(19)
(11)EP 2 167 447 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
02.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/36

(21)Application number: 08771985.2

(22)Date of filing:  26.06.2008
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C06B 21/00(2006.01)
C06C 7/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2008/068275
(87)International publication number:
WO 2009/102338 (20.08.2009 Gazette  2009/34)

(54)

NON-TOXIC PERCUSSION PRIMERS

NICHT TOXISCHE PERKUSSIONSZÜNDER

AMORCES À PERCUSSION NON TOXIQUES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 11.02.2008 US 29084

(43)Date of publication of application:
31.03.2010 Bulletin 2010/13

(73)Proprietor: Vista Outdoor Operations LLC
Farmington, UT 84025 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • ERICKSON, Jack
    Andover, MN 55304 (US)
  • SANDSTROM, Joel, Lee
    Corcoran, MN 55374 (US)
  • JOHNSTON, Gene
    Radford, VA 24141 (US)
  • NORRIS, Neal
    Lewiston, ID 83501 (US)
  • BRAUN, Patrick
    Clarkston, WA 99403 (US)
  • BLAU, Reed
    Richmond, UT 84333 (US)
  • LIU, Lisa, Spendlove
    Layton, UT 84041 (US)
  • NEWELL, Rachel, Hendrika
    Ogden, UT 84404 (US)

(74)Representative: Lang, Johannes et al
Bardehle Pagenberg Partnerschaft mbB Patentanwälte, Rechtsanwälte Prinzregentenplatz 7
81675 München
81675 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A- 0 334 725
EP-A- 1 195 366
WO-A-96/12770
WO-A-2006/009579
DE-A1- 2 513 735
US-A- 3 113 059
US-A- 4 133 707
US-A1- 2006 219 341
US-B1- 7 192 649
EP-A- 0 699 646
WO-A-02/06421
WO-A-99/44968
WO-A-2006/083379
DE-A1- 19 606 237
US-A- 3 367 805
US-A1- 2006 113 014
US-B1- 6 544 363
  
  • MULLER B: "Citric acid as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium pigment" CORROSION SCIENCE JANUARY 2004 ELSEVIER LTD GB, vol. 46, no. 1, January 2004 (2004-01), pages 159-167, XP002507196
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to percussion primer compositions for explosive systems.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Due to the concern over the known toxicity of certain metal compounds such as lead, there has been an effort to replace percussion primers based on lead styphnate, with lead-free percussion primers.

[0003] The Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have made a significant effort to find replacements for metal based percussion primers. Furthermore, firing ranges and other locales of firearms usage have severely limited the use of percussion primers containing toxic metal compounds due to the potential health risks associated with the use of lead, barium and antimony.

[0004] Ignition devices rely on the sensitivity of the primary explosive that significantly limits available primary explosives. The most common lead styphnate alternative, diazodinitrophenol (DDNP or dinol), has been used for several decades relegated to training ammunition. DDNP-based primers suffer from poor reliability that may be attributed to low friction sensitivity, low flame temperature, and are hygroscopic.

[0005] Metastable interstitial composites (MIC) (also known as metastable nanoenergetic composites (MNC) or superthermites), including Al/MoO3, Al/WO3, Al/CuO and Al/Bi22O3, have been identified as potential substitutes for currently used lead styphnate. These materials have shown excellent performance characteristics, such as impact sensitivity and high temperature output. However, it has been found that these systems, despite their excellent performance characteristics, are difficult to process safely. The main difficulty is handling of dry nano-size powder mixtures due to their sensitivity to friction and electrostatic discharge (ESD). See U.S. Patent No. 5717159 and U.S. Patent Publication No. 2006/0113014.

[0006] Health concerns may be further compounded by the use of barium and lead containing oxidizers. See, for example, U.S. Patent Publication No. 20050183805.

[0007] There remains a need in the art for an ignition formulation that is free of toxic metals, is non-corrosive, may be processed and handled safely, has sufficient sensitivity, and is more stable over a broad range of storage conditions. US 2006/113014 A1 discloses percussion primers comprising nanoenergetic composites with nanosize, oxide-passivate aluminum. US2006113014A1 discloses a method for preparing metastable nanoenergetic composites (MNC) and for wet loading those MNCs into percussion primer cups. US4133707A discloses an extrudable ammunition priming mix with viscosity characteristics which remain relatively stable over an extended time span. EP0334725A1 discloses new percussive primer charges and process for their manufacture. DE19606237A1 discloses a non-toxic detonator composition for light weapon munitions free of lead and barium. EP1195366A discloses a non-toxic primer mix including both bismuth sulfide and potassium nitrate as the pyrotechnic portion of the primer. WO9944968A1 discloses a non-toxic primer composition for use in ammunition with a hygroscopic oxidizer which is protected from absorption of water. US6544363B1 discloses a non-toxic heavy-metal-free priming mix and a method of forming same. EP0699646A1 discloses a priming mixture containing no toxic materials, in particular no Pb, Ba or Sb compounds, and presenting at least one primary explosive, an oxidizing agent, a reducing agent, and an inert friction agent; the oxidizing agent comprising stannic oxide SnO2. WO2006009579A2 discloses a primer for small arms ammunition including a primary explosive and an oxidizer system containing bismuth oxide. US2006219341A1 discloses a sensitized explosive that comprises an explosive precipitated onto a sensitizer. WO2006083379A2 discloses nanoenergetic materials based on aluminum and bismuth oxide. US3367805A discloses thickened inorganic nitrate aqueous slurry containing finely divided aluminum having a lyophobic surface of high surface area. US3113059A discloses an inhibited aluminum-water composition and method. WO9612770A discloses a system for inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous and other metals by passivating the metals. WO0206421A discloses reaction mixtures that include exothermic generating particles having a water soluble coating encasing a portion of the particles and, optionally an aqueous solution, and a buffer. DE2513735A1 discloses a corrosion inhibitor for metals in aqueous systems containing polycarboxylic acid, zinc, phosphate, phosphonate or polymer dispersant. Müller B., CORROSION SCIENCE JANUARY 2004 ELSEVIER LTD GB, Vol. 46, No. 1, January 2004 (2004-01), pages 159-167, XP002507196 discloses citric acid as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium pigment. US7192649B1 discloses a protective passivation layer that is formed on the surface of an aluminum mass, such as bare aluminum particles, creating a ssprotected aluminum mass.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0008] This object is achieved by the invention defined by the independent claim; embodiments of the invention are defined in the dependent claims. Any reference to "embodiment(s)", "example(s)" or "aspect(s) of the invention" in this description not falling under the scope of the claims should be interpreted as illustrative example(s) for understanding the invention.

