(19)
(11)EP 2 014 455 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.08.2014 Bulletin 2014/34

(21)Application number: 07380209.2

(22)Date of filing:  13.07.2007
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
B30B 9/30(2006.01)

(54)

Machine for making bales of disgregated material

Maschine zur Formung von Ballen aus desintegriertem Material

Machine pour la fabrication de balles de matériaux désagrégés


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
14.01.2009 Bulletin 2009/03

(73)Proprietor: Amadeo Farell S.A.U.
08211 Castellar del Valles Barcelona (ES)

(72)Inventor:
  • Ribas Blanes, Lorenzo
    08202 Sabadell (Barcelona) (ES)

(74)Representative: Curell Suñol S.L.P. 
Via Augusta 21
08006 Barcelona
08006 Barcelona (ES)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A- 0 677 376
EP-A- 0 894 738
WO-A-00/38908
DD-A1- 228 778
US-A- 5 558 014
EP-A- 0 878 293
EP-A- 1 029 655
WO-A-03/006318
JP-A- 2003 251 498
US-A- 5 694 742
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Aim of the invention



    [0001] This invention relates to machines for making bales of disgregated materials, with the latter term of disgregated materials comprising urban rubbish, waste products and industrial byproducts which, once formed into compact bales, are deposited, forming stable layers, separated by layers of artificial aggregates, in dumps where the products making up said bales are biodegraded in a controllable manner or said bales are stored to be processed or incinerated subsequently.

    State of the art



    [0002] Such bales are made in horizontally arranged pressing machines that comprise a compacting chamber which, with a parallelepiped shape, on one of its medium faces receives, all over its surface, the action of a pressing plate, while on one of its smaller faces, again all over it, the action of an expulsion plate is received, either withstanding the pressure of the bale formation operation, or acting upon said bale to remove it from the compacting chamber and, finally, on another of its smaller faces, the machine has an openable door which opens in the horizontal direction when the compacted bale is expelled.

    [0003] These pressing machines for making bales of disgregated materials usually have a longitudinal structure, which includes a feeding hopper for the compacting chamber and which contains the hydraulic cylinder that drives the pressing plate, at the end of which there is the compacting chamber which, according to the space where the pressing machine is to be installed, the expulsion and bale exit plate equipment, is arranged on one side or the other of said longitudinal structure. This means the machine arrangement is predetermined by the manufacturing order, and therefore the manufacturers of these pressing machines cannot mass produce said machines, and consequently they are more costly.

    [0004] Moreover, when the disgregated material is wet (organic rubbish and waste) liquids are released during the pressing action which means that the chamber and its surrounding areas become damp and are inundated by these squeezed liquids, which can produce rust in the compacting chamber and a polluted atmosphere that is unsuitable for the working environment.

    [0005] Also, as the openable door in the compacting chamber opens in the horizontal direction, this means that, in some cases, the material becomes partially decompacted, and consequently the bale is not acceptable and the material must be returned to the feeding hopper to be compacted again.

    [0006] According to another aspect, with respect to the mass of disgregated material to be compacted in a bale, the problem arises whereby owing to the accidental interlaying of a portion of incompactible mass or the also accidental excess of introduced mass, the pressing plate cannot reach the stopping point, and consequently the process is interrupted, in which case, what normally happens is that the workers undertake the very cumbersome task of unloading the compacting chamber, which implies wasted effort and a considerable reduction in the production rate.

    [0007] Finally, there is also the drawback that between one compact bale, which is at the beginning of the telescopic box, and a bale that is being expelled, a chamber of air is created which produces a variable pushing force against the former by the latter, which varies the precision of the bale strapping.

    [0008] Document EP0677376A1 discloses an apparatus in accordance with the preamble of claim 1 that may be installed in the proximity of a hydraulic press having a bale pressing chamber provided with an outlet port for pressed bales and may be associated with an automatic pressed bale binding appliance. It has a tubular auxiliary chamber formed by a fixed first tubular box, and a moving second tubular box which may slide along the outer surface of the first box. There are guide members and drive means for the sliding of the second box. The tubular auxiliary chamber is provided with open opposite end ports and one of them is facing the outlet port. Between them there is a moving gate.

