(19)
(11)EP 1 891 656 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
27.11.2019 Bulletin 2019/48

(21)Application number: 06753579.9

(22)Date of filing:  11.05.2006
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01J 37/244(2006.01)
H01J 43/24(2006.01)
H01J 37/28(2006.01)
H01J 43/22(2006.01)
G01N 23/2251(2018.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2006/004465
(87)International publication number:
WO 2006/120005 (16.11.2006 Gazette  2006/46)

(54)

PARTICLE DETECTOR FOR SECONDARY IONS AND DIRECT AND OR INDIRECT SECONDARY ELECTRONS

TEILCHENDETEKTOR FÜR SEKUNDÄRIONEN UND DIREKTE UND/ODER INDIREKTE SEKUNDÄRELEKTRONEN

DETECTEUR DE PARTICULES DESTINE A DES IONS SECONDAIRES ET DES ELECTRONS SECONDAIRES DIRECTS ET/OU INDIRECTS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 11.05.2005 US 679669 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
27.02.2008 Bulletin 2008/09

(73)Proprietor: El-Mul Technologies Ltd
81104 Yavne (IL)

(72)Inventors:
  • SCHÖN, Armin
    74057 Nes Ziona (IL)
  • CHEIFETZ, Eli
    52514 Ramat-Gan (IL)
  • SHOFMAN, Semyon
    70500 Qiriat Ekron (IL)

(74)Representative: Hahn, Christian 
Waldstrasse 35
79585 Steinen
79585 Steinen (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 4 825 118
US-A- 4 950 951
US-A1- 2004 262 531
US-A- 4 831 267
US-A1- 2002 134 937
  
  • PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 012, no. 058 (P-669), 20 February 1988 (1988-02-20) & JP 62 201385 A (SHIMADZU CORP), 5 September 1987 (1987-09-05)
  • PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 012, no. 298 (P-744), 15 August 1988 (1988-08-15) & JP 63 071680 A (HITACHI LTD), 1 April 1988 (1988-04-01)
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Field of the Invention



[0001] The present invention relates to detecting secondary ions or secondary electrons produced by analytic or surface modification instruments such as Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM), Focused Ion Beams (FIB), Scanning Auger instruments, Electron Beam Writing machines, etc. In these instruments surface properties in the form of images are obtained by measuring the current of secondary or reflected particles released or produced by a scanning particle beam.

Background



[0002] Almost all SEMs use an ETD (Everhardt Thornley Detector T.E. Everhart and R.F.M. Thornley "Wideband detector for microampere low-energy electron currents. J. Sci. Instr. 37, 246-248 (1960)) to measure the current of secondary electrons (SE) produced by the scanning of the electron beam on a sample. Relating the number of secondary electrons accumulated in a certain time bin to the location bombarded by the scanning beam at that time bin forms the image of the surface topography and properties that are reflected in variations of SE emission. A typical sketch of an ETD (prior art) is shown in Fig. 1. An electron collecting sparse 1 at voltages +80 to +500 V attracts SE that are emitted from the sample at low energies of mostly few eV rarely reaching above 25 eV. The collected SE that pass the sparse grid are further accelerated to an aluminum coated scintillating plate 2 at +several kV to +15kV that produce several hundred photons for each impinging accelerated electron. A light guide (LG) 3 attached to the back side of the scintillating plate guides tens % of the photons to a photomultiplier (PMT) 4. With a suitable design, the PMT of the ETD will start the signal multiplication with several photoelectrons (from the photocathode) for each electron accelerated to the scintillator. The collecting sparse grid and its voltage are designed to collect as large a number of SE as possible with minimal distortion of the impinging primary beam. This grid also shields the primary beam region from the electric field produced by the scintillating plate high voltage.

