers However, the invention also contemplates the second p-type well region 299 having other various cross-sectional shapes, for example a rectangular shape, among others. The depth into substrate 110 of the second p-type well region 299, indicated by thickness T2 (Figure 8), is of about 1.5 to about 12 micrometers, more preferably of about 5 micrometers.

    [0046] Subsequent to the second dopant implantation 269 (Figure 7), the second photoresist layer 267 is removed by conventional techniques, such as oxygen plasma for example. The structure at this point is depicted in Figure 8.

    [0047] Referring now to Figure 9, elements ofphotodiodes 188, 188a of four-transistor (4T) pixel sensor cells 100, 100a are next formed adjacent the first and second p-type implant regions 199, 299 of the barrier implanted isolation region 200 of the present invention. Although the invention will be described below with reference to a photodiode as a photosensitive element, the invention is not limited to this exemplary embodiment and contemplates the formation of the implanted region 200 adjacent various photosensitive elements such as photoconductor and photogates, among others.

    [0048] According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, each of the photodiodes 188, 188a is a p-n-p photodiode formed by regions 124, 124a, p-type epitaxial layer 110a, and regions 126, 126a, respectively. The n-type region 126, 126a (Figure 9) is formed by implanting dopants of a second conductivity type, which for exemplary purposes is n-type, in the area of the substrate directly beneath the active areas A and B of the adjacent pixel cells, and adjacent the barrier implanted region 200. As shown in Figure 9, the n-type region 126, 126a is spaced from the first p-type well region 199 by a distance "d2" of about 10 to about 20 nm in the horizontal direction. Although Figure 9 illustrates the n-type region 126, 126a slightly spaced from the first p-type well region 199, the invention is not limited to this embodiment and also contemplates the formation of n-type region 126, 126a adjacent and touching the first p-type well region 199 in at least one side.

    [0049] Further, although Figure 9 illustrates the n-type region 126, 126a slightly spaced from the second p-type well region 299 by a distance "d1" of about 100 to about 500 nm, more preferably of about 300 nm, in the vertical direction, the invention also contemplates the embodiment according to which the second p-type well region 299 contacts the n-type region 126, 126a in at least one direction (for example, in the vertical direction) or in both vertical and horizontal directions.

    [0050] The implanted n-doped region 126, 126a forms a photosensitive charge storage region for collecting photogenerated electrons. Ion implantation may be conducted by placing the substrate 110 in an ion implanter, and implanting appropriate n-type dopant ions into the substrate 110 at an energy of 20 keV to 500 keV to form n-doped region 126, 126a. N-type dopants such as arsenic, antimony, or phosphorous may be employed. The dopant concentration in the n-doped region 126, 126a (Figure 9) is within the range of about 1 x 1015 to about 1 x 1018 atoms per cm3, and is preferably within the range of about 5 x 1016 to about 5 x 1017 atoms per cm3. If desired, multiple implants may be used to tailor the profile of the n-doped region 126, 126a. The implants forming region 126, 126a may also be angled implants, formed by angling the direction of implants toward the gate stack 130, 130a.

    [0051] Another dopant implantation with a dopant of the first conductivity type, which for exemplary purposes is p-type, is conducted so that p-type ions are implanted into the area of the substrate over the implanted n-type region 126, 126a and between the transfer gate 130, 130a and the barrier implanted region 200, to form a p-type pinned surface layer 124, 124a of the now completed photodiode 188, 188a (Figure 9).

    [0052] The p-type pinned surface layer 124, 124a is also formed by conducting a dopant implantation with a dopant of the first conductivity type, which for exemplary purposes is p-type, so that p-type ions are implanted into the area of the substrate over the implanted n-type region 126, 126a and between the transfer gate 130, 130a and the barrier implanted region 200.

    [0053] Figure 9 also illustrates n-type floating diffusion region 129, 129a located adjacent the multi-layered gate stack 130, 130a and opposite the n-type doped region 126, 126a of the p-n-p photodiode 188, 188a. This way, the multi-layered transfer gate stack 130, 130a transfers charge accumulated in the charge collection region 126, 126a of the photodiode 188, 188a to the floating diffusion region 129, 129.

