(19)
(11)EP 2 114 044 A2

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
04.11.2009 Bulletin 2009/45

(21)Application number: 09158938.2

(22)Date of filing:  28.04.2009
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H04L 27/26  (2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 28.04.2008 KR 20080039137

(71)Applicant: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR)

(72)Inventors:
  • Yun, Sung-Ryul
    Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • Kwon, Hwan-Joon
    Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • Kim, Jae-Yoel
    Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • Lim, Yeon-Ju
    Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • Lee, Hak-Ju
    Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • Jeong, Hong-Sil
    Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR)
  • Myung, Seho
    Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (KR)

(74)Representative: Ketelaars, Maarten F.J.M. 
Nederlandsch Octrooibureau J.W. Frisolaan 13
2517 JS Den Haag
2517 JS Den Haag (NL)

  


(54)Apparatus and method for reducing the peak to average power ration of a preamble signal


(57) A method and apparatus for reducing a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in a digital broadcasting system are provided. Reserved tones are determined, and used to transmit a signal having an impulse characteristic that does not collide with a pilot signal of a preamble in a frame.




Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


1. Field of the Invention



[0001] The present invention relates generally to a transmission apparatus and method in a digital broadcasting system. More particularly, although not exclusively, the present invention relates to an apparatus and method for reducing a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of a preamble signal in a digital broadcasting system.

2. Description of the Related Art



[0002] Digital broadcasting systems are broadcasting systems that use digital transmission technologies, such as Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) and Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB).

[0003] Among them, the DVB system, which is a European digital broadcasting technology, is a transmission standard that supports existing digital broadcast services for fixed terminals as well as digital multimedia services for mobile and portable terminals.

[0004] In the DVB system, it is possible to multiplex Moving Picture Experts Group 2 Transport Stream (MPEG 2 TS)-based broadcast data and simultaneously transmit Internet Protocol (IP)-based data streams. Further, in the DVB system, several services can be multiplexed to one IP stream and transmitted. After receiving data of the transmitted IP stream, a user terminal can demultiplex the received data back into individual services, demodulate the services, and display the demodulated services on a screen of the user terminal. In this case, the user terminal requires information about various types of services provided in the DVB system, the details contained in each of the services, etc.

[0005] The DVB system uses an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme. Although the OFDM transmission scheme is similar to the conventional Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) scheme, the OFDM scheme is distinguishable from conventional transmission schemes in that OFDM can achieve optimal transmission efficiency during high-speed data transmission by maintaining orthogonality between multiple sub-carriers. Also, the advantages of high frequency use efficiency and robustness against multi-path fading contribute significantly to the optimal transmission efficiency.

[0006] In addition, the OFDM transmission scheme, as it overlaps frequency spectra, is efficiently uses frequencies, is robust against frequency selective fading, can reduce influence of Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) by using a guard interval, enables simple designs of hardware equalizers, and is robust against impulsive noises. Thus, the OFDM transmission scheme is widely used for communication systems.

[0007] Despite the advantages of the OFDM transmission scheme, the multicarrier modulation of the OFDM transmission scheme causes a high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Since the OFDM transmission scheme transmits data using multiple carriers, a final OFDM signal suffers a significant change in amplitude as a level of its amplitude is determined by a sum of amplitude levels of the respective carriers. When the carriers are equal in phase, the OFDM signal will have a very high amplitude. This high-PAPR signal may deviate from a linear operation range of a high-power linear amplifier, and a signal that has passed through the high-power linear amplifier may often suffer from distortion, causing a reduction in system performance.

[0008] Various plans to solve the high-PAPR problem occurring in the OFDM system have been proposed, and the plans include several PAPR reduction techniques, such as clipping, coding, SeLected Mapping (SLM), Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS), and Tone Injection (TI).

[0009] A Tone Reservation (TR) scheme, one of the PAPR reduction techniques, reserves some tones in sub-carriers, and the reserved tones are used to reduce PAPR instead of transmitting data. A receiver bypasses the reserved tones that do not carry information signals, and restores information signals only in data tones other than the reserved tones, thus contributing to a simplified structure of the receiver. A gradient algorithm is a typical one of the methods that reduce PAPR using reserved tones in the TR scheme. The gradient algorithm is defined by applying a method similar to the clipping technique to the TR scheme. The gradient algorithm is used to create a signal (or a kernel) having an impulse characteristic using reserved tones that carry no information signal, and to clip off an output signal of an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) unit. When the signal having an impulse characteristic is added to the output signal of the IFFT unit, distortion of data occurs only in the reserved tones, and data in other frequency regions is not distorted, i.e., the TR scheme is different from the clipping technique in that the noise caused by clipping has an effect only on some reserved sub-carriers without affecting all sub-carriers. The gradient algorithm optimizes impulse waveforms so that a peak of an IFFT output signal is reduced in the time domain. A signal, a PAPR of which was reduced by adding a sum of the impulse waveforms optimized by the gradient algorithm to the output signal of the IFFT unit, is transmitted to a receiver. The receiver only needs to receive data on the remaining sub-carriers since the receiver is notified of the locations of the reserved tones in advance.