[0003] The collecting sparse grid in ETD produces a weak attracting electric field at the sample. It is quite efficient in collecting the low energy SEs provided there is no other attracting potential in the region of the sample and the grid line of sight to the sample is not hindered by physical obstacles. Its collection efficiency can reach from few tens % to 90%. However, the ETD is not a very effective for back scattered electrons (BSE), defined as electrons emitted from the sample at energies between 50eV and the beam energy. Most of the BSE are emitted with energies from the beam energy to a third of the beam energy. Therefore the ETD collecting grid is inefficient in attracting these electrons and leading them to the scintillator. The BSE thus hit various parts and objects in the vacuum chamber and produced tretiery electrons that are denoted as SE3. Most of the SE3 are not collected by the ETD.

[0004] The ETD is also used in FIB and other ion bombarding schemes, to detect the SE induced by ion bombardment. In such a case there are also many low energy secondary positive ions as a result of sputtering and other processes. Detection of these ions gives additional information about the impinged surface. The positive ions can be attracted to the ETD and accelerated to the scintillator by reversing the voltages on the collecting grid and scintillating plate to negative values. The drawback of the ETD when used in this ion mode is very low or no efficiency for detecting secondary ions due to the very low luminosity response of any scintillator to impinging ions relative to same energy electrons, compounded by the ions high or total energy loss in the conducting aluminum layer of the scintillating plate.

[0005] A typical method to measure low energy positive ions (originating at energies 0 eV to 50 eV) is to accelerate them to a converter plate at voltage of -3kV to -5 kV to produce SEs efficiently. One or more SE per impinging ion, for many types of atomic ions, are obtained for ion energies exceeding 3 keV. From the converting plate the few eV ion-induced SEs have to be accelerated to either an electron multiplying arrangement or to a scintillating layer at +5 kV to +15 kV relative to the converter plate. The scintillating layer is the scintillator of the ETD. Thus, response to low energy secondary ion current is obtained upon efficient transfer of the SE from the converter plate to the scintillator or to electron multiplying arrangement. Typical ion to electron converters are various forms of metallic plates with or without plating of SE enhancing materials, which are placed in the passage of the ions to the scintillator or to the electron multiplier.

[0006] The concept of a switchable electron and ion detector which can detect ions or electrons by just switching bias voltages on a converting plate or mesh is disclosed in a number of patent applications, i.e., Ishitani Toru, Hirose Hiroshi, and Onishi Takeshi, "Charged Particle Detector" (Japanese Patent Application no 64338358), Ishitani Toru, Hirose Hiroshi, and Arima Yoshio, "Converging Ion Beam Device and Charged Particle Detector" (Japanese Patent Application 05295229), and R. L Gerlach, M. W. Utlaut, T. Dingle, and M. Uncovsky, "Particle detector Suitable for Detecting Ions and Electrons" (U.S. Patent Application 20040262531).

[0007] In the latter publication the converting surfaces are in the form of cylinders around the line connecting the source and the scintillator center. Thus in electron detecting mode, the electrons are not hindered in their motion towards the scintillating plate. In ion detecting mode, the converting plates are at negative potential and attract positive ions. However a large portion of the SE from sections of the cylinders close to the ion entrance region are attracted back towards the sample, and thus the ions detection efficiency is decreased to about 50% as described in U.S. Patent Application 20040262531.

[0008] Another way to measure positive ions as disclosed in J. Krasa, M.Pfeifer, M.P. Stockli, U, Lenhert, and D. Fry, " The effect of the first dynode's geometry on the detection efficiency of 119EM electron multiplier used as a highly charged ion detector(Nucl. Instrum. And Meth. B152 (1999) 397-402) is to impinge them at typically 3 keV to 5 keV onto a converter material in the form of Venetian Blind like strips (strips at an angle to the ion motion) to produce SE. Energetic ions can be used or the strips can be at negative voltage to accelerate slow ions towards them. The SE are attracted from the strips to an electron multiplier behind the strips. It is also shown in cited reference 5 that the efficiency to collect the SE from the strips varies from 70% to 5% depending on where the ion hit the strip.

[0009] It is generally desirable to reduce the number of detectors on any electron- or ion beam system. Multiple detectors increase system cost and occupy place in the vacuum system, which may be needed for sample manipulations. A detector capable of detecting secondary electrons, backscattered electrons and secondary ions would therefore free up space and significantly reduce manufacturing cost, provided the detector can distinguish between those particles by means of preferably automatic manipulation of voltages only, rather than mechanical adjustments or other direct operator intervention.

