(19)
(11)EP 2 203 783 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.11.2019 Bulletin 2019/46

(21)Application number: 08833151.7

(22)Date of filing:  24.09.2008
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G03F 7/039  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/IB2008/002593
(87)International publication number:
WO 2009/040661 (02.04.2009 Gazette  2009/14)

(54)

THICK FILM RESISTS

DICKFILMRESISTS

RÉSINES PHOTOSENSIBLES EN COUCHE ÉPAISSE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 25.09.2007 US 860675

(43)Date of publication of application:
07.07.2010 Bulletin 2010/27

(73)Proprietor: Merck Patent GmbH
64293 Darmstadt (DE)

(72)Inventors:
  • TOUKHY, Medhat A.
    Flemington, NJ 08822 (US)
  • PAUNESCU, Margareta
    Clinton, NJ 08809 (US)

(74)Representative: Rippel, Hans Christoph 
Patentanwälte Isenbruck Bösl Hörschler PartG mbB Eastsite One Seckenheimer Landstrasse 4
68163 Mannheim
68163 Mannheim (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A- 0 939 339
EP-A- 1 415 968
US-A1- 2003 219 677
EP-A- 1 126 321
WO-A-2005/081062
US-A1- 2006 251 986
  
  • M. TOUKHY ET AL.: "Chemically amplified, thick film, i-line positive resist for electroplating and redistribution applications" PROCEEDINGS OF THE SPIE - THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR OPTICAL ENGINEERING, vol. 6153, no. 2, February 2006 (2006-02), pages 61534H-1-61534H-8, XP002513378 USA
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to a light-sensitive photoresist composition especially useful for imaging thick films. In some instances, the photoresist film has a thickness greater than 2 µm (microns). The invention further provides for a process for coating and imaging the light-sensitive composition of this invention.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Photoresist compositions are used in microlithography processes for making miniaturized electronic components such as in the fabrication of computer chips and integrated circuits. Generally, in these processes, a coating of film of a photoresist composition is first applied to a substrate material, such as silicon wafers used for making integrated circuits. The coated substrate is then baked to evaporate any solvent in the photoresist composition and to fix the coating onto the substrate. The baked coated surface of the substrate is next subjected to an image-wise exposure to radiation.

[0003] This radiation exposure causes a chemical transformation in the exposed areas of the coated surface. Visible light, ultraviolet (UV) light, electron beam and X-ray radiant energy are radiation types commonly used today in microlithographic processes. After this image-wise exposure, the coated substrate is treated with a developer solution to dissolve and remove either the radiation-exposed or the unexposed areas of the coated surface of the substrate.

[0004] There are two types of photoresist compositions, negative-working and positive-working. When negative-working photoresist compositions are exposed image-wise to radiation, the areas of the resist composition exposed to the radiation become less soluble to a developer solution (e.g. a cross-linking reaction occurs) while the unexposed areas of the photoresist coating remain relatively soluble in such a solution. Thus, treatment of an exposed negative-working resist with a developer causes removal of the non-exposed areas of the photoresist coating and the creation of a negative image in the coating. Thereby uncovering a desired portion of the underlying substrate surface on which the photoresist composition was deposited.

[0005] On the other hand, when positive-working photoresist compositions are exposed image-wise to radiation, those areas of the photoresist composition exposed to the radiation become more soluble to the developer solution (e.g. a rearrangement reaction occurs) while those areas not exposed remain relatively insoluble to the developer solution. Thus, treatment of an exposed positive-working photoresist with the developer causes removal of the exposed areas of the coating and the creation of a positive image in the photoresist coating. Again, a desired portion of the underlying substrate surface is uncovered.

[0006] Exemplary positive-working photoresist compositions are known in the art, e.g. from US 2006/251986 A1 and US 2003/219677 A1.

[0007] After this development operation, the now partially unprotected substrate may be treated with a substrate-etchant solution, plasma gases, or have metal or metal composites deposited in the spaces of the substrate where the photoresist coating was removed during development. The areas of the substrate where the photoresist coating still remains are protected. Later, the remaining areas of the photoresist coating may be removed during a stripping operation, leaving a patterned substrate surface. In some instances, it is desirable to heat treat the remaining photoresist layer, after the development step and before the etching step, to increase its adhesion to the underlying substrate.