[0009] As an illustrative example for understanding the invention, a method of making a percussion primer or igniter includes providing at least one water wet explosive, combining at least one fuel particle having a particle size of less than about 1500 nanometers with at least one water wet explosive to form a first mixture and combining at least one oxidizer.

[0010] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a method of making a percussion primer includes providing at least one water wet explosive, combining a plurality of fuel particles having a particle size range of about 0.1 nanometers to about 1500 nanometers with the at least one water wet-explosive to form a first mixture and combining at least one oxidizer.

[0011] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a method of making a percussion primer includes providing at least one wet explosive, combining at least one fuel particle having a particle size of about 1500 nanometers or less with the at least one water wet explosive to form a first mixture and combining at least one oxidizer having an average particle size of about 1 micron to about 200 microns.

[0012] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a method of making a primer composition includes providing at least one water wet explosive, combining a plurality of fuel particles having an average particle size of 1500 microns or less with at least one water wet explosive and combining an oxidizer.

[0013] In any of the above illustrative examples for understanding the invention, the oxidizer may be combined with the explosive, or with the first mixture.

[0014] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a primer composition includes at least one explosive, at least one fuel particle and a combination of at least one organic acid and at least one inorganic acid.

[0015] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a percussion primer premixture includes at least one explosive, at least one fuel particle having a particle size of about 1500 nanometers or less and water in an amount of about 10 wt-% to about 50 wt-% of the premixture.

[0016] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a primer composition includes a relatively insensitive secondary explosive that is a member selected from the group consisting of nitrocellulose, RDX, HMX, CL-20, TNT, styphnic acid and mixtures thereof; and a reducing agent that is a member selected from the group consisting of nano-size fuel particles, an electron-donating organic particle and mixtures thereof.

[0017] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a slurry of particulate components in an aqueous media includes three different particulate components, the particulate components being particulate explosive, uncoated fuel particles having a particle size of about 1500 nanometers or less, and oxidizer particles.

[0018] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a primer premixture includes fuel particles having a particles size of about 1500 nanometers or less in a buffered aqueous media.

[0019] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a method of making a percussion primer includes nano-size fuel particles in an amount of about 1 to about 13 percent based on the dry weight of the percussion primer.

[0020] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, a primer-containing ordnance assembly includes a housing, a secondary explosive disposed within the housing and a primary explosive disposed within the housing, and including at least one percussion primer according to any of the above embodiments.

[0021] These and other aspects of the invention and illustrative examples for understanding the invention are described in the following detailed description of the invention or in the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0022] 

FIG. 1A is a longitudinal cross-section of a rimfire gun cartridge employing a percussion primer composition of one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 1B is an enlarged view of the anterior portion of the rimfire gun cartridge shown in FIG. 1A.

FIG. 2A a longitudinal cross-section of a centerfire gun cartridge employing a percussion primer composition of one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2B is an enlarged view a portion of the centerfire gun cartridge of FIG. 2A that houses the percussion primer.

FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of exemplary ordnance in which a percussion primer of one embodiment of the invention is used.

FIG. 4 is a simulated bulk autoignition temperature (SBAT) graph.

FIG. 5 is an SBAT graph.

FIG. 6 is an SBAT graph.

FIG. 7 is an SBAT graph.

FIG. 8 is a graph illustrating a fuel particle size distribution.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0023] While this invention may be embodied in many different forms, there are described in detail herein specific preferred embodiments of the invention. This description is an exemplification of the principles of the invention and is not intended to limit the invention to the particular embodiments illustrated.

[0024] In a preferred embodiment, the present invention relates to percussion primer compositions that include at least one energetic, at least one fuel particle having a particle size of about 1500 nanometers (nm) or less, suitably about 1000 nm or less and more suitably about 650 nm or less, and at least one oxidizer.

[0025] As an illustrative example for understanding the invention, the at least one fuel particle is non-coated.

[0026] According to the invention, a buffer or mixture of buffers is employed.

[0027] In some embodiments, a sensitizer for increasing the sensitivity of the primary explosive is added to the primer compositions.

[0028] The primer mixture according to one or more embodiments of the invention creates sufficient heat to allow for the use of moderately active metal oxides that are non-hygroscopic, non-toxic and non-corrosive. The primary energetic is suitably selected from energetics that are relatively insensitive to shock, friction and heat according to industry standards, making processing of these energetics more safe. Some of the relatively insensitive explosives that find utility herein for use as the primary explosive have been categorized generally as a secondary explosive due to their relative insensitivity.

[0029] Examples of suitable classes of energetics include, but are not limited to, nitrate esters, nitramines, nitroaromatics and mixtures thereof. The energetics suitable for use herein include both primary and secondary energetics in these classes.

[0030] Examples of suitable nitramines include, but are not limited to, CL-20, RDX, HMX and nitroguanidine.

[0031] RDX (royal demolition explosive), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine or 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane, may also be referred to as cyclonite, hexagen, or cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine.

[0032] HMX (high melting explosive), octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetraazacyclooctane (HMX), may also be referred to as cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine or octagen, among other names.

[0033] CL-20 is 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW) or 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,903,11]-dodecane.

[0034] Examples of suitable nitroaromatics include, but are not limited to, tetryl (2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-methylnitramine), TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), DDNP (diazodinitrophenol or 4,6-dinitrobenzene-2-diazo-1-oxide) and mixtures thereof.

[0035] Examples of suitable nitrate esters include, but are not limited to, PETN (pentaerythritoltetranitrate) and nitrocellulose.