[0010] In view of the above, it is an object of the present invention to provide a detector with an improved selectivity and detection efficiency for secondary electrons, low energy positive ions, and tertiary electrons, originating from backscattered electrons, respectively. This object is solved by the detector according to the independent claim 1.

[0011] According to a first aspect of the invention the invention provides a particle detector for detecting secondary ions, or secondary electrons or tertiary electrons (SE3), all originating from a focused scanning ion or electron beams, said particle detector comprising:
a sparse collecting electrode; Venetian Blind strips for converting secondary ions to electrons, said Venetian Blind strips comprising a conducting material and being disposed behind the sparse collecting electrode; at least one further electrode adjacent the Venetian Blind strips, wherein said at least one further electrode enhances the detection efficiency of the particle detector; a scintillating disc for producing scintillation photons upon impingement of energetic electrons, said scintillating disc being biasable with respect to said Venetian Blind strips and said at least one further electrode, respectively; and a light-guide for guiding scintillation photons to a photo-multiplier, wherein the particle detector detects any of the type of the incoming particles, and excludes the other types by switching appropriate voltages on the electrodes.

[0012] According to a second aspect of the invention the at least one further electrode comprises a fine wire electrode in front of the Venetian Blind strips, between the Venetian Blind strips and said sparse electrode.

[0013] Said fine wire electrode preferably comprises wires extending parallel to the front edges of the Venetian Blind strips, wherein said wires may have the same pitch as the Venetian Blind strips.

[0014] A negative potential can be applied to the fine wire electrode with respect to the Venetian Blind strips in order to repel electrons originating from the Venetian Blind strips.

[0015] According to a third aspect of the invention the one further electrode comprises an extracting electrode arranged behind the Venetian Blind strip, wherein a positive potential can be applied to extracting electrode with respect to the Venetian Blind strips in order to extract electrons originating from the Venetian Blind strips.
The extracting electrode preferably comprises a fine grid or wires.

[0016] According to a fourth aspect of the invention the particle detector comprises both, the fine wire electrode and the extracting electrode.

[0017] According to a fifth aspect of the invention the particle detector has a longitudinal axis which extends from the sparse collecting electrode to the scintillating disc, and the scintillating disc is spaced apart from the Venetian Blind strips in the direction of the longitudinal axis, the detector further comprising a set of SE3 ring electrodes arranged between behind said extracting electrode.

[0018] Hence, the invention further provides a particle detector for detecting secondary ions, or secondary electrons or tertiary electrons (SE3), all originating from a focused scanning ion or electron beams, said particle detector comprising:

a sparse collecting grid electrode;

Venetian Blind strips comprising a conducting material behind the sparse collecting electrode;

a fine wire electrode in front of the Venetian Blind strips, between the Venetian Blind strips and said sparse electrode;

an extracting electrode arranged behind the Venetian Blind strip;

a set of SE3 ring electrodes arranged behind said extracting electrode;

a scintillating disc for producing light upon impingement of energetic electrons; and

a light-guide for guiding the scintillation photons to a photo-multiplier, wherein

the particle detector measures any of the type of the incoming particles, and excludes the other types by switching appropriate voltages on the electrodes.



[0019] The sparse collecting electrode may be tilted.

[0020] The Venetian Blind strips may be tilted at an angle between about 20 and about 30 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the detector.

[0021] The invention further provides a particle detector for detecting incoming secondary ions, or secondary electrons originating from a focused scanning ion or electron beams, said detector comprising
a tilted sparse collecting electrode;
tilted Venetian Blind strips made of conducting material with high secondary emission coefficient for 3 to 5 keV ions and at 20 to 30 degrees to the detector long axis;
a fine wire electrode in front of the Venetian Blind strips;
a scintillating disc that produces light upon impingement of energetic electrons; and
a light-guide to transform the scintillation photons to a photo-multiplier, wherein
by switching voltages on the electrodes said detector detects secondary electrons and excludes positive ions, or detects positive ions and excludes secondary electrons.