[0010] FIG. 1 illustrates a structure of a transmitter to which a general TR scheme is applied.

[0011] Referring to FIG. 1, an input signal X 105 having N-L points (where N denotes a size of IFFT) and an L-reserved tone signal C 110 (a signal consisting of L reserved tones) are input to a tone reservation unit 120, and the tone reservation unit 120 reserves L reserved tones in sub-carrier locations previously agreed between a transmitter and a receiver. The L reserved tones carry no data and have zeros (0s) inserted therein. When a sum of the parallel data X and the L reserved tones is input to an N-point IFFT unit 130, the input sum undergoes IFFT computation in the N-point IFFT unit 130, and then a time-domain output signal x is generated by a parallel-to-serial (P/S) conversion unit 140. Next, a gradient unit 150 creates a signal c by optimizing impulse waveforms according to the gradient algorithm so that a peak of the IFFT output signal is reduced, and adds the created signal c to the output signal x that has passed through the IFFT unit 130 and the P/S conversion unit 140. The output signal of the gradient unit 150 is transmitted to the receiver. The gradient unit 150 calculates the signal c that is added to the output signal x so that PAPR of the output signal x is reduced, using impulse waveforms read from a memory 160. For reference, uppercases X and C in FIG. 1 represent frequency-domain signals being input to the IFFT unit 130, while lowercases x and c represent time-domain signals output from the IFFT unit 130.

[0012] The signal c that is added to the output signal x to reduce PAPR in L reserved tones, is determined as follows. L sub-carriers are reserved in advance and used to determine a code C for calculation of the signal c, and locations of the L sub-carriers are fixed by the tone reservation unit 120 during initial transmission, and remain unchanged during data transmission. The code C represents the reserved tone signal, and Ck represents sub-carrier locations of reserved tones as defined in Equation (1) below.


where k denotes sub-carrier indexes of reserved tones in the tone reservation unit 110. The input signal X 105 is reserved in sub-carriers aside from the reserved tone signal C 110 as shown in Equation (2).


where Xk denotes sub-carrier locations of data tones.

[0013] PAPR minimization is achieved by optimizing amplitudes of the L sub-carriers. for PAPR minimization is optimized by Equation (3) below such that PAPR of an output signal x is reduced. Here, corresponds to the signal c.


where Cn is a value of an n-th element in a time-domain vector c determined by IFFT-processing a vector C. Computation of Equation (3) is performed to find an optimized signal for the signal c. Although complex linear computation is conducted to solve Equation (3), the gradient algorithm is performed in actual implementations, which can achieve the similar performance through simple computations.

[0014] The signal c is optimized to remove a peak-to-peak value of a vector x (i.e., an output signal). If xclip is assumed to be a vector where an output signal x is clipped to a certain level A, then Equation (4) is derived.


where βi denotes a clipping value, mi denotes a location where the vector is clipped, and δ denotes an impulse function.

[0015] If the signal c is defined as Equation (5), Equation (6) can be derived and a peak-to-peak value of a transmission symbol can be reduced.





[0016] Therefore, the signal c added to the output signal x can be construed as a sum of delayed and scaled impulse functions. However, in a frequency domain, = FFT(c) has a non-zero value at most frequencies, and distorts values of data symbols in locations other than the reserved L locations. Thus, there is a need to use, for clipping, waveforms having characteristics of an impulse function, which are affected only in the L reserved locations but not affected in other locations in the frequency domain.

[0017] Waveforms having impulse characteristics are designed as follows.

[0018] Assume that 1L represents a vector having a value of 1 in L reserved locations and a value of 0 in other locations, and p is defined as Equation (7).



[0019] In Equation (7), p0=1, and p1···pN-1 have significantly small values compared to p0. Assuming that p[((n - mi))N] indicates a value determined by cyclic-shifting p by mi, even though Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is performed thereon, the resulting value changes only in phase and has a value of 0 in locations other than the L reserved locations in the frequency domain.

[0020] As described above, the waveforms having impulse characteristics are designed such that amplitudes of the remaining p1···pN-1 except for p0 are low, in order for the waveforms to become similar to ideal impulse waveforms. As amplitudes of p1···pN-1 are lower, a change in amplitudes of other signals except for p0 is less significant during clipping. If the design is made such that p1···pN-1 have high amplitudes, peaks of other signals may increase again in the clipping process, thereby causing a reduction in PAPR reduction performance.

