(19)
(11)EP 2 068 838 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
11.04.2012 Bulletin 2012/15

(21)Application number: 07818184.9

(22)Date of filing:  17.09.2007
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 9/16(2006.01)
A61K 31/60(2006.01)
A61K 9/20(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2007/008070
(87)International publication number:
WO 2008/031623 (20.03.2008 Gazette  2008/12)

(54)

PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS COMPRISING CLOPIDOGREL

PHARMAZEUTISCHE FORMULIERUNGEN MIT CLOPIDOGREL

FORMULATIONS PHARMACEUTIQUES CONTENANT DU CLOPIDOGREL


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 16.09.2006 EP 06019429

(43)Date of publication of application:
17.06.2009 Bulletin 2009/25

(60)Divisional application:
11003617.5 / 2359810

(73)Proprietor: Acino Pharma AG
4253 Liesberg (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • REY, Hélène
    FR-68128 Rosenau (FR)
  • FISCHER, Marc
    CH-4106 Therwil (CH)
  • SCHEER, Mathias
    79664 Wehr (DE)

(74)Representative: Henkel, Breuer & Partner 
Patentanwälte Erika-Mann Strasse 23
80636 München
80636 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 161 956
WO-A2-2004/072085
US-A- 4 847 265
EP-A1- 1 900 358
FR-A1- 2 792 836
  
  • DATABASE CA [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; MATSUMOTO, TAKAHIRO ET AL: "Pharmaceutical tablets prevented from delayed disintegration" XP002421170 retrieved from STN Database accession no. 123:17941 -& JP 07 089875 A (DAIICHI SEIYAKU CO, JAPAN) 4 April 1995 (1995-04-04)
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to certain pharmaceutical formulations comprising clopidogrel or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, processes for their manufacture and their use in a method of treating warm-blooded animals, including preferably mammals and especially humans.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Clopidogrel is methyl (+)-(S)-alpha-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5-acetate (= d-enantiomer) of the following formula:



[0003] It is marketed in the form of its bisulfate by Sanofi under the trade name PLAVIX® (INN: clopidogrel bisulfate), inter alia as an antiplatelet drug.

[0004] The racemic form of clopidogrel of the formula

in which the C* is an asymmetric carbon atom in both (R)- and (S)-configuration, and its pharmaceutically acceptable salts are described in US 4,529,596 and EP 099 802.

[0005] The dextro-rotatory enantiomer (= d-enantiomer) of methyl alpha-5-(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro(3,2-c)thieno-pyridyl)-(2-chlorophenyl)-acetate and certain of its pharmaceutically acceptable salts, like especially its bisulfate, are described in US 4,847,265 and EP 0 281 459.

[0006] According to US 4,847,265 many salts of clopidogrel have the drawback of being hygroscopic and difficult to handle on an industrial scale, and their purification proved to be difficult. EP 1 310 245 mentions that magnesium stearate should not be used as a lubricant together with clopidogrel because generally there is an interaction between clopidrogrel bisulphate and magnesium stearate causing degradation and instability of clopidogrel tablets which contain magnesium stearate.

[0007] WO 2004/072085 A discloses the preparation of stable crystalline forms of sulfonic acid salts of clopidogrel, e.g. clopidogrel besylate. It also shows preparations having clopidogrel adsorbed onto solid excipients.

[0008] EP 1 900 358 A, which is prior art under Article 54(3) EPC, discloses melt granulates of clopidogrel. Further melt granulates of clopidogrel are disclosed in FR 2 792 836 A, JP 2002-234832 A and EP 1 161 956 A.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0009] It has now surprisingly been found how the above-mentioned drawback can be overcome. According to the present invention clopidogrel and its pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts can be stabilized in pharmaceutical formulations comprising melt granulates.

[0010] The present invention therefore provides a method of making a melt granulate being a solid state dispersion of a drug in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, comprising as a pharmaceutically active compound clopidogrel besylate or clopidogrel hydrochloride, wherein
  1. (i) the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is mixed with the pharmaceutically active compound to form an intimate mixture,
  2. (ii) the obtained mixture is then heated at or near the temperature of the melting point of the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier- but below the melting point of the pharmaceutically active compound, thus forming a melt, and
  3. (iii) the obtained melt is then cooled rapidly by adding solid carbon dioxide or liquefied air to the dispersion to provide a congealed mass which thereupon breaks apart into many small particles.


