(19)
(11)EP 1 936 653 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
15.01.2014 Bulletin 2014/03

(21)Application number: 06026210.2

(22)Date of filing:  18.12.2006
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H01J 27/26  (2006.01)
H01J 37/08  (2006.01)

(54)

Gas field ion source for multiple applications

Gasfeldionenquelle für mehrere Anwendungen

Source ionique de champ de gaz pour applications multiples


(84)Designated Contracting States:
DE NL

(43)Date of publication of application:
25.06.2008 Bulletin 2008/26

(60)Divisional application:
08167462.4 / 2019412

(73)Proprietor: ICT Integrated Circuit Testing Gesellschaft für Halbleiterprüftechnik mbH
85551 Heimstetten (DE)

(72)Inventors:
  • Frosien, Jürgen
    85521 Riemerling (DE)
  • Winkler, Dieter
    81737 München (DE)

(74)Representative: Zimmermann & Partner 
Postfach 330 920
80069 München
80069 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
JP-A- 11 086 772
US-A1- 2002 117 637
JP-A- 2001 035 401
US-B1- 6 733 590
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The invention relates to a charged particle beam device and a method of operating a charged particle beam device. Particularly, it relates to a charged particle beam device for irradiating, in particular inspecting and structuring a specimen. Further, it relates to a gas field ion source for multiple applications. More specifically, it relates to a focused ion beam device and a method of operating a focused ion beam device.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] Technologies such as microelectronics, micromechanics and biotechnology have created a high demand for structuring and probing specimens within the nanometer scale. Micrometer and nanometer scale process control, inspection or structuring, is often done with charged particle beams. Probing or structuring is often performed with charged particle beams which are generated and focused in charged particle beam devices. Examples of charged particle beam devices are electron microscopes, electron beam pattern generators, ion microscopes as well as ion beam pattern generators. Charged particle beams, in particular ion beams, offer superior spatial resolution compared to photon beams, due to their short wave lengths at comparable particle energy.

    [0003] An example of an ion generation chamber is disclosed in the document US 2002/0117637.

    [0004] During manufacturing of semiconductor devices or the like, a plurality of observation steps and sample modification steps are usually conducted. Common systems include an electron beam column for observation, imaging, testing or inspecting of a specimen and an ion beam column for patterning of a specimen or material modification. These "dual beam" systems have a high complexity and are, thus, expensive.

    SUMMARY



    [0005] In light of the above, a focused ion beam device according to independent claim 1 and a method of operating a focused ion beam device according to independent claim 18 are provided.

    [0006] According to one embodiment, a focused ion beam device is provided. The focused ion beam includes an ion beam column including an enclosure for housing an emitter with an emitter area for generating ions, a first gas inlet adapted to introduce a first gas to the emitter area, a second gas inlet adapted to introduce a second gas different from the first gas to the emitter area, and a switching unit adapted to switch between introducing the first gas and introducing the second gas.

    [0007] Further advantages, features, aspects and details that can be combined with the above embodiments are evident from the dependent claims, the description and the drawings.

    [0008] According to another example, a focused ion beam device is provided. The focused ion beam device includes an ion beam column including an enclosure for housing an emitter with an emitter area for generating ions, means for switching between introducing a light gas into the emitter area for an observation mode and introducing a heavy gas into the emitter area for a modification mode, wherein the light gas is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and helium and the heavy gas has an atomic mass of 10g/mol or higher.

    [0009] According to another embodiment, a method of operating a focused ion beam device is provided. The method includes biasing an emitter within an emitter area wherein ions are generated, switching between introducing a light gas to the emitter area and a heavy gas to the emitter area, wherein the light gas is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and helium and the heavy gas has an atomic mass of 10 g/mol or higher.

    [0010] Embodiments are also directed to apparatuses for carrying out the disclosed methods and including apparatus parts for performing each described method step. These method steps may be performed by way of hardware components, a computer programmed by appropriate software, by any combination of the two or in any other manner. Furthermore, embodiments according to the invention are also directed to methods by which the described apparatus operates It includes method steps for carrying out every function of the apparatus.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0011] Some of the above indicated and other more detailed aspects of the invention will be described in the following description and partially illustrated with reference to the figures. Therein:

    Fig. 1a shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with a first gas inlet and a second gas inlet according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 1b shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with a first gas inlet, a second gas inlet, and a common gas inlet according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 2 shows a schematic view of a charged particle beam device including controllers for controlling an observation mode and for controlling a switching between a light and a heavy gas according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 3 shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with a first gas inlet, a second gas inlet and a third gas inlet according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 4a shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with gas inlets and valves according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 4b shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with gas inlets and valves according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 5 shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with gas inlets, valves and a vacuum recipient according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 6 shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with gas inlets, valves and vacuum recipients according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 7 shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with gas inlets and means for conducting SIMS measurements according to embodiments described herein;

    Fig. 8 shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with gas inlets and an enclosure provided by the ion beam column according to embodiments described herein; and

    Fig. 9 shows a schematic view of parts of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device with gas inlets and a smaller enclosure within a gun chamber of an ion beam column according to embodiments described herein.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0012] Reference will now be made in detail to the various embodiments of the invention, one or more examples of which are illustrated in the figures. Each example is provided by way of explanation of the invention and is not meant as a limitation of the invention. For example, features illustrated or described as part of one embodiment can be used on or in conjunction with other embodiments to yield yet a further embodiment. It is intended that the present invention includes such modifications and variations.

    [0013] Without limiting the scope of protection, in the following the charged particle beam device or components thereof will exemplarily be referred to as a charged particle beam device including the detection of secondary electrons. The present invention can still be applied for apparatuses and components detecting secondary and/or backscattered charged particles in the form of electrons or ions, photons, X-rays or other signals in order to obtain a specimen image.

    [0014] Generally, when referring to corpuscles it is to be understood as a light signal, in which the corpuscles are photons, as well as particles, in which the corpuscles are ions, atoms, electrons or other particles.

    [0015] Within the following description of the drawings, the same reference numbers refer to the same components. Generally, only the differences with respect to the individual embodiments are described.

