(19)
(11)EP 2 075 437 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.02.2013 Bulletin 2013/08

(21)Application number: 08171896.7

(22)Date of filing:  17.12.2008
(51)Int. Cl.: 
F02C 7/18  (2006.01)
F01D 9/06  (2006.01)
F01D 9/04  (2006.01)
F01D 11/08  (2006.01)
F01D 5/08  (2006.01)
F01D 25/12  (2006.01)
F01D 11/00  (2006.01)
F01D 25/24  (2006.01)

(54)

Multi-source gas turbine cooling

System zur Kühlung einer Gasturbine aus mehreren Quellen

Système de refroidissement à plusieurs sources pour une turbine à gaz


(84)Designated Contracting States:
DE FR GB

(30)Priority: 27.12.2007 US 965402

(43)Date of publication of application:
01.07.2009 Bulletin 2009/27

(73)Proprietor: General Electric Company
Schenectady, NY 12345 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • Shapiro, Jason David
    Methuen, MA 02844 (US)
  • Flodman, David Allen
    Rowley, MA 01969 (US)
  • Rulli, Samuel Ross
    Gloucester, MA 09130 (US)
  • Sayegh, Samir Dimitri
    Melrose, MA 02176-5213 (US)
  • Brackett, Norman Clement
    North Reading, MA 01864 (US)

(74)Representative: Williams, Andrew Richard 
Global Patent Operation-Europe GE International Inc 15 John Adam Street
London WC2N 6LU
London WC2N 6LU (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 1 921 292
JP-A- 11 022 413
GB-A- 2 266 345
US-A- 5 320 483
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] This invention relates generally to gas turbine engine turbines and more particularly to methods for cooling turbine sections of such engines.

    [0002] A gas turbine engine includes a turbomachinery core having a high pressure compressor, combustor, and high pressure or gas generator turbine in serial flow relationship. The core is operable in a known manner to generate a primary gas flow. In a turbojet or turbofan engine, the core exhaust gas is directed through a nozzle to generate thrust. A turboshaft engine uses a low pressure or "work" turbine downstream of the core to extract energy from the primary flow to drive a shaft or other mechanical load.

    [0003] The gas generator turbine includes annular arrays of stationary vanes or nozzles that direct the gases exiting the combustor into and rotating blades or buckets collectively one row of nozzles and one row of blades make up a "stage". Typically two or more stages are used in serial flow relationship. These components operate in an extremely high temperature environment, and must be cooled by air flow to ensure adequate service life. Typically, the air used for cooling is extracted from one or more points in the compressor. These bleed flows represent a loss of net work output and/or thrust to the thermodynamic cycle. They increase specific fuel consumption (SFC) and are generally to be avoided as much as possible.

    [0004] Typical prior art two stage turbines use high pressure compressor discharge air (referred to as "CDP air") to cool the first stage turbine nozzle and first stage shroud, and lower pressure inter-stage or impeller tip bleed to cool the second stage turbine nozzle and second stage turbine shroud. In this case, no distinction is made between the nozzle airfoil and the nozzle cavities, even though these areas have different requirements for cooling air pressure and flow. This results in bleed air losses that are greater than the minimum required.

    [0005] EP 1,921,292 A2 discloses a compound turbine cooled engine. JP 11 022413 discloses a seal device for a gas turbine stationary blade.

    BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0006] These and other shortcomings of the prior art are addressed by the present invention, which provides a cooling arrangement that uses CDP air only where required in the turbine, while using a lower pressure source in other areas.

    [0007] According to one aspect, a cooling arrangement for a gas turbine engine is provided according to claim 1 herein.