[0011] As shown in the Detailed Description of Experiments hereinafter, the stabilizing effect of the melt granulate formulations is so pronounced that it allows using also those pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts of clopidogrel which have been described in US 4,847,265 as being unsuitable, e.g. the salt with benzenesulfonic acid, i.e. the besylate. Even more surprisingly, the stabilizing effect of the melt granulate formulations is especially pronounced for clopidogrel salt batches of bad quality. This is especially valuable for salts the purification of which proves to be difficult. For example, as evident from Table 2 in Example 10 herein clopidogrel hydrochloride contains after storage for 30 days at 40°C and 75% relative humidity nearly twice as much impurities than the clopidogrel hydrochloride stabilized in the melt granulates of the present invention. Hence, the formation of the melt granulates of the present invention surprisingly markedly reduces degradation of clopidogrel and its salts on storage.

[0012] The acid addition salts of clopidogrel which can be stabilized according to the present invention are those with hydrochloric acid, and benzenesulfonic acid.

[0013] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" as used herein refers to salts which are known to be non-toxic and are commonly used in the pharmaceutical literature. Such pharmaceutically acceptable salts thus include acetate, phenylacetate, trifluoroacetate, acrylate, ascorbate, benzoate, chlorobenzoate, dinitrobenzoate, hydroxybenzoate, methoxybenzoate, methylbenzoate, o-acetoxybenzoate, naphthalene-2-benzoate, bromide, isobutyrate, phenylbutyrate, beta hydroxybutyrate, chloride, cinnamate, citrate, formate, fumarate, glycolate, heptanoate, lactate, maleate, hydroxymaleate, malonate, nitrate, oxalate, phthalate, phosphate, monohydrogenphosphate, dihydrogenphosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, propionate, phenylpropionate, salicylate, succinate, sulfate, bisulfate (hydrogensulfate), pyrosulfate, sulfite, bisulfite, sulfonate, p-bromophenylsulfonate, chlorobenzenesulfonate, ethanesulfonate, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate, methanesulfonate (mesylate), naphthalene-1- sulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate, p-toluenesulfonate (tosylate), xylenesulfonate, tartarate, and the like. Preferred salts are the hydrochloride (chloride) and the benzenesulfonate (besylate).

[0014] These salts are prepared in a standard manner, for example by the action of the corresponding acid on clopidogrel base in solution in a solvent from which they precipitate spontaneously or after addition of a non-solvent of the salt.

[0015] The term "melt granulate" as used herein defines a solid state dispersion of the active ingredient, i.e. clopidogrel or its pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts, i.e. the "drug", in an inert or pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or matrix prepared by a melting (fusion) method. The dispersion of the active ingredient in a solid carrier or diluent by traditional mechanical mixing is not included within the definition of this term.

[0016] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable excipients" as used herein defines the excipients which may be added to the melt or later to the solid state dispersion of the drug in the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, i.e. to the melt granulate, e.g. for tabletting.

[0017] As used herein, the term "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" refers preferably to suitable polyethylene glycols (PEGs) as defined herein below. Further carriers which can be used in accordance with the present invention include e.g. Compritol 888 ATO. Compritol [trade mark] is designated in The National Formulary (NF) as glyceryl behenate, and according to the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients [INCI] as Tribehenin. It is obtainable for example from the company Gatte-fossé. Compritol is a mixture of esters of glycerol with C16-C22 fatty acids, mainly with C22 fatty acid, i.e. behenic acid.

[0018] Polyethylene glycols, also called macrogols, are manufactured by polymerization of ethylene oxide with either water, monoethylene glycol or diethylene glycol under alkaline catalysis. After the desired molecular weight is reached (according to viscosity measurements) the reaction is terminated by neutralizing the catalyst with an acid. The result are molecules of the structure HO-[CH2-CH2-O]n-H wherein n is the number of ethylene oxide units.