    [0016] A "specimen" as referred to herein, includes, but is not limited to, semiconductor wafers, semiconductor workpieces, and other workpieces such as memory disks and the like. Embodiments of the invention may be applied to any workpiece on which material is deposited or which are structured. A specimen includes a surface to be structured or on which layers are deposited, an edge, and typically a bevel.

    [0017] According to embodiments described herein, a single column charged particle beam device is provided which allows for a high resolution imaging and sample modification. Thereby, in light of the fact that one column can be omitted, the reduction of costs can be achieved. Further, an automatic alignment between the point of incidence of the observation beam and the modification beam can be realized more easily.

    [0018] One embodiment of a charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device 100, as illustrated in Fig. 1a, includes a gun chamber 14. Therein, a gas field ion source emitter 12 mounted to a holder 10 is provided. An ion beam emitted along axis 102 enters the ion beam column 16 through aperture 18.

    [0019] Generally, focused ion beam devices can, for example, be based on liquid-metal ion sources or gas ion sources. Gas ions can be produced by bombardment of electrons, atoms or ions with gas atoms or molecules or by exposing gas atoms or molecules to high electric fields or irradiation. Thereby, noble gas ion sources have been found to be potential candidates for focused ion beam FIB applications. Sources based on the field ionization process are known as gas field ion sources (GFIS). An ionization process takes place at high electric fields larger 1010 V/m. The field may, for example, be applied between an emitter tip and a biased extraction aperture.

    [0020] The emitter tip is biased to a, e.g., 10 kV positive potential with respect to a downstream extraction aperture that produces an electric field strong enough to ionize the gas atoms in the vicinity of the emitter unit. The area in the vicinity of the emitter, wherein the desired electric field is provided or more generally, wherein the generation of ions is conducted, may be referred to as emitter area. Gas pressures of 10-6 mbar, 10-2 mbar are desirable near the emitter unit tip. In view of potential contamination of the entire focused ion beam column with the gas molecules, according to some embodiments described herein, an enclosure or a separate chamber is provided to locally provide the gas for the gas ion source locally in the area of the emitter.

    [0021] Within Fig. 1a, a first gas inlet 110 and a second gas inlet 112 are provided. According to one operational mode, a light gas, such as hydrogen or helium is introduced into the chamber/enclosure 14 through the first gas inlet 110 and an ion beam of the ionized light gas is generate. The light gas ions can be used for an observation or imaging without damaging the specimen.

    [0022] According to another operational mode, a different gas, which is a heavier gas as, for example, argon, neon, xenon or krypton is introduced into the chamber through the second gas inlet 120. The ion beam of the ionized heavy gas, which is generated within the gun chamber/enclosure 14, is similar to an ion beam of a standard focused ion beam column for sputtering material. The heavy ion gas beam can, thus, be used for material modification or to produce cuts or trenches within the specimen or to get depth information.

    [0023] Within the embodiments described herein, the enclosure 14, in which the emitter 12 is provided, may be a part of the ion beam column 16. Alternatively, it may be a chamber included in the ion beam column. Further, it is possible that the ion beam column itself provides the enclosure, wherein the emitter is located and wherein the gases are introduced.

    [0024] The light gas ions do not sputter the sample material, and can be used for imaging, testing, observation or the like. Thereby, a light gas ion may have an even better resolution than an electron beam because of the shorter wavelengths of the ion beam as compared to an electron beam.

    [0025] According to another embodiment, which is illustrated with respect Fig. 1b,the first gas inlet 110 and that the second gas inlet 112 are connected to a common gas inlet 114. According to one and embodiment, the first gas inlet and the second gas inlet are connected to the common gas inlet via valve 116. For the embodiments, for which a common gas inlet 114 is used, care has to be taking that the space, which has to be emptied or purged in order to switch between a light gas and a heavy gas, is minimized. Therefore, the common gas inlet 114 is typically short and has a small diameter. Further, for embodiments including valve 116, the valve is typically positioned close to the opening of the common gas inlet. According to one embodiment, the valve 116 may be a micro-valve.

    [0026] Generally, as shown in Fig. 2, a focused ion beam device 200 can schematically be described as follows. An enclosure 214 with a biased gas field ion source emitter tip 12 is provided. Further, a first (light) gas inlet 110 and a second (heavy) gas inlet 112 is provided. Thereby, the first gas and the second gas are provided into the enclosure 214 towards the emitter 12 and to the emitter area in the vicinity of the emitter, wherein the desired excitation conditions are provided. According to one embodiment, the two gas inlets are provided in the form of two nozzles, gas channels, or other independent gas inlet means. According to another embodiment, the two gas inlets provide the two gases into a common nozzle, gas channel, or other gas inlet means.

    [0027] As shown in Fig. 2, a gas outlet 120 is provided. The gas outlet 120 can be connected to a vacuum pump, a further vacuum chamber, or other means to support the evacuation of one of the two gases in order to switch between the at least two operational modes. The gas outlet 120 and a vacuum system connected therewith may also be used to control the vacuum conditions within the enclosure 214. Thereby, the process parameters for ion generation can be controlled.

    [0028] Within Fig. 2, a switching unit 210 in the form of a controller or the like is shown. Controller 210 controls the switching between the supply of light gas into the enclosure 214 and the supply of heavy gas into the enclosure 214. Further, for embodiments including a separate gas outlet 120, the controller may control the gas outlet, vacuum system, vacuum pumps, or valves corresponding therewith. According to further embodiments, controllers 210, 211, 212, and 220 are provided. These controllers are controllers for the individual inlets, outlets, valves, pumps and the like. As indicated by the dashed lines, these controllers may be omitted as they are redundant in the case the controller 210 is able to control the components directly. According to further embodiments described herein, the switching unit can include at least one component of the group consisting of: a controller, controllers, a valve, valves, vacuum generating components (like pumps, valves and recipients), and combinations thereof.