[0036] Explosives may be categorized into primary explosives and secondary explosives depending on their relative sensitivity, with the secondary explosives being less sensitive than the primary explosives.

[0037] Examples of primary explosives include, but are not limited to, lead styphnate, metal azides, diazodinitrophenol, potassium, etc. As noted above, such primary explosives are undesirable for use herein.

[0038] Suitably, the explosive employed in the percussion primers disclosed herein includes a secondary explosive. Preferred secondary explosives according to the invention include, but are not limited to, nitrocellulose, RDX, HMX, CL-20, TNT, styphnic acid and mixtures thereof.

[0039] The above lists are intended for illustrative purposes only, and not as a limitation on the scope of the present invention.

[0040] In some embodiments, nitrocellulose is employed. Nitrocellulose, particularly nitrocellulose having a high percentage of nitrogen, for example, greater than about 10 wt-% nitrogen, and having a high surface area, has been found to increase sensitivity. In primers wherein the composition includes nitrocellulose, flame temperatures exceeding those of lead styphnate have been created. In some embodiments, the nitrocellulose has a nitrogen content of about 12.5-13.6% by weight and a particle size of 80-120 mesh.

[0041] The primary explosive can be of varied particulate size. For example, particle size may range from approximately 0.1 micron to about 100 microns. Blending of more than one size and type can be effectively used to adjust formulation sensitivity.

[0042] According to the invention, the primary explosive is employed in amounts of about 5% to about 40% by weight.

[0043] Examples of suitable fuel particles for use herein include, but are not limited to, aluminum, boron, molybdenum, silicon, titanium, tungsten, magnesium, melamine, zirconium, calcium silicide, and mixtures thereof.

[0044] The fuel particle may have a particle size of 1500 nanometers (nm) or less, more suitably about 1000 nm or less, and most suitably about 650 nm or less. In some embodiments a plurality of particles having a size distribution is employed. The distribution of the fuel particles may range from about 0.1 to about 1500 nm, suitably about 0.1 to about 1000 nm and most suitably about 0.1 to about 650 nm. The distribution may be unimodal or multimodal. FIG. 8 provides one example of a unimodal particle size distribution for aluminum fuel particles. The surface area of these particles is about 12 to 18 m2/g.

[0045] Average particle sizes for a distribution mode are about 100 nm to about 1500 nm, suitably about 100 nm to about 1000 nm, even more suitably about 100 nm to about 650, and most suitably about 100 nm to about 500 nm. In some embodiments, the average fuel particle is about 100 to about 500 nm, more suitably about 100 to about 350 nm.

[0046] In one particular embodiment, the fuel particles have an average fuel particle size of about 100 to about 200 nm

[0047] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the fuel particles have an average particle size of about 250 nm to about 350 nm.

[0048] In a preferred embodiment, aluminum fuel particles having an average particle size of about 100 nm to about 200 nm may be selected.

[0049] In a preferred embodiment, titanium fuel particles having an average particle size of about 250 to about 350 nm may be selected.

[0050] Although the present invention is limited to an average particle size of about 100 nm to about 1500 nm of the fuel particle, keeping the average size fuel particle above about 0.05 microns or 50 nanometers, can significantly improve the safety of processing due to the naturally occurring surface oxides and thicker oxide layer that exist on larger fuel particles. Smaller fuel particles may exhibit higher impact (friction) and shock sensitivities.

[0051] Very small fuel particles, such as those between about 20 nm and 50 nm, can be unsafe to handle. In the presence of oxygen they are prone to autoignition and are thus typically kept organic solvent wet or coated such as with polytetrafluoroethylene or an organic acid such as oleic acid.

[0052] Thus, the fuel particles have an average particle size of at least about 100 nm or more.

[0053] Suitably, as another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the fuel particles have natural oxides on the surface thereof. Surface oxides reduce the sensitivity of the fuel particle, and reduce the need to provide any additional protective coating such as a fluoropolymer coating, e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), an organic acid coating or a phosphate based coating to reduce sensitivity and facilitate safe processing of the composition, or if non-coated, reduce the need to employ a solvent other than water. See, for example, U.S. Patent No. 5,717,159 or U.S. Patent Application Publication No. US 2006/0113014 A1. Natural oxides are not considered "coatings" for purposes of this application.

[0054] Natural surface oxides on the surface of these fuel particles improves the stability of the particles which consequently increases the margin of safety for processing and handling. Furthermore, a lower surface area may also decrease hazards while handling the small fuel particles as risk of an electrostatic discharge initiation of the small fuel particles decreases as the surface area decreases.

[0055] Thus, coatings for the protection of the fuel particle and/or the use of solvents, may be eliminated due to the increased surface oxides on nano-sized fuel particles.

[0056] One specific example of a fuel particle that may be employed herein is Alex® nano-aluminum powder having an average particle size of about 100 (about 0.1 micron) to about 200 nanometers (0.2 microns), for example, an average particles size of about 130 nm, available from Argonide Nanomaterials in Pittsburgh, PA.

[0057] The nano-size fuel particles are employed in the primer composition, on a dry weight basis, in an amount of about 1% to about 20% by weight, more suitably about 1% to about 15% by weight of the dry primer composition. It is desirable to have at least about 1% by weight, more suitably at least about 2% by weight and most suitably at least about 5% by weight of the nano-size fuel particles, based on the dry weight of the primer composition.

[0058] Keeping the amount of the nano-size fuel particles employed in the primer composition low is beneficial in part because it reduces cost and also because it has been discovered that if too many nano-size fuel particles are employed excessive oxygen is taken out of the system, which can result in muzzle flash. Consequently, as another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the nano-size fuel particles are employed in the primer composition, on a dry weight basis, in an amount of not more than about 13% by weight of the dry primer composition, even more suitably about 1% to about 12% by weight of the dry primer composition, even more suitably about 1% to about 10% by weight of the dry primer composition and most suitably about 1% to about 8% by weight of the dry primer composition. As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, about 6% by weight of the nano-size fuel particles are used based on the weight of the dry primer composition.