[0019] As an abbreviation for polyethylene glycols the term "PEG" is used in combination with a numerical value which, within the pharmaceutical industry, indicates the mean molecular weight. Unfortunately, the various Parmacopeias use different nomenclature for some PEG molecular weights. The molecular weights cited herein are in accordance with the European (2002) and US Pharmacopeias. The hardness of PEGs increases with increasing molecular weight, however the melting range goes up to a maximum value of about 60°C only. The most important property of all PEGs is their solubility in water. The lower PEGs up to a molecular weight below about 2000 are hygroscopic. PEGs can be obtained for example from the company Clariant, Switzerland.

[0020] Suitable PEGs for the manufacture of melt granulates according to the present invention have a molecular weight from about 1500 to 35000. Preferred are PEGs having a molecular weight from about 2000 to 20000, especially from about 4000 to 20000, more especially from about 4000 to 10000, e.g. 6000.

[0021] In this sense, the method of the present invention provides a melt granulate, i.e. a pharmaceutical composition in the form of a solid state dispersion of the drug in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, said melt granulate comprising a pharmaceutically active compound, i.e. clopidogrel, at least one carrier material, and optionally pharmaceutically acceptable excipients.

[0022] Usually, the general method for preparation of a solid dispersion proceeds by a fusion process wherein a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is mixed with the drug to form an intimate mixture. The mixture is heated at or near the temperature of the melting point of the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, thus forming a melt. However, the mixture is heated sufficiently below the melting point of the pharmaceutically active compound, i.e. clopidogrel, in order to avoid any decomposition of the compound. The molten mixture is then cooled rapidly to provide a congealed mass which may subsequently be milled to produce a powder.

[0023] Lastly, the process proceeds by cooling the molten homogeneous melt to form a solid state dispersion. Cooling is effected by shock cooling, for example by adding, in a high shear mixer, dry ice, i.e. solid carbon dioxide having a temperature of about -78°C, preferably in the form of a kind of snow ("dry snow"), or liquefied air, preferably solid carbon dioxide, to the dispersion which thereupon breaks apart into many small particles which are sieved, e.g. through 1-2 mm. If cooling is carried out slowly, the average particle size obtained generally is too large so that subquent milling of the product is required. It was surprising to find that the addition of solid carbon dioxide or liquefied air to the melt yielded the required average particle size without destabilizing the active product.

[0024] The ratio of the drug to the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier can be varied over a wide range and depends on the concentration of the drug required in the pharmaceutical dosage form ultimately administered. However, the preferred range of the drug in the solid dispersion is about 10% to 90% of the total solid dispersion weight, more preferable is about 20% to 90%, even more preferable is about 40% to 90%, especially about 50% to 90%, e.g. 50, 60, 70 or 80%, of the total dispersion weight.

[0025] Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients include diluents resp. fillers (e.g. Pharmatose® DCL 11), binders, disintegrants (e.g. Explocel®), coloring agents, flavoring agents, lubricants (e.g. Cutina®HR, a hydrated castor oil, or e.g. magnesium stearate) and/or preservatives. The excipients may be added to the melt or later to the solid state dispersion of the drug, e.g. for tabletting resp. compressing.

[0026] The pharmaceutical composition may be formulated by conventional methods of admixture such as blending, filling, granulation and compressing.

[0027] Besides acting as carriers for the active ingredient, PEGs also act as lubricants and binders during the tablet processing and solid PEGs are also frequently used in tablet coatings. These other uses of PEGs are distinguishable and have to be clearly distinguished from the use in the formation of melt granulates.

[0028] The medicine of the invention can be made available for oral administration for example in the form of tablets, which may be coated, like e.g. sugar-coated, or capsules.

[0029] The melt granulates and pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be used to treat warm-blooded animals, including mammals and humans, for the same indications which can be treated by PLAVIX, e.g. on account of its interesting inhibitory properties towards platelet aggregation and its interference in the mechanism of formation of arterial and venous thromboses. The medicine of the invention can be usefully administered in the treatment and prevention of platelet disorders, including for example also those due to extracoporeal blood circuits or the consequence of complications in atheroma.