    [0029] The ion beam is focused by the lens 20 on the specimen 24. According to one embodiment, lens 20 is an electrostatic lens. According to other embodiments, lens 20 may be a magnetic lens or a compound magnetic-electrostatic lens. Depending on the application, one or more optical devices such as electrostatic lenses, magnetic lenses, compound magnetic-electrostatic lenses, Wien filters, condensers, aligners, collimators, deflectors, accelerators, decelerators, apertures etc. could additionally be arranged in the focused ion beam device.

    [0030] Generally, the ion beam is deflected with a scan deflector 26 to raster scan the ion beam over the specimen 24 or position the ion beam at the position of the specimen. Secondary or backscatter particles, for example secondary electrons are detected with detector 22, particularly when the single column focused ion beam device is operated in an observation mode.

    [0031] Within Fig. 2, controller 230 is shown. Controller 230 controls the scan deflector 26 and the detector 22. During the observation mode of the focused ion beam column 200, the device works similar to an electron microscope. The ion beam with a diameter of a few nanometers or less (e.g., 1 nm or less) is raster scanned in a pattern over specimen 24. Secondary electrons or other corpuscles can be detected with the detector. A time resolved signal is generated and the controller 230 allows for correlating a signal at a given instance of time with a corresponding deflection value. Thereby, the raster pattern can be assembled to an image by correlating the signals with the positions. A typical time resolution (time interval between two subsequent (quasi-continuous measurement points or pixels) is between 500 ns and 500 µs. The time per pixel may according to other embodiments be 10 µs, 1 µs or less.

    [0032] Within Fig. 3, a charged particle beam device 300 is shown. The charged particle beam device includes an emitter 12, an enclosure/gun chamber 14, and an ion beam column 16. Ions of gases, which are present in the enclosure 14, are generated by the high electric field of the biased emitter 12.

    [0033] According to one embodiment, a first gas inlet 110, a second gas inlet 112, and a third gas inlet 313 are provided. Thereby, switching between three types of ion beams is possible. For example, a light gas like a hydrogen or helium may be introduced through the first gas inlet 110 in the enclosure 14 for observation of a specimen without damaging the specimen. For a different mode of operation, a second gas like argon, neon, xenon or krypton may be introduced through the second gas inlet 112 in the enclosure 14 for sputtering of a specimen.

    [0034] According to further embodiments, hydrogen may be used with regard to the even further mode of operation in the event materials like a photo resist are etched. The reducing property of hydrogen may be used for an etching of oxygen-containing materials. Nevertheless, hydrogen may be used in an imaging mode for a plurality of materials, like Si, metals, and the like.

    [0035] According to an even further embodiment, a fourth gas inlet could be provided. Thereby, a fourth mode of operation can be conducted by introducing a conditioning gas, e.g., oxygen in the enclosure around the emitter tip. According to this embodiment, oxygen can be used for conditioning the tip. This further conditioning mode of operation, wherein the tip of the emitter is shaped or re-shaped, may be supported by the introduction of oxygen.

    [0036] Generally, within the embodiments described herein, at least two different ion beam generating gases can be introduced in the enclosure. According to embodiments described herein, the at least two different ion beam generating gases are sequentially introduced in the enclosure. Thereby, as explained above, a light gas and a heavy gas is used. According to further embodiments, at least one further ion generating gas is introduced in the enclosure. Thereby, an ion generating gas for etching or an ion generating gas for a second sputtering option (e.g., first sputter option with argon and second sputter option with neon or xenon) can be introduced. According to these embodiments, at least a third gas inlet is provided. In the event more than one ion beam generating gas for sputtering or more than one ion beam generating gas for etching is used, also a fourth, fifth, etc gas inlet can be provided.

    [0037] Yet according to further embodiments, processing gases in the form of the above mentioned emitter tip conditioning gas (oxygen), carrier gases, purge gases, or the like may be introduced. Processing gases are to be understood as gases, which are not used for ion beam generating, but for process support instead.

    [0038] According to another embodiment, which is described with respect to Fig. 3, additionally a gas outlet 320 can be provided. The gas outlet 320 may be connected to a vacuum system including a vacuum pump and/or a vacuum recipient. An evacuation of the enclosure 14 can be used to control the pressure in the enclosure and, thereby, control a process parameter for the ion generation. Typically, a partial pressure of the gas to be ionized is controlled to be in the range of 10-6 to 10-2 mbar in the area of the emitter. According to another embodiment, the evacuation of the enclosure 14 can be used during a switching between a first operational mode and a further (second or third) operational mode. Thus, a gas used for the first operational mode can be removed faster from the area of ion generation. As a consequence, a switching between one mode of operation and another mode of operation can be conducted faster, for example, in 5 s or less.

    [0039] Within Fig. 4a, a charged particle beam device 400 is shown. The charged particle beam device includes an emitter 12, an enclosure/gun chamber 14, and an ion beam column 16. Ions of gases, which are present in the enclosure 14, are generated by the high electric field of the biased emitter 12.

    [0040] According to one embodiment, a first gas inlet 110 and a second gas inlet 112 are provided. Additionally, valve 418 is provided within the first gas inlet 110. Further, valve 419 is provided within the second gas inlet 112. The valves are controlled by a controller adapted for switching between introducing the first gas in the enclosure 14 and introducing the second gas in the enclosure.

    [0041] According to one embodiment, valves 418 and 419 are positioned close to the outlet opening of the gas inlets. Thereby, the amount of gas remaining from a previous operational mode, which has to be removed for a second or third operational mode, is reduced. When one of the valves is closed, the volume, in which the gas of the previous operational mode is still present, is minimized if the valve is positioned close to the outlet opening of the gas inlet. The dead volume of the gas inlet may for example be in the range of 1 cm3 or less. Typically, micro-valves may be used to realize a small dead volume. Herein, a dead volume may be defined as a part of a passage, where a portion could retain materials or gases to contaminate subsequent flow media. During switching the previous gas may contaminate the subsequent gas.

    [0042] According to other embodiments referred to with respect to Fig. 4a, a gas outlet 320 can also be provided. The gas outlet 320 may be connected to a vacuum system including a vacuum pump or a vacuum recipient. As described above, an evacuation of the enclosure 14 can be used to control the pressure in the enclosure. The evacuation of the enclosure 14 can also be used to evacuate the enclosure during a switching between a first operational mode and a further (second or third) operational mode. Thus, a gas used for the first operational mode can be removed faster from the area of ion generation.