[0059] Buffers are added to the primer compositions to decrease the likelihood of hydrolysis of the fuel particles, which is dependent on both temperature and pH. While single acid buffers may be employed, the present inventors have found that a dual acid buffer system significantly increases the temperature stability of the percussion primer composition. Of course, more than two buffers may be employed as well. For example, it has been found that while a single acid buffer system can increase the temperature at which hydrolysis of the fuel particle occurs to about 120-140° F (about 49°C - 60°C), these temperatures are not sufficient for standard processing of percussion primers that includes oven drying. Therefore, higher hydrolysis onset temperatures are desirable for safe oven drying of the percussion primer compositions.

[0060] While any buffer may be suitably employed herein, it has been found that some buffers are more effective than others for reducing the temperature of onset of hydrolysis. In one embodiment, an inorganic acid, for example, phosphoric acid or salt thereof, i.e. phosphate, is employed. In another embodiment, a combination of an organic acid or salt thereof and an inorganic acid or salt thereof is employed, for example, an organic acid, such as citric acid, and a phosphate salt are employed. More specifically, in some embodiments, a combination of citrate and phosphate are employed. In weakly basic conditions, the dibasic phosphate ion (HPO42-) and the tribasic citrate ion (C6H5O73-) are prevalent. In weakly acid conditions, the monobasic phosphate ion (H2PO4-) and the dibasic citrate ion (C6H6O72-) are most prevalent.

[0061] Furthermore, the stability of explosives to both moisture and temperature is desirable for safe handling of firearms. For example, small cartridges are subject to ambient conditions including temperature fluctuations and moisture, and propellants contain small amounts of moisture and volatiles. It is desirable that these loaded rounds are stable for decades, be stable for decades over a wide range of environmental conditions of fluctuating moisture and temperatures.

[0062] It has been discovered that primer compositions according to one or more embodiments of the invention can be safely stored water wet (e.g. 25% water) for long periods without any measurable affect on the primer sensitivity or ignition capability. In some embodiments, the primer compositions may be safely stored for at least about 5 weeks without any measurable affect on primer sensitivity or ignition capability.

[0063] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the aluminum contained in the percussion primer compositions exhibit no exotherms during simulated bulk autoignition tests (SBAT) at temperatures greater than about 200° F (about 93° C), and even greater than about 225° F (about 107° C) when tested as a slurry in water.

[0064] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, additional fuels may be added. For example, as another illustrative example for understanding the invention, an additional aluminum fuel having a particle size of about 80 mesh to about 120 mesh is employed. Such particles have a different distribution mode and are not to be taken into account when determining average particle size of the <1500nm particles.

[0065] A sensitizer may be added to the percussion primer compositions according to the invention. As the particle size of the nano-size fuel particles increases, sensitivity decreases. Thus, a sensitizer may be beneficial. Sensitizers are employed in amounts of 0% to about 20%, suitably 0% to about 15% by weight and more suitably 0% to about 10% by weight of the composition. One example of a suitable sensitizer includes, but is not limited to, tetracene.

[0066] The sensitizer may be employed in combination with a friction generator. Friction generators are useful in amounts of about 0% to about 25% by weight of the primer composition. One example of a suitable friction generator includes, but is not limited to, glass powder.

[0067] Tetracene is suitably employed as a sensitizing explosive while glass powder is employed as a friction generator.

[0068] An oxidizer is employed in the primer compositions according to the invention. Oxidizers may be employed in amounts of about 20% to about 70% by weight of the primer composition. Suitably, the oxidizers employed herein are moderately active metal oxides, and are non-hygroscopic and are not considered toxic. Examples of oxidizers include, but are not limited to, bismuth oxide, bismuth subnitrate, bismuth tetroxide, bismuth sulfide, zinc peroxide, tin oxide, manganese dioxide, molybdenum trioxide, and combinations thereof.

[0069] The oxidizer is not limited to any particular particle size and nano-size oxidizer particles can be employed herein. However, it is more desirable that the oxidizer has an average particle size that is about 1 micron to about 200 microns, more suitably about 10 microns to about 200 microns, and most suitably about 100 microns to about 200 microns. As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the oxidizer has an average particle size of about 150 to about 200 microns, for example, about 175 microns.

[0070] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the oxidizer employed is bismuth trioxide having an average particle size of about 100 to about 200 microns, for example, about 177 microns, is employed.

[0071] While nano-size particulate oxidizers can be employed, they are not as desirable for safety purposes as the smaller particles are more sensitive to water and water vapor. One example of a nano-size particulate oxidizer is nano-size bismuth trioxide having an average particle size of less than 1 micron, for example, 0.9 microns or 90 nanometers.

[0072] It is surmised that the nano-size fuel particles disclosed herein, act as a reducing agent (i.e. donate electrons) for the explosive. It is further surmised that organic reducing agents may find utility herein. For example, melamine or BHT.

[0073] Other conventional primer additives such as binders may be employed in the primer compositions herein as is known in the art. Both natural and synthetic binders find utility herein. Examples of suitable binders include, but are not limited to, natural and synthetic gums including xanthan, Arabic, tragacanth, guar, karaya, and synthetic polymeric binders such as hydroxypropylcellulose and polypropylene oxide, as well as mixtures thereof. See also U.S. Patent Publication No. 2006/0219341 A1. Binders may be added in amounts of about 0.1 wt% to about 5 wt-% of the composition, and more suitably about 0.1 wt% to about 1 wt% of the composition.

[0074] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, other optional ingredients as are known in the art may also be employed in the compositions. For example, inert fillers, diluents, other binders, low out put explosives, etc., may be optionally added.

[0075] The above lists and ranges are intended for illustrative purposes only, and are not intended as a limitation on the scope of the present invention which is defined only by the claims.

[0076] In one preferred embodiment, a relatively insensitive explosive, such as nitrocellulose, is employed in combination with an aluminum particulate fuel having an average particle size of about 1500 nm or less, suitably about 1000 nm or less, more suitably about 650 nm or less, most suitably about 350 nm or less, for example, about 100 nm to about 200 nm average particle size. A preferred oxidizer is bismuth trioxide having an average particle size between about 1 micron and 200 microns, for example about 100 microns to about 200 microns is employed. An inorganic buffer such as phosphate is employed, or a dual buffer system including an inorganic and an organic acid or salt thereof is employed, for example, phosphate and citric acid.