    [0054] The barrier implanted isolation region 200 of Figure 9 adjacent the n-type region 126, 126a acts as a reflective barrier to electrons generated by light in the n-doped regions 126, 126a of the p-n-p photodiodes 188, 188a. When light radiation in the form of photons strikes the photosite regions 126, 126a, photo-energy is converted to electrons which are stored in the n-doped region 126, 126a. The absorption of light creates electron-hole pairs. For the case of an n-doped photosite in a p-well or a p-type epitaxial layer, it is the electrons that are stored. For the case of a p-doped photosite in an n-well, it is the holes that are stored. Thus, in the exemplary embodiment described above having n-channel devices formed in the p-type epitaxial layer 110a, the carriers stored in the n-doped photosite region 126, 126a are electrons. The barrier implanted isolation region 200 acts to reduce carrier loss to the substrate 110 by forming a concentration gradient that modifies the band diagram and serves to reflect electrons back towards the n-doped photosite region 126, 126a, thereby reducing cross-talk between adjacent pixel sensor cells.

    [0055] In addition to providing a reflective barrier to electrons generated by light in the charge collection region, the barrier implanted isolation region 200 provides photosensor-to-photosensor isolation, for example, isolation of the p-n-p photodiode 188 from an adjacent photodiode (such as adjacent p-n-p photodiode 188a) located on the other side of the barrier implanted region 200.

    [0056] In addition to providing a barrier region and photosensor-to- photosensor isolation, the barrier implanted isolation region 200 also eliminates the formation of shallow trench isolation regions and, therefore, the formation of trap sites along the bottom of such shallow trench isolation regions. As a result of eliminating the formation of these trap sites along the bottom of the trench isolation regions, dark current generation and leakage is decreased. The barrier implanted region 200 also "hooks-up" the p-type epitaxial layer 110a to the P+ substrate 110b to minimize cross-talk, and allows for improved pixel scaling.

    [0057] The remaining devices of the pixel sensor cell 100, 100a, including the reset transistor, the source follower transistor and row select transistor shown in Figure 1 as associated with respective gates 40, 50 and 60 and source/drain regions on either sides of the gates, are also formed by well-known methods. Conventional processing steps may be also employed to form contacts and wiring to connect gate lines and other connections in the pixel cell 100, 100a. For example, the entire surface may be covered with a passivation layer of, e.g., silicon dioxide, BSG, PSG, or BPSG, which is CMP planarized and etched to provide contact holes, which are then metallized to provide contacts to the reset gate, transfer gate and other pixel gate structures, as needed. Conventional multiple layers of conductors and insulators to other circuit structures may also be used to interconnect the structures of the pixel sensor cell.

    [0058] A typical processor based system 600, which has a connected CMOS imager 642 having pixels constructed according to an example not forming part of the claimed invention is illustrated in Figure 10. A processor based system is exemplary of a system having digital circuits which could include CMOS image sensors. Without being limiting, such a system could include a computer system, camera system, scanner, machine vision, vehicle navigation, video phone, surveillance system, auto focus system, star tracker system, motion detection system, image stabilization system and data compression system for high-definition television, all of which can utilize the present invention.

    [0059] A processor based system, such as a computer system, for example generally comprises a central processing unit (CPU) 644, for example, a microprocessor, that communicates with an input/output (I/O) device 646 over a bus 652. The CMOS image sensor 642 also communicates with the system over bus 652. The computer system 600 also includes random access memory (RAM) 648, and, in the case of a computer system may include peripheral devices such as a floppy disk drive 654, and a compact disk (CD) ROM drive 656 or a flash memory card 657 which also communicate with CPU 644 over the bus 652. It may also be desirable to integrate the processor 654, CMOS image sensor 642 and memory 648 on a single IC chip.

    [0060] Although the above embodiments have been described with reference to the formation of photosensors as p-n-p photodiodes of adjacent pixel cells, such as the p-n-p photodiode 188, 188a (Figure 9) having n-type charge collection regions 126, 126a formed adjacent p-type barrier implanted region 200, it must be understood that the invention is not limited to this embodiment. Accordingly, the invention has equal applicability to other photosensors including n-p-n photodiodes comprising p-type charge collection regions formed adjacent an n-type barrier implanted region, photogates and other types of photosensors. Of course, the dopant and conductivity type of all structures will change accordingly, with the transfer gate corresponding to a PMOS transistor. Further, although the embodiments of the present invention have been described above with reference to a p-n-p photodiode, the invention also has applicability to n-p or p-n photodiodes.