[0022] The invention still further provides a particle detector for detecting incoming secondary electrons or tertiary electrons (SE3) that are created by back-scattered electrons, all originating from a focused scanning electron beam, said detector comprising:

a tilted sparse collecting electrode,

a fine grid or wires extracting electrode

a scintillating disc that produces light upon impingement of energetic electrons

a set of SE3 ring electrodes between the extracting electrode and the scintillating disc

a light-guide to transform the scintillation photons to a photo-multiplier, wherein

by switching voltages on the electrodes detects either secondary electrons from the sample and excludes tertiary electrons created by back-scattered electrons, or by switching to other voltages detects the tertiary electrons and excludes the secondary electrons.


Detailed description of the invention.



[0023] The invention is now described with reference to the embodiments shown in the drawings which show:
Fig. 1:
a schematic view of ETD detector (prior art).
Fig. 2:
a schematic cross section of low energy electrons or low energy ions detector
Fig. 3:
a cross section of a direct SE and SE3 detector for electron beam systems such as SEM
Fig. 4:
a cross section of EISE3 detector with options determined by electrode voltages to measure: Secondary electrons, or low energy secondary ions, or SE3 generated by BSE that hit various parts of the test chamber.
Fig. 5:
an isometric side view of EISE3 detector
Fig. 6:
one half of EISE3 detector in isometric view. The absent part is a mirror image of the shown structure.
Fig. 7:
simulation calculations of SE with tilted collecting sparse grid at +400 V, Venetian Blind strips at +400 V, and phosphor screen at +10 kV. The trajectories have various initial electron energies 1) -2eV, 2) -5eV, 3) -10eV, 4) -20eV. The figures in the bottom are enlargement of the trajectories in the vicinity of the Venetian Blind strips.
Fig. 8:
trajectories of positive ions emitted from the sample at the right side of each figure, with collecting grid at -400V, fine wires (just before the Venetian Blind strips) at -3400V, Venetian Blind strips at -3000V, and Phosphor screen at +7000V. The initial energies of the ions are is: 1) -2 eV, 2) - 5 eV, 3) - 10eV.
Fig. 9:
a magnified view of simulation of the trajectories of ion induced SE from the Venetian Blind strips with a detector structure described in figure 8. The Venetian Blind strips are at -3000V and the fine wires at -3400V. The simulations assume that ion induced SE are created on the whole strip, In the two sub-figures SE are emitted once from the bottom part of the strip, and in the lower sub-figure from the top part of the strip. All the ion-induced SE are moving towards the scintillator.
Fig. 10:
a detection scheme for the detector to measure SE3 and exclude SE. Shown are trajectories of collected SE3 that were created in various parts of the chamber by BSE, and repelling electrons from the sample at the right side. The collecting tilted grid at -400V, The extracting grid is at +2.7 kV, the rings SE3 grid at +400V, and the scintillator at +10 kV.
Fig. 11:
a detection scheme for the detector to measure SE and exclude SE3. Shown are trajectories of from the sample and rejected SE3 that were created in various parts of the chamber by BSE. The collecting tilted grid at +400V, The extracting grid is at +2.7 kV, the rings SE3 grid at - 400V, and the scintillator at +10 kV.


