(19)
(11)EP 2 097 219 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
14.03.2012 Bulletin 2012/11

(21)Application number: 07848580.2

(22)Date of filing:  18.12.2007
(51)Int. Cl.: 
B24B 19/06  (2006.01)
F16C 33/46  (2006.01)
B24D 5/16  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/GB2007/004843
(87)International publication number:
WO 2008/075020 (26.06.2008 Gazette  2008/26)

(54)

GRINDING SURFACES OF WORKPIECES

SCHLEIFEN VON FLÄCHEN AN WERKSTÜCKEN

MEULAGE DE SURFACES DE PIÈCES À TRAVAILLER


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 21.12.2006 GB 0625515

(43)Date of publication of application:
09.09.2009 Bulletin 2009/37

(73)Proprietor: Cinetic Landis Limited
Keighley BD20 7SD (GB)

(72)Inventors:
  • CLEWES, Stuart
    Yorkshire BD21 4WT (GB)
  • GRAYSTON, Granville
    Yorkshire BD20 7DS (GB)

(74)Representative: Sharrock, Daniel John et al
Nash Matthews 90-92 Regent Street
Cambridge CB2 1DP
Cambridge CB2 1DP (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
DE-B1- 2 727 576
US-A- 3 290 102
JP-A- 2004 257 290
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field of the Invention



    [0001] This invention relates to grinding surfaces of workpieces and is concerned with imparting a particular desired shape to the workpiece. In particular, the invention relates to a method of grinding a workpiece by a rotatable grinding wheel and to a grinding wheel for use in this method.

    Background to the Invention



    [0002] JP 2004 257290 A describes an elastic buffmg grinding wheel which distorts when pressed onto a roller to be ground by the wheel.

    [0003] Many plain cylindrical bearings such as those used for main bearings and crankpins for crankshafts require non-parallel profiles on the finished shaft. Such profiles are usually produced by plunge grinding with the reverse image of the desired profile dressed onto the periphery of the grinding wheel.

    [0004] The recent introduction and application of Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) grinding wheels to the bearing grinding process has led to the development of multi-plunge grinding techniques and diagonal or vector grinding as described in British Patent Specification No. 2413978. The newer grinding methods have made non-parallel sided cylindrical bearing components difficult, if not impossible, to produce. This invention addresses such difficulties, demonstrating a capability to grind non-parallel shapes, in particular barrel forms, whilst retaining the advantages of vector and multi-plunge grinding.

    Summary of the Invention



    [0005] The invention is directed at a method of grinding a workpiece by a rotatable grinding wheel, the method comprising rotating the wheel at a first speed during grinding of the workpiece. According to the invention, the wheel is rotated at a second speed during grinding of the workpiece so that the shape of the wheel is distorted in a predetermined manner during grinding at the second speed relative to its shape during grinding at the first speed to impart a desired shape to at least part of the workpiece.

    [0006] Preferably, the distortion of the grinding wheel is such as to give the grinding wheel a dished shape, in comparison with a substantially planar shape of the undistorted grinding wheel.

    [0007] In a preferred method the distortion is based on the inherent characteristics of the grinding wheel. The inherent characteristics may include the physical dimensions, physical shape and material of the grinding wheel, together with its modulus of elasticity.

    [0008] The wheel may comprise a generally circular cutting disc and a central hub, and the inherent characteristics of physical dimensions may include the extent of asymmetry in the hub of the wheel.

    [0009] The wheel may be a cubic boron nitride (CBN) wheel, or an aluminium oxide wheel.

    [0010] The magnitude of wheel distortion may be predicted by deriving a relationship between the rotational speed of the grinding wheel and the distortion of the outer periphery of the wheel, and using the relationship to impart a desired distortion to the wheel in order to grind a desired profile on a workpiece. The relationship may be developed empirically, for example by measuring wheel periphery distortion at differing rotational speeds, or by a mathematical computation using parameters such as the physical extent of asymmetry of the wheel and properties of the material from which the wheel is made.

    [0011] A grinding wheel for carrying out the method of the invention is described herein, the wheel being asymmetric in side view. This asymmetry may be imparted to the wheel by virtue of the wheel having a different profile or shape on respective sides of the wheel.