[0021] FIG. 2 illustrates a frame structure for a physical layer of a general DVB system using OFDM.

[0022] A frame structure 201 of FIG. 2 can be roughly divided into preamble parts 202 and 203, and a payload part 204. The preamble parts 202 and 203 carry signaling information of the frame, and the payload part 204 is used to transmit data.

[0023] The P1 preamble 202 is used at a receiver to scan an initial signal of the frame. Further, the P1 preamble 202 is used to detect a frequency offset and tune the center frequency. Next, the P2 preamble 203 is used to provide Layer 1 (L1) signaling of the DVB system. The L1 signaling includes such information as transmission types, transmission parameters, etc. of the DVB system. Finally, the payload 204 carries service data provided in the DVB system.

[0024] In the communication system that uses the OFDM transmission scheme and transmits the frame including preambles, it is important to reduce PAPR in order to improve the system performance, and the high-PAPR problem occurs not only in the payload part in which data is transmitted, but also in the preamble parts in which signaling information is transmitted, in the physical layer frame. Therefore, there is a need for reducing PAPR, including reducing PAPR in the preamble parts of a frame.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0025] The present invention has been designed to address at least the above-mentioned problems and/or disadvantages and to provide at least the advantages described below. Accordingly, an aspect of the present invention provides a transmission method and apparatus capable of reducing PAPR of a preamble in an OFDM system.

[0026] Another aspect of the present invention provides a transmission method and apparatus capable of reducing PAPR of a preamble in a digital broadcasting system using an OFDM transmission scheme.

[0027] Another aspect of the present invention provides PAPR reduction apparatus and method suitable for a preamble structure in a digital broadcasting system.

[0028] Another aspect of the present invention provides a transmission apparatus and method for determining locations of reserved tones used for PAPR reduction in a preamble in a digital broadcasting system.

[0029] In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, a method is provided for reducing a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in a digital broadcasting system. Determined reserved tones are used to transmit a signal having an impulse characteristic in locations of sub-carriers that do not collide with a pilot signal of a preamble in a frame. The signal having the impulse characteristic is transmitted through the reserved tones in a symbol period for which the preamble is transmitted.

[0030] In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a transmission apparatus is provided for reducing a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in a digital broadcasting system. A tone reservation unit determines reserved tones used to transmit a signal having an impulse characteristic in locations of sub-carriers that do not collide with a pilot signal of a preamble in a frame. A transmission unit transmits the signal having the impulse characteristic through the reserved tones in a symbol period for which the preamble is transmitted.

[0031] In accordance with further another aspect of the present invention, a transmission apparatus is provided for reducing a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in a digital broadcasting system. A transmission unit transmits a frame in which a preamble is included. A memory stores indexes of reserved tones used to transmit a signal having an impulse characteristic in locations of sub-carriers that do not collide with a pilot signal of the preamble. A controller generates the signal having the impulse characteristic according to the indexes of the reserved tones and controls the transmission unit to transmit the signal having the impulse characteristic through the reserved tones in a symbol period for which the preamble is transmitted.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0032] The above and other aspects, features and advantages of certain exemplary embodiments of the present invention will be more apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 illustrates a structure of a TR-based transmitter;

FIG. 2 illustrates a frame structure of a DVB system;

FIG. 3 illustrates a structure of an OFDM symbol carrying a P2 preamble in a DVB system according to an embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 4 illustrates a waveform having an impulse characteristic determined by reserved tones in a digital broadcasting system according to an embodiment of the present invention.



[0033] Throughout the drawings, the same drawing reference numerals will be understood to refer to the same elements, features and structures.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE PRESENT INVENTION



[0034] The following description with reference to the accompanying drawings is provided to assist in a comprehensive understanding of embodiments of the present invention. Accordingly, the description includes various specific details to assist in that understanding but these are to be regarded as merely exemplary. Further, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that various changes and modifications of the embodiments described herein can be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. In addition, descriptions of well-known functions and constructions are omitted for clarity and conciseness.

[0035] The terms and words used in the following description and claims are not limited to dictionary meanings, but are merely used by the inventor to enable a clear and consistent understanding of the invention. It should be apparent to those skilled in the art that the following description of exemplary embodiments of the present invention are provided for illustration purpose only and not for the purpose of limiting the present invention as defined by the appended claims and their equivalents.

[0036] In the following description, a method and apparatus for reducing PAPR of a preamble will be described in connection with a digital broadcasting system such as a DVB system for convenience purpose only. However, the present invention can be equally applied to any communication system that uses an OFDM transmission scheme and transmits a frame having a structure in which preambles are included.