[0024] Two stripped down forms of the invention are described first and then combined to the basic form of the EISE3 detector.
1. The first form is an arrangement shown in Fig. 2 that can measure ions or SE by switching the voltages on the electrodes. The structure has tilted collecting sparse grid FIG 5. For ion collection the collecting sparse grid is set at low negative voltage (-80 to -500 V), fine wire electrodes 6 with a set of Venetian Blind strips 7 at voltage of -3 kV to -4 kV in front of a scintillator 8 which is at positive voltage. The SEs from the Venetian Blind strips are accelerated to the scintillator with voltage of +8 kV to + 12 kV relative to the Venetian Blind strips. The fine wire electrodes 6, close to and parallel to the Venetian Blind strips in the direction of the collecting sparse grid and at several hundred Volts negative to the Venetian Blind strips, push the SE that may have been moving towards the collecting grid, towards the scintillator. In this way a high efficiency (>90%) to detect all the converted electrons is obtained. This same structure is transformed to an electron detector by just switching the voltages on the collecting grid, on the fine wire electrodes and on the Venetian Blind strips simultaneously to + 100 to +500V. In the case where the positive ions from the sample or the SE from the sample originate from a very small area of less than 1x1 mm, as is the case in FIB and SEM, the Venetian Blind strips angles with respect to the sample and the voltages are designed so that in the electron detecting mode they are almost transparent to the electrons that originate from sample SEs which are accelerated towards the scintillator. Simulation calculations of SE from the sample are shown in Fig. 7. Several initial energies and initial directions are chosen to represent the whole spectrum of SE emission. The few electrons that hit the Venetian Blind strips create additional SEs which too are accelerated to the scintillator. Simulation of positive ion trajectories are shown in Fig. 8. In this figure fine wires at -400 V relative to the Venetian Blind strips repel any electron that otherwise would have been moving towards the less negative collecting grid. In a simulation of ion-induced SE from the strips shown in Fig. 9 all the SE are directed towards the scintillator. The prime novelty, over cited reference 4, is the combination of the tilted collecting grid at 20-30 degrees to the detector axis, the fine wire electrodes in front of the Venetian Blind strips, and the tilt angle of the Venetian Blind strips, that make for high efficiency (> 85%) detection of either ions or electrons.
2. The second version of the detector is shown in Fig 3. It is an SE and\or SE3 detector. There are no Venetian Blind strips for ion to electron conversion and their associated fine wires electrode. Switching voltages on the collecting and SE3 grids allow to measure one type and exclude the other. In this arrangement a scintillator 16 is placed at some 2 to 8 cm distance back. An extracting grid 12 with 2 to 4 kV voltage, in the position where the scintillator was in the first version, attracts and accelerates the SE emerging from the sample and collected by the sparse grid 11 to scintillator direction. A sparse cylindrical grid in the form of rings 14 surrounds the path to the scintillator. A low positive voltage (+100 V to +500 V) on this sparse ring grid attracts SE3 from large regions of the vacuum chamber walls and other surfaces within the chamber, while a negative potential on this grid excludes these SE3s. At the end of the SE3 grid there is a conical shaped cylindrical electrode 15 at the same voltage as the SE3 grid. It shapes the electrical field to insure that all collected SE3 or SE will hit the scintillator 16. Simulation of the trajectory of SE from the sample and SE3 from other parts of the chamber are shown in Fig 10 and Fig 11. It is shown that all SE reach the scintillator with SE3 rejected, or by switching voltages all SE3 reach the scintillator and SE are rejected. According to one aspect of this embodiment switching grid voltages is used to measure either SE from the sample with high efficiency and exclude SE3, or measure SE3 and exclude all direct SE, thereby allowing the generation of BSE images without using a dedicated BSE detector This version of the detector is suitable for any focused scanning e-beam device such as a SEM.
3. The EISE3 detector is a combination of the stripped down version 1 and version 2. Its schematic cross section is shown in Fig 4. It includes a collecting sparse grid 17, a fine wire electrode 18, Venetian Blind strips 19 at an angle 20 to 30 degrees to the detector axis to allow free electron passage in SE mode, an extracting grid 20 to attract SE toward the scintillator, a cylindrical rings SE3 collecting - repelling grid 22 with a terminating ring electrode 23 having an inclined or conical inner surface at its end, a scintillating plate 24 on a light guide 25 leading to a commercial photo-multiplier (not shown). The arrangement and structure of EISE3 is shown in two isometric views in figures 5 and 6. The corresponding reference numerals of Figs. 4 through 6 are summarized in the following table:
FeatureFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6
sparse grid 17 26 31
fine wire electrode 18 not shown 32
Venetian blind 19 27 33
extracting grid 20 20 28 34
grounded body 21 not shown 39
SE3 collecting / repelling rings 22 29 35
terminating ring electrode 23 30 36
scintillator 24 not shown 37
light guide 25 not shown 38