    [0061] In addition and as noted above, although the invention has been described with reference to the formation of only one barrier implanted isolation region 200 isolating charge collection regions of photosensitive elements of adjacent pixel sensor cells, the invention also contemplates the formation of a multitude of such barrier implanted regions located at various locations on the substrate to isolate pixels. Further, although the invention has been described above with reference to a transfer gate of a transfer transistor connection for use in a four-transistor (4T) pixel cell, the invention also has applicability to a five-transistor (5T) pixel cell, a six-transistor (6T) pixel cell, or a three-transistor (3T) cell, among others.

    [0062] The above description and drawings are only to be considered illustrative of exemplary embodiments, which achieve the features and advantages of the invention.


    Claims

    1. A pixel structure comprising:

    a substrate (110);

    a barrier implanted isolation region (200) of a first conductivity type located below
    surface of said substrate, said barrier implanted isolation region comprising a first implanted isolation region (199) having a first width (W1) an a second implanted isolation region (299) located below and in contact with the first implanted isolation region and having a second width (W2) greater than the first width; and

    at least one photosensor (188) having a charge collection region (126) of a second conductivity type formed adjacent said barrier implanted isolation region, wherein the barrier implanted isolation region is located below and in contact with a surface of said substrate
    characterized in that said first width is less than 0.4 micrometers.


     
    2. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said photosensor is a photodiode.
     
    3. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said photosensor is a photoconductor.
     
    4. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said photosensor is a photogate.
     
    5. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said pixel comprises two photosensors, each disposed on opposite sides of sai barrier implanted isolation region and adjacent said barrier implanted isolation region.
     
    6. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said substrate further comprises a doped epitaxial layer (110a) over a substrate layer, and wherein said barrier implanted isolation region is provided within said doped epitaxial layer.
     
    7. The pixel structure of claim 1. wherein said first width is less than 0.2 micrometers.
     
    8. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said second width is 0.6 to 1.2 micrometers.
     
    9. The pixel structure of claim 8, wherein said second width is 0.8 micrometers.
     
    10. The pixel structure of claim 1 wherein said first implanted isolation region has a thickness of 0.5 to 2.0 micrometers.
     
    11. The pixel structure of claim 10, wherein said first implanted isolation region has a thickness of 1 micrometers.
     
    12. The pixel structure of claim 1. wherein said second implanted isolation region has a thickness of 1.5 to about 12:0 micrometers.
     
    13. The pixel structure of claim, 12, wherein said second implanted isolation region has a thickness of 5 micrometers.
     
    14. The pixel structure of claim 1. wherein said second implanted isolation region has a trapezoidal cross-section.
     
    15. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said first implanted isolation region is doped with a p-type dopant at an implant dose of from 5 x 1011 to 5 x 1013 atoms per cm2, wherein ion implantation is conducted at an energy of 50keV to 1MeV.
     
    16. The pixel structure of claim 15, wherein said first implanted isolation region is doped with a p-type dopant at an implant dose of 1 x 1012 to 5 x 1012 atoms per cm2.
     
    17. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said implanted isolation region is located within a p-type epitaxial layer (110a) formed over a P+ substrate.
     
    18. The pixel structure of claim therein said p-type epitaxial layer is formed to a thickness of 2 to 12 micrometers.
     
    19. The pixel structure of claim 18, wherein said p-type epitaxial layer is formed to a thickness of 2 to 7 micrometers.
     
    20. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said first conductivity type is p-type and said second conductivity type is n-type.
     
    21. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said first conductivity type is n-type and said second conductivity type is p-type.
     
    22. The pixel structure of claim 1, wherein said photosensor is a p-n-p photodiode.
     
    23. A CMOS image sensor comprising a pixel structure as defined in claim 1, further comprising a p-type epitaxial layer (110a) provided over the substrate which is a P+ substrate (110b); and
    a p-type barrier implanted isolation region is formed within said p-type epitaxial layer; and wherein,
    a first pixel adjacent said p-type barrier implanted region and comprising a first photosensor, and a second pixel adjacent said p-type barrier implanted region and comprising a second photosensor, wherein said first photosensor is spaced from said second photosensor by less than 0.2 micrometers.
     
    24. The CMOS image sensor of claim 23, wherein said first p-type well region is in contact with an upper surface of said p-type epitaxial layer, and said second p-type well region is in contact with an upper surface of said P+ substrate.
     
    25. The CMOS image sensor of claim 24, wherein said first p-type well region has a thickness of 0.5 to 2.0 micrometers.
     
    26. The CMOS image sensor of claim 25, wherein said second p-type well region has a thickness of 1.5 to 12.0 micrometers.
     