[0077] The primer compositions according to one or more embodiments of the invention may be processed using simple water processing techniques. The present invention allows the use of larger fuel particles which are safer for handling while maintaining the sensitivity of the assembled primer. It is surmised that this may be attributed to the use of larger fuel particles and/or the dual buffer system. The steps of milling and sieving employed for MIC-MNC formulations may also be eliminated. For at least these reasons, processing of the primer compositions according to the invention is safer.

[0078] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the method of making the primer compositions a generally includes mixing the primary explosive wet with at least one fuel particle having a particle size of less than about 1500 nm to form a first mixture. An oxidizer may be added to either the wet explosive, or to the first mixture. The oxidizer may be optionally dry blended with at least one binder to form a second dry mixture, and the second mixture then added to the first mixture and mixing until homogeneous to form a final mixture.

[0079] As used herein, the term water-wet, shall refer to a water content of between about 10 wt-% and about 50 wt-%, more suitably about 15% to about 40% and even more suitably about 20% to about 30%. As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, about 25% water or more is employed, for example, 28% is employed.

[0080] It is desirable to employ water without any additional solvents.

[0081] If a sensitizer is added, the sensitizer may be added either to the water wet primary explosive, or to the primary explosive/fuel particle wet blend. The sensitizer may optionally further include a friction generator such as glass powder.

[0082] At least one buffer, or combination of two or more buffers, may be added to the process to keep the system acidic and to prevent significant hydrogen evolution and further oxides from forming. In illustrative examples for understanding the invention wherein the metal based fuel is subject to hydrolysis, such as with aluminum, the addition of a mildly acidic buffer having a pH in the range of about 4-8, suitably 4-7, can help to prevent such hydrolysis. While at a pH of 8, hydrolysis is delayed, by lowering the pH, hydrolysis can be effectively stopped, thus, a pH range of 4-7 is preferable. The buffer solution is suitably added as increased moisture to the primary explosive prior to addition of non-coated nano-size fuel particle. Furthermore, the nano-size fuel particle may be preimmersed in the buffer solution to further increase handling safety.

[0083] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the pH of the water wet explosive is adjusted by adding at least one buffer or combination thereof to the water wet explosive.

[0084] Alternatively, as another illustrative example for understanding the invention, fuel particles are added to a buffered aqueous media. This then may be combined with the other ingredients.

[0085] Although several mechanisms can be employed depending on the primary explosive, it is clear that simple water mixing methods may be used to assemble the percussion primer using standard industry practices and such assembly can be accomplished safely without stability issues. The use of such water processing techniques is beneficial as previous primer compositions such as MIC/MNC primer compositions have limited stability in water.

[0086] The nano-size fuel particles and the explosive can be water-mixed according to one or more embodiments of the invention, maintaining conventional mix methods and associated safety practices.

[0087] The processing sequence is unlike that of U.S. Patent Publication No. 2006/0113014 where nano-size fuel particles are combined with nano-size oxidizer particles prior to the optional addition of any explosive component. The sequence used U.S. Patent Publication No. 2006/0113014 is believed to be employed to ensure that thorough mixing of the nano-size particles is accomplished without agglomeration. The smaller particles, the more the tendency that such particles clump together. Furthermore, if these smaller particles are mixed in the presence of an explosive, before they were fully disbursed, the mixing process might result in the explosive pre-igniting. Still further, even without the presence of an explosive component, the oxidizer and fuel particles are not mixed in any of the examples unless an organic solvent has been employed, either to precoat the fuel particles or as a vehicle when the particles are mixed, and then the additional step of solvent removal must be performed.

[0088] The combination of ingredients employed in the percussion primer herein is beneficial because it allows for a simplified processing sequence in which the nano-fuel particles and oxidizer do not need to be premixed. The larger oxidizer particles employed, along with the use of a relatively insensitive secondary explosive, therefore allows a process that is simpler, has an improved safety margin and at the same time reduces material and handling cost. Thus the invention provides a commercially efficacious percussion primer, a result that has heretofore not been achieved.

[0089] Broadly, primary oxidizer-fuel formulations, when blended with fuels, sensitizers and binders, can be substituted in applications where traditional lead styphnate and diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) primers and igniter formulations are employed. The heat output of the system is sufficient to utilize non-toxic metal oxidizers of higher activation energy typically employed but under utilized in lower flame temperature DDNP based formulations.

[0090] Additional benefits of the present invention include improved stability, increased ignition capability, improved ignition reliability, lower final mix cost, and increased safety due to the elimination of lead styphnate production and handling.

[0091] The present invention finds utility in any igniter or percussion primer application where lead styphnate is currently employed. For example, the percussion primer according to the present invention may be employed for small caliber and medium caliber cartridges, as well as industrial powerloads.

[0092] The following tables provide various compositions and concentration ranges for a variety of different cartridges. Such compositions and concentration ranges are for illustrative purposes only, and are not intended as a limitation on the scope of the present invention which is defined only by the claims.