[0030] Mainly, the melt granulates of the present invention may be used for the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions for reduction of atherothrombotic events in case of recent myocardial infarction, recent stroke, established peripheral arterial disease, and acute coronary syndrome.

[0031] The composition is usually presented as a unit dose composition containing from 30 to 100 mg, more usually from 60 to 90 mg, preferably 75 mg of clopidogrel. Such composition is normally administered once daily to a warm-blooded animal, including a human, of about 70 kg body weight, or as recommended for PLAVIX. As usual, the exact dose to be administered depends inter alia on the age, health and weight of the recipient; the nature and extent of the symptoms; the kind of concurrent treatment; the frequency of treatment; and the effect desired. The treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome should be initiated with a single 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel and then continued at 75 mg once daily. In addition, Aspirin and/or heparin may be administered. The following examples are not according to the present invention.

Abbreviations:



[0032] 

rpm: rounds per minute

s: second(s)


Example 1 (melt granulate consisting of 10 % by weight of PEG 6000 and 90% of clopidogrel besylate)



[0033] Melt 22.4 g of PEG 6000 using a hot plate, until it has reached 80°C. Place 201.3 g of clopidogrel besylate in a high-shear mixer. While stirring (400 rpm), pour the melted PEG into the bowl containing clopidogrel. Add 50 g of dry ice (in the form of dry snow) and increase the speed to 3000 rpm for 30 seconds. The resulting granulate has a temperature of about 15°C, and is sieved through 2.0 and 1.0 mm.

[0034] Clopidogrel besylate used as a starting material is prepared as follows:

Step 1: Manufacture of clopidogrel besylate



[0035] 7 g (0.0228 mole) of dextro-rotatory methyl alpha-5(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro(3,2-c)thieno pyridyl) (2-chlorophenyl)acetate (i.e. clopidogrel in the form of its free base) is dissolved in 100 ml of diethyl ether. To the obtained solution 30 ml of diethyl ether containing 4.78 g (0.03 mole) of anhydrous benzene sulfonic acid are added at room temperature (i.e. at 28°C - 31°C). After complete addition the reaction mass is maintained at room temperature (28°C - 31°C) for 14 hours. The white solid is collected by filtration and dried at 50-60 °C in a vacuum oven whereupon 2.2 g of clopidogrel besylate are obtained in crystalline form (99.82% pure according to HPLC); DSC: onset at 127.45°C, peak at 135.69°C.

Example 2 (melt granulate consisting of 30 % PEG 6000 and 70% clopidogrel besylate)



[0036] Analogously as described in Example 1 the above melt granulate is obtained from 86.4 g of clopidogrel besylate, 201.3 g of PEG 6000, and 80 g of dry snow.

Example 3 (melt granulate consisting of 50 % PEG 6000 and 50% clopidogrel besylate)



[0037] Analogously as described in Example 1 the above melt granulate is obtained from 201.3 g of clopidogrel besylate and 201.3 g of PEG 6000, adding between 130 and 150 g of dry snow and increasing the speed of the mixer to 3000 rpm for 1 minute.

Example 4 (melt granulate consisting of 50 % PEG 4000 and 50% clopidogrel besylate)



[0038] Melt 201.3 g of PEG 4000 using a hot plate, until it has reached 76 °C. Place 201.3 g of clopidogrel besylate in a high-shear mixer. While stirring (600 rpm), pour the melted PEG in the bowl containing the clopidogrel. Add 150 g of dry ice and increase the speed to 1800 rpm for 1 mn. The resulting granulate has a temperature of 17.6°C, and is sieved through 2.00 and 1.0 mm

Example 5 (melt granulate consisting of 50 % PEG 20000 and 50% clopidogrel besylate)



[0039] 201.3 g of PEG 20000 are melted using a hot plate, until it has reached 100°C. 201.3 g of clopidogrel besylate are placed into a high-shear mixer. While stirring (400 rpm) the melted PEG is poured into the bowl containing the clopidogrel. 50 g of dry ice are added and the speed of the mixer is increased to 3000 rpm for 1 minute. The resulting granulate has a temperature of 15°C, and is sieved through 2.0 and 1.0 mm.