    [0009] Document EP1029655A2 discloses a compactor for containers containing flowable materials in which the containers are compacted in a compaction chamber and flowable materials from the containers are recovered in a controlled manner as by extrusion from the compaction chamber. The compactor includes a shearing mechanism to assist in controlling the feeding of containers into the compaction chamber and/or the release of the container's contents. The containers are preferably compacted under sufficiently high pressures to rupture the containers and force any flowable materials out of the containers. A collection manifold is preferably provided in sealed communication with the compaction chamber to receive flowable materials extruded from the compaction chamber. A filter or screening mechanism capable of withstanding the pressures generated in the compactor is provided to permit flowable materials to be extruded out of the compaction chamber, yet maintaining the ruptured containers in the compaction chamber. The collection manifold allows flowable materials to be recovered in a sealed, enclosed manner for seal delivery as to gas/liquid and/or solid separators for fractioning of the flowable materials into different fractions for storage.

    [0010] Document US558014 discloses a method and an apparatus for baling loose materials, such as waste material, includes a controllably moveable door assembly. In one embodiment, the door is adapted to open from an initial position to a final position such that the compacted bale can be ejected from the compaction chamber through the opening defined by the open door. In this embodiment, the leading edge portion of the door is moved to a final position in general alignment with the compacting ram platen such that bales of various sizes, including oversized bales, can be readily ejected from the baling apparatus. For example, the leading edge portion of the door can be moved into alignment with or rearward of the compacting ram platen. In another embodiment, the baling apparatus operates in a plug bale mode and includes a door which is urged against an at least partially ejected bale so as to securely hold the plug bale within the opening defined to the compaction chamber during the compaction of a succeeding bale. In particular, the door is partially closed until the speed with which the door is being closed is less than a predetermined speed. Once the speed with which the door is being closed falls below the predetermined speed, further closure of the door is halted and the plug bale is securely held within the opening due to the increased frictional forces provided by the partially closed door.

    [0011] Finally, document WO03/006318A1 discloses a press for forming bales of textile material comprising at least one final pressing station with a standing press comprising one upper pressing plate and one lower pressing plate; said plates are fitted on coaxial coupling attachemnts and turned on the vertical axis with the bale after final pressing; a lateral sheet is unwound from a vertical axis reel and is wrapped laterally on the bale, at least partially, by effect of the rotation of the pressing plates, obtained by the presence of the coupling attachments; cutting means and means for temporary fastening of the ends of the piece of sheet to the plates of the press, for binding are provided.

    Description of the invention



    [0012] In order to overcome such drawbacks, solutions have been adopted that are the object of these improvements and which are defined in the :

    [0013] One characteristic consists in the runoff means for the liquids that flow from the material to be compacted owing to the effect of the pressing action, consist in a plurality of through holes in a resistant plate that forms the lower larger face of said compacting chamber.

    [0014] Another characteristic is that the compact bale expulsion equipment is attached to the flange of the compacting chamber corresponding to the smaller face thereof which is located to the left of the direction in which the pressing plate moves, while the compact bale output equipment, together with the strapping apparatus thereof and the unloading station of the finished bales, is attached to the flange of said compacting chamber corresponding to the smaller face located to the right of the direction in which the pressing plate moves and opposite the expulsion equipment.

    [0015] Another characteristic is that the compact bale expulsion equipment is attached to the flange of the compacting chamber corresponding to the smaller face thereof which is located to the right of the direction in which the pressing plate moves, while the compact bale output equipment, together with the strapping apparatus thereof and the unloading station for the finished bales, is attached to the flange of said compacting chamber corresponding to the smaller face located to the left of the direction in which the pressing plate moves and opposite the expulsion equipment.

    [0016] Another characteristic lies in the fact that the machine, in the event excess material is detected in the compacting chamber by means of the pressure switch that prevents the pressing plate from reaching the stopping point, is provided with auxiliary means which, in the first instance, determine an increased capacity of said compacting chamber according to an expansion volume, at the cost of making the expulsion plate retract, in order to allow excess material to be fed in by driving the pressing plate until it reaches its stopping point set by end stops, at which moment the door, which closes the exit to the chamber while the material making up the bale is compacted, opens, and the expulsion plate is activated, outputting a bale that may be slightly oversized at its largest dimension.