[0037] The preamble structure described in FIG. 2 is an example of a preamble structure to which the present invention is applicable, and it is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention to the particular preamble structure. For example, the present invention can be applied to any preamble structure that can be divided into one preamble part or divided into two or more preamble parts.

[0038] As described above, there is a need to reduce PAPR of a preamble in a digital broadcasting system. For PAPR reduction, a DVB system may reserve some sub-carriers for a P2 preamble to employ a TR scheme among several PAPR reduction techniques. Thus, reserved tones may be designed in accordance with the P2 preamble structure.

[0039] In a digital broadcasting system employing the TR scheme, reserved tones must not collide with a pilot, and determined such that waveforms having impulse characteristics that occur due to the reserved tones are suitable for PAPR reduction. This is because locations of the reserved tones have an influence on PAPR performance.

[0040] FIG. 3 illustrates an OFDM symbol carrying a P2 preamble in a digital broadcasting system according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

[0041] Referring to FIG. 3, sub-carriers for transmission of an OFDM symbol are divided into a pilot part 301 for channel estimation and a data part 302 through which signaling information is transmitted. The pilot part 301 exists in the locations determined by Equation (8).


where k denotes a sub-carrier index, and 'mod' represents a module operation. In accordance with Equation (8), a pilot tone is located in every third sub-carrier in the frequency domain.

[0042] The digital broadcasting system, to which the present invention is applied, supports a plurality of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) modes (e.g., 1K, 2K, 4K, 8K, 16K, and 32K), and a P2 preamble exists in each FFT mode. In the digital broadcasting system, the number of OFDM symbols carrying a P2 preamble is determined according to each of the FFT modes, and Table 1 below illustrates the number of OFDM symbols for each FFT mode.
Table 1
FFT modeNumber of OFDM symbols
1K 16
2K 8
4K 4
8K 2
16K 1
32K 1


[0043] Referring to Table 1, a P2 preamble is transmitted for a 16-OFDM symbol period in a 1K FFT mode, and for a 1-OFDM symbol period in 16K and 32K FFT modes.

[0044] The TR scheme for reducing PAPR in the P2 preamble of the digital broadcasting system may use some of data sub-carriers through which signaling information is transmitted. In application of the TR scheme, it is important how to design the reserved tones since PAPR reduction performance depends on the reserved tones.

[0045] That is, locations of reserved tones in the P2 preamble 203 of FIG. 2 should be designed not to collide with a pilot signal (or pilot tones) for channel estimation, and waveforms having impulse characteristics caused by the reserved tones must be designed to be suitable for PAPR reduction. In other words, locations of the reserved tones must be determined in Equation (7) such that p1···pN-1 have small values.

[0046] The number of and locations of reserved tones for reducing PAPR of a P2 preamble, proposed by the present invention, are shown in Table 2 and Table 3. The number of reserved tones differs according to FFT size, the reserved tones are designed not to collide with a pilot signal (or pilot tones), and the waveforms having impulse characteristics are designed to have good PAPR reduction performance.