[0008] In the manufacture of patterned structures, such as wafer level packaging, electrochemical deposition of electrical interconnects has been used as the density of the interconnects increases. For example, see Solomon, Electrochemically Deposited Solder Bumps for Wafer-Level Packaging, Packaging/Assembly, Solid State Technology. Gold bumps, copper posts and copper wires for redistribution in wafer level packaging require a resist mold that is later electroplated to form the final metal structures in advanced interconnect technologies. The resist layers are very thick compared to the photoresists used in the IC manufacturing of critical layers. Both feature size and resist thickness are typically in the range of 2 µm to 100 µm, so that high aspect ratios (resist thickness to line size) have to be patterned in the photoresist.

[0009] Devices manufactured for use as microelectromechanical machines also use very thick photoresist films to define the components of the machine.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0010] A photoresist composition is provided comprising a resin binder selected from the group consisting of
a reaction product formed in the absence of a catalyst between (i) a novolak polymer, (ii) a polymer comprising substituted or unsubstituted hydroxystyrene and acrylate, methacrylate or a mixture of acrylate and methacrylate, the acrylate and/or methacrylate being protected by an acid labile group that requires a high activation energy for deblocking, and (iii) a compound selected from a vinyl ether and an unsubstituted or substituted unsaturated heteroalicyclic compound.

[0011] The photoresist composition can also contain a photoacid generator as well as a base. A coated substrate having thereon a coating layer of the photoresist composition herein, a method for forming a photoresist relief image on a substrate using the photoresist composition herein, as well as the use of the photoresist composition herein for forming a relief image on a substrate are also disclosed.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0012] A photoresist composition is provided comprising a resin binder selected from the group consisting of
a reaction product formed in the absence of a catalyst between (i) a novolak polymer, (ii) a polymer comprising substituted or unsubstituted hydroxystyrene and acrylate, methacrylate or a mixture of acrylate and methacrylate, the acrylate and/or methacrylate being protected by an acid labile group that requires a high activation energy for deblocking, and (iii) a compound selected from a vinyl ether and an unsubstituted or substituted unsaturated heteroalicyclic compound.

[0013] The photoresist composition can also contain a photoacid generator as well as a base. A coated substrate having thereon a coating layer of the photoresist composition herein, a method for forming a photoresist relief image on a substrate using the photoresist composition herein as well as the use of the photoresist composition herein for forming a photoresist relief image on a substrate are also disclosed.

[0014] The thickness of a coating film formed by the photoresist composition can be greater than 2 µm (microns) with photoresist films as thick as 200 µm (microns) being imaged. The photoresist is useful for imaging photoresist films on several types of substrates, for example, copper substrates requiring an aspect ratio of greater than 3 (aspect ratio is the ratio of height to width of the photoresist pattern).

[0015] The hydroxystyrene monomer or oligomer component of the polymer provides base solubility to the polymer in the resist composition. The hydroxystyrene is suitably the para or meta isomer and can be substituted with various substituents which do not interfere with the lithographic utility of the polymer such as halogens, methoxy, or lower alkyl (e.g. methyl or ethyl). α-methyl hydroxystyrene can also be used in the polymer herein.

[0016] The acrylate or methacrylate monomer or oligomer component of the polymer provides acid sensitivity to the polymer. The ester group of the acrylate or the methacrylate is an acid labile group which inhibits the dissolution of the polymer in alkaline developer or polar solvent. The ester group is cleaved by a photoacid generator and/or a post exposure bake and it is converted from a dissolution inhibiting ester to a base soluble organic acid functionality thereby enabling image development of the composition. The acrylate or methacrylate can be provided with a variety of t-butylester or other ester groups which are well known to the skilled artisan which contain a secondary or tertiary carbon atom next to the oxygen atom of the ester bond, which can also be described as an acid labile group that requires a higher activation energy for deblocking than an acetal group. Acetal groups are acid labile groups that require a low activation energy for deblocking. Using acid labile groups that have a high activation energy would prevent the deblocking of the acrylate, methacrylate, or mixtures thereof during the reaction of the polymer comprising hydroxystyrene and acrylate, methacrylate, or a mixture thereof with vinyl ether in the absence of a catalyst, providing a more stable polymer resin for use in the compositions described herein. The use of a catalyst would cause the acrylate, methacrylate or mixtures thereof to become deblocked during the reaction, resulting in an unwanted product.