    [0017] A further characteristic is that the machine, in the event that the expansion volume created by retracting the expulsion plate is not enough to absorb the excess material, is provided with means that determine the opening of the output door and, without interrupting the action of the pressing plate, activate the expulsion plate, forming a slightly oversized bale in its largest dimension.

    [0018] The machine may comprise the fact that the compact bale, once it has passed through the strapping apparatus, can be wrapped in an automatic, airtight manner in synthetic plastics sheeting.

    [0019] A further characteristic is that the compact, strapped bale wrapped in an airtight manner in impermeable synthetic plastics sheeting forms a 3-dimensional body that is 1800 cm long, 1250 cm wide and 1350 cm high.

    [0020] Finally, also, it has been envisaged that under the resistant plate provided with runoff through holes there is a conveyor belt for waste products and/or a collector for the liquids flowing through said through holes, all as a result of the actual pressing action performed by the pressing plate, which takes said liquids to a purification and/or recovery system, where appropriate, or directly to a legal dumping site.

    Brief description of the drawings



    [0021] In order to facilitate the understanding of the preceding ideas, there follows a description of a preferred embodiment of the invention, with reference to the accompanying illustrative drawings, in which:

    Figure 1, shows, in a simplified perspective view, an embodiment of a compacting chamber in a pressing machine provided with the improvements of the invention.

    Figure 2, is a sectional view in a horizontal plane showing the bottom wall of the compacting chamber.

    Figure 3, is a diagrammatic, exploded plan view of a pressing machine provided with the improvements of the invention, which shows the longitudinal structure separately, which comprises the compacting chamber, the pressing plate, the hopper and the driving means, the expulsion equipment and the output equipment.

    Figure 4, shows a similar view to the preceding figure, illustrating the three operative components of the machine in one of the two possible relative positions of the overall unit.

    Figure 5, shows, in a similar view to the preceding figures, another of the two relative positions of the overall unit.

    Figure 6, shows a diagrammatic representation of the pressing of a normal bale, when the pressing plate has still not reached the stopping point.

    Figure 7, shows a similar view to the preceding figure, when the pressing plate has reached its stopping point, the openable door has opened upwards and the action of the expulsion plate has started to move the compact bale towards the output equipment and the strapping apparatus.

    Figure 8 is a similar view to Figures 6 and 7, showing the situation where excess disgregated material does not allow the pressing plate to reach its stopping point, whereby the machine becomes blocked.

    Figure 9 shows in a similar view to the preceding figures, a possible solution of provisionally increasing the compacting chamber capacity by partially retracting the expulsion plate.

    Figure 10, shows, continuing on from the preceding figure, when the pressing plate has reached its stopping point and a slightly longer bale than normal has been obtained.

    Figure 11, shows, similar to Figure 8, the situation when the amount of excess material is greater than the amount that can be absorbed by the movement of the expulsion plate, whereby the openable door opens to allow the bale to expand longitudinally.

    Figure 12, shows, similar to preceding figures, the moment in Figure 11 when the bale that is longer than normal is expelled.

    Figure 13, shows, a perspective view, of the mouth of the telescopic box that backs onto the openable door of the compacting chamber.


    Description of some embodiments of the invention



    [0022] Figure 1 shows a compacting chamber 1 of a pressing machine of which only part of the longitudinal structure 2 thereof can be seen, where the pressing plate with its cylinder and hydraulic equipment is housed and the feeding hopper is located.

    [0023] As can be seen in Figure 1, said compacting chamber 1 has a parallelepiped shape, with one medium inner face 3 which is open and on which the pressing plate acts, two smaller faces with respective frames 4 acting as flanges, a lower larger face 5 made up of a flat plate provided with runoff holes 6, a larger top face 7 and a medium outer face 8, with the latter two faces having a lattice structure in this figure.

    [0024] Figure 2 shows the plate forming lower larger face 5 of the compacting chamber with its runoff holes 6 and the mouth of medium inner face 3.

    [0025] Figure 3 shows, in the centre, the longitudinal structure 2, with the hopper 9 and the hydraulic unit 10 for driving the pressing plate, at the top thereof, the output equipment 11 is illustrated and at the bottom the expulsion equipment 12. Openable door 13 can be seen in the compacting chamber.