[0047] Table 2 shows the number of and indexes of reserved tones for 1K, 2K, and 4K FFT modes, and Table 3 shows the number of and indexes of reserved tones for 8K, 16K, and 32K FFT modes.
Table 2
FFT mode (Number of reserved tones)Indexes of Reserved tones
1K (10) 116,130,134,157,182,256,346,478,479,532
2K (18) 113, 124, 262, 467, 479, 727, 803, 862, 910, 946, 980, 1201, 1322, 1342, 1396, 1397, 1562, 1565
4K (36) 104, 116, 119, 163, 170, 664, 886, 1064, 1151, 1196, 1264, 1531, 1736, 1951, 1960, 2069, 2098, 2311, 2366, 2473, 2552, 2584, 2585, 2645, 2774, 2846, 2882, 3004, 3034, 3107, 3127, 3148, 3191,3283,3289
Table 3
FFT mode (Number of reserved tones)Indexes of reserved tones
8K (72) 106, 109, 110, 112, 115, 118, 133, 142, 163, 184, 206, 247, 445, 461, 503, 565, 602, 656, 766, 800, 922, 1094, 1108, 1199, 1258, 1726, 1793, 1939, 2128, 2714, 3185, 3365, 3541, 3655, 3770, 3863, 4066, 4190, 4282, 4565, 4628, 4727, 4882, 4885, 5143, 5192, 5210, 5257, 5261, 5459, 5651, 5809, 5830, 5986, 6020, 6076, 6253, 6269, 6410, 6436, 6467, 6475, 6509, 6556, 6611, 6674, 6685, 6689, 6691, 6695, 6698, 6701
16K (144) 104, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 125, 128, 131, 134, 137, 140, 143, 161, 223, 230, 398, 482, 497, 733, 809, 850, 922, 962, 1196, 1256, 1262, 1559, 1691, 1801, 1819, 1937, 2005, 2095, 2308, 2383, 2408, 2425, 2428, 2479, 2579, 2893, 2902, 3086, 3554, 4085, 4127, 4139, 4151, 4163, 4373, 4400, 4576, 4609, 4952, 4961, 5444, 5756, 5800, 6094, 6208, 6658, 6673, 6799, 7208, 7682, 8101, 8135, 8230, 8692, 8788, 8933, 9323, 9449, 9478, 9868, 10192, 10261, 10430, 10630, 10685, 10828, 10915, 10930, 10942, 11053, 11185, 11324, 11369, 11468, 11507, 11542, 11561, 11794, 11912, 11974, 11978, 12085, 12179, 12193, 12269, 12311, 12758, 12767, 12866, 12938, 12962, 12971, 13099, 13102, 13105, 13120, 13150, 13280, 13282, 13309, 13312, 13321, 13381, 13402, 13448, 13456, 13462, 13463, 13466, 13478, 13492, 13495, 13498, 13501, 13502, 13504, 13507, 13510, 13513,13514,13516
32K (288) 104, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 118, 121, 124, 127, 130, 133, 136, 139, 142, 145, 148, 151, 154, 157, 160, 163, 166, 169, 172, 175, 178, 181, 184, 187, 190, 193, 196, 199, 202, 205, 208, 211, 404, 452, 455, 467, 509, 539, 568, 650, 749, 1001, 1087, 1286, 1637, 1823, 1835, 1841, 1889, 1898, 1901, 2111, 2225, 2252, 2279, 2309, 2315, 2428, 2452, 2497, 2519, 3109, 3154, 3160, 3170, 3193, 3214, 3298, 3331, 3346, 3388, 3397, 3404, 3416, 3466, 3491, 3500, 3572, 4181, 4411, 4594, 4970, 5042, 5069, 5081, 5086, 5095, 5104, 5320, 5465, 5491, 6193, 6541, 6778, 6853, 6928, 6934, 7030, 7198, 7351, 7712, 7826, 7922, 8194, 8347, 8350, 8435, 8518, 8671, 8861, 8887, 9199, 9980, 10031, 10240, 10519, 10537, 10573, 10589, 11078, 11278, 11324, 11489, 11642, 12034, 12107, 12184, 12295, 12635, 12643, 12941, 12995, 13001, 13133, 13172, 13246, 13514, 13522, 13939, 14362, 14720, 14926, 15338, 15524, 15565, 15662, 15775, 16358, 16613, 16688, 16760, 17003, 17267, 17596, 17705, 18157, 18272, 18715, 18994, 19249, 19348, 20221, 20855, 21400, 21412, 21418, 21430, 21478, 21559, 21983, 21986, 22331, 22367, 22370, 22402, 22447, 22535, 22567, 22571, 22660, 22780, 22802, 22844, 22888, 22907, 23021, 23057, 23086, 23213, 23240, 23263, 23333, 23369, 23453, 23594, 24143, 24176, 24319, 24325, 24565, 24587, 24641, 24965, 25067, 25094, 25142, 25331, 25379, 25465, 25553, 25589, 25594, 25655, 25664, 25807, 25823, 25873, 25925, 25948, 26002, 26008, 26102, 26138, 26141, 26377, 26468, 26498, 26510, 26512, 26578, 26579, 26588, 26594, 26597, 26608, 26627, 26642, 26767, 26776, 26800, 26876, 26882, 26900, 26917, 26927, 26951, 26957, 26960, 26974, 26986, 27010, 27013, 27038, 27044, 27053, 27059, 27061, 27074, 27076, 27083, 27086, 27092, 27094, 27098, 27103, 27110, 27115, 27118, 27119, 27125, 27128, 27130, 27133, 27134, 27140, 27143,27145,27146,27148,27149


[0048] The structure of FIG. 1 can be used as a transmitter to which the TR scheme according to an embodiment of the present invention is applied. As one example, the tone reservation unit 120 reserves reserved tones to transmit a signal having an impulse characteristic in locations of sub-carriers that do not collide with a pilot signal of a preamble in a frame for (e.g., in sub-carrier locations previously agreed between a transmitter and a receiver as shown in Table 2 and/or Table 3 in accordance with the reserved tone indexes for respective FFT modes). As another example of the transmitter structure, the tone reservation unit 120 and the gradient unit 150 may be formed as a controller (not shown).

[0049] FIG. 4 illustrates a waveform having an impulse characteristic of a P2 preamble in a digital broadcasting system according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Performance of a waveform having an impulse characteristic can be represented by a ratio of power of p0 to the highest power among powers of p1pN-1 in Equation (7). Here, p0 indicates the primary peak, while the highest power among the powers of the remaining p1pN-1 is called the secondary peak, which is set lower than the primary peak.