[0017] The copolymer used herein can be prepared by standard radical copolymerization to yield random copolymers. For example, t-butyl methacrylate can be copolymerized with (i) p-tert-butoxycarbonyloxystyrene (a hydroxystyrene precursor monomer) with subsequent thermal cleavage or mild acidolysis of the t-butoxycarbonyl group to form p-hydroxystyrene/t-butyl methacrylate copolymer or (ii) with p-t-butyl(dimethyl)silyloxystyrene with subsequent desilylation with fluoride. Alternatively, acetoxystyrene is copolymerized with acrylate or methacrylate. Generally acetoxystyrene is mixed under nitrogen at an elevated temperature of about 50° to 100°C. with the ester monomer in a suitable solvent such as toluene or THF, along with a small amount of a free radical catalyst such as benzoyl peroxide. The product polymer poly(acetoxystyrene-co-acrylate) is then deacylated with mild base (e.g. dimethylaminopyridine, ammonium hydroxide, carbonate or bicarbonate) in a nonaqueous solvent such as an alcohol solvent (methanol or propanol) to form the hydroxystyrene/acrylate copolymer. Alternatively, the hydroxystyrene/acrylate or methacrylate copolymer can be a block copolymer.

[0018] The copolymer can contain the hydroxystyrene unit in the range of 50 to 90 mol%, depending on the desired dissolution rate/sensitivity. The copolymer typically has a number-average molecular weight (relative to polystyrene standard) ranging from 7,000 to 50,000. The copolymer has a high glass transition temperature of about 140°C to about 170°C. The copolymer also has a high acid sensitivity. The acid labile ester groups of the copolymer are surprising thermally stable in the presence of the phenolic hydroxy groups up to a temperature of about 180°C. This enables a high pre-exposure heating of a film of the composition which results in substantially improved lithographic performance.

[0019] The novolak resin useful herein is prepared by subjecting a phenol or a substituted phenol to an addition-condensation reaction of a phenol or substituted phenol (or a combination thereof) and an aldehyde or ketone (or a combination thereof), in the presence of an acid or a divalent metal salt catalyst, in a suitable reaction solvent, as are well known to one skilled in the art of photoresists. Suitable phenols include, but are not limited to, phenol, chlorophenols, fluorophenols, m-cresol, o-cresol, p-cresol, m-ethyl phenol, o-ethyl phenol, p-ethyl phenol, m-butyl phenol, o-butyl phenol, p-butyl phenol, trimethylsilylphenol, chloromethylphenol 2,3-xylenol, 2,4-xylenol, 2,5-xylenol, 2,6-xylenol, 3,4-xylenol, 3,5-xylenol, 3,6-xylenol, o-phenyl phenol, m-phenyl phenol, p-phenyl phenol, 2,3,5-trimethylphenol, 2,3,5-triethylphenol, 3,4,5-trimethylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, 3-tert-butylphenol, 2-tert-butylphenol, 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, 2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol and other alkyl-substituted phenols; p-methoxyphenol, m-methoxyphenol, o-methoxyphenol, p-ethoxyphenol, m-ethoxyphenol, o-ethoxyphenol, o-propoxyphenol, p-propoxyphenol, propoxyphenol and other alkoxy-substituted phenols; o-isopropenylphenol, p-isopropenylphenol, 2-methyl-4-isopropenylphenol, 2-ethyl-4-isopropenylphenol and other isopropenyl-substituted phenols: phenylphenol and other aryl-substituted phenols; 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl, bisphenol A, hydroquinone, resorcinol, 2-methyl resorcinol, 5-methyl resorcinol, pyrogallol, catechol, and other polyhydroxyphenols, as are well known to those skilled in the photoresist art. These phenols may be used either alone or in an admixture of two or more, depending upon the dissolution rate desired.

[0020] As for examples of the aldehyde, there may be used, either alone or in combination, those such as formaldehyde, paraformaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, furfural, trioxane, propionaldehyde, butylaldehyde, trimethylacetaldehyde, acrolein (acrylaldehyde), crotonaldehyde, cyclohexanaldehyde, furylacrolein, terephthalaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, α-phenylpropylaldehyde, β-phenylpropylaldehyde, o-hydroxybenzaldehyde, m-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, o-methylbenzaldehyde, m-methylbenzaldehyde, p-methylbenzaldehyde, o-chlorobenzaldehyde, m-chlorobenzaldehyde, p-chlorobenzaldehyde, and cinnamaldehyde.