    [0008] According to another aspect of the invention a method is provided according to claim 10 herein.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0009] The invention may be best understood by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing figures in which:

    [0010] Figure 1 a schematic cross-sectional view of a gas generator core of a turbine engine constructed in accordance with the present invention;

    [0011] Figure 2 is an enlarged view of a high pressure turbine section shown in Figure 1; and

    [0012] Figure 3 is an enlarged view of a portion of the turbine section of Figure 2.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0013] Referring to the drawings wherein identical reference numerals denote the same elements throughout the various views, Figure 1 depicts a portion of a gas turbine engine having, among other structures, a compressor 10, a combustor 12, and a gas generator turbine 14. The compressor 10 provides compressed air that passes primarily into the combustor 12 to support combustion and partially around the combustor 12 where it is used to cool both the combustor liners and turbomachinery further downstream. Fuel is introduced into the forward end of the combustor 12 and is mixed with the air in a conventional fashion. The resulting fuel-air mixture flows into the combustor 12 where it is ignited for generating hot combustion gases. The hot combustion gases are discharged to the gas generator turbine 14 where they are expanded so that energy is extracted. The gas generator turbine 14 drives the compressor 10 through a shaft 16 which is shown schematically. In this example, the only part of the compressor 10 that is shown a final stage mixed-flow impeller; it will be understood that one or more compressor stages (axial, centrifugal, or mixed-flow) may be located upstream of the impeller.

    [0014] In the illustrated example, the engine is a turboshaft engine and a work turbine would be located downstream of the gas generator turbine 14 and coupled to an output shaft. However, the principles described herein are equally applicable to turboprop, turbojet, and turbofan engines, as well as turbine engines used for other vehicles or in stationary applications.

    [0015] The gas generator turbine 14 includes a first stage nozzle 18 which comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced airfoil-shaped hollow first stage vanes 20 that are supported between an arcuate, segmented first stage outer band 22 and an arcuate, segmented first stage inner band 24. The first stage vanes 20, first stage outer band 22 and first stage inner band 24 are arranged into a plurality of circumferentially adjoining nozzle segments that collectively form a complete 360° assembly. The first stage outer and inner bands 24 and 22 define the outer and inner radial flowpath boundaries, respectively, for the hot gas stream flowing through the first stage nozzle 18. The first stage vanes 20 are configured so as to optimally direct the combustion gases to a first stage rotor 26.

    [0016] The first stage rotor 26 includes an array of airfoil-shaped first stage turbine blades 28 extending outwardly from a disk 30 that rotates about the centerline axis of the engine. A segmented, arcuate first stage shroud 32 is arranged so as to closely surround the first stage turbine blades 28 and thereby define the outer radial flowpath boundary for the hot gas stream flowing through the first stage rotor 26.

    [0017] A second stage nozzle 34 is positioned downstream of the first stage rotor 26, and comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced airfoil-shaped hollow second stage vanes 36 that are supported between an arcuate, segmented second stage outer band 38 and an arcuate, segmented second stage inner band 40. The second stage vanes 36, second stage outer band 38 and second stage inner band 40 are arranged into a plurality of circumferentially adjoining nozzle segments that collectively form a complete 360° assembly. The second stage outer and inner bands 38 and 40 define the outer and inner radial flowpath boundaries, respectively, for the hot gas stream flowing through the second stage turbine nozzle 34. The second stage vanes 36 are configured so as to optimally direct the combustion gases to a second stage rotor 42.

    [0018] The second stage rotor 42 includes a radially array of airfoil-shaped second stage turbine blades 44 extending radially outwardly from a second stage disk 46 that rotates about the centerline axis of the engine. A segmented arcuate second stage shroud 48 is arranged so as to closely surround the second stage turbine blades 44 and thereby define the outer radial flowpath boundary for the hot gas stream flowing through the second stage rotor 42.

    [0019] Figures 2 and 3 illustrate in more detail how the components of the gas generator turbine 14 are supported. The segments of the first stage shroud 32 are supported by an array of arcuate first stage shroud hangers 50 that are in turn carried by an arcuate shroud support 52, for example using the illustrated hooks, rails, and C-clips in a known manner. A first stage shroud plenum 54 is defined between the shroud support 52 and the first stage shroud 32. The first stage shroud plenum 54 contains a first stage hanger baffle 56 that is pierced with impingement cooling holes. The shroud support 52 includes a main body 58 and an aft-extending arm 60. Collectively the arm 60 and other stationary structure define an outer plenum 62.