    [0026] Figures 3 and 4 shows that said output 11 and expulsion 12 equipment can be placed to the right or to the left of longitudinal structure 2, whereby the three cited elements can be manufactured independently and then during the factory assembly they can be attached according to the space available.

    [0027] Figure 6 shows the normal compacting operation of a normal volume of disgregated material 14, where expulsion plate 15 is stationary, pressing plate 16 is compressing and openable door 13 is closed.

    [0028] Once the pressing plate reaches the end stops 17 it reaches the stopping point, whereby openable door 13 opens and expulsion plate 15 is moved, as illustrated in Figure 8, which determines that bale 18, recently compacted, pushes previous bales 18 through the inside of telescopic box 19 and acts upon the bale 18 that projects most from the strapping apparatus 20, producing a new bale 18A on loading platform 21 ready for transporting.

    [0029] Figure 8 shows the case of compacting disgregated material that has an excess volume 14A while it is being compacted, which is greater than the normal capacity of compacting chamber 1, which excess volume 14A is determined by expulsion plate 15, the larger top and bottom and medium outer faces of chamber 1 and the pressing plate 16 which cannot reach the stopping point set by end stops 17.

    [0030] Under these circumstances, where the pressing machine has two pressed bales 18 in its telescopic box 19, strapping apparatus 20 and loading platform 21, the solution is adopted whereby expulsion plate 15 is retracted, as shown in Figure 9, to create an auxiliary space 22 which can house the whole excess volume 14A and to enable pressing plate 16 to reach the stopping point set by end stops 17, as shown in Figure 10, at which point openable door 13 is raised and the situations shown in Figures 6 and 7 are reached, with an extra long bale 14A.

    [0031] Figure 11 shows the case of Figure 8 where space 22 gained by retracting expulsion plate 15 is not enough for excess volume 14B, in which case openable door 13 is raised and the pressing plate is taken to end stops 17, as shown in Figure 12, at which point expulsion plate 15 will move the mass of excess volume 14B towards the outside, without forming a bale or strapping it, where the disgregated material will be returned to hopper 9 thereby removing the obstacle that was preventing the bale from being compacted.

    [0032] At all events, plate 5 with its runoff holes 6 will enable the squeezed liquids to be removed and collected in a collecting device that takes them to a legal drain.

    [0033] Frames 4 provided on the smaller faces of compacting chamber 1 act as flanges that enable expulsion 12 and output 11 equipment to be attached with screws.

    [0034] Figure 13 shows a mouth 23 of telescopic box 19, which is the one that backs onto openable door 13 of compacting chamber 1, and in which through holes 24 are provided, preferably slot type holes, which allow the volume of air contained between a last bale 18 that has been compacted and expelled from compacting chamber 1, which is contained inside said telescopic box 11, and a recently compacted bale 14 that is being introduced into said telescopic box 11.

    [0035] Means have been provided, as shown in Figure 1, for collecting the liquids released as the bales are compacted and taking them to a legal dump and/or to a purifying plant, such as, for example, collection tray 25 and drain duct 26 shown in dotted lines in said Figure 1. Similarly, and even simultaneously, a conveyor belt can be provided for the solid waste released via the through holes of compacting chamber 1.


    Claims

    1. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, comprising a compacting chamber (1) having a parallelepiped shape having a lower and an upper larger faces (5, 7), an inner and an outer medium faces (3, 8) and a first and a second smaller faces, said compacting chamber (1) receiving on one of its medium faces (3), the action of a pressing plate (16), while, on one of its smaller faces, said chamber (1) is subjected to the action of an expulsion plate (15) and, finally, on its other smaller face, it has a door (13) openable when the compacted bale (18) is expelled, said bale (18) being immediately introduced into a telescopic box (19) located between said openable door (13) and a strapping apparatus (20),
    characterized in that

    a.- the lower larger face (5) of the compacting chamber (1) is made up of a flat surface provided with runoff means for the liquids contained in the material to be compacted and that flow during the pressing operation;

    b.- each smaller face of the compacting chamber (1) has an identical frame (4) arrangement which, acting as an attachment flange, allows a compacted bale (18) expulsion equipment (12) and a bale output equipment (11), the latter comprising the shaping telescopic box (19), a strapping apparatus (20) and a waiting station for unloading the finished bales (18), to be connected indifferently to the machine;