    [0043] Within Fig. 4b, the charged particle beam device includes an emitter 12, an enclosure/gun chamber 14, and an ion beam column 16. Ions of gases, which are present in the enclosure 14, are generated by the high electric field of the biased emitter 12. The gases can be introduced in the enclosure according to any of the embodiments described herein.

    [0044] According to another embodiment, as, for example, described with respect to Fig. 4b, a valve 428 is provided within the gas outlet 320. The valve 428 within the gas outlet may be closed in order to provide a low pressure on the side of the valve opposing the enclosure 14. Thereby, it is possible during a switching between the first operational mode and a further operational mode to open the valve and use the low-pressure on the opposing side for a faster removing of the gas in the enclosure, which has to be removed for switching between the operational modes.

    [0045] This aspect may, according to an even further embodiment, the combined with a vacuum recipient 522 as shown in the focused ion beam device 500 of Fig. 5. Within Fig. 5, a charged particle beam device 500 is shown. The charged particle beam device includes an emitter 12, an enclosure/gun chamber 14, and an ion beam column 16. Ions of gases, which are present in the enclosure 14, are generated by the high electric field of the biased emitter 12. Additionally, valve 418 is provided within the first gas inlet 110. Further, valve 419 is provided within the second gas inlet 112. The valves are controlled by a controller adapted for switching between introducing the first gas in the enclosure 14 and the second gas in the enclosure. When one of the valves is closed the volume, in which the gas of the previous operational mode is still present and which needs to be removed for switching to another operational mode, is minimized if the valve is positioned close to the outlet opening of the gas inlet.

    [0046] Within Fig. 5, the conduit of the gas outlet 320 is connected to a vacuum pump. The vacuum pump evacuates the vacuum recipient 522. Thus, an enlarged volume with low pressure is provided. During opening of valve 428, the volume of the enclosure 14 can be evacuated faster as a consequence of the additional volume of recipient 522. The shorter time for evacuation of the enclosure allows for a faster switching between the two operational modes.

    [0047] Fig. 6 shows the focused ion beam device 600. The charged particle beam device 600 includes an emitter 12, an enclosure/gun chamber 14, and an ion beam column 16. Ions of gases, which are present in the enclosure 14, are generated by the high electric field of the biased emitter 12.

    [0048] According to one embodiment, a first gas inlet 110 with a conduit and a second gas inlet 112 with a conduit are provided. Additionally, valve 618 is provided within the first gas inlet 110. Further, valve 619 is provided within the second gas inlet 112. The valves are controlled by a controller adapted for switching between introducing the first gas in the enclosure 14 and the second gas in the enclosure. According to one embodiment, valves 618 and 619 are positioned close to the outlet opening of the gas inlets. Thereby, the amount of gas remaining from a previous operational mode, which has to be removed for a second or third operational mode, is reduced.

    [0049] Within Fig. 6, valves 618 and 619 are 2-way valves. The further connections of the valves are connected to vacuum recipients 622 and 623, respectively. The vacuum recipients 622 and 623 are evacuated by a vacuum pump or the like. Thereby, an improved switching behavior between a first mode of operation and a further mode of operation may be provided. When for example valve 618 is closed, on the one hand, the supply of the first gas, which has been introduced by the first gas inlet 110, is stopped. On the other hand, the vacuum recipient 622 is connected to the outlet opening portion of the gas inlet. Thereby, the gas remaining in the outlet opening portion of the gas inlet is removed therefrom and the enclosure 14 is evacuated. Currently or thereafter, the valve 619 within the second gas inlet 112 is opened, such that the gas introduced through the second gas inlet can be supplied in the enclosure 14.

    [0050] According to another embodiment, valves 618 and 619 may be connected with respective conduits to a common vacuum recipient.

    [0051] According to one embodiment, as shown in Fig. 6, a further gas outlet 320 including valve 428 is provided. The valve 428 within the gas outlet may be closed in order to provide a low pressure on the side of the valve opposing the enclosure 14. Thereby, it is possible during a switching between the first operational mode and a further operational mode to open the valve and use the low-pressure for a faster removing of the gas in the enclosure, which has to be removed for switching between the operational modes.

    [0052] According to another embodiment, the gas outlet 320 may be omitted. The enclosure 14 may then be evacuated through one of the valves 618 and 619, respectively. Thereby, when one of the valves is in a position to introduce a gas in the area of the emitter 12, the other valve is in a position to evacuate the enclosure 14 via the vacuum recipient connected to the corresponding valve. Generally, by using a 2-way valve, in order to shut off the gas flow, the connection between the gas and the emitter chamber, that is the enclosure, is closed and the connection between the emitter chamber and the vacuum recipient or vacuum pump is opened. This results in an immediate drop of the gas pressure in the emitter.

    [0053] An even further mode of operation and further embodiments are described with respect to Fig. 7. The focused ion beam device 700 shown in Fig. 7 includes an emitter 12, an enclosure/gun chamber 14, and an ion beam column 16. Ions of gases, which are present in the enclosure 14, are generated by the high electric field of the biased emitter 12. A first gas inlet 110 and a second gas inlet 112 are provided. According to one operational mode, a light ion generating gas, such as hydrogen or helium is introduced into the chamber/enclosure 14 through the first gas inlet 110 and an ion beam of the ionized light gas is generate. The light gas ions can be used for an observation or imaging without damaging the specimen. According to a second operational mode, a heavy ion beam generating gas is introduced for a sputtering mode. Further, a mode with an etching gas, e.g., hydrogen for some materials, and/or a mode with a conditioning gas, e.g., oxygen for some conditioning applications, can be provided.

    [0054] In addition to the modes of operation, which have been described above, the heavy gas ion beam can be used for material analysis. Thereby, a detector 722 suitable for secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS is provided. The detector 722 detects and analyzes the ions of specimen 24, which are created by sputtering. On sputtering, the specimen emits particles, some of which are themselves ions. These secondary ions are measured with a mass spectrometer to determine the quantitative elemental or isotopic composition of the surface.