[0021] Examples of the ketones include acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, diethyl ketone and diphenyl ketone. Each of these ketones may be used singly or in combination. Further, an optional combination of any of aldehydes and any of ketones can be employed.

[0022] As the acid catalyst, there may be utilized inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid or sulfuric acid, organic acids such as formic acid, oxalic acid or maleic acid, and divalent inorganic metal salts of copper, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, nickel or zinc. The reaction solvent is normally a hydrophilic solvent, such as methanol or dioxane. Examples of alkali-soluble, film forming novolak resins include phenol-formaldehyde novolaks, cresolformaldehyde novolaks, and phenol-modified xylenol-formaldehyde novolaks. Novolak resins have been commonly used in the art of photoresist manufacture as exemplified by "Chemistry and Application of Phenolic Resins", Knop A. and Scheib, W.; Springer Verlag, N.Y., 1979 in Chapter 4.

[0023] The polyhydroxy compound having 2 to 7 phenolic groups can include polyhydroxybenzophenones, polyhydroxyphenylalkylketones, bis(polyhydroxyphenyl)alkanes, polyhydroxybenzoates, bis(polyhydroxybenzoyl)alkanes, bis(polyhydroxybenzoyl)aryls, alkylene di(polyhydroxybenzoates), polyhydroxybiphenyls, bis(polyhydroxy)sulfides, bis(polyhydroxyphenyl)ethers, bis(polyhydroxyphenyl)sulfoxides, bis(polyhydroxyphenyl)sulfones, polyhydroxytriphenylmethanes, polyhydroxy-spirobi-indanes, polyhydroxyphthalides, terminal xylenol linear tetranuclear compounds, linear pentanuclear compounds, linear tetranuclear compounds, non-linear tetranuclear compounds, such as, for example,
  1. (a) polyhydroxybenzophenones such as 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,4'-trihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-2'-methylbenzophenone, 2,3,4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2'4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,6,3',4'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,4,2',4'-pentahydroxy-benzophenone, 2,3,4,2',5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',3,4,6'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3',4,4',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',3,4,4'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',3,4,5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3',4,5,5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,3',4,4',5'-hexahydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,6,3',4',5'-hexahydroxybenzophenone, and 2,3,4,3',4',5'-hexahydroxybenzophenone;
  2. (b) polyhydroxyphenylalkylketones such as 2,3,4-trihydroxyacetophenone, 2,3,4-trihydroxyphenylpentylketone, and 2,3,4-trihydroxyphenylhexylketone;
  3. (c) bis(polyhydroxyphenyl)alkanes such as bis(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)methane, bis(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methane, and bis(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)propane;
  4. (d) polyhydroxybenzoates such as propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxy-benzoate, phenyl 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoate, and phenyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;
  5. (e) bis(polyhydroxybenzoyl)alkanes or bis(polyhydroxybenzoyl)aryls such as bis(2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl)methane, bis(3-acetyl-4,5,6-trihydroxyphenyl)methane, bis(2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl)benzene, and bis(2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoyl)benzene;
  6. (f) alkylene di(polyhydroxybenzoates) such as ethyleneglycol-di(3,5-dihydroxybenzoate) and ethylene glycoldi(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate);
  7. (g) polyhydroxybiphenyls such as 2,3,4-biphenyltriol, 3,4,5-biphenyltriol, 3,5,3'5'-biphenyltetrol, 2,4,2',4'-biphenyltetrol, 2,4,6,3',5'-biphenylpentol, 2,4,6,2',4',6'-biphenylhexol, and 2,3,4,2',3',4'-biphenylhexol;
  8. (h) bis(polyhydroxy)sulfides such as 4,4'-thiobis(1,3-dihydroxy)benzene;
  9. (i) bis(polyhydroxyphenyl)ethers such as 2,2'4,4'-tetrahydroxydiphenyl ether;
  10. (j) bis(polyhydroxyphenyl)sulfoxides such as 2,2'4,4'-tetrahydroxydiphenylsulfoxide;
  11. (k) bis(polyhydroxyphenyl)sulfones such as 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxydiphenylsulfone;
  12. (l) polyhydroxytriphenylmethanes such as tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)methane), 4,4',4"-trihydroxy-3,5,3',5'-tetramethyltriphenylmethane, 4,4',3",4"-tetrahydroxy-3,5,3',5'-tetramethyltriphenylmethane, 4,4',2",3",4"-pentahydroxy-3,5,3',5'-tetramethyltriphenylmethane, 2,3,4,2',3',4'-hexahydroxy-5,5'-diacetyltriphenylmethane, 2,3,4,2',3',4',3",4"-octahydroxy-5,5-diacetyltriphenylmethane, and 2,4,6,2',4',6'-hexahydroxy-5,5'-dipropionyltriphenylmethane;
  13. (m) polyhydroxy-spirobi-indanes such as 3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-1,1'-spirobi-indane-5,6,5',6'-tetrol, 3,3,3'3'-tetramethyl-1,1'-spirobi-indane-5,6,7,6'6',7'-hexol, and 3,3,3'3'-tetramethyl-1,1'-spirobi-indane-4,5,6,4',5',6'-hexol;
  14. (n) polyhydroxyphthalides such as 3,3-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)phthalide, 3,3-bis(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)phthalide, and 3',4',5',6'-tetrahydroxyspiro(phthalide-3,9'-xanthene);
  15. (o) polyhydroxy compounds described in JP No. 4-253058 such as α,α',α"-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-diethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-di-n-propyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-tri-isopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-diisopropyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-di-n-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropyl-benzene, α,α',α"-tris(3-methoxy4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, 2,4,6-tris(3,5-dimethyl4-hydroxyphenylthiomethyl)mesitylene, 1-[α-methyl-α-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]4-[α,α'-bis(4"-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[α-methyl-α-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-[α,α'-bis(4"-hydroxy-phenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[alphamethyl-α-(3',5'-dimethyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[α-methyl-α-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]4-[α',α'-bis(3'-methoxy4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, and 1-[α-methyl-α-(2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-[α,α'-bis(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene.