Example 6 (melt granulate consisting of 50 % by weight of PEG 35000 and 50% clopidogrel besylate)



[0040] Melt 201.3 g of PEG 35000 using a hot plate, until it has reached 100°C. Place 201.3 g of clopidogrel besylate in a high-shear mixer. While stirring (400 rpm), pour the melted PEG into the bowl containing the clopidogrel. Add 100 g of dry ice and increase the speed to 3000 rpm for 2 minutes. The resulting granulate has a temperature of 30°C, and is sieved through 2.0 and 1.0 mm.

Example 7 (melt granulate consisting of 50 % by weight of PEG 6000 and 50% clopidogrel hydrochloride)



[0041] Melt 10.0 g of PEG 6000 using a 78°C water bath until it has reached 74°C. Place 10.0 g of clopidogrel hydrochloride into a mortar. While manually stirring, pour the melted PEG in the mortar containing the clopidogrel hydrochloride. Stir another 2 minutes, then let the resulting mass cool down to room temperature, before grinding it.

Example 8 (melt granulate consisting of 50 % by weight of Compritol 888 ATO and 50% clopidogrel hydrochloride)



[0042] Melt 10.0 g of Compritol 888 ATO using a 78°C water bath until it has reached 74°C. Place 10.0 g of clopidogrel hydrochloride into a mortar. While manually stirring, pour the melted Compritol into the mortar containing the clopidogrel. Stir another 2 minutes, then let the resulting mass cool down to room temperature, before grinding it.

Example 9 (storage stability of clopidogrel besylate and melt granulates containing it)



[0043] The stability on storage of clopidogrel besylate salt (CLO·Bes) is examined in comparison to melt granulates containing it. The main degradation product is alpha-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5-acetic acid, hereinafter designated as "ImpA" (ImpA is named according to USP 29 and corresponds to the hydrolysis product of Clopidogrel). In addition, the sum of all impurities ("SumImp") is determined. Both ImpA and SumImp are expressed as percent by weight of the amount of the clopidogrel salt at the beginning of the experiment on day 0 and are determined using the HPLC-system described below.

[0044] In the below Table 1 for example the term "10% PEG 6000" means the melt granulate consisting of 10% by weight PEG 6000 and 90% by weight clopidogrel besylate, 30% PEG 6000 means the melt granulate consisting of 30% by weight PEG 6000 and 70% by weight clopidogrel besylate, etc.
Table 1
Tested materialDay 0Day 15 at 50°C and 75% relative humidity
ImpA [%]SumImp [%]ImpA [%]SumImp [%]
CLO Bes 0.09 0.24 0.34 0.52
10% PEG 6000 0.08 0.23 0.21 0.39
30% PEG 6000 0.09 0.24 0.19 0.36
50% PEG 6000 0.08 0.24 0.18 0.38
50% PEG 20000 0.09 0.25 0.19 0.38
50% PEG 35000 0.09 0.24 0.19 0.36


[0045] As evident from the above Table 1 clopidogrel besylate (CLO Bes) contains after storage for 15 days at 50 °C and 75% relative humidity on an average about 79 % (0.34/0.19 = 1.79) more of the impurity ImpA and about 41 % (0.52/0.37 = 1.41) more total impurities SumImp than the clopidogel besylate stabilized in the above melt granulates. The values of 0.19 and 0.37 mentioned herein above in parentheses and used for calculation are the averages of the values listed for the granulates in the columns ImpA and SumImp, respectively, on day 15.

[0046] The above-mentioned HPLC system is as follows:
Instruments and operating conditions:
Column: 250 mm × 4.6 mm Modulo-Cart QS Uptisphere HDO, 3 µm
Detector: UV Detector or DAD Detector
Eluent A:0.01M sodium phosphate dibasic aqueous solution (1.78 g Na2HPO4 * 2 H2O/l), adjusted to pH 3.0 ± 0.05 with phosphoric acid 85%
Eluent B: Acetonitril
Mobile phase: 35% Eluent A + 65% Eluent B
Gradient:
minutesEluent A [%]Eluent B %]
0.00 75 25
0.10 65 35
1.50 65 35
11.50 35 65
40.00 20 80
50.00 20 80
51.00 75 25