[0025] According to an aspect of the EISE3 detector one single structure can by just switching voltages on the grids, electrodes, and Venetian Blind strips measure or positive ions, or SE from the sample, or SE3 according to following table:
Table 1: Typical Voltages in V on EISE3 electrodes for selected measurements
DetectingCollecting sparce grid - relative to groundFine wires - relative to stripsVenetian Blind strips - relative to groundExtracting grid - relative to groundSE3 - relative to groundScintillator relative to ground
SE +100 to +500 0 +100 to +500 +2000 to +4000 -50 to -400 +8000 to +12000
Ions - -100 to -500 -200 to -600 - -3000 to -4000 +2000 to +4000 - -50 to -400 +8000 to +12000
SE3 - -100 to -500 0 -100 to -500 +2000 to +4000 +100 to +500 +8000 to +12000



Claims

1. A particle detector for selectively detecting at least one of secondary ions, or secondary electrons from a sample, or tertiary electrons (SE3) that are created by back-scattered electrons emitted from the sample, all secondary ions, or secondary electrons or back-scattered electrons originating from a focused scanning ion and/or electron beams, said particle detector comprising:

a sparse collecting electrode (17; 26; 31);

Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33) for converting secondary ions to electrons, said Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33) comprising a conducting material and being disposed behind the sparse collecting electrode;

at least one further electrode adjacent the Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33),

a scintillating disc (24; 37) for producing scintillation photons upon impingement of energetic electrons, said scintillating disc (24; 37) being biasable with respect to said Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33) and said at least one further electrode, respectively;

wherein the detector has a longitudinal axis which extends from the sparse collecting electrode (27; 26; 31) to the scintillating disc (24; 37), and the scintillating disc (24; 37) is spaced apart from the Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33) in the direction of the longitudinal axis,
characterized in that
the at least one further electrode comprises an extracting electrode (20; 28; 34) arranged behind the Venetian strips (19; 27; 33), wherein a positive potential can be applied to extracting electrode (20; 28; 34) with respect to the Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33) in order to extract electrons originating from the Venetian Blind strips;
the particle detector further comprises
a light-guide (25; 38) for guiding scintillation photons to a photo-multiplier; and
a set of ring electrodes (22; 29; 35) for collecting or repelling said tertiary electrons, said set of ring electrodes (22; 29; 35) being arranged behind said extracting electrode (20; 28; 24) between the extracting electrode (20; 28; 24) and the scintillating disc (24; 37);
wherein by switching appropriate voltages on the sparse collecting electrode and the at least one further electrode the particle detector is arranged to detect the selected of said at least one of secondary ions, secondary electrons and tertiary electrons (SE3), and to exclude an unselected of said at least one of secondary ions, secondary electrons and tertiary electrons (SE3).
 
2. The particle detector of claim 1, wherein the extracting electrode (20; 28; 24) comprises a fine grid or wires.
 
3. The particle detector of claim 1 or 2, wherein the particle detector further comprises a fine wire electrode (18; 32) in front of the Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33), between the Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33) and said sparse electrode (17; 26; 31).
 
4. The particle detector of claim 3, wherein said fine wire electrode (18; 32) comprises wires extending parallel to the front edges of the Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33).
 
5. The particle detector of claim 4, wherein said wires have the same pitch as the Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33).
 
6. The particle detector of claim 5, wherein a negative potential can be applied to the fine wire electrode (18; 32) with respect to the Venetian Blind strips (19; 27; 33) in order to repel electrons originating from the Venetian Blind strips.
 
7. The detector of any of the preceding claims, wherein the detector is capable to accelerate and to transmit more than 85% of all secondary electrons from the sample to the scintillating disc (24; 37) at energies from 5 keV to 15 keV, and to repel ions, and tertiary electrons (SE3), when switched to a secondary electron detection mode.
 
8. The detector of any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the detector is capable to detect more than 85% of all low energy positive ions from the sample when switched to ion collecting mode.
 