    c.- the output door (13) is arranged so that it only moves in the vertical direction irrespective of whether the pressing plate (16) has reached a stopping point set by end stops (17);

    d.- the expulsion plate (15) is retractable to create an auxiliary space (22) to enable pressing plate (16) to reach the stopping point set by end stops (17) so that the capacity of the compacting chamber (1) is variable according to a possible excess in the introduced mass to be compacted, corresponding to a normal bale (18); and

    e.- the telescopic box (19) has on at least one of its walls and/or bottom wall or roof through holes (24) located adjacent to the openable door (13).


     
    2. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, according to the preceding claim, characterized in that the runoff means for the liquids, flowing from the material to be compacted owing to the effect of the pressing action, consist in a plurality of through holes (6) in a flat plate forming the flat surface of the lower larger face (5) of said compacting chamber (1).
     
    3. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, according to claim 1, characterized in that the compact bale (18) expulsion equipment (12) is attached to the flange of the compacting chamber (1) corresponding to the first smaller face thereof that is located to the left of the direction in which the pressing plate (16) moves, while the compact bale output equipment (11), together with the strapping apparatus (20) thereof and the unloading station for the finished bales (18), is attached to the flange of said compacting chamber (1) corresponding to the second smaller face located to the right of the direction in which the pressing plate (16) moves and opposite the expulsion equipment (12).
     
    4. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, according to claim 1, characterized in that the compact bale (18) expulsion equipment (12) is attached to the flange of the compacting chamber (1) corresponding to the second smaller face thereof that is located to the right of the direction in which the pressing plate (16) moves, while the compact bale output equipment (11), together with the strapping apparatus (20) thereof and the unloading station for the finished bales (18), is attached to the flange of said compacting chamber (1) corresponding to the first smaller face located to the left of the direction in which the pressing plate (16) moves and opposite the expulsion equipment.
     
    5. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, according to claim 1, characterized in that the machine, in the event the presence of excess material is detected in the compacting chamber (1) by a pressure switch that prevents the pressing plate (16) from reaching the stopping point, is provided with auxiliary means which, in first instance, determine an increased capacity in the said compacting chamber (1) according to an expansion volume, at the cost of retracting the expulsion plate, in order to allow the excess material to be introduced by driving the pressing plate (16) until it reaches its stopping point set by end stops, at which moment the door, which closes the outlet of the chamber (1) while the material making up a bale is compacted, opens, and the expulsion plate is activated, outputting one bale that may be slightly oversized in its largest dimension.
     
    6. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, according to claim 1, characterized in that the machine, if the expansion volume created by retracting the expulsion plate is not enough to absorb the excess material, is provided with means that determine the opening of the outlet door and, without interrupting the action of the pressing plate (16), activate the expulsion plate, forming a slightly oversized bale in its largest dimension.
     
    7. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, according to claim 1, characterized in that the compact bale, once it has gone through the strapping apparatus (20), is wrapped in a airtight manner in synthetic plastics sheeting.
     
    8. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, according to claim 1, characterized in that the compacted, strapped bale that is wrapped in a airtight manner in an impermeable, synthetic plastics sheeting forms a 3-dimensional body that is 1800 cm long, 1250 cm wide and 1350 cm high.
     
    9. Machine for making bales (18) of disgregated materials, according to claim 2, characterized in that under the flat plate provided with the runoff through holes there is a conveyor belt and/or a collector (25) for the flowing liquids, all as a result of the pressing action performed by the pressing plate (16), which takes said liquids to a recovery or purifying system, as appropriate or, directly, to a legal dump.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien, umfassend eine Verdichtungskammer (1), die eine Parallelepiped-Form mit einer unteren und einer oberen größeren Fläche (5, 7), einer inneren und einer äußeren mittleren Fläche (3, 8) und einer ersten und einer zweiten kleineren Fläche, aufweist, wobei die Verdichtungskammer (1) an einer ihrer mittleren Flächen (3) die Tätigkeit einer Pressplatte (16) aufnimmt, während an einer ihrer kleineren Flächen die Kammer (1) der Tätigkeit einer Ausstoßplatte (15) ausgesetzt ist, und sie schließlich an ihrer anderen kleineren Fläche eine Tür (13) aufweist, die geöffnet werden kann, wenn der verdichtete Ballen (18) ausgestoßen wird, wobei der Ballen (18) umgehend in eine Teleskop-Box (19) eingebracht wird, die zwischen der Tür (13), die geöffnet werden kann, und einer Umreifungseinrichtung (20) platziert ist,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