    27. A method of forming pixel sensor cells, said method comprising:

    providing a first doped layer (110a) of a first conductivity type in a substrate (40);

    forming at least one barrier implanted isolation region (200) in said doped layer to isolate said pixel sensor cells, said barrier implanted isolation region comprising a first well region (189) of a first width (W1) and a second well region (299) of a second width (W2) greater than the first width, the second well region being located below and in contact with the first well region;

    forming at least two charge collection regions (126, 126a) of a second conductivity type in said first doped layer, said charge collection regions being adjacent said barrier implanted isolation region; and

    forming at least two second doped layers (124, 124a) of said first conductivity type in said substrate above each of said charge collection regions,
    wherein said barrier implanted isolation region is formed extending below and in contact with a surface of said substrate,
    charaterized in that said first well region is formed to a width of less than 0.4 micrometers.


     
    28. The method of claim 27, wherein said first doped layer is a p-type epitaxial layer.
     
    29. The method of claim 27, wherein said first well region is formed to a width of less than 0.2 micrometers.
     
    30. The method of claim 27, wherein said second well region is formed to a width of 0.6 to 1.2 micrometers.
     
    31. The method of claim 30, wherein said second well region is formed to a width of 0.8 micrometers.
     
    32. The method of claim 27, wherein said first well region is formed to a thickness of 0.5 to 2 micrometers.
     
    33. The method of claim 32, wherein said first well region is formed to a thickness of 1 micrometers.
     
    34. The method of claim 27, wherein said second well region is formed to a thickness of 1.5 to 12.0 micrometers.
     
    35. claim 34, wherein said second well region is formed to a thickness of 5 micrometers.
     
    36. The method of claim 27, wherein said first well region is doped with a p-type dopant at an implant dose of from 5 x 1011 to 5 x 1013 atoms per cm2, wherein ion implantation is conducted at an energy of 50keV to 1MeV.
     
    37. The method of claim 36, wherein said first well region is doped with a p-type dopant an implant dose of 1 x 1012 to 5 x 1012 atoms per cm2.
     
    38. A method according to claim 27, wherein:

    the first doped layer is a p-type epitaxial layer formed by implanting p-type ions within said p-type epitaxial layer, said barrier implanted isolation region being formed of a first p-type well region having a first width and a second p-type well region having a second width greater than the first width; and

    the at least two charge collection regions are formed by providing at least two n-type doped regions of photosensitive elements of at least two pixel cells below said surface of said p-type epitaxial layer and adjacent said barrier implanted isolation region.


     
    39. The method of claim 38, wherein said p-type epitaxial layer is formed over a P+ substrate layer.
     
    40. The method of claim 39, wherein said first p-type well region is formed below said surface of said p-type epitaxial layer, and wherein said second p-type well region is formed below and in contact with said first p-type well region and in contact with an upper surface of said P+ substrate layer.
     
    41. The method of claim 38, wherein said second p-type well region is formed to a width of 0.6 to 1.2 micrometers.
     
    42. The method of claim 38, wherein said first p-type well region is formed to a thickness of 0.5 to 2 micrometers.
     
    43. The method of claim 38, wherein said second p-type well region is formed to a thickness of 1.5 to 12.0 micrometers.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Eine Pixelstruktur, die Folgendes umfasst:

    ein Substrat (110);

    eine implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere (200) mit einem ersten Leitfähigkeitstyp, welche sich unter der Oberfläche des Substrats befindet, wobei die implantierte Isolationswnenbarriere eine erste implantierte Isolationszone (199) mit einer ersten Breite (W1) und eine zweite implantierte Isolationszone (299) unterhalb von und in Kontakt zu der ersten implantierten Isolationszone mit einer zweiten Breite (W2), welche größer als die erste Breite ist, umfasst; und

    zumindest ein Photosensor (188) mit einer Ladungssammlungszone (126) mit einem zweiten Leitfähigkeitstyp, welcher an die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere angrenzend ausgebildet ist, wobei die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere unterhalb von und im Kontakt zu einer Oberfläche des Substrats ist,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die erste Breite kleiner als 0,4 µn ist.


     
    2. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der der Photosensor eine Photodiode ist.
     
    3. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der der Photosensor ein Photoleiter ist.
     
    4. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der der Photosensor ein Photogatter ist.
     
    5. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der das Pixel zwei Photosensoren umfasst, die auf gegenüberliegenden Seiten der implantierten Isolationszonenbaniere und angrenzend an diese implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere liegen.
     