Ansprüche

1. Teilchendetektor zum selektiven Erfassen von mindestens einem von Sekundärionen oder Sekundärelektronen aus einer Probe oder Tertiäretektronen (SE3), die durch rückgestreute Elektronen erzeugt werden, die aus der Probe emittiert werden, wobei alle Sekundärionen oder Sekundärelektronen oder rückgestreute Elektronen von einem fokussierten Rasterionen- und/oder Elektronenstrahl stammen, wobei der Teilchendetektor umfasst:

eine verteilte Sammelelektrode (17; 26; 31);

Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33) zum Umwandeln von Sekundärionen in Elektronen, wobei die Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33) ein leitfähiges Material umfassen und hinter der verteilten Sammelelektrode angeordnet sind;

mindestens eine weitere Elektrode angrenzend an die Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33),

eine Szintillationsscheibe (24; 37) zum Erzeugen von Szintillationsphotonen beim Auftreffen energetischer Elektronen, wobei die Szintillationsscheibe (24; 37) in Bezug auf die Jalousieblendenlamellen

wobei der Detektor eine Längsachse aufweist, die sich von der verteilten Sammelelektrode (27; 26; 31) bis zur Szintillationsscheibe (24; 37) erstreckt, und die Szintillationsscheibe (24; 37) von den Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33) in Richtung der Längsachse beabstandet ist,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

die mindestens eine weitere Elektrode eine Extraktionselektrode (20; 28; 34) umfasst, die hinter den Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33) angeordnet ist, wobei ein positives Potential an die Extraktionselektrode (20; 28; 34) in Bezug auf die Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33) angelegt werden kann, um Elektronen zu extrahieren, die von den Jalousieblendenlamellen stammen;

der Teilchendetektor ferner umfasst
einen Lichtleiter (25; 38) zum Leiten von Szintillationsphotonen zu einem Fotovervielfacher; und
einen Satz von Ringelektroden (22; 29; 35) zum Sammeln oder Abstoßen; der tertiären Elektronen, wobei der Satz von Ringelektroden (22; 29; 35) hinter der Extraktionselektrode (20; 28; 24) zwischen der Extraktionselektrode (20; 28; 24) und der Szintillationsscheibe (24; 37) angeordnet ist;
wobei durch Schalten geeigneter Spannungen an der verteilten Sammelelektrode (27; 26; 31) und der mindestens einen weiteren Elektrode der Teilchendetektor angeordnet ist, um die ausgewählte der mindestens einen von Sekundärionen, Sekundärelektronen und tertiären Elektronen (SE3) zu erfassen und eine nicht ausgewählte der mindestens einen von Sekundärionen, Sekundärelektronen und tertiären Elektronen (SE3) auszuschließen.
 
2. Teilchendetektor nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Extraktionselektrode (20; 28; 24) ein feines Gitter oder Drähte umfasst.
 
3. Teilchendetektor nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der Teilchendetektor ferner eine Feindrahtelektrode (18; 32) vor den Jalousieblendenlameilen (19; 27; 33) zwischen den Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33) und der schwachen Sammelelektrode (17; 26; 31) umfasst.
 
4. Teilchendetektor nach Anspruch 3, wobei die Feindrahtelektrode (18; 32) Drähte umfasst, die sich parallel zu den Vorderkanten der Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33) erstrecken.
 
5. Teilchendetektor nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Drähte den gleichen Abstand aufweisen wie die Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33).
 
6. Teilchendetektor nach Anspruch 5, wobei ein negatives Potential an die Feindrahtelektrode (18; 32) in Bezug auf die Jalousieblendenlamellen (19; 27; 33) angelegt werden kann, um Elektronen abzuweisen, die von den Jalousieblendenlamellen stammen.
 
7. Detektor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Detektor in der Lage ist, mehr als 85 % aller Sekundärelektronen aus der Probe zu beschleunigen und auf die Szintillationsscheibe (24; 37) bei Energien von 5 keV bis 15 keV zu übertragen und Ionen und tertiäre Elektronen (SE3) abzustoßen, wenn er in einen Sekundärelektronendetektionsmodus geschaltet ist.
 
8. Detektor nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, worin der Detektor in der Lage ist, mehr als 85 % aller positiven Ionen mit niedriger Energie aus der Probe zu erfassen, wenn er in den Ionensammelmodus geschaltet ist.
 