    a.- die untere größere Fläche (5) der Verdichtungskammer (1) aus einer flachen Oberfläche besteht, die mit Ablaufmitteln für die Flüssigkeiten versehen ist, die in dem Material, das zu verdichten ist, enthalten sind und die während des Pressvorgangs fließen;

    b.- jede kleinere Fläche der Verdichtungskammer (1) eine identische Rahmen (4)-Anordnung aufweist, die, als ein Befestigungs-Flansch wirkend, es einer Verdichtete-Ballen (18)-Ausstoßausrüstung (12) und einer Ballen-Ausgabeausrüstung (11), wobei Letztere die Formgebungs-Teleskop-Box (19), eine Umreifungseinrichtung (20) und eine Wartestation zur Entladung der fertigen Ballen (18) umfasst, ermöglicht, indifferent mit der Maschine verbunden zu werden;

    c.- die Ausgabetür (13) so angeordnet ist, dass sie sich nur in die vertikale Richtung bewegt, unabhängig davon, ob die Pressplatte (16) einen Haltepunkt, der durch Endanschläge (17) bestimmt ist, erreicht hat;

    d.- die Ausstoßplatte (15) zurückziehbar ist, um einen Hilfsraum (22) zu erzeugen, um der Pressplatte (16) zu ermöglichen, den Haltepunkt, der durch Endanschläge (17) bestimmt ist, zu erreichen, so dass die Kapazität der Verdichtungskammer (1), gemäß einem möglichen Überschuss in der eingebrachten Masse, die zu verdichten ist, entsprechend einem normalen Ballen (18), variabel ist; und

    e.- die Teleskop-Box (19) auf mindestens einer ihrer Wände und/oder ihrer unteren Wand oder ihrem Dach Durchgangsöffnungen (24) aufweist, die neben der Tür (13), die geöffnet werden kann, liegen.


     
    2. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien nach dem vorhergehenden Anspruch, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Ablaufmittel für die Flüssigkeiten, die von dem Material, das zu verdichten ist, aufgrund des Effektes der Presstätigkeit fließen, in einer Vielzahl von Durchgangsöffnungen (6) in einer flachen Platte bestehen, die die flache Oberfläche der unteren größeren Fläche (5) der Verdichtungskammer (1) ausbildet.
     
    3. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Verdichtete-Ballen (18)-Ausstoßausrüstung (12) an dem Flansch der Verdichtungskammer (1) angebracht ist, der deren ersten kleineren Fläche entspricht, die links von der Richtung, in der sich die Pressplatte (16) bewegt, liegt, während die Verdichtete-Ballen-Ausgabeausrüstung (11) zusammen mit deren Umreifungseinrichtung (20) und der Entladestation für die fertigen Ballen (18) an dem Flansch der Verdichtungskammer (1) angebracht ist, der der zweiten kleineren Fläche entspricht, die rechts von der Richtung, in der sich die Pressplatte (16) bewegt, und gegenüber der Ausstoßausrüstung (12) liegt.
     
    4. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Verdichtete-Ballen (18)-Ausstoßausrüstung (12) an dem Flansch der Verdichtungskammer (1) angebracht ist, der deren zweiten kleineren Fläche entspricht, die rechts von der Richtung, in der sich die Pressplatte (16) bewegt, liegt, während die Verdichtete-Ballen-Ausgabeausrüstung (11) zusammen mit deren Umreifungseinrichtung (20) und der Entladestation für die fertigen Ballen (18), an dem Flansch der Verdichtungskammer (1) angebracht ist, der der ersten kleineren Fläche entspricht, die links von der Richtung, in der sich die Pressplatte (16) bewegt, und gegenüber der Ausstoßausrüstung liegt.
     