    Figure 1 is a side view of a symmetrical grinding wheel,

    Figure 2 is a side view of an asymmetrical grinding wheel,

    Figure 3 illustrates how the grinding wheel of Figure 2 can become distorted in use, the distorted shape being shown in broken lines,

    Figures 4 and 5 illustrate two successive steps in a plunge grinding operation according to the invention,

    Figures 6 and 7 illustrate two successive stages in a grinding operation where the grinding wheel undergoes a lateral or traversing movement with respect to the workpiece in conjunction with a speed change,

    Figures 8, 9 and 10 show how the rotational speed of a grinding wheel can be varied to alter the angle of grind, and

    Figure 11 illustrates a camshaft with parallel journals and lobes with tapers in opposite directions, ground by means of the method illustrated in Figures 8 to 10.


    Detailed Description of the Drawings



    [0012] It is usual to design grinding wheels which, ignoring the drive shaft, are symmetrical about the centre line 1 in side view, as illustrated in Figure 1. Such a wheel is circularly symmetric about its rotational axis A-A and has an outer periphery 2 formed with a grinding layer. Such a wheel may exhibit some distortion in use, which can be put to useful effect by recourse to the invention, but Figure 2 illustrates a grinding wheel which is deliberately asymmetric about the centre line 3 in side view, by virtue of having circular shoulders 4, 5 of differing sizes on respective sides of the wheel. The effect of this imbalance is to cause the wheel to become distorted when it is rotated, as illustrated in broken lines at 6 in Figure 3. Moreover, this distortion varies with the rotational speed of the wheel, and this distortion can be predicted over an operational speed range of the wheel. It has been found that changes in the peripheral speed of the wheel of less than 10 metres per second produce useful changes in wheel shape, and in the invention these changes are put to beneficial effect by appropriate choice of the physical size, shape and material of the grinding wheel, and also by appropriate selection of the rotational speed of the wheel during a grinding operation. The rotational speed is varied during grinding in order to vary the wheel distortion in a required predetermined manner in order to impart a required profile on a workpiece.

    [0013] For a particular grinding wheel, a relationship between rotational speed and wheel distortion is derived and this relationship is used to impart a desired distortion to the wheel in order to grind a desired profile on a rotating workpiece. The relationship between wheel distortion and rotational speed can be derived empirically (e.g. by measuring peripheral wheel distortion at different rotational speeds, or by computation, using the physical parameters of the wheel).

    [0014] Figures 4 and 5 show a barrelled profile 7 being imparted to a rotating workpiece 8 by a two-stage grinding operation, using a grinding wheel 9 onto the periphery of which at least half the barrelled profile has been dressed (reference 10). In the first stage, the first half of the profile 7 is ground by plunge grinding, as indicated by the arrow 12 in Figure 4. Sufficient stock (i.e. workpiece material) remains for the second stage to be carried out and for the merging or blending of the two halves of the profile. The second stage of the profile is again achieved by plunge grinding, as indicated by the arrow 12 in Figure 5, but the rotational speed of the wheel differs from the rotational speed used in the first stage, so that there is a different angle of wheel presentation, resulting in completion of the merging or overlap of the two halves of the barrelled profile 7.

    [0015] In the method illustrated in Figures 6 and 7, the workpiece 13 has ground thereon a barrelled profile 14 with a width exceeding the width of the grinding wheel 15. The rotating grinding wheel 15 undergoes a controlled traversing movement with respect to the workpiece 13 as indicated by the arrows 16, and the rotational speed of the wheel 15 is controlled, and varied as appropriate, throughout the grinding operation so that the wheel presents the correct angle to the workpiece 13 in order to impart to the latter the desired barrelled profile 14.

    [0016] Figures 8 to 10 show how a shaft 17 is formed with tapered lobes 18 and 20 ground to a desired configuration which can be a taper in either direction (Figures 8 and 10) or parallel lobes or journals 19 (Figure 9), by varying the rotational speed of the grinding wheel 22 so as to alter the distortion of the wheel in a predetermined fashion. Figure 11 illustrates the resulting shaft 17 with parallel lobes or journals 23 and pairs of opposed frusto-conical taper lobes 24.


    Claims

    1. A method of grinding a workpiece (8, 13) by a rotatable grinding wheel (9, 15), wherein the method comprises rotating the wheel at a first speed during grinding of the workpiece, and is characterised by rotating the wheel at a second speed during grinding of the workpiece, so that the shape of the wheel is distorted in a predetermined manner during grinding at the second speed relative to its shape during grinding at the first speed to impart a desired shape to at least part of the workpiece.
     
    2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the distortion is such as to give a dished shape to the grinding wheel (9, 15), in comparison with a generally planar shape for the undistorted wheel.
     
    3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the prediction of distortion is based on the inherent characteristics of the grinding wheel (9, 15).
     