    [0020] The second stage nozzle 34 is supported in part by mechanical connections to the first stage shroud hangers 50 and the shroud support 52. Each second stage vane 36 is hollow so as to be able to receive cooling air in a known fashion. Its radially outer end is closed by a manifold cover 64 which is coupled to a generally cylindrical tube or conduit known as a forward "spoolie" 66. The forward spoolie 66 penetrates the main body 58 of the shroud support 52 to provide a pathway for cooling air into the interior of the second stage vanes 36, as described in more detail below. Collectively, the second stage outer band 38, the manifold cover 64, the shroud support 52, and the forward spoolie 66 define an outer band cavity 68 which communicates with the outer plenum 62 through one or more cooling passages 69 formed in the main body 58.

    [0021] The segments of the second stage shroud 48 are supported by an array of arcuate second stage shroud hangers 70 that are in turn carried by the shroud support 52, for example using the illustrated hooks, rails, and C-clips in a known manner. A second stage shroud plenum 72 is defined between the shroud support 52 and the second stage shroud 48, and contains an second stage hanger baffle 74 that is pierced with impingement cooling holes. the second stage shroud plenum 72 communicates with the outer band cavity 68 through openings formed in the second stage outer band 38 and the second stage hanger 70.

    [0022] Cooling air for the gas generator turbine 14 is provided from two sources. First, some of the compressor discharge air (CDP), at the highest pressure in the compressor 10, which feeds the combustor 12, is bleed off for cooling use. The CDP air is depicted by the arrows labeled "C" in Figure 1. Secondly, air from a lower-pressure source such as an intermediate compressor stage or impeller tip bleed air, is used. Tip bleed air is depicted by the arrow labeled "B" in Figure 1.

    [0023] Figure 3 illustrates the cooling of the gas generator turbine 14 in detail. The air from these two sources is routed to the gas generator turbine 14 as follows. First, CDP air is provided to the first stage shroud plenum 54. This air impinges on the backside of the first stage shroud 32 as shown by the arrows 76, and then exits into the engine's primary flowpath "P" through film cooling holes as shown by the arrows 78. CDP air is also provided to the interior of the first stage vanes 20 through the forward spoolie 66 (see arrow 80) where is it used for convection cooling, impingement cooling, film cooling, or combinations thereof before exiting to the primary flowpath P.

    [0024] The lower pressure bleed air B (e.g. impeller tip bleed air) is provided to the outer plenum 62 through a generally cylindrical tube or conduit referred to as an "aft spoolie" 82. The aft spoolie 82 may be fed with tubes, etc. of a known type (not shown). An annular heat shield 84 is positioned in the outer plenum 62 above the second stage shroud 48. This protects the thermal mass of the second stage shroud 48 from the tip flow to improve clearance control. Its presence also helps to distribute the flow about the circumference of the outer plenum 62.

    [0025] The bleed air passes into the outer band cavity 68 through the cooling passages 69, as shown by the arrows 86. Here, it purges the outer band cavity 68 to remove any stagnant high-temperature air, and also pressurizes the outer band cavity to deter leakage of combustion gases from the primary flowpath P into the outer band cavity through gaps in the "split lines" between individual segments of the second stage outer band 38.

    [0026] Subsequently, the bleed air flows into the second stage shroud plenum 72. This air impinges on the backside of the second stage shroud 48 as shown by the arrows 88, and then exits into the engine's primary flowpath "P" through exit holes as shown by the arrows 90.

    [0027] The foregoing has described cooling arrangements for a gas turbine engine thrust reverser. While specific embodiments of the present invention have been described, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications thereto can be made without departing from the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the foregoing description of the preferred embodiment of the invention and the best mode for practicing the invention are provided for the purpose of illustration only and not for the purpose of limitation, the invention being defined by the claims.