[0093] For purposes of the following tables, the nitrocellulose is 30-100 mesh and 12.5-13.6 wt-% nitrogen. The nano-aluminum is sold under the tradename of Alex® and has an average particles size of 0.1 microns. The additional aluminum fuel is 80-120 mesh.
Table 1: Illustrative percussion primer compositions for pistol/small rifle.
Pistol/Small RifleRange wt-%Preferred wt-%
Nitrocellulose 10-30 20
Nano-Aluminum 4-12 6
Bismuth trioxide 50-70 64.5
Tetracene 0-6 5
Binder 0.3-0.8 0.4
Buffer/stabilizer 0.1-0.5 0.1
Table 2: Illustrative percussion primer compositions for large rifle.
Large rifleRange wt-%Preferred wt-%
Nitrocellulose 6-10 7.5
Single-base ground propellant 10-30 22.5
Nano-Aluminum 4-12 6
Aluminum, 80-120 mesh 2-6 4
Bismuth trioxide 40-60 50
Tetracene 0-6 5
Binder 0.3-0.8 0.4
Buffer/stabilizer 0.1-0.5 0.1
Table 3: Illustrative percussion primer compositions for industrial/commercial power load rimfire.
Power load rimfireRange wt-%Preferred wt-%
Nitrocellulose 14-22 18
Nano-Aluminum 4-15 6
Bismuth trioxide 30-43 38
DDNP 12-18 14.5
Tetracene 0-7 5
Binder 1-2 1
Glass 12-18 14
Table 4: Illustrative percussion primer compositions for industrial commercial power load rimfire.
RimfireRange wt-%Preferred wt-%
Nitrocellulose 14-25 19
Nano-Aluminum 4-15 6
Bismuth trioxide 40-70 55
Tetracene 0-10 5
Binder 1-2 1
Glass 0-20 10
Table 5: Illustrative percussion primer compositions for industrial/commercial rimfire.
RimfireRange wt-%Preferred wt-%
Nitrocellulose 12-20 15
Nano-Aluminum 4-12 6
Bismuth trioxide 50-72 59
Tetracene 4-10 5
Binder 1-2 1
Glass 0-25 10
Table 6: Illustrative percussion primer compositions for industrial/commercial shotshell.
ShotshellRange wt-%Preferred wt-%
Nitrocellulose 14-22 18
Single-base ground propellant 8-16 9
Nano-Aluminum 4-10 6
Aluminum, 80-120 mesh 2-5 3
Bismuth trioxide 45-65 46
Tetracene 4-10 5
Binder 1-2 1
Glass 0-25 10


[0094] As another illustrative example for understanding the invention, the percussion primer is used in a centerfire gun cartridge or in a rimfire gun cartridge. In small arms using the rimfire gun cartridge, a firing pin strikes a rim of a casing of the gun cartridge. In contrast, the firing pin of small arms using the centerfire gun cartridge strikes a metal cup in the center of the cartridge casing containing the percussion primer. Gun cartridges and cartridge casings are known in the art and, therefore, are not discussed in detail herein. The force or impact of the firing pin may produce a percussive event that is sufficient to detonate the percussion primer in the rimfire gun cartridge or in the centerfire gun cartridge, causing the secondary explosive composition to ignite.

[0095] Turning now to the figures, FIG. 1A is a longitudinal cross-section of a rimfire gun cartridge shown generally at 6. Cartridge 6 includes a housing 4. Percussion primer 2 may be substantially evenly distributed around an interior volume defined by a rim portion 3 of casing 4 of the cartridge 6 as shown in FIG. 1B which is an enlarged view of an anterior portion of the rimfire gun cartridge 6 shown in FIG. 1A.

[0096] FIG. 2A is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of a centerfire gun cartridge shown generally at 8. In this illustrative examples for understanding the invention, the percussion primer 2 may be positioned in an aperture 10 in the casing 4. FIG. 2B is an enlarged view of aperture 10 in FIG. 2A more clearly showing primer 2 in aperture 10.

[0097] The propellant composition 12 may be positioned substantially adjacent to the percussion primer 2 in the rimfire gun cartridge 6 or in the centerfire gun cartridge 8. When ignited or combusted, the percussion primer 2 may produce sufficient heat and condensing of hot particles to ignite the propellant composition 12 to propel projectile 16 from the barrel of the firearm or larger caliber ordnance (such as, without limitation, handgun, rifle, automatic rifle, machine gun, any small and medium caliber cartridge, automatic cannon, etc.) in which the cartridge 6 or 8 is disposed. The combustion products of the percussion primer 2 may be environmentally friendly, noncorrosive, and nonabrasive.

[0098] As previously mentioned, the percussion primer 2 may also be used in larger ordnance, such as (without limitation) grenades, mortars, or detcord initiators, or to initiate mortar rounds, rocket motors, or other systems including a secondary explosive, alone or in combination with a propellant, all of the foregoing assemblies being encompassed by the term "primer-containing ordnance assembly," for the sake of convenience. In the ordnance, motor or system 14, the percussion primer 2 may be positioned substantially adjacent to a secondary explosive composition 12 in a housing 18, as shown in FIG. 3. For purposes of simplicity, as used herein, the term "ordnance" shall be employed to refer to any of the above-mentioned cartridges, grenades, mortars, initiators, rocket motors, or any other systems in which the percussion primer disclosed herein may be employed.

[0099] In any of the cartridge assemblies discussed above, the wet primer composition is mixed in a standard mixer assembly such as a Hobart or planetary type mixer. Primer cups are charged with the wet primer mixture, an anvil placed over the top, and the assembly is then placed in an oven at a temperature of about 150° F for 1 to 2 hours or until dry.

[0100] The following non-limiting examples further illustrate the present invention but are in no way intended to limit the scope thereof.

EXAMPLES


Example 1



[0101] 

Nitrocellulose 10-40 wt%

Aluminum 5-20 wt% (average particle size 0.1 micron)

Aluminum 0-15 wt% (standard mesh aluminum as common to primer mixes)

Tetracene 0-10 wt%

Bismuth Trioxide 20-75 wt%

Gum Tragacanth 0.1-1.0 wt%



[0102] The nitrocellulose in an amount of 30 grams was placed water-wet in a mixing apparatus. Water-wet tetracene, 5g, was added to the mixture and further mixed until the tetracene was not visible. Nano-aluminum powder, 10g, was added to the water-wet nitrocellulose/tetracene blend and mixed until homogeneous. Bismuth trioxide, 54 g, was dry blended with 1 g of gum tragacanth and the resultant dry blend was added to the wet explosive mixture, and the resultant blend was then mixed until homogeneous. The final mixture was removed and stored cool in conductive containers.