    4. A method according to claim 3, wherein the inherent characteristics include the physical dimensions, physical shape and material of the grinding wheel (9, 15).
     
    5. A method according to any of the preceding claims, comprising deriving a relationship between rotational speed of the wheel (9, 15) and distortion of the wheel and using the relationship to impart a desired distortion to the wheel in order to grind a desired profile on a workpiece (8, 13).
     
    6. A method according to claim 4, wherein the wheel comprises a circular cutting disc and a central hub (4, 5) and the inherent characteristics of physical dimensions include asymmetry in the hub of the wheel.
     
    7. A method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the wheel (9, 15) is a cubic boron nitride (CBN) wheel or an aluminium oxide wheel.
     
    8. A method according to any of the preceding claims wherein the desired shape is a barrel shape (7, 14) or a frusto-conical taper.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Schleifen eines Werkstücks (8, 13) durch eine drehbare Schleifscheibe (9, 15), wobei das Verfahren Drehen der Scheibe mit einer ersten Drehzahl beim Schleifen des Werkstücks umfasst und gekennzeichnet ist durch Drehen der Scheibe mit einer zweiten Drehzahl beim Schleifen des Werkstücks, so dass die Form der Scheibe beim Schleifen mit der zweiten Drehzahl bezüglich ihrer Form beim Schleifen mit der ersten Drehzahl auf Vorbestimmte Weise verformt wird, um mindestens einem Teil des Werkstücks eine gewünschte Form zu verleihen.
     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Verformung so ist, dass der Schleifscheibe (9, 15) eine konkav gewölbte Form im Vergleich mit einer allgemein planaren Form für die nicht verformte Scheibe verliehen wird.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Vorhersage der Verformung auf den inhärenten Eigenschaften der Schleifscheibe (9, 15) basiert.
     
    4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei die inhärenten Eigenschaften die physischen Abmessungen, die physische Form und das Material der Schleifscheibe (9, 15) umfassen.
     
    5. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, das Ableiten einer Beziehung zwischen der Drehzahl der Scheibe (9, 15) und der Verformung der Scheibe und Verwenden der Beziehung, um der Scheibe zwecks Schleifens eines gewünschten Profils an einem Werkstück (8, 13) eine gewünschte Verformung zu verleihen, umfasst.
     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Scheibe eine kreisförmige Schneidscheibe und eine mittlere Nabe (4, 5) umfasst und die inhärenten Eigenschaften physischer Abmessungen Asymmetrie der Nabe der Scheibe umfassen.
     
    7. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Scheibe (9, 15) eine Scheibe aus kubischem Bornitrid (CBN) oder eine Scheibe aus Aluminiumoxid ist.
     
    8. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die gewünschte Form eine Zylinderform (7, 14) oder ein Kegelstumpf ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé de meulage d'une pièce (8, 13) au moyen d'une meule rotative (9, 15), dans lequel le procédé consiste à faire tourner la meule à une première Vitesse pendant le meulage de la pièce, et est caractérisé en ce que l'on fait tourner la meule à une deuxième vitesse pendant le meulage de la pièce, de telle manière que la forme de la meule soit distordue d'une manière prédéterminée pendant le meulage à la deuxième vitesse par rapport à sa forme pendant le meulage à la première vitesse afin de donner une forme désirée à au moins une partie de la pièce.
     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la distorsion est telle qu'elle donne à la meule (9, 15) la forme d'une assiette, par comparaison avec une forme généralement plane à l'état non distordu.
     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel la prédiction de la distorsion est basée sur les caractéristiques inhérentes de la meule (9, 15).
     
    4. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel les caractéristiques inhérentes comprennent les dimensions physiques, la forme physique et la matière de la meule (9, 15) .
     
    5. Précédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant l'opération de dérivation d'une relation entre la vitesse de rotation de la meule (9, 15) et la distorsion de la meule et l'utilisation de la relation pour imposer une distorsion désirée à la meule afin de meuler un profil désiré sur une pièce (8, 13).
     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 4, dans lequel la meule comprend un disque de coupe circulaire et un moyeu central (4, 5), et les caractéristiques inhérentes des dimensions physiques comprennent une asymétrie du moyeu de la meule.
     
    7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la meule (9, 15) est une meule en nitrure de bore cubique (CBN) ou une meule en oxyde d'aluminium.
     
    8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la forme désirée est une forme en tonneau (7, 14) ou une forme tronconique.
     




    Drawing















    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description