    Claims

    1. A cooling arrangement for a gas turbine engine, comprising:

    (a) a turbine nozzle (34) comprising:

    (i) spaced-apart arcuate inner and outer bands (40, 38); and

    (ii) a hollow, airfoil-shaped turbine vane (36) extending between the inner and outer bands, the turbine vane (36) disposed in a primary flowpath of the engine;

    (b) a supporting structure coupled to the outer band (38) such that an outer band cavity (68) is defined between the outer band (38) and the supporting structure wherein the outer band cavity (68) is isolated from an interior of the turbine vane (36);

    (c) a first source of cooling air within the engine;

    (d) a second source of cooling air within the engine;

    (e) a first conduit (66) passing through the outer band cavity (68) and communicating with the interior of the turbine vane (36), the first conduit (66) coupled to the first source of cooling air; and

    (f) a second conduit (69) communicating with the outer band cavity (68), the second conduit (69) coupled to the second source of cooling air.


     
    2. The cooling arrangement of claim 1 further comprising:

    (a) an annular turbine shroud (48) coupled to the supporting structure downstream of the outer band, the turbine shroud (48) having a first surface exposed to the primary flowpath, and an opposed second surface, the supporting structure and second surface cooperatively defining a shroud plenum (72); and

    (b) a flowpath connecting the outer band cavity (68) of the turbine nozzle (34) and the shroud plenum (72).


     
    3. The cooling arrangement of claim 2, wherein a baffle (74) pierced with impingement cooling holes is disposed in the shroud plenum (72).
     
    4. The cooling arrangement of claim 2 or claim 3, wherein the shroud includes at least one exit hole (90) communicating with the shroud plenum (72) and the primary flowpath.
     
    5. The cooling arrangement of any one of claims 2 to 4, wherein the supporting structure is an annular shroud support (52) which includes:

    (a) an annular main body (58) ; and

    (b) an annular, generally axially-extending arm (60) which is spaced-apart from the main body (58) such that the main body (58) and the arm (60) define an annular outer plenum (62) therebetween.


     
    6. The cooling arrangement of claim 5, wherein:

    (a) the second conduit (69) passes through the arm so as to communicate with the outer plenum; and

    (b) a cooling passage in the main body interconnects the outer plenum and the outer band cavity (68).


     
    7. The cooling arrangement of claim 6, wherein a heat shield (84) is carried by the main body in a position between the second conduit (69) and the turbine shroud (48).
     
    8. The cooling arrangement of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first source is a final stage of a compressor of the engine.
     
    9. The cooling arrangement of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the first source is a tip of a compressor impeller of the engine.
     
    10. A method of cooling a turbine section of a gas turbine engine which includes a turbine nozzle (34) comprising a hollow, airfoil-shaped turbine vane (36) extending into a primary flowpath of the engine, and an outer band cavity (68) not in the primary flowpath and isolated from an interior of the turbine vane (36), the method comprising:

    (a) directing cooling air from a first source to the interior of the turbine vane (36); and

    (b) directing cooling air from a second source to the outer band cavity (68), wherein the second source is at a substantially lower pressure than the first source.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Kühlanordnung für ein Gasturbinentriebwerk, aufweisend:

    (a) einen Turbinenleitapparat (34), mit:

    (i) in Abstand angeordneten gekrümmten Innen- und Außenbändern (40, 38); und

    (ii) einer hohlen flügelförmigen Turbinenleitschaufel (36), die sich zwischen den Innen- und Außenbändern erstreckt, wobei die Turbinenleitschaufel (36) in einem Hauptströmungspfad des Triebwerks angeordnet ist;

    (b) eine mit dem Außenband (38) dergestalt verbundene Unterstützungsstruktur, dass ein Außenbandhohlraum (68) zwischen dem Außenband (38) und der Unterstützungsstruktur definiert wird, wobei der Außenbandhohlraum (68) von einem Innenbereich der Turbinenleitschaufel (36) isoliert ist;

    (c) eine erste Kühlluftquelle in dem Triebwerk;

    (d) eine zweite Kühlluftquelle in dem Triebwerk;

    (e) einen ersten Kanal (66), der durch den Außenbandhohlraum (68) verläuft und mit dem Innenraum der Turbinenleitschaufel (36) in Verbindung steht, wobei der erste Kanal (66) mit der ersten Kühlluftquelle verbunden ist; und

    (f) einen zweiten Kanal (69), der mit dem Außenbandhohlraum (68) in Verbindung steht, wobei der zweite Kanal (69) mit der zweiten Kühlluftquelle verbunden ist.