    5. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Maschine, falls die Anwesenheit von Überschussmaterial in der Verdichtungskammer (1) durch einen Druckschalter detektiert wird, der verhindert, dass die Pressplatte (16) den Haltepunkt erreicht, mit Hilfsmitteln versehen ist, die in erster Linie eine erhöhte Kapazität in der Verdichtungskammer (1), gemäß einem Expansionsvolumen, zu Lasten des Zurückziehens der Ausstoßplatte, bestimmen, um zu ermöglichen, dass das Überschussmaterial durch Antreiben der Pressplatte (16) bis sie ihren Haltepunkt erreicht, der durch Endanschläge bestimmt ist, eingebracht wird, wobei sich zu diesem Zeitpunkt die Tür, die den Auslass der Kammer (1) schließt, während das Material, das einen Ballen bildet, verdichtet wird, öffnet, und die Ausstoßplatte aktiviert wird, wobei ein Ballen, der in seiner größten Dimension leicht überdimensioniert sein kann, ausgegeben wird.
     
    6. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Maschine, falls das Expansionsvolumen, das durch Zurückziehen der Ausstoßplatte erzeugt wird, nicht ausreicht, um das Überschussmaterial aufzunehmen, mit Mitteln versehen ist, die die Öffnung der Auslasstür bestimmen und, ohne Unterbrechung der Tätigkeit der Pressplatte (16), die Ausstoßplatte aktivieren, wodurch ein leicht überdimensionierter Ballen in seiner größten Dimension gebildet wird.
     
    7. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der verdichtete Ballen in einer luftdichten Art in synthetischer Kunststofffolie eingewickelt wird, sobald er die Umreifungseinrichtung (20) durchlaufen hat.
     
    8. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der verdichtete, umreifte Ballen, der in einer luftdichten Art in einer undurchlässigen, synthetischen Kunststofffolie eingewickelt ist, einen 3-dimensionalen Körper bildet, der 1800 cm lang, 1250 cm breit und 1350 cm hoch ist.
     
    9. Maschine zur Herstellung von Ballen (18) aus verteilten Materialien nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sich unter der flachen Platte, die mit den Ablauf-Durchgangsöffnungen versehen ist, ein Förderband und/oder ein Kollektor (25) für die fließenden Flüssigkeiten, alle als Folge der Presstätigkeit, die von der Pressplatte (16) durchgeführt wird, befindet, das/der die Flüssigkeiten zu einem Wiedergewinnungs- oder Reinigungssystem, je nachdem, was geeignet ist, oder direkt zu einer legalen Deponie führt.
     


    Revendications

    1. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés, comprenant une chambre de compactage (1) présentant une forme parallélépipédique ayant des faces inférieure et supérieure plus grandes (5, 7), des faces intérieure et extérieure moyennes (3, 8) et des première et deuxième faces plus petites, ladite chambre de compactage (1) recevant, sur l'une de ses faces moyennes (3), l'action d'une plaque de pression (16) alors que, sur l'une de ses faces plus petites, ladite chambre (1) est soumise à l'action d'une plaque d'expulsion (15) et enfin, sur son autre face plus petite, elle comporte une porte (13) ouvrable lorsque la balle compactée (18) est expulsée, ladite balle (18) étant immédiatement introduite dans une boîte télescopique (19) située entre ladite porte ouvrable (13) et un appareil de liage (20), caractérisée en ce que

    a.- la face inférieure plus grande (5) de la chambre de compactage (1) est constituée d'une surface plate pourvue de moyens de ruissellement pour les liquides contenus dans le matériau à compacter et qui s'écoulent au cours de l'opération de pression ;

    b.- chaque face plus petite de la chambre de compactage (1) a un agencement de cadre identique (4) qui, en agissant en tant que bride d'attachement, permet à un équipement d'expulsion (12) de balle compactée (18) et à un équipement de sortie de balles (11), ce dernier comprenant la boîte télescopique de façonnage (19),à un appareil de liage (20) et à une station d'attente pour décharger les balles finies (18), d'être reliés indifféremment à la machine ;

    c.- la porte de sortie (13) est agencée de sorte qu'elle ne se déplace que dans le sens vertical, que la plaque de pression (16) ait atteint ou pas un point d'arrêt fixé par des butées (17) ;

    d.- la plaque d'expulsion (15) est rétractable pour créer un espace auxiliaire (22) pour permettre à la plaque de pression (16) d'atteindre le point d'arrêt fixé par les butées (17) de sorte que la capacité de la chambre de compactage (1) soit variable en fonction d'un excédent possible de la masse introduite à compacter, correspondant à une balle normale (18) ; et

    e.- la boîte télescopique (19) présente sur au moins l'une de ses parois et/ou une paroi inférieure ou un toit des trous traversants (24) adjacents à la porte ouvrable (13).