[0050] Table 4 below shows the secondary peak for the reserved tones designed in Table 2 and Table 3.
Table 4
FFT modeSecondary peak [dB]
1K -4.3199
2K -6.5913
4K -9.1721
8K -10.4574
16K -10.8517
32K -10.9473


[0051] Referring to Table 4, when locations of the reserved tones for 8K, 16K, and 32K FFT modes are set as shown in Table 3, values of the secondary peaks are significantly reduced.

[0052] As is apparent from the foregoing description, the present invention can reduce PAPR of a preamble while preventing the preamble from colliding with a pilot signal in a digital broadcasting system.

[0053] In addition, the present invention can provide reserved tones having good PAPR reduction performance for a preamble in a digital broadcasting system.

[0054] Embodiments of the present invention can also be embodied as computer-readable codes on a computer-readable recording medium. Computer-readable recording mediums include any data storage device that can store data, which can thereafter be read by a computer system. Examples of the computer-readable recording mediums include, but are not limited to, Read-Only Memory (ROM), Random-Access Memory (RAM), Compact Disc (CD)-ROMs, magnetic tapes, floppy disks, optical data storage devices, and carrier waves (such as data transmission through the Internet via wired or wireless transmission paths). Computer-readable recording mediums can also be distributed over network-coupled computer systems so that the computer-readable code is stored and executed in a distributed fashion. Also, function programs, codes, and code segments for accomplishing the present invention can be easily construed as within the scope of the invention by programmers skilled in the art to which the present invention pertains.

[0055] While the invention has been shown and described with reference to a certain exemplary embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims and their equivalents.


Claims

1. A method for reducing a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in a digital broadcasting system, comprising:

determining reserved tones used to transmit a signal having an impulse characteristic in locations of sub-carriers that do not collide with a pilot signal of a preamble in a frame; and

transmitting the signal having the impulse characteristic through the reserved tones in a symbol period for which the preamble is transmitted.


 
2. The method of claim 1, wherein transmitting the signal having the impulse characteristic further comprises adding the signal having the impulse characteristic to an information signal that is transmitted through data tones in the preamble, using a gradient algorithm for PAPR reduction.
 
3. A transmission apparatus for reducing a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in a digital broadcasting system, comprising:

a tone reservation unit for determining reserved tones used to transmit a signal having an impulse characteristic in locations of sub-carriers that do not collide with a pilot signal of a preamble in a frame; and

a transmission unit for transmitting the signal having the impulse characteristic through the reserved tones in a symbol period for which the preamble is transmitted.


 
4. The transmission apparatus of claim 3, wherein the transmission unit further comprises a gradient unit that adds the signal having the impulse characteristic to an information signal that is transmitted through data tones in the preamble, using a gradient algorithm for PAPR reduction.
 
5. A transmission apparatus for reducing a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in a digital broadcasting system, comprising:

a transmission unit for transmitting a frame in which a preamble is included;

a memory for storing indexes of reserved tones used to transmit a signal having an impulse characteristic in locations of sub-carriers that do not collide with a pilot signal of the preamble; and

a controller for generating the signal having the impulse characteristic according to the indexes of the reserved tones and controlling the transmission unit so as to transmit the signal having the impulse characteristic through the reserved tones in a symbol period for which the preamble is transmitted.


 
6. The method of claim 1 or the transmission apparatus of claim 3 or claim 5, wherein the digital broadcasting system uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) as a transmission scheme, and locations of the reserved tones vary according to a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) size.
 
7. The method of claim 1 or the transmission apparatus of claim 3 or claim 5, wherein when the FFT size is 8K, locations of the reserved tones are determined in accordance with the following table:
FFT mode (Number of reserved tones)Indexes of reserved tones
8K (72) 106, 109, 110, 112, 115, 118, 133, 142, 163, 184, 206, 247, 445, 461, 503, 565, 602, 656, 766, 800, 922, 1094, 1108, 1199, 1258, 1726, 1793, 1939, 2128, 2714, 3185, 3365, 3541, 3655, 3770, 3863, 4066, 4190, 4282, 4565, 4628, 4727, 4882, 4885, 5143, 5192, 5210, 5257, 5261, 5459, 5651, 5809, 5830, 5986, 6020, 6076, 6253, 6269, 6410, 6436, 6467, 6475, 6509, 6556, 6611, 6674, 6685, 6689, 6691, 6695, 6698, 6701