     
    2. Kühlanordnung nach Anspruch 1, ferner aufweisend:

    ein ringförmiges Turbinendeckband (48), das an die Unterstützungsstruktur stromabwärts von dem Außenband gekoppelt ist, wobei das Turbinendeckband (48) eine dem Hauptströmungspfad ausgesetzte erste Oberfläche besitzt, und eine gegenüberliegende zweite Oberfläche, wobei die Unterstützungsstruktur und zweite Oberfläche zusammenwirkend einen Deckbandsammelraum (72) definieren; und

    (b) einen Strömungspfad, der den Außenbandhohlraum (68) des Turbinenleitapparates (34) und des Deckbandsammelraums (72) verbindet.


     
    3. Kühlanordnung nach Anspruch 2, wobei eine mit Prallkühllöchern durchbohrte Leiteinrichtung (74) in dem Deckbandsammelraum (72) angeordnet ist.
     
    4. Kühlanordnung nach Anspruch 2 oder Anspruch 3, wobei das Deckband wenigstens ein Austrittsloch (90) in Verbindung mit dem Deckbandsammelraum (72) und dem Hauptströmungspfad enthält.
     
    5. Kühlanordnung nach einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 4, wobei die Unterstützungsstruktur eine ringförmige Deckbandunterstützung (52) ist, welche enthält:

    (a) einen ringförmigen Hauptkörper (58); und

    (b) einen ringförmigen, sich im Wesentlichen axial erstreckenden Arm (60), welcher in Abstand von dem Hauptkörper (58) dergestalt angeordnet ist, dass der Hauptkörper (58) und der Arm (60) einen ringförmigen äußeren Sammelraum (52) dazwischen definieren.


     
    6. Kühlanordnung nach Anspruch 5, wobei:

    (a) der zweite Kanal (69) durch den Arm verläuft, um so mit dem äußeren Sammelraum in Verbindung zu stehen; und

    (b) ein Kühldurchlass in dem Hauptkörper den äußeren Sammelraum und den Außenbandhohlraum (68) verbindet.


     
    7. Kühlanordnung nach Anspruch 6, wobei ein Hitzeschild (84) von den Hauptkörpern in einer Position zwischen dem zweiten Kanal (69) und dem Turbinendeckband (48) gehalten wird.
     
    8. Kühlanordnung nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die erste Quelle eine letzte Stufe eines Verdichters des Triebwerks ist.
     
    9. Kühlanordnung nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die erste Quelle eine Spitze eines Verdichterrades des Triebwerks ist.
     
    10. Verfahren zum Kühlen eines Turbinenabschnittes eines Gasturbinentriebwerks, welches einen Turbinenleitapparat (34) mit einer hohlen, flügelförmigen Turbinenleitschaufel (36), die sich in den Hauptströmungspfad des Triebwerkes erstreckt, und einen Außenbandhohlraum (68) nicht in dem Hauptströmungspfad und von dem Innenraum der Turbinenleitschaufel (36) isoliert, aufweist, wobei das Verfahren die Schritte aufweist:

    (a) Führen von Kühlluft aus einer ersten Quelle zu dem Innenraum der Turbinenleitschaufel (36); und

    (b) Führen von Kühlluft aus einer zweiten Quelle zu dem Außenbandhohlraum (68), wobei die zweite Quelle sich auf einem wesentlich niedrigeren Druck als die erste Quelle befindet.