    [0055] According to one embodiment, the sputtering is realized by the ion beam emitted by emitter 12. According to another embodiment, as shown in Fig. 7, an additional flood electron source 732 may be provided. Thereby the number of ionized secondary particles, which are released from the specimen 24 on impingement of the ion beam from emitter 12, can be increased. The increased amount of ionized secondary particles improves the detection sensitivity of detector 722.

    [0056] A further embodiment of an ion beam device is shown in Fig. 8. Within Fig. 8, the emitter 12 is provided in a chamber or column, see reference numeral 14. The first gas inlet 110 and a second gas inlet 112 are provided to introduce a light gas and a heavy gas and thereby, to allow for two operational modes in a single column. As compared to the above-described embodiments, the different gases are provided directly into the column or chamber and no separate enclosure is provided.

    [0057] According to different embodiments, as shown in Fig. 9, the enclosure 14 may also be reduced in volume to reduce the amount of introduced gas. The desired partial pressure in the area of the emitter may be provided with a smaller amount of gas if the enclosure is reduced in size. Further, an evacuation or purging for the switching can be conducted faster.

    [0058] Within Fig. 9, the emitter holder 10 and the emitter 12 are provided in an enclosure 14. The first gas inlet includes the first gas inlet tube 910a and a channel 910b between the emitter holder 10 and the wall of enclosure 14. A similar channel 910b may also be provided between other parts included for holding components, providing bias voltages, or other structural parts within the device. The second gas inlet includes the second gas inlet tube 912a and a gas inlet channel 912b. Within Fig. 9, the two channels 910b and 912b are separated from each other. According to other embodiments, the channels might have at least partially a common path.

    [0059] Within Fig. 9, a gas outlet 920 is provided. As described above, the gas outlet can be used to control the pressure in the enclosure 14 and/or to evacuate the enclosure for switching between different operational modes.

    [0060] The gas outlet 920 can be connected to a vacuum pump, a further vacuum chamber, or other means to support the evacuation of one of the two gases, that is a light gas and a heavy gas, in order to switch between the at least two operational modes. The gas outlet 920 and a vacuum system connected therewith may also be used to control the vacuum conditions within the enclosure 14. Thereby, the process parameter for ion generation can be controlled.

    [0061] As described above, a single column charged particle beam device in the form of a focused ion beam device. Can be provided which allows for a high resolution imaging and sample modification. Thereby, in light of the fact that only one column is used, a reduction of costs can be achieved. Further, an automatic alignment between the point of incidence of the observation beam and the modification beam can be realized more easily.

    [0062] According to yet further embodiment, which can be combined with any of the other embodiments described herein to yield yet further embodiments, a focused ion beam device is provided, wherein the focused ion beam device includes an ion beam column including an enclosure for housing an emitter with an emitter area for generating ions of a light gas and a heavy gas, means for switching between introducing the light gas into the emitter area for an observation mode and introducing the heavy gas into the emitter area for a modification mode, wherein the light gas is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and helium and the heavy gas has an atomic mass of 10 g/mol or higher.

    [0063] While the foregoing is directed to embodiments of the invention, other and further embodiments of the invention may be devised without departing from the basic scope thereof, and the scope thereof is determined by the claims that follow.


    Claims

    1. Focused ion beam device (100; 300; 400; 500; 600; 700), comprising:

    an ion beam column (16; 200) including an enclosure (14; 614) for housing a gas field ion source emitter (12) with an emitter area for generating ions;

    a first gas inlet (110) adapted to introduce a first gas to the emitter area;

    a second gas inlet (112) adapted to introduce a second gas different from the first gas to the emitter area; characterized by that it comprises

    an objective lens (20) for focusing the ion beam generated from the first gas or the second gas, and

    a switching unit (210) adapted to switch between introducing the first gas and introducing the second gas.


     
    2. Focused ion beam device according to claim 1, further comprising:

    a gas outlet (120; 320; 920) connected to a vacuum system adapted to evacuate the enclosure during switching between introducing the first gas and introducing the second gas.


     
    3. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 2, further comprising:

    a first valve (418; 618) provided within the first gas inlet and a second valve (419; 619) provided within the second gas inlet, wherein the first valve and the second valve are controlled by the switching unit.


     
    4. Focused ion beam device according to claim 3, wherein the first valve has a first gas supply conduit to a gas supply for the first gas, a first gas inlet conduit for introducing the first gas in the chamber (14) and a first evacuation conduit for connection to at least one vacuum recipient (522; 622; 623); and wherein the second valve has a second gas supply conduit to a gas supply for the second gas, a second gas inlet conduit for introducing the second gas in the chamber and a second evacuation conduit for connection to the at least one vacuum recipient.
     
    5. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 4, wherein the first gas inlet has a first gas inlet tube (910a) and a first gas inlet channel (910b) and the second gas inlet has a second gas inlet tube (912a) and a second gas inlet channel (912b).
     
    6. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 2 to 5, wherein the vacuum system includes a vacuum recipient (522; 622; 623).
     
    7. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 6, further comprising:

    a scan deflector (26) provided in the ion beam column and adapted for raster scanning an ion beam over a specimen (24);

    a detector (22; 722) provided in the ion beam column and adapted for time resolved detection of corpuscles released from the specimen on impingement of the ion beam; and

    a controller (210; 230) connected to the scan deflector and the detector.


     
    8. Focused ion beam device according to claim 7, wherein the time resolved measurement is adapted for a time resolution of 2µs or below 2µs.
     
    9. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 8, wherein the enclosure is provided in a gun chamber of the ion beam column.
     
    10. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 9, wherein the enclosure has a volume of 5 cm3 or less.
     
    11. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 10, further comprising:

    a mass spectrometer for identification of ions or ionized particles released from the specimen.


     
    12. Focused ion beam device according to claims 11, further comprising:

    a flood electron gun provided in an area adjacent to a specimen area.