    6. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der das Substrat weiterhin eine dotierte epitaktische Schicht (110a) über einer Substratschicht umfasst und bei der die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere innerhalb der dotierten epitaktischen Schicht vorgesehen ist.
     
    7. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der die erste Breite kleiner als 0,2 µm ist.
     
    8. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der die zweite Breite im Bereich von 0,6 bis 1,2 µm liegt.
     
    9. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 8, bei der die zweite Breite 0,8 µm ist.
     
    10. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der die erste implantierte Isolationszone eine Dicke von 0,5 bis 2,0 µm aufweist.
     
    11. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 10, bei der die erste implantierte Isolationszone eine Dicke von 1 µm aufweist.
     
    12. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der die zweite implantierte Isolationszone eine Dicke von 1,5 bis ungefähr 12,0 µm aufweist.
     
    13. Pixelshuktur nach Anspruch 12, bei der die zweite implantierte Isolationszone eine Dicke von 5 µm aufweist.
     
    14. Pixelstruktut nach Anspruch 1, bei der die zweite implantierte Isolationszone einen trapezförmigen Querschnitt aufweist.
     
    15. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der die erste implantierte Isolationszone mit einem p-Typ-Dotierstoff bei einer Implantierungsdosis von 5 x 1011 bis 5 x 1013 Atomen pro cm2 dotiert ist, wobei die Ionenimplantierung mit einer Energie von 50 keV bis 1 MeV ausgeführt wurde.
     
    16. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 15, bei der die erste implantierte Isolationszone mit einem p-Typ-DotiexstofFbei einer Implantierungsdosis von 1 x 1012 bis 5 x 1012 Atomen pro cm2 dotiert ist.
     
    17. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der die implantierte Isolationszone in einer epitaktischen Schicht (110a) vom p-Typ gelegen ist, die über einem P+ Substrat ausgebildet ist.
     
    18. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 17, bei der die epitaktische Schicht vom p-Typ mit einer Dicke von 2 bis 12 µm ausgebildet ist.
     
    19. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 18, bei der die epitaktische Schicht vom p-Typ mit einer Dicke von 2 bis 7 µm ausgebildet ist.
     
    20. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der der erste Leitfähigkeitstyp einem p-Typ und der zweite Leitfähigkeitstyp einem n-Typ entspricht.
     
    21. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der der erste Leitfähigkeitstyp einem n-Typ und der zweite Leitfähigkeitstyp einem p-Typ entspricht.
     
    22. Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1, bei der der Photosensor eine p-n-p-Photodiode ist.
     
    23. Ein CMOS-Bildsensor, der eine Pixelstruktur nach Anspruch 1 umfasst, umfasst weiterhin eine epitaktische Schicht (110a) vom p-Typ, die über dem Substrat, welches ein P+ Substrat (110b) ist, vorgesehen ist,
    eine implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere vom p-Typ, die innerhalb der epitaktischen Schicht vom p-Typ ausgebildet ist, wobei
    ein erstes Pixel, welches einen ersten Photosensor umfasst, an die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere vom p-Typ angrenzt und ein zweites Pixel, welches einen zweiten Photosensor umfasst, an die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere vom p-Typ angrenzt, wobei der erste Photosensor vom zweiten Photosensor um wenige als 0,2 µm entfernt ist.
     
    24. CMOS-Bildsensor nach Anspruch 23, bei dem der erste p-Typ-Trogbereich mit einer oberen Oberfläche der epitaktischen Schicht vom p-Typ in Kontakt steht und der zweite p-Typ-Trogbereioh mit einer oberen Oberfläche des P+ Substrats in Kontakt steht.
     
    25. CMOS-Bildsensor nach Anspruch 24, bei dem der erste p-Typ-Trogbereich eine Dicke von 0,5 bis 2,0 µm aufweist.
     
    26. CMOS Bildsensor nach Anspruch 25, bei dem der zweite p-Typ-Trogbereich eine Dicke von 1,5 bis 12,0 µm aufweist.
     
    27. Ein Verfahren zum Ausbilden von Pixelsensorzellen, welches Folgendes umfasst:

    Vorsehen einer ersten dotierten Schicht (110a) eines ersten Leitfältigkeitstyps in einem Substrat (40);

    Ausbilden zumindest einer implantierten Isolationszonenbarriere (200) in der dotierten Schicht, um die Pixelsensorzellen zu isolieren, wobei die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere einen ersten Trogbereich (199) mit einer ersten Breite (W1) und einen zweiten Trogbereich (299) mit einer zweiten Breite (W2), die größer als die erste Bereite ist, umfasst, wobei der zweite Trogbereich unterhalb von und in Kontakt zum ersten Trogbereich angeordnet ist;