Example 2



[0103] Various buffer systems were tested using the simulated bulk autoignition temperature (SBAT) test. Simple acidic buffers provided some protection of nano-aluminum particles. However, specific dual buffer systems exhibited significantly higher temperatures for the onset of hydrolysis. The sodium hydrogen phosphate and citric acid dual buffer system exhibited significantly higher temperatures before hydrolysis occurred. This is well above stability requirements for current primer mix and propellants. As seen in the SBAT charts, even at pH=8.0, onset with this system is delayed to 222° F (105.6° C). At pH = 5.0 onset is effectively stopped.
Table 7
ALEX® Aluminum in Water
BufferpHSBAT onset Temperature ° F(° C)
1) Distilled water only   118° F (47.8° C)
2) Sodium acetate/acetic acid 5.0 139° F (59.4° C)
3) Potassium phosphate/borax 6.6 137° F (58.3° C)
4) Potassium phosphate/borax 8.0 150° F (65.6° C)
5) Sodium hydroxide/acetic acid/phosphoric acid / boric acid 5.02 131° F (55° C)
6) Sodium hydroxide/ acetic acid/phosphoric acid/boric acid 6.6 125° F (51.7° C)
7) Sodium hydroxide/ acetic acid/phosphoric acid/boric acid 7.96 121° F (49.4° C)
8) Sodium hydrogen phosphate/citric acid 5.0 No exotherm/water evaporation endotherm only
9) Sodium hydrogen phosphate/citric acid 6.6 239° F (115° C)
10) Sodium hydrogen phosphate/citric acid 8.0 222° F (105.6° C)
11) Citric acid/NaOH 3.84g/1.20g in 100g H2O 4.29 140° F (60° C)
12) Citric acid/NaOH (3.84g/2.00g in 100g H2O) 5.43 100° F (37.8° C)
13) Sodium hydrogen phosphate (2.40g/2.84g in 100g H2O) 6.57 129° F (53.9° C)


[0104] As can be seen from Table 7, the combination of sodium hydrogen phosphate and citric acid significantly increases the temperature of onset of hydrolysis at a pH of 8.0 to 222° F (105.6° C) (see no. 10 above). At a pH of 5.0, hydrolysis is effectively stopped. See no. 8 in table 7.

[0105] FIG. 4 is an SBAT graph illustrating the temperature at which hydrolysis begins when Alex® aluminum particles are mixed in water with no buffer. The hydrolysis onset temperature is 118° F (47.8° C). See no. 1 in table 7.

[0106] FIG. 5 is an SBAT graph illustrating the temperature at which hydrolysis begins using only a single buffer which is citrate. The hydrolysis onset temperature is 140° F (60° C). See no. 11 in table 7.

[0107] FIG. 6 is an SBAT graph illustrating the temperature at which hydrolysis begins using only a single buffer which is a phosphate buffer. The hydrolysis onset temperature is 129° F (53.9° C).

[0108] FIG. 7 is an SBAT graph illustrating the temperature at which hydrolysis begins using a dual citrate/phosphate buffer system. Hydrolysis has been effectively stopped at a pH of 5.0 even at temperatures of well over 200° F (about 93° C).

[0109] As previously discussed, the present invention finds utility in any application where lead styphnate based igniters or percussion primers are employed. Such applications typically include an igniter or percussion primer, a secondary explosive, and for some applications, a propellant.

[0110] As previously mentioned, other applications include, but are not limited to, igniters for grenades, mortars, detcord initiators, mortar rounds, detonators such as for rocket motors and mortar rounds, or other systems that include a primer or igniter, a secondary explosive system, alone or in combination with a propellant, or gas generating system such as air bag deployment and jet seat ejectors.

[0111] The above disclosure is intended to be illustrative and not exhaustive. This description will suggest many variations and alternatives to one of ordinary skill in this art.


Claims

1. A percussion primer composition obtainable by using a water processing technique, the composition comprising:

an explosive consisting essentially of at least one relatively insensitive explosive in the amount of about 5 wt-% to about 40 wt-% of the primer composition;

a sensitizer in an amount of about 0 wt-% to about 20 wt-% of the primer composition;

fuel particles having an average particle size of about 100 nanometers to about 1500 nanometers and in an amount of about 1 wt-% to about 20 wt-% of the primer composition;

an oxidizer; and

at least one buffer.


 
2. The percussion primer composition of claim 1, wherein said composition consists of the explosive, the sensitizer in an amount of about 0 wt-% to about 20 wt-% of the primer composition, the fuel particles, the oxidizer, and the at least one buffer.
 
3. The percussion primer composition of claim 1, wherein said at least one buffer comprises an inorganic acid or salt thereof, or a combination of an inorganic acid or salt thereof and an organic acid or salt thereof.
 
4. The percussion primer composition of claim 3 wherein said at least one buffer is phosphoric acid or salt thereof, or a combination of an inorganic acid or salt thereof and citric acid or salt.
 
5. The percussion primer composition of claim 1, said fuel particles having an average particle size of about 100 nanometers to 1000 nanometers.
 
6. The percussion primer composition of claim 1, said fuel particles having an average particle size of about 100 nanometers to 650 nanometers.
 
7. The percussion primer composition of claim 1, the fuel particles having an average particle size of about 100 nanometers to about 500 nanometers.
 
8. The percussion primer composition of claim 1, the fuel particles having an average particle size of about 100 nanometers to about 200 nanometers.
 
9. The percussion primer composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein said fuel particles are aluminum.
 
10. The percussion primer composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein said at least one relatively insensitive explosive is chosen from nitrocellulose, PETN, RDX, HMX, CL-20, nitroguanidine, TNT, DDNP, tetryl, styphnic acid and mixtures thereof.
 
11. The percussion primer composition of any one of the previous claims, the oxidizer being in the amount of about 20 wt-% to about 70 wt-% of the primer composition.
 
12. The percussion primer composition of any one of claims 1 to 8 and 10, wherein said fuel particles are titanium.
 
13. The percussion primer composition of claim 12, the fuel particles having an average particle size of about 250 nanometers to about 350 nanometers.
 
14. The percussion primer composition of any one of the previous claims, wherein the at least one relatively insensitive explosive is nitrocellulose.
 