     
    13. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 12, further comprising:

    at least a third gas inlet (313) for introducing at least a third gas into the enclosure.


     
    14. Focused ion beam device according to claim 13, further comprising:

    at least a third valve provided within the at least third gas inlet being controlled by the switching unit.


     
    15. Focused ion beam device according to claim 14, wherein the at least third gas inlet has at least a third gas inlet tube and at least a third gas inlet channel.
     
    16. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 15, wherein the first gas is a light gas selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and helium, wherein the second gas is a heavy gas selected from the group consisting of argon, neon, krypton, and combinations thereof.
     
    17. Focused ion beam device according to any of claims 1 to 15, wherein the heavy gas is selected from the group consisting of argon, neon, krypton, and combinations thereof.
     
    18. Method of operating a focused ion beam device (100; 300; 400; 500; 600; 700, comprising:

    biasing an emitter within an emitter area wherein ions are generated;

    switching between introducing a light ion beam generating gas into the emitter area and a heavy ion beam generating gas into the emitter area, wherein the light gas is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and helium and the heavy gas has an atomic mass of 10 g/mol or higher.


     
    19. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to claim 18, further comprising:

    evacuating an enclosure surrounding the emitter area.


     
    20. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to any of claims 18 to 19, wherein the switching includes controlling a first valve (418; 618) provided within a first gas inlet (110) and a second valve (419; 619) provided within a second gas inlet (112).
     
    21. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to any of claims 18 to 19 , further comprising:

    scanning the ion beam generated from the light ion beam generating gas over a specimen (24) for an observation mode, and detecting corpuscles released from the specimen on impingement of the ion beam from the light ion beam generating gas for observation of the specimen; and

    modifying the specimen during a modification mode, during a time the heavy ion beam generating gas is introduced in the emitter area.


     
    22. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to claim 21, wherein the modifying includes at least a step selected from the group consisting of sputtering and etching.
     
    23. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to any of claims 18 to 22, further comprising:

    mass detecting of ionized particles released from the specimen during a time the heavy ion beam generating gas is introduced in the emitter area.


     
    24. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to claim 23, further comprising:

    ionizing particles released from the specimen during a time the heavy ion beam generating gas is introduced in the emitter area.


     
    25. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to any of claims 18 to 24, wherein the heavy ion beam generating gas selected from the group consisting of argon, neon, krypton, and combinations thereof.
     
    26. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to any of claims 18 to 25, further comprising:

    introducing a processing gas in the emitter area.


     
    27. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according claim 26, wherein the processing gas is oxygen.
     
    28. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to any of claims 18 to 27, further comprising:

    introducing a further heavy ion beam generating gas into the emitter area, wherein the further ion beam generating heavy gas has an atomic mass of 10 g/mol or higher.


     
    29. Method of operating a focused ion beam device according to any of claims 18 to 28, further comprising:

    introducing a hydrogen into the emitter area for an etching operation mode.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Fokussierende lonenstrahl-Vorrichtung (100; 300; 400; 500; 600; 700), Folgendes aufweisend:

    eine Ionenstrahlsäule (16; 200), die eine Umschließung (14; 614) zur Aufnahme eines Gasfeldionenquellen-Emitters (12) mit einem Emitterbereich zum Erzeugen von Ionen enthält;

    einen ersten Gaseinlass (110), der dazu angepasst ist, ein erstes Gas in den Emitterbereich einzuleiten;

    einen zweiten Gaseinlass (112), der dazu angepasst ist, ein zweites Gas, das sich vom ersten Gas unterscheidet, in dem Emitterbereich einzuleiten;

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie aufweist:

    eine Objektivlinse (20) zum Fokussieren des aus dem ersten Gas oder dem zweiten Gas erzeugten lonenstrahls, und

    eine Schalteinheit (210), die dazu angepasst ist, zwischen dem Einleiten des ersten Gases und dem Einleiten des zweiten Gases zu wechseln.


     
    2. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, darüber hinaus aufweisend:

    einen Gasauslass (120; 320; 920), der an ein Vakuumsystem angeschlossen ist,

    das dazu angepasst ist, die Umschließung während des Wechselns zwischen dem Einleiten des ersten Gases und dem Einleiten des zweiten Gases zu evakuieren.


     
    3. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 2, darüber hinaus aufweisend:

    ein erstes Ventil (418; 618), das im ersten Gaseinlass vorgesehen ist, und ein zweites Ventil (419; 619), das im zweiten Gaseinlass vorgesehen ist, wobei das erste Ventil und das zweite Ventil durch die Schalteinheit gesteuert werden.


     
    4. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 3, wobei das erste Ventil eine erste Gasversorgungsleitung zu einer Gasversorgung für das erste Gas, eine erste Gaseinlassleitung zum Einleiten des ersten Gases in eine Kammer (14) und eine erste Evakuierungsleitung zum Anschluss an mindestens einen Vakuumbehälter (522; 622; 623) aufweist, und wobei das zweite Ventil eine zweite Gasversorgungsleitung zu einer Gasversorgung für das zweite Gas, eine zweite Gaseinlassleitung zum Einleiten des zweiten Gases in die Kammer und eine zweite Evakuierungsleitung zum Anschluss an den mindestens einen Vakuumbehälter aufweist.
     
    5. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei der erste Gaseinlass ein erstes Gaseinlassrohr (910a) und einen ersten Gaseinlasskanal (91 0b) aufweist, und der zweite Gaseinlass ein zweites Gaseinlassrohr (912a) und einen zweiten Gaseinlasskanal (912b) aufweist.
     
    6. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 5, wobei das Vakuumsystem einen Vakuumbehälter (522; 622, 623) umfasst.
     
    7. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, darüber hinaus aufweisend:

    einen Abtastdeflektor (26), der in der Ionenstrahlsäule vorgesehen und dazu angepasst ist, einen Ionenstrahl über einem Spezimen (24) im Rasterverfahren abzutasten;

    einen Detektor (22; 722), der in der Ionenstrahlsäule vorgesehen und dazu angepasst ist, vom Spezimen beim Aufprall des lonenstrahls freigesetzte Korpuskel zeitaufgelöst zu erfassen; und

    eine Steuerung (210; 230), die an den Abtastdeflektor und den Detektor angeschlossen ist.