 
8. The method of claim 1 or the transmission apparatus of claim 3 or claim 5, wherein when the FFT size is 16K, locations of the reserved tones are determined in accordance with the following table:
FFT mode (Number of reserved tones)Indexes of reserved tones
16K ( 144) 104, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 125, 128, 131, 134, 137, 140, 143, 161, 223, 230, 398, 482, 497, 733, 809, 850, 922, 962, 1196, 1256, 1262, 1559, 1691, 1801, 1819, 1937, 2005, 2095, 2308, 2383, 2408, 2425, 2428, 2479, 2579, 2893, 2902, 3086, 3554, 4085, 4127, 4139, 4151, 4163, 4373, 4400, 4576, 4609, 4952, 4961, 5444, 5756, 5800, 6094, 6208, 6658, 6673, 6799, 7208, 7682, 8101, 8135, 8230, 8692, 8788, 8933, 9323, 9449, 9478, 9868, 10192, 10261, 10430, 10630, 10685, 10828, 10915, 10930, 10942, 11053, 11185, 11324, 11369, 11468, 11507, 11542, 11561, 11794, 11912, 11974, 11978, 12085, 12179, 12193, 12269, 12311, 12758, 12767, 12866, 12938, 12962, 12971, 13099, 13102, 13105, 13120, 13150, 13280, 13282, 13309, 13312, 13321, 13381, 13402, 13448, 13456, 13462, 13463, 13466, 13478, 13492, 13495, 13498, 13501, 13502, 13504, 13507, 13510, 13513, 13514,13516

 
9. The method of claim 1 or the transmission apparatus of claim 3 or claim 5, wherein when the FFT size is 32K, locations of the reserved tones are determined in accordance with the following table:
FFT mode (Number of reserved tones)Indexes of reserved tones
32K (288) 104, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 118, 121, 124, 127, 130, 133, 136, 139, 142, 145, 148, 151, 154, 157, 160, 163, 166, 169, 172, 175, 178, 181, 184, 187, 190, 193, 196, 199, 202, 205, 208, 211, 404, 452, 455, 467, 509, 539, 568, 650, 749, 1001, 1087, 1286, 1637, 1823, 1835, 1841, 1889, 1898, 1901, 2111, 2225, 2252, 2279, 2309, 2315, 2428, 2452, 2497, 2519, 3109, 3154, 3160, 3170, 3193, 3214, 3298, 3331, 3346, 3388, 3397, 3404, 3416, 3466, 3491, 3500, 3572, 4181, 4411, 4594, 4970, 5042, 5069, 5081, 5086, 5095, 5104, 5320, 5465, 5491, 6193, 6541, 6778, 6853, 6928, 6934, 7030, 7198, 7351, 7712, 7826, 7922, 8194, 8347, 8350, 8435, 8518, 8671, 8861, 8887, 9199, 9980, 10031, 10240, 10519, 10537, 10573, 10589, 11078, 11278, 11324, 11489, 11642, 12034, 12107, 12184, 12295, 12635, 12643, 12941, 12995, 13001, 13133, 13172, 13246, 13514, 13522, 13939, 14362, 14720, 14926, 15338, 15524, 15565, 15662, 15775, 16358, 16613, 16688, 16760, 17003, 17267, 17596, 17705, 18157, 18272, 18715, 18994, 19249, 19348, 20221, 20855, 21400, 21412, 21418, 21430, 21478, 21559, 21983, 21986, 22331, 22367, 22370, 22402, 22447, 22535, 22567, 22571, 22660, 22780, 22802, 22844, 22888, 22907, 23021, 23057, 23086, 23213, 23240, 23263, 23333, 23369, 23453, 23594, 24143, 24176, 24319, 24325, 24565, 24587, 24641, 24965, 25067, 25094, 25142, 25331, 25379, 25465, 25553, 25589, 25594, 25655, 25664, 25807, 25823, 25873, 25925, 25948, 26002, 26008, 26102, 26138, 26141, 26377, 26468, 26498, 26510, 26512, 26578, 26579, 26588, 26594, 26597, 26608, 26627, 26642, 26767, 26776, 26800, 26876, 26882, 26900, 26917, 26927, 26951, 26957, 26960, 26974, 26986, 27010, 27013, 27038, 27044, 27053, 27059, 27061, 27074, 27076, 27083, 27086, 27092, 27094, 27098, 27103, 27110, 27115, 27118, 27119, 27125, 27128, 27130, 27133, 27134, 27140, 27143, 27145, 27146, 27148, 27149