Operating conditions:
Flow rate: 0.4 ml/min
Column temperature: 20°C
Injection volume: 10 µl
Wavelength: 235 nm
Runtime: 65 min

Retention time:
CompoundRetention time [minutes]Relative retention time (vs. clopidogrel)
Benzenesulfonic acid 7.6 0.18
Diluent 8.6 0.21
Gradient 11.0 0.27
Impurity A 12.3 0.30
Clopidogrel 91.3 1.00
Gradient 48.0 1.16

Preparation of reference and sample solutions:


Reference solution



[0047] Approximately 55.92 mg of clopidogrel besilate reference substance are weighed into a 50 ml volumetric flask. Add 20 ml of mobile phase and sonicate in an ultrasonic bath at ambient temperature until the substance is dissolved (approx. 5 min). Make up to the mark with mobile phase. The concentration of clopidogrel besilate is 0.75 mg/ml as free base. Two independent reference solutions are prepared.

Sample solution for 75 mg tablets



[0048] Weigh 10 tablets and transfer them quantitatively into a 250 ml volumetric flask. Dissolve and make up to the mark with mobile phase. Dilute 25.0 ml to 100.0 ml with mobile phase. Filter through a 0.45 µm PTFE-filter in a HPLC vial. The concentration of clopidogrel is 0.75 mg/ml as free base. Two independent sample solutions are prepared.

Example 10 (Storage stability of clopidogrel hydrochloride)



[0049] The stability on storage of clopidogrel hydrochloride salt (CLO·HCl) has been examined in comparison to melt granulates containing it. The main degradation product is alpha-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine-5-acetic acid, hereinafter designated as "ImpA" (impurity acid). In addition, the sum of all impurities ("SumImp") is determined by HPLC analogously as described above for clopidogrel besylate. Both ImpA and SumImp are expressed as percent by weight of the amount of the clopidogrel salt at the beginning of the experiment on day 0. The granulates mentioned in the below Table 2 are melt granulates consisting of 50 % by weight of PEG 6000 and 50% clopidogrel hydrochloride, and 50 % Compritol 888 ATO and 50% clopidogrel hydrochloride, respectively.
Table 2
Tested materialDay 0Day 30 at 40°C and 75% relative humidity
ImpA [%]SumImp [%]ImpA [%]SumImp [%]
CLO·HCl 0.18 0.58 1.28 1.99
50% PEG 6000 0.13 0.49 0.65 1.03
50 % Compritol 0.15 0.57 0.66 1.04


[0050] As evident from the above Table 2 clopidogrel hydrochloride (CLO HCL) contains after storage for 30 days at 40°C and 75% relative humidity on an average about 95% (1.28/0.655 = 1.95) more of the impurity ImpA (i.e. nearly twice as much) and about 92% (1.99/1.035 = 1.92) more total impurities SumImp than the clopidogrel hydrochloride stabilized in the above melt granulates.

Example 11 (manufacture of tablets from a melt granulate containing 50% by weight of clopidogrel besylate and 50% by weight of PEG 6000)



[0051] In a first step, the granulate is mixed with the excipients in order to form the final blend. 44.74 g of granulate are placed in a container. 26.74 g of Avicel® PH200 (microcrystalline cellulose), 3.80 g of Plasdone® XL (1-ethenylpyrrolidin-2-one) and 0.72 g of Cutina® HR (Hydrogenated Castor Oil) are added. The container is sealed and then the blend is mixed for 10. minutes so that it becomes homogeneous.

[0052] In a second step, the final blend is tabletted using 10 mm R9 round, biconvex punches. Each unit has a mass of 380 mg, and is tabletted so that its hardness is between 80 and 100N and its thickness between 5.4 and 6.0 mm.