    Ausbilden von zumindest zwei Ladungssammlungszonen (126, 126a) in der ersten dotierten Schicht mit einem zweiten Leitfähigkeicstyp, wobei die Ladungssammlungszonen an die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere angrenzen; und

    Ausbilden von mindestens zwei zweiten dotierten Schichten (124, 124a) in dem Substrat oberhalb von jedem der Ladungssammlungszonen mit dem ersten Leitfähigkeitstyp, wobei die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere so ausgebildet ist, dass sie sich unterhalb der Oberfläche des Substrats erstreckt und in Kontakt mit ihr befindet,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erste Trogbereich mit einer Breite von weniger als 0,4 µm ausgebildet wird.


     
    28. Verfahren nach Anspruch 27, bei dem die erste dotierte Schicht eine epitaktische Schicht vom p-Typ ist.
     
    29. Verfahren nach Anspruch 27, bei dem der erste Trogbereich mit einer Breite von weniger als 0,2 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    30. Verfahren nach Anspruch 27, bei dem der zweite Trogbereich mit einer Breite von 0,6 bis 1,2 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    31. Verfahren nach Anspruch 30, bei dem der zweite Trogbereich mit einer Breite von 0,8 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    32. Verfahren nach Anspruch 27, bei dem der erste Trogbereich in einer Dicke von 0,5 bis 2 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    33. Verfahren nach Anspruch 32, bei dem der erste Trogbereich mit einer Dicke von 1 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    34. Verfahren nach Anspruch 27, bei dem der zweite Trogbereich in einer Dicke von 1,5 bis 12,0 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    35. Verfahren nach Anspruch 34, bei dem der zweite Trogbereich mit einer Dicke von 5 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    36. Verfahren nach Anspruch 27, bei dem der erste Trogbereich mit einem p-Typ-Dotierstoff bei einer Implantierungsdosis von 5 x 1011 bis 5 x 1013 Atomen pro cm2 dotiert wird, wobei die Ionenimplantation bei einer Energie von 5 keV bis 1 MeV durchgeführt wird.
     
    37. Verfahren nach Anspruch 36, bei dem der erste Trogbereich mit einem p-Typ-Dotierstoff bei einer Implantienuigsdesis von 1 x 1012 bis 5 x 1012 Atomen pro cm2 dotiert wird.
     
    38. Verfahren nach Anspruch 27, bei dem:

    die erste dotierte Schicht eine epitaktische Schicht vom p-Typ ist, die durch Implantierung von p-Typ-Ionen in der epitaktischen Schicht vom p-Typ ausgebildet wird, die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere durch einen ersten p-Typ-Trogbereich mit einer ersten Breite und einen zweiten p-Typ-Trogbereich mit einer zweiten Breite, welche größer als die erste Breite ist, ausgebildet wird und

    die mindestens zwei Ladungssammlungszonen durch die Bereitstellung von mindestens zwei dotierte Bereiche vom n-Typ von photosensitiven Elementen von mindestens zwei Pixelzellen unter der Oberfläche der epitaktischen Schicht vom p-Typ und angrenzend an die implantierte Isolationszonenbarriere ausgebildet werden.


     
    39. Verfahren nach Anspruch 38, bei dem die epitaktische Schicht vom p-Typ über einer P+ Substratschicht ausgebildet wird.
     
    40. Verfahren nach Anspruch 39, bei dem der erste p-Typ-Trogbereich unterhalb der Oberfläche der epitaktischen Schicht vom p-Typ ausgebildet wird und der zweite p-Typ-Trogbereich unterhalb und in Kontakt mit dem ersten p-Typ-Tmgbereich und in Kontakt mit einer oberen Oberfläche der P-h Substratschicht ausgebildet wird.
     
    41. Verfahren nach Anspruch 38, bei dem der zweite p-Typ-Trogbereich mit einer Breite von 0,6 bis 1,2 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    42. Verfahren nach Anspruch 38, bei dem der erste p-Typ-Trogbexeich mit einer Dicke von 0,5 bis 2 µm ausgebildet wird.
     
    43. Verfahren nach Anspruch 38, bei dem der zweite p-Typ-Trogbereich mit einer Dicke von 1,5 bis 12,0 µm ausgebildet wird.
     