     


    Revendications

    1. Agencement de refroidissement pour un moteur à turbine à gaz, comprenant :

    (a) une tuyère de turbine (34) comprenant :

    (i) des bandes intérieure et extérieure arquées espacées (40, 38) ; et

    (ii) une pale de turbine creuse profilée (36) s'étendant entre les bandes intérieure et extérieure, la pale de turbine (36) étant disposée dans un chemin d'écoulement primaire du moteur ;

    (b) une structure de support couplée à la bande extérieure (38) de telle manière qu'une cavité de bande extérieure (68) est définie entre la bande extérieure (38) et la structure de support dans lequel la cavité de bande extérieure (68) est isolée d'un intérieur de la pale de turbine (36) ;

    (c) une première source d'air de refroidissement dans le moteur ;

    (d) une seconde source d'air de refroidissement dans le moteur

    (e) un premier conduit (66) passant à travers la cavité de bande extérieure (68) et communiquant avec l'intérieur de la pale de turbine (36), le premier conduit (66) étant couplé à la première source d'air de refroidissement ; et

    (f) un second conduit (69) communiquant avec la cavité de bande extérieure (68), le second conduit (69) étant couplé à la seconde source d'air de refroidissement.


     
    2. Agencement de refroidissement selon la revendication 1 comprenant en outre :

    (a) une enveloppe de turbine (48) annulaire couplée à la structure de support en aval de la bande extérieure, l'enveloppe de turbine (48) ayant une première surface exposée au chemin d'écoulement primaire, et une seconde surface opposée, la structure de support et la seconde surface définissant de manière coopérative un plenum d'enveloppe (72) ; et

    (b) un chemin d'écoulement reliant la cavité de bande extérieure (68) de la tuyère de turbine (34) et le plenum d'enveloppe (72).


     
    3. Agencement de refroidissement selon la revendication 2, dans lequel un écran (74) percé avec des trous de refroidissement par impact est disposé dans le plenum d'enveloppe (72).
     
    4. Agencement de refroidissement selon la revendication 2 ou la revendication 3, dans lequel l'enveloppe inclut au moins un trou de sortie (90) communiquant avec le plenum d'enveloppe (72) et le chemin d'écoulement primaire.
     
    5. Agencement de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 4, dans lequel la structure de support est un support d'enveloppe annulaire (52) qui inclut :

    (a) un corps principal annulaire (58) ; et

    (b) un bras annulaire, s'étendant globalement axialement (60) qui est espacé du corps principal (58) de telle manière que le corps principal (58) et le bras (60) définissent un plenum extérieur annulaire (62) entre eux.


     
    6. Agencement de refroidissement selon la revendication 5, dans lequel :

    (a) le second conduit (69) passe à travers le bras de façon à communiquer avec le plenum extérieur ; et

    (b) un passage de refroidissement dans le corps principal relie le plenum extérieur et la cavité de bande extérieure (68).


     
    7. Agencement de refroidissement selon la revendication 6, dans lequel un bouclier thermique (84) est supporté par le corps principal dans une position entre le second conduit (69) et l'enveloppe de turbine (48).
     
    8. Agencement de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la première source est un étage final d'un compresseur du moteur.
     
    9. Agencement de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la première source est une extrémité d'une roue de compresseur du moteur.
     
    10. Procédé de refroidissement d'une section de turbine d'un moteur à turbine à gaz qui inclut une tuyère de turbine (34) comprenant une pale de turbine profilée creuse (36) s'étendant dans un chemin d'écoulement primaire du moteur, et une cavité de bande extérieure (68) qui n'est pas dans le chemin d'écoulement primaire et isolée d'un intérieur de la pale de turbine (36), le procédé comprenant ;

    (a) de diriger l'air de refroidissement d'une première source vers l'intérieur de la pale de turbine (36) ; et

    (b) de diriger l'air de refroidissement d'une seconde source vers la cavité de bande extérieure (68), dans lequel la seconde source est à une pression sensiblement inférieure à la première source.


     




    Drawing












    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description