15. The percussion primer composition of any of the previous claims, comprising water for water-wet storage.
 


Ansprüche

1. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung, erhältlich unter Verwendung einer Wasserverarbeitungstechnik, wobei die Zusammensetzung umfasst:

einen Sprengstoff, der im Wesentlichen aus mindestens einem relativ unempfindlichen Sprengstoff in einer Menge von etwa 5 Gewichtsprozent bis etwa 40 Gewichtsprozent der Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung besteht;

einen Sensibilisator in einer Menge von etwa o Gewichtsprozent bis etwa 20 Gewichtsprozent der Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung;

Brennstoffpartikel mit einer durchschnittlichen Partikelgröße von etwa 100 Nanometern bis etwa 1500 Nanometern und in einer Menge von etwa 1 Gewichtsprozent bis etwa 20 Gewichtsprozent der Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung;

ein Oxidationsmittel; und

mindestens einen Puffer.


 
2. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Zusammensetzung aus dem Sprengstoff, dem Sensibilisator in einer Menge von etwa o Gewichtsprozent bis etwa 20 Gewichtsprozent der Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung, den Brennstoffpartikeln, dem Oxidationsmittel und dem mindestens einen Puffer besteht.
 
3. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der mindestens eine Puffer eine anorganische Säure oder ein Salz davon oder eine Kombination aus einer anorganischen Säure oder einem Salz davon und einer organischen Säure oder einem Salz davon umfasst.
 
4. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 3, wobei der mindestens eine Puffer Phosphorsäure oder ein Salz davon oder eine Kombination einer anorganischen Säure oder eines Salzes davon und Zitronensäure oder eines Salzes ist.
 
5. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Brennstoffpartikel eine durchschnittliche Partikelgröße von etwa 100 Nanometer bis 1000 Nanometer aufweisen.
 
6. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Brennstoffpartikel eine durchschnittliche Partikelgröße von etwa 100 Nanometer bis 650 Nanometer aufweisen.
 
7. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Brennstoffpartikel eine durchschnittliche Partikelgröße von etwa 100 Nanometer bis etwa 500 Nanometer aufweisen.
 
8. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Brennstoffpartikel eine durchschnittliche Partikelgröße von etwa 100 Nanometer bis etwa 200 Nanometer aufweisen.
 
9. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Brennstoffpartikel Aluminium sind.
 
10. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der mindestens eine relativ unempfindliche Sprengstoff aus Nitrozellulose, PETN, RDX, HMX, CL-20, Nitroguanidin, TNT, DDNP, Tetryl, Styphninsäure und Mischungen davon ausgewählt ist.
 
11. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei das Oxidationsmittel in einer Menge von etwa 20 Gewichtsprozent bis etwa 70 Gewichtsprozent der Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung vorliegt.
 
12. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 und 10, wobei die Brennstoffpartikel Titan sind.
 
13. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 12, wobei die Brennstoffpartikel eine durchschnittliche Partikelgröße von etwa 250 Nanometer bis etwa 350 Nanometer aufweisen.
 
14. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei der mindestens eine relativ unempfindliche Sprengstoff Nitrozellulose ist.
 
15. Zündhütchen-Zusammensetzung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, umfassend Wasser für Wasser-Nasslagerung.
 


Revendications

1. Composition d'amorce à percussion pouvant être obtenue par utilisation d'une technique de traitement à l'eau, la composition comprenant :

un explosif consistant essentiellement en au moins un explosif relativement insensible, en une quantité d'environ 5 % en poids à environ 40 % en poids par rapport à la composition d'amorce ;

un sensibilisant en une quantité d'environ 0 % en poids à environ 20 % en poids par rapport à la composition d'amorce ;

des particules de combustible ayant une granulométrie moyenne d'environ 100 nanomètres à environ 1500 nanomètres et en une quantité d'environ 1 % en poids à environ 20 % en poids par rapport à la composition d'amorce ;

un oxydant ; et

au moins un tampon.


 
2. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite composition consiste en l'explosif, le sensibilisant en une quantité d'environ 0 % en poids à environ 20 % en poids par rapport à la composition d'amorce, les particules de combustible, l'oxydant, et l'au moins un tampon.
 
3. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ledit au moins un tampon comprend un acide inorganique ou un sel de celui-ci, ou une combinaison d'un acide inorganique ou d'un sel de celui-ci et d'un acide organique ou d'un sel de celui-ci.
 
4. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon la revendication 3, dans laquelle ledit au moins un tampon est l'acide phosphorique ou un sel de celui-ci, ou une combinaison d'un acide inorganique ou d'un sel de celui-ci et d'acide citrique ou d'un sel de celui-ci.
 
5. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle lesdites particules de combustible ont une granulométrie moyenne d'environ 100 nanomètres à 1000 nanomètres.
 
6. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle lesdites particules de combustible ont une granulométrie moyenne d'environ 100 nanomètres à 650 nanomètres.
 
7. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle les particules de combustible ont une granulométrie moyenne d'environ 100 nanomètres à environ 500 nanomètres.
 
8. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle les particules de combustible ont une granulométrie moyenne d'environ 100 nanomètres à environ 200 nanomètres.
 
9. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon l'une des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle lesdites particules de combustible sont de l'aluminium.
 
10. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon l'une des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle ledit au moins un explosif relativement insensible est choisi parmi la nitrocellulose, le PETN, le RDX, le HMWS, le Cl-20, la nitroguanidine, le TNT, le DDNP, le tétryl, l'acide styphnique et les mélanges de ceux-ci.
 
11. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon l'une des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle l'oxydant est présent en une quantité d'environ 20 % en poids à environ 70 % en poids par rapport à la composition d'amorce.
 
12. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon l'une des revendications 1 à 8 et 10, dans laquelle lesdites particules de combustible sont du titane.
 
13. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon la revendication 12, dans laquelle les particules de combustible ont une granulométrie moyenne d'environ 250 nanomètres à environ 350 nanomètres.
 
14. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon l'une des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle ledit au moins un explosif relativement insensible est la nitrocellulose.
 
15. Composition d'amorce à percussion selon l'une des revendications précédentes, comprenant de l'eau pour stockage humide dans l'eau.
 




Drawing























Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description