    Revendications

    1. Structure de pixel comprenant :

    un substrat (110) ;

    une région d'isolement implantée formant barrière (200) d'un premier type de conductivité, située en dessous d'une surface dudit substrat, ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière comprenant une première région d'isolement implantée (199) ayant une première largeur (W1) et une deuxième région d'isolement implantée (299) située en dessous de la première région d'isolement implantée et en contact avec celle-ci, et ayant une deuxième largeur (W2) supérieure à la première largeur ; et

    au moins un photodétecteur (188) ayant une région de collecte de charge (126) d'un second type de conductivité, formée en contiguïté de ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière, la région d'isolement implantée formant barrière étant située en dessous d'une surface dudit substrat et en contact avec celle-ci,

    caractérisée en ce que ladite première largeur est inférieure à 0,4 micromètres.


     
    2. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit photodétecteur est une photodiode.
     
    3. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit photodétecteur est un photoconducteur.
     
    4. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit photodétecteur est une photogrille.
     
    5. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit pixel comprend deux photodétecteurs, disposés de chaque côté de ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière et en contiguïté de ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière.
     
    6. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit substrat comprend en outre une couche épitaxiale dopée (110a), sur une couche de substrat, et dans laquelle ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière est prévue à l'intérieur de ladite couche épitaxiale dopée.
     
    7. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite première largeur est inférieure à 0,2 micromètres.
     
    8. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite deuxième largeur est comprise entre 0,6 et 1,2 micromètres.
     
    9. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 8, dans laquelle ladite deuxième largeur est égale à 0,8 micromètres.
     
    10. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite première région d'isolement implantée a une épaisseur de 0,5 à 2,0 micromètres.
     
    11. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 10, dans laquelle ladite première région d'isolement implantée a une épaisseur de 1 micromètre.
     
    12. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite deuxième région d'isolement implantée a une épaisseur de 1,5 à environ 12,0 micromètres.
     
    13. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 12, dans laquelle ladite deuxième région d'isolement implantée a une épaisseur de 5 micromètres.
     
    14. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite deuxième région d'isolement implantée a une section transversale trapézoïdale.
     
    15. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite première région d'isolement implantée est dopée avec un dopant de type p, selon une dose d'implantation de 5 × 1011 à 5 × 1013 atomes par cm2, l'implantation ionique étant conduite à une énergie de 50 keV à 1 MeV.
     
    16. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 15, dans laquelle ladite première région d'isolement implantée est dopée avec un dopant de type p, selon une dose d'implantation de 1 × 1012 à 5 × 1012 atomes par cm2.
     
    17. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite région d'isolement implantée est située à l'intérieur d'une couche épitaxiale de type p (110a) formée sur un substrat P+.
     
    18. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 17, dans laquelle ladite couche épitaxiale de type p est formée avec une épaisseur de 2 à 12 micromètres.
     
    19. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 18, dans laquelle ladite couche épitaxiale de type p est formée avec une épaisseur de 2 à 7 micromètres.
     
    20. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit premier type de conductivité est le type p et ledit deuxième type de conductivité est le type n.
     
    21. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit premier type de conductivité est le type n et ledit deuxième type de conductivité est le type p.
     
    22. Structure de pixel selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit photodétecteur est une photodiode p-n-p.
     
    23. Capteur d'image CMOS comprenant une structure de pixel telle que définie dans la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une couche épitaxiale de type p (110a) prévue sur le substrat, qui est un substrat P+ (110); et
    une région d'isolement implantée formant barrière de type p, formée à l'intérieur de ladite couche épitaxiale de type p ; et
    un premier pixel contigu à ladite région implantée formant barrière de type p et comprenant un premier photodétecteur, et un deuxième pixel contigu à ladite région implantée formant barrière de type p et comprenant un deuxième photodétecteur, ledit premier photodétecteur étant espacé dudit deuxième photodétecteur de moins de 0,2 micromètres.
     
    24. Capteur d'image CMOS selon la revendication 23, dans lequel ladite première région de puits de type p est en contact avec une surface supérieure de ladite couche épitaxiale de type p, et ladite deuxième région de puits de type p est en contact avec une surface supérieure dudit substrat P+.
     
    25. Capteur d'image CMOS selon la revendication 24, dans lequel ladite première région de puits de type p a une épaisseur de 0,5 à 2,0 micromètres.
     
    26. Capteur d'image CMOS selon la revendication 25, dans lequel ladite deuxième région de puits de type p a une épaisseur de 1,5 à 12,0 micromètres.
     