Revendications

1. Détecteur de particules pour détecter sélectivement au moins un des ions secondaires, ou des électrons secondaires d'un échantillon, ou des électrons tertiaires (SE3) qui sont créés par des électrons réfléchissants émis par l'échantillon, tous des ions secondaires, des électrons secondaires ou des électrons réagissant par un ion et/ou un faisceau électronique, ledit détecteur de particules comportant
une électrode collectrice éparse (17 ; 26 ; 31) ;
bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33) pour convertir des ions secondaires en électrons, lesdites bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33) comprenant un matériau conducteur et étant disposées derrière l'électrode collectrice éparse ;
au moins une autre électrode adjacente aux bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33),
un disque scintillateur (24 ; 37) pour produire des photons scintillateurs lors de l'impact d'électrons énergétiques, ledit disque scintillateur (24 ; 37) pouvant être préchargé par rapport auxdites bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33) et ladite au moins une autre électrode, respectivement;
dans laquelle le détecteur a un axe longitudinal qui s'étend de l'électrode collectrice éparse (27 ; 26 ; 31) au disque scintillateur (24 ; 37), et le disque scintillateur (24 ; 37) est espacé des bandes des stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33) dans la direction de l'axe longitudinal,
caractérisé en ce que
l'au moins une autre électrode comprend une électrode d'extraction (20 ; 28 ; 34) disposée derrière les bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33), un voltage positif pouvant être appliqué à une électrode d'extraction (20 ; 28 ; 34) vis-à-vis des bandes stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33) afin d'extraire des électrons provenant des bandes stores vénitiens ;
le détecteur de particules comprend en outre
un guide de lumière (25 ; 38) pour guider les photons scintillateurs vers un photomultiplicateur; et
un groupe d'électrodes annulaires (22 ; 29 ; 35) pour collecter ou repousser lesdits électrons tertiaires, ledit groupe d'électrodes annulaires (22 ; 29 ; 35) étant disposé derrière ladite électrode d'extraction (20 ; 28 ; 24) entre l'électrode d'extraction (20 ; 28 ; 24) et le disque scintillateur (24 ; 37) ;
dans laquelle, en commutant des voltages adéquats sur électrode collectrice éparse et la au moins une autre électrode, le détecteur de particules est configuré pour détecter l'un au moins des ions secondaires, électrons secondaires et électrons tertiaires (SE3), et pour exclure un au moins des ions secondaires, électrons secondaires et électrons tertiaires non choisis (SE3) de l'un au moins des trois.
 
2. Détecteur de particules selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'électrode d'extraction (20 ; 28 ; 24) présente une grille ou des fils fins.
 
3. Détecteur de particules selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel le détecteur de particules comprend en outre un fil-électrode fin (18 ; 32) devant les bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33), entre les bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33) et ladite électrode mince (17 ; 26 ; 31).
 
4. Détecteur de particules selon la revendication 3, dans lequel ledit fil-électrode à fil fin (18 ; 32) comprend des fils s'étendant parallèlement aux bords avant des bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33).
 
5. Détecteur de particules selon la revendication 4, dans lequel lesdits fils ont le même espacement que les bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33).
 
6. Détecteur de particules selon la revendication 5, caractérisé en ce qu'un voltage négatif peut être appliqué au fil-électrode fin (18 ; 32) par rapport aux bandes de stores vénitiens (19 ; 27 ; 33) afin de repousser les électrons provenant des bandes de stores vénitiens.
 
7. Détecteur de l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le détecteur est capable d'accélérer et de transmettre plus de 85 % de tous les électrons secondaires de l'échantillon au disque scintillateur (24 ; 37) à des énergies de 5 keV à 15 keV, et de repousser les ions, et les électrons tertiaires (SE3), quand ils passent dans un mode de détection électronique secondaire.
 
8. Détecteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans lequel le détecteur est capable de détecter plus de 85 % de tous les ions positifs de faible énergie de l'échantillon lorsqu'il est commuté en mode collecteur d'ions.
 




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Cited references

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