Example 12 (manufacture of tablets comprising a melt granulate containing 50% by weight of clopidogrel besylate and 50% by weight of PEG 6000)



[0053] In an analogous manner as described in Example 11 tablets are manufactured whereby either the excipients may be added to the melt to form the melt granulate or all or part of the excipients is added to the granulate to be compressed into a tablet. The compositions are given in Table 3. The tablets obtained according to Example 11 or Example 12 are then coated with a composition as given in Table 4.
Table 3
Componentsmg / tablet coremg / tablet core
Clopidogrel Besylate 111,85 * 111,85 *
PEG 6000 111,85 111,85
Avicel PH 200 112,50 112,50
Plasdone XL 40,00 40,00
Cutina HR 3,80 -.-
Magnesium stearate -.- 3,80
Total 380,00 380,00
* corresponding to about 75 mg Clopidogrel Base.
Table 4
Coating components per tablet core of 380.0 mgmg
Ethocel STD 7 Premium 0,50
PEG 6000 3,30
Titan dioxide 2,20
Isopropanol * 60,00
total coating material on the tablet core 6,00
* the isopropanol is evaporated

Example 13



[0054] In an analogous manner as described in Example 12 tablets are manufactured whereby either the excipients may be added to the melt to form the melt granulate or all or part of the excipients is added to the granulate to be compressed into a tablet. The compositions are given in Table 5. The tablets obtained are then coated with a composition as given in Table 4. The test results were as follows: ImpA [%] at Day 0: zero (no ImpA); ImpA [%] at Day 15 (50°C, 75% relative humidity): 0.28.
Table 5
ComponentsFunctionmg / tablet core
Clopidogrel Besylate API 111,85 *
PEG 20000 granulating agent 37.5
Pharmatose DCL 11 filler 206.05
Explocel disintegrant 20,00
Magnesium stearate lubricant 7.60
Hypromellose coating agent 2.00
Titan dioxide dye 1.00
* corresponding to about 75 mg Clopidogrel Base.



Claims

1. A method of making a melt granulate being a solid state dispersion of a drug in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, comprising as a pharmaceutically active compound clopidogrel besylate or clopidogrel hydrochloride, wherein

(i) the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier is mixed with the pharmaceutically active compound to form an intimate mixture,

(ii) the obtained mixture is then heated at or near the temperature of the melting point of the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier but below the melting point of the pharmaceutically active compound, thus forming a melt, and

(iii) the obtained melt is then cooled rapidly by adding solid carbon dioxide or liquefied air to the dispersion to provide a congealed mass which thereupon breaks apart into many small particles.


 
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the congealed mass is milled to produce a powder.
 
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the particles obtained are sieved to the desired average grain size.
 
4. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the melt granulate comprises a polyethylene glycol having a mean molecular weight from 1500 to 35000 as the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
 
5. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the melt granulate comprises a polyethylene glycol having a mean molecular weight from 4000 to 10000 as the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
 
6. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the melt granulate contains from 10 to 90 % by weight of clopidogrel or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
 
7. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the melt granulate contains from 10 to 90 % by weight of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of clopidogrel and (100 minus x) % by weight of a polyethylene glycol having a mean molecular weight from 2000 to 30000, wherein x is the content of the pharmaceutically acceptable salt of clopidogrel expressed as % by weight.
 
8. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said melt granulate comprises pharmaceutically acceptable excipients, which are either mixed with the pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and the pharmaceutically active compound to form said intimate mixture, and/or added to said melt, and/or later to the solid state dispersion of the drug.
 
9. The method according to claim 8, wherein the pharmaceutically acceptable excipients is selected from the group comprising diluents, fillers, binders, disintegrants, coloring agents, flavoring agents, lubricants and preservatives.
 


Ansprüche

1. Ein Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Schmelzgranulats, das eine Dispersion eines Wirkstoffs in einem pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger in festem Zustand darstellt, umfassend als pharmazeutisch wirksame Verbindung Clopidogrel-Besilat oder Clopidogrel-Hydrochlorid, wobei

(i) der pharmazeutisch annehmbare Träger mit der pharmazeutisch wirksamen Verbindung gemischt wird, um eine innige Mischung zu erhalten,

(ii) die erhaltene Mischung dann bis auf die Temperatur oder nahe der Temperatur des Schmelzpunkts des pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Trägers erhitzt wird, aber bis unterhalb des Schmelzpunkts der pharmazeutisch wirksamen Verbindung, wodurch eine Schmelze entsteht, und

(iii) die erhaltene Schmelze dann schnell gekühlt wird, indem festes Kohlenstoffdioxid oder flüssige Luft zu der Dispersion gegeben wird, um eine erstarrte Masse bereitzustellen, die daraufhin in viele kleine Teilchen zerbricht.