    27. Procédé de formation de cellules de détection de pixels, ledit procédé comprenant les étapes consistant à :

    prévoir une première couche dopée (110a) d'un premier type de conductivité dans un substrat (40) ;

    former au moins une région d'isolement implantée formant barrière (200) dans ladite couche dopée pour isoler lesdites cellules de détection de pixels, ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière comprenant une première région de puits (189) d'une première largeur (W1) et une deuxième région de puits (299) d'une deuxième largeur (W2) supérieure à la première largeur, la deuxième région de puits étant située en dessous de la première région de puits et en contact avec celle-ci ;

    former au moins deux régions de collecte de charge (126, 126a) d'un second type de conductivité dans ladite première couche dopée, lesdites régions de collecte de charge étant contiguës à ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière ; et

    former au moins deux deuxièmes couches dopées (124, 124a) dudit premier type de conductivité dans ledit substrat, au-dessus de chacune desdites régions de collecte de charge, ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière étant formée de façon à s'étendre en dessous d'une surface dudit substrat et en contact avec celle-ci,

    caractérisé en ce que ladite première région de puits est formée avec une largeur inférieure à 0,4 micromètres.


     
    28. Procédé selon la revendication 27, dans lequel ladite première couche dopée est une couche épitaxiale de type p.
     
    29. Procédé selon la revendication 27, dans lequel ladite première région de puits est formée avec une largeur inférieure à 0,2 micromètres.
     
    30. Procédé selon la revendication 27, dans lequel ladite deuxième région de puits est formée avec une largeur de 0,6 à 1,2 micromètres.
     
    31. Procédé selon la revendication 30, dans lequel ladite deuxième région de puits est formée avec une épaisseur de 0,8 micromètres.
     
    32. Procédé selon la revendication 27, dans lequel ladite première région de puits est formée avec une épaisseur de 0,5 à 2 micromètres.
     
    33. Procédé selon la revendication 32, dans lequel ladite première région de puits est formée avec une épaisseur de 1 micromètre.
     
    34. Procédé selon la revendication 27, dans lequel ladite deuxième région de puits est formée avec une épaisseur de 1,5 à 12,0 micromètres.
     
    35. Procédé selon la revendication 34, dans lequel ladite deuxième région de puits est formée avec une épaisseur de 5 micromètres.
     
    36. Procédé selon la revendication 27, dans lequel ladite première région de puits est dopée avec un dopant de type p, selon une dose d'implantation de 5 × 1011 à 5 × 1013 atomes par cm2, l'implantation ionique étant conduite à une énergie de 50 keV à 1 MeV.
     
    37. Procédé selon la revendication 36, dans laquelle ladite première région de puits est dopée avec un dopant de type p, selon une dose d'implantation de 1 × 1012 à 5 × 1012 atomes par cm2.
     
    38. Procédé selon la revendication 27, dans lequel :

    la première couche dopée est une couche épitaxiale de type p formée par implantation d'ions de type p dans ladite couche épitaxiale de type p, ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière étant formée d'une première région de puits de type p ayant une première largeur et d'une deuxième région de puits de type p ayant une deuxième largeur supérieure à la première largeur ; et

    les au moins deux régions de collecte de charge sont formées par prévision d'au moins deux régions dopées de type n d'éléments photosensibles d'au moins deux cellules de pixels, en dessous de ladite surface de ladite couche épitaxiale de type p et en contiguïté de ladite région d'isolement implantée formant barrière.


     
    39. Procédé selon la revendication 38, dans lequel ladite couche épitaxiale de type p est formée sur une couche de substrat P+.
     
    40. Procédé selon la revendication 39, dans lequel ladite première région de puits de type p est formée en dessous de ladite surface de ladite couche épitaxiale de type p, et dans lequel ladite deuxième région de puits de type p est formée en dessous de ladite première couche de puits de type p, et en contact avec celle-ci, et en contact avec une surface supérieure de ladite couche de substrat P+.
     
    41. Procédé selon la revendication 38, dans lequel ladite deuxième région de puits de type p est formée avec une largeur de 0,6 à 1,2 micromètres.
     
    42. Procédé selon la revendication 38, dans lequel ladite première région de puits de type p est formée avec une épaisseur de 0,5 à 2 micromètres.
     
    43. Procédé selon la revendication 38, dans lequel ladite deuxième région de puits de type p est formée avec une épaisseur de 1,5 à 12,0 micromètres.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description