 
10. The method of claim 1 or the transmission apparatus of claim 3 or claim 5, wherein when OFDM supports a plurality of FFT sizes, locations of the reserved tones are determined in accordance with the following table:
FFT mode (Number of reserved tones)Indexes of reserved tones
8K (72) 106, 109, 110, 112, 115, 118, 133, 142, 163, 184, 206, 247, 445, 461, 503, 565, 602, 656, 766, 800, 922, 1094, 1108, 1199, 1258, 1726, 1793, 1939, 2128, 2714, 3185, 3365, 3541, 3655, 3770, 3863, 4066, 4190, 4282, 4565, 4628, 4727, 4882, 4885, 5143, 5192, 5210, 5257, 5261, 5459, 5651, 5809, 5830, 5986, 6020, 6076, 6253, 6269, 6410, 6436, 6467, 6475, 6509, 6556, 6611, 6674, 6685, 6689, 6691, 6695, 6698, 6701
16K ( 144) 104, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 125, 128, 131, 134, 137, 140, 143, 161, 223, 230, 398, 482, 497, 733, 809, 850, 922, 962, 1196, 1256, 1262, 1559, 1691, 1801, 1819, 1937, 2005, 2095, 2308, 2383, 2408, 2425, 2428, 2479, 2579, 2893, 2902, 3086, 3554, 4085, 4127, 4139, 4151, 4163, 4373, 4400, 4576, 4609, 4952, 4961, 5444, 5756, 5800, 6094, 6208, 6658, 6673, 6799, 7208, 7682, 8101, 8135, 8230, 8692, 8788, 8933, 9323, 9449, 9478, 9868, 10192, 10261, 10430, 10630, 10685, 10828, 10915, 10930, 10942, 11053, 11185, 11324, 11369, 11468, 11507, 11542, 11561, 11794, 11912, 11974, 11978, 12085, 12179, 12193, 12269, 12311, 12758, 12767, 12866, 12938, 12962, 12971, 13099, 13102, 13105, 13120, 13150, 13280, 13282, 13309, 13312, 13321, 13381, 13402, 13448, 13456, 13462, 13463, 13466, 13478, 13492, 13495, 13498, 13501, 13502, 13504, 13507, 13510, 13513, 13514,13516
32K (288) 104, 106, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 118, 121, 124, 127, 130, 133, 136, 139, 142, 145, 148, 151, 154, 157, 160, 163, 166, 169, 172, 175, 178, 181, 184, 187, 190, 193, 196, 199, 202, 205, 208, 211, 404, 452, 455, 467, 509, 539, 568, 650, 749, 1001, 1087, 1286, 1637, 1823, 1835, 1841, 1889, 1898, 1901,2111,2225, 2252, 2279, 2309, 2315, 2428, 2452, 2497, 2519, 3109, 3154, 3160, 3170, 3193, 3214, 3298, 3331, 3346, 3388, 3397, 3404, 3416, 3466, 3491, 3500, 3572, 4181, 4411, 4594, 4970, 5042, 5069, 5081, 5086, 5095, 5104, 5320, 5465, 5491, 6193, 6541, 6778, 6853, 6928, 6934, 7030, 7198, 7351, 7712, 7826, 7922, 8194, 8347, 8350, 8435, 8518, 8671, 8861, 8887, 9199, 9980, 10031, 10240, 10519, 10537, 10573, 10589, 11078, 11278, 11324, 11489, 11642, 12034, 12107, 12184, 12295, 12635, 12643, 12941, 12995, 13001, 13133, 13172, 13246, 13514, 13522, 13939, 14362, 14720, 14926, 15338, 15524, 15565, 15662, 15775, 16358, 16613, 16688, 16760, 17003, 17267, 17596, 17705, 18157, 18272, 18715, 18994, 19249, 19348, 20221, 20855, 21400, 21412, 21418, 21430, 21478, 21559, 21983, 21986, 22331, 22367, 22370, 22402, 22447, 22535, 22567, 22571, 22660, 22780, 22802, 22844, 22888, 22907, 23021, 23057, 23086, 23213, 23240, 23263, 23333, 23369, 23453, 23594, 24143, 24176, 24319, 24325, 24565, 24587, 24641, 24965, 25067, 25094, 25142, 25331, 25379, 25465, 25553, 25589, 25594, 25655, 25664, 25807, 25823, 25873, 25925, 25948, 26002, 26008, 26102, 26138, 26141, 26377, 26468, 26498, 26510, 26512, 26578, 26579, 26588, 26594, 26597, 26608, 26627, 26642, 26767, 26776, 26800, 26876, 26882, 26900, 26917, 26927, 26951, 26957, 26960, 26974, 26986, 27010, 27013, 27038, 27044, 27053, 27059, 27061, 27074, 27076, 27083, 27086, 27092, 27094, 27098, 27103, 27110, 27115, 27118, 27119, 27125, 27128, 27130, 27133, 27134, 27140, 27143, 27145, 27146, 27148, 27149

 
11. The method of claim 1 or the transmission apparatus of claim 3 or claim 5, wherein the preamble comprises a P2 symbol that carries signaling information of a physical layer in a DVB system.
 




Drawing