 
2. Das Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die erstarrte Masse gemahlen wird, um ein Pulver zu erzeugen.
 
3. Das Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die erhaltenen Teilchen bis zur erwünschten mittleren Korngröße gesiebt werden.
 
4. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Schmelzgranulat als pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger Polyethylenglykol mit einem mittleren Molekulargewicht von 1500 bis 35000 umfasst.
 
5. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Schmelzgranulat als pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger Polyethylenglykol mit einem mittleren Molekulargewicht von 4000 bis 10000 umfasst.
 
6. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Schmelzgranulat zwischen 10 und 90 Gew.-% Clopidogrel oder ein pharmazeutisch annehmbares Salz davon enthält.
 
7. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei das Schmelzgranulat zwischen 10 und 90 Gew.-% eines pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Salzes von Clopidogrel und (100 minus x) Gew.-% Polyethylenglykol mit einem mittleren Molekulargewicht von 2000 bis 30000 enthält, wobei x der Gehalt des pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Salzes von Clopidogrel ausgedrückt in Gew.-% ist.
 
8. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Schmelzgranulat pharmazeutisch annehmbare Hilfsstoffe umfasst, die entweder mit dem pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger und der pharmazeutisch wirksamen Verbindung gemischt werden, um eine innige Mischung zu erzeugen, und/oder zu der Schmelze gegeben werden, und/oder später zu der Dispersion des Wirkstoffs im festen Zustand.
 
9. Das Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 8, wobei die pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Hilfsstoffe ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe umfassend Verdünnungsmittel, Füllstoffe, Bindemittel, Sprengmittel, Färbemittel, Aromastoffe, Schmierstoffe und Konservierungsmittel.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé pour fabriquer des granulés de fusion étant une dispersion solide d'un médicament dans un support pharmaceutiquement acceptable comprenant en tant que substance pharmaceutique active du besylate de clopidogrel ou de l'hydrochlorure de clopidogrel, dans lequel

(i) le support pharmaceutiquement acceptable est mélangé avec la substance pharmaceutique active afin d'obtenir un mélange intime,

(ii) le mélange obtenu est ensuite chauffé jusqu'à ou près de la température de fusion du support pharmaceutiquement acceptable, mais en dessous de la température de fusion de la substance pharmaceutique active, ainsi formant une fusion, et

(iii) la fusion obtenue est alors refroidie rapidement en rajoutant du dioxyde de carbone solide ou de l'air fluide afin d'obtenir une masse congelée laquelle en suivant se brise en beaucoup de petites particules.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la masse congelée est broyé afin de produire une poudre.
 
3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les particules obtenues sont tamisés à la dimension de grain moyenne désirée.
 
4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel les granulés de fusion comprennent un polyéthylène glycol ayant une masse moléculaire moyenne de 1500 à 35000 en tant que support pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel les granulés de fusion comprennent un polyéthylène glycol ayant une masse moléculaire moyenne de 4000 à 10000 en tant que support pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel les granulés de fusion comprennent de 10 à 90 % en poids de clopidogrel ou d'un de ses sels pharmaceutiquement acceptables.
 
7. Procédé selon l'une des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel les granulés de fusion comprennent de 10 à 90 % en poids d'un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de clopidogrel et (100 moins x) % en poids d'un polyéthylène glycol ayant une masse moléculaire moyenne de 2000 à 30000, x étant le contenu du sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de clopidogrel exprimé en % en poids.
 
8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel les granulés de fusion comprennent des excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables, qui sont soit mélangés avec le support pharmaceutiquement acceptable et la substance pharmaceutiquement active afin d'obtenir ledit mélange intime, et/ou rajouté a ladite fusion, et/ou plus tard à ladite dispersion solide du médicament.
 
9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel les excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables sont choisis de parmi le groupe comprenant des diluants, des charges, des agents liants, des désintégrants, des agents coloration, des agents de sapidité, des lubrifiants et des préservateurs.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description