     
    8. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 7, wobei die zeitaufgelöste Messung für eine Zeitauflösung von 2 µs oder unter 2 µs angepasst ist.
     
    9. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei die Umschließung in einer Beschusskammer der lonenstrahlsäule vorgesehen ist.
     
    10. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, wobei die Umschließung ein Volumen von 5 cm3 oder weniger hat.
     
    11. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, darüber hinaus aufweisend:

    ein Massenspektrometer zum Identifizieren von Ionen oder ionisierten Partikeln,

    die vom Spezimen freigesetzt wurden.


     
    12. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 11, darüber hinaus aufweisend:

    eine Flutelektronenkanone, die in einem Bereich angrenzend an einen Spezimenbereich vorgesehen ist.


     
    13. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    mindestens einen dritten Gaseinlass (313) zum Einleiten mindestens eines dritten Gases in die Umschließung.


     
    14. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 13, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    mindestens ein in dem mindestens einen dritten Gaseinlass vorgesehenes drittes Ventil, das durch die Schalteinheit gesteuert wird.


     
    15. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 14, wobei der mindestens eine dritte Gaseinlass mindestens ein drittes Gaseinlassrohr und mindestens einen dritten Gaseinlasskanal aufweist.
     
    16. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 15, wobei es sich bei dem ersten Gas um ein Leichtgas handelt, das aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Wasserstoff und Helium besteht, wobei es sich bei dem zweiten Gas um ein Schwergas handelt, das aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Argon, Neon, Krypton und Kombinationen von diesen besteht.
     
    17. Fokussierende Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 15, wobei das Schwergas aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Argon, Neon, Krypton und Kombinationen von diesen besteht.
     
    18. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung (100; 300; 400; 500; 600; 700), Folgendes umfassend:

    Beaufschlagen eines Emitters in einem Emitterbereich, wobei Ionen erzeugt werden;

    Wechseln zwischen dem Einleiten eines leichten Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgases in den Emitterbereich und eines schweren Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgases in den Emitterbereich, wobei das Leichtgas aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Wasserstoff und Helium besteht, und das Schwergas eine Atommasse von 10 g/mol oder darüber hat.


     
    19. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 18, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    Evakuieren einer den Emitterbereich umgebenden Umschließung.


     
    20. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 18 bis 19, wobei das Wechseln umfasst, ein erstes Ventil (418; 618), das in einem ersten Gaseinlass (110) vorgesehen ist, und ein zweites Ventil (419; 619) zu steuern, das in einem zweiten Gaseinlass (112) vorgesehen ist.
     
    21. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 18 bis 19, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    Abtasten des aus dem leichten Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgas erzeugten lonenstrahls über einem Spezimen (24) für eine Beobachtungsbetriebsart, und Erfassen von vom Spezimen beim Aufprall des vom leichten Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgas stammenden lonenstrahls freigesetzten Korpuskeln für eine Beobachtung des Spezimens; und

    Modifizieren des Spezimens während einer Modifizierungsbetriebsart während einer Zeit, in der das schwere Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgas in den Emitterbereich eingeleitet wird.


     
    22. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 21, wobei das Modifizieren mindestens einen Schritt umfasst, der aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Zerstäuben und Ätzen besteht.
     
    23. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 18 bis 22, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    Massenerfassen von ionisierten Partikeln, die vom Spezimen während einer Zeit freigesetzt werden, in der das schwere Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgas in den Emitterbereich eingeleitet wird.


     
    24. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 23, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    Ionisieren von Partikeln, die vom Spezimen während einer Zeit freigesetzt werden,

    in der das schwere Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgas in den Emitterbereich eingeleitet wird.


     
    25. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 18 bis 24, wobei das schwere Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgas aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Argon, Neon, Krypton und Kombinationen von diesen besteht.
     
    26. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 18 bis 25, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    Einleiten eines Prozessgases in den Emitterbereich.


     
    27. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 26, wobei es sich bei dem Prozessgas um Sauerstoff handelt.
     
    28. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 18 bis 27, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    Einleiten eines weiteren schweren Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgases in den Emitterbereich, wobei das weitere schwere Ionenstrahlerzeugungsgas eine Atommasse von 10 g/mol oder darüber hat.


     
    29. Verfahren zum Betreiben einer fokussierenden Ionenstrahl-Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 18 bis 28, darüber hinaus umfassend:

    Einleiten von Wasserstoff in den Emitterbereich für eine Ätzbetriebsart.


     


    Revendications

    1. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé (100 ; 300 ; 400 ; 500 ; 600 ; 700), comprenant :

    une colonne à faisceau d'ions (16 ; 200) incluant une enceinte (14 ; 614) pour loger un émetteur de source d'ions à champ de gaz (12) comprenant une zone d'émetteur destinée à générer des ions ;

    une première entrée de gaz (110) apte à introduire un premier gaz dans la zone d'émetteur ;

    une deuxième entrée de gaz (112) apte à introduire un deuxième gaz différent du premier gaz dans la zone d'émetteur ;

    caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend

    une lentille d'objectif (20) destinée à focaliser le faisceau d'ions généré à partir du premier gaz ou du deuxième gaz, et

    une unité de commutation (210) apte à commuter entre l'introduction du premier gaz et l'introduction du deuxième gaz.


     
    2. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre :

    une sortie de gaz (120 ; 320 ; 920) raccordée à un système de vide apte à évacuer l'enceinte pendant la commutation entre l'introduction du premier gaz et l'introduction du deuxième gaz.


     
    3. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 2, comprenant en outre :

    une première vanne (418 ; 618) disposée à l'intérieur de la première entrée de gaz et une deuxième vanne (419 ; 619) disposée à l'intérieur de la deuxième entrée de gaz, la première vanne et la deuxième vanne étant commandées par l'unité de commutation.