     
    2. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés selon la revendication précédente, caractérisée en ce que les moyens de ruissellement pour les liquides s'écoulant du matériau à compacter sous l'effet de l'action de pression se composent d'une pluralité de trous traversants (6) dans une plaque plate formant la surface plate de la face inférieure plus grande (5) de ladite chambre de compactage (1).
     
    3. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que l'équipement d'expulsion (12) de balle compacte (18) est attaché à la bride de la chambre de compactage (1) correspondant à la première face plus petite de celle-ci qui est située à gauche du sens de déplacement de la plaque de pression (16), alors que l'équipement de sortie de balle compacte (11), avec l'appareil de liage (20) de celle-ci et la station de déchargement pour les balles finies (18), est attaché à la bride de ladite chambre de compactage (1) correspondant à la deuxième face plus petite située à droite du sens de déplacement de la plaque de pression (16) et à l'opposé de l'équipement d'expulsion (12).
     
    4. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que l'équipement d'expulsion (12) de balle compacte (18) est attaché à la bride de la chambre de compactage (1) correspondant à la deuxième face plus petite de celle-ci qui est située à droite du sens de déplacement de la plaque de pression (16), alors que l'équipement de sortie de balle compacte (11), avec l'appareil de liage (20) de celle-ci et la station de déchargement pour les balles finies (18), est attaché à la bride de ladite chambre de compactage (1) correspondant à la première face plus petite située à gauche du sens de déplacement de la plaque de pression (16) et à l'opposé de l'équipement d'expulsion.
     
    5. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que la machine, dans le cas où la présence d'un excédent de matériau est détectée dans la chambre de compactage (1) par un manostat qui empêche que la plaque de pression (16) n'atteigne le point d'arrêt, est pourvue de moyens auxiliaires qui, dans un premier cas, déterminent une capacité accrue dans ladite chambre de compactage (1) en fonction d'un volume d'expansion, au détriment du retrait de la plaque d'expulsion, afin de permettre l'introduction de l'excédent de matériau en entraînant la plaque de pression (16) jusqu'à ce qu'elle atteigne son point d'arrêt fixé par les butées, et à ce stade la porte, qui ferme la sortie de la chambre (1) pendant que le matériau constituant une balle est compacté, s'ouvre et la plaque d'expulsion est activée, en délivrant une balle qui peut être légèrement surdimensionnée dans sa dimension la plus grande.
     
    6. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que la machine, si le volume d'expansion créé par le retrait de la plaque d'expulsion n'est pas suffisant pour absorber l'excédent de matériau, est pourvue de moyens qui déterminent l'ouverture de la porte de sortie et, sans interruption de l'action de la plaque de pression (16), activent la plaque d'expulsion, en formant une balle légèrement surdimensionnée dans sa dimension la plus grande.
     
    7. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que la balle compacte, après avoir traversé l'appareil de liage (20), est enveloppée d'une manière hermétique à l'air dans une bâche en plastique synthétique.
     
    8. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés selon la revendication 1, caractérisée en ce que la balle liée compactée qui est enveloppée d'une manière hermétique à l'air dans une bâche en plastique synthétique imperméable forme un corps tridimensionnel d'une longueur de 1 800 cm, d'une largeur de 1 250 cm et d'une hauteur de 1 350 cm.
     
    9. Machine pour la fabrication de balles (18) de matériaux désagrégés selon la revendication 2, caractérisée en ce que, sous la plaque plate pourvue des trous traversants de ruissellement, il se trouve un tapis roulant et/ou un collecteur (25) pour les liquides s'écoulant sous l'effet de l'action de pression effectuée par la plaque de pression (16), qui amènent lesdits liquides dans un système de récupération ou de purification, selon ce qui est approprié, ou directement dans une décharge publique.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description