     
    4. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel la première vanne comporte un premier conduit d'arrivée de gaz vers une arrivée de gaz pour le premier gaz, un premier conduit d'entrée de gaz pour l'introduction du premier gaz dans une chambre (14) et un premier conduit d'évacuation pour le raccordement à au moins un récipient à vide (522 ; 622 ; 623), et dans lequel la deuxième vanne comporte un deuxième conduit d'arrivée de gaz vers une arrivée de gaz pour le deuxième gaz, un deuxième conduit d'entrée de gaz pour l'introduction du deuxième gaz dans la chambre et un deuxième conduit d'évacuation pour le raccordement à l'au moins un récipient à vide.
     
    5. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel la première entrée de gaz comporte un premier tube d'entrée de gaz (910a) et un premier canal d'entrée de gaz (910b) et la deuxième entrée de gaz comporte un deuxième tube d'entrée de gaz (912a) et un deuxième canal d'entrée de gaz (912b).
     
    6. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 5, dans lequel le système de vide inclut un récipient à vide (522 ; 622 ; 623).
     
    7. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, comprenant en outre :

    un déflecteur de balayage (26) disposé dans la colonne à faisceau d'ions et apte à effectuer un balayage de trame d'un faisceau d'ions sur un échantillon (24) ;

    un détecteur (22 ; 722) disposé dans la colonne à faisceau d'ions et adapté pour une détection à résolution temporelle de corpuscules libérés de l'échantillon lors de l'impact du faisceau d'ions ; et

    un contrôleur (210 ; 230) raccordé au déflecteur de balayage et au détecteur.


     
    8. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel la mesure à résolution temporelle est adaptée pour une résolution temporelle de 2 µs ou inférieure à 2 µs.
     
    9. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel l'enceinte est disposée dans une chambre à canon de la colonne à faisceau d'ions.
     
    10. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel l'enceinte a un volume de 5 cm3 ou moins.
     
    11. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, comprenant en outre :

    un spectromètre de masse pour l'identification d'ions ou de particules ionisées libérées de l'échantillon.


     
    12. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 11, comprenant en outre :

    un canon à électrons en abondance disposé dans une zone adjacente à une zone d'échantillon.


     
    13. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, comprenant en outre :

    au moins une troisième entrée de gaz (313) pour l'introduction d'au moins un troisième gaz dans l'enceinte.


     
    14. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 13, comprenant en outre :

    au moins une troisième vanne disposée à l'intérieur de l'au moins une troisième entrée de gaz, commandée par l'unité de commutation.


     
    15. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 14, dans lequel l'au moins une troisième entrée de gaz comporte au moins un troisième tube d'entrée de gaz et au moins un troisième canal d'entrée de gaz.
     
    16. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 15, dans lequel le premier gaz est un gaz léger sélectionné dans le groupe constitué par l'hydrogène et l'hélium, dans lequel le deuxième gaz est un gaz lourd sélectionné dans le groupe constitué par l'argon, le néon, le krypton, et leurs combinaisons.
     
    17. Appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 15, dans lequel le gaz lourd est sélectionné dans le groupe constitué par l'argon, le néon, le krypton, et leurs combinaisons.
     
    18. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé (100 ; 300 ; 400 ; 500 ; 600 ; 700), comprenant :

    la polarisation d'un émetteur à l'intérieur d'une zone d'émetteur dans laquelle des ions sont générés ;

    la commutation entre l'introduction d'un gaz léger générateur de faisceau d'ions dans la zone d'émetteur et d'un gaz lourd générateur de faisceau d'ions dans la zone d'émetteur, le gaz léger étant sélectionné dans le groupe constitué par l'hydrogène et l'hélium et le gaz lourd ayant une masse atomique de 10 g/mol ou plus.


     
    19. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 18, comprenant en outre :

    l'évacuation d'une enceinte entourant la zone d'émetteur.


     
    20. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 18 à 19, dans lequel la commutation inclut la commande d'une première vanne (418 ; 618) disposée à l'intérieur d'une première entrée de gaz (110), et d'une deuxième vanne (419 ; 619) disposée à l'intérieur d'une deuxième entrée de gaz (112).
     
    21. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 18 à 19, comprenant en outre :

    le balayage du faisceau d'ions généré à partir du gaz léger générateur de faisceau d'ions sur un échantillon (24) pour un mode d'observation, et la détection de corpuscules libérés de l'échantillon lors de l'impact du faisceau d'ions à partir du gaz léger générateur de faisceau d'ions pour l'observation de l'échantillon ; et

    la modification de l'échantillon pendant un mode de modification, pendant un temps pendant lequel le gaz lourd générateur de faisceau d'ions est introduit dans la zone d'émetteur.


     
    22. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 21, dans lequel la modification inclut au moins une étape sélectionnée dans le groupe constitué par la pulvérisation et la gravure.
     
    23. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 18 à 22, comprenant en outre :

    la détection de masse de particules ionisées libérées de l'échantillon pendant un temps pendant lequel le gaz lourd générateur de faisceau d'ions est introduit dans la zone d'émetteur.


     
    24. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 23, comprenant en outre :

    l'ionisation de particules libérées de l'échantillon pendant un temps pendant lequel le gaz lourd générateur de faisceau d'ions est introduit dans la zone d'émetteur.


     
    25. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 18 à 24, dans lequel le gaz lourd générateur de faisceau d'ions est sélectionné dans le groupe constitué par l'argon, le néon, le krypton, et leurs combinaisons.
     
    26. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 18 à 25, comprenant en outre :

    l'introduction d'un gaz de traitement dans la zone d'émetteur.


     
    27. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon la revendication 26, dans lequel le gaz de traitement est de l'oxygène.
     
    28. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 18 à 27, comprenant en outre :

    l'introduction d'un gaz lourd générateur de faisceau d'ions supplémentaire dans la zone d'émetteur, le gaz lourd générateur de faisceau d'ions supplémentaire ayant une masse atomique de 10 g/mol ou plus.


     
    29. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un appareil à faisceau d'ions focalisé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 18 à 28, comprenant en outre :

    l'introduction d'hydrogène dans la zone d'émetteur pour un mode de fonctionnement de gravure.


     




    Drawing


















    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description