[0024] In addition, the polyhydroxy compound having 2 to 7 phenolic groups can also include a compound having formula (I)

a compound having formula (II)

wherein for formula (I) or (II), X is a direct bond, lower alkylene or CH2-Y; Y is O or S; each of R1 to R9 is independently alkyl, alkoxy, H, or halogen; R10 is H or alkyl; each of a, b, and c is an integer of 2 to 4; each of I, m, and n is an integer of 1 to 3;
a compound having formula (III)

wherein R11, R12, R13, R14, R15, R16 and R17 each represents independently H, a C1 to C4 alkyl group, a C1 to C4 alkoxyl group, a cyclohexyl group or a group represented by the formula:

wherein R18 represents H, a C1 to C4 alkyl group, a C1 to C4 alkoxyl group or a cyclohexyl group; each of mm and nn is 0, 1 or 2; each of aa, bb, cc, dd, ee, ff, gg and hh is 0 or an integer of 1 to 5 satisfying aa+bb≤5, cc+dd≤5, ee+ff≤5, and gg+hh≤5; i is 0, 1 or 2, and where the number of phenolic groups are from 2 to 7; or mixtures thereof.

[0025] Examples of the polyhydroxy compound having 2 to 7 phenolic groups can also include 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,4'-trihydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-2'-methylbenzophenone, 2,3,4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2'4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,6,3',4'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,4,2',4'-pentahydroxy-benzophenone, 2,3,4,2',5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',3,4,6'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3',4,4',6-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',3,4,4'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,2',3,4,5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3',4,5,5'-pentahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,3',4,4',5'-hexahydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,6,3',4',5'-hexahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,4,3',4',5'-hexahydroxybenzophenone, 2,3,4-trihydroxyacetophenone, 2,3,4-trihydroxyphenylpentylketone, 2,3,4-trihydroxyphenylhexylketone, bis(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)methane, bis(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methane, bis(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)propane, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxy-benzoate, phenyl 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoate, phenyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, bis(2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl)methane, bis(3-acetyl-4,5,6-trihydroxyphenyl)methane, bis(2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl)benzene, bis(2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoyl)benzene, ethyleneglycol-di(3,5-dihydroxybenzoate) ethylene glycoldi(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate), 2,3,4-biphenyltriol, 3,4,5-biphenyltriol, 3,5,3'5'-biphenyltetrol, 2,4,2',4'-biphenyltetrol, 2,4,6,3',5'-biphenylpentol, 2,4,6,2',4',6'-biphenylhexol, 2,3,4,2',3',4'-biphenylhexol, 4,4'-thiobis(1,3-dihydroxy)benzene, 2,2'4,4'-tetrahydroxydiphenyl ether, 2,2'4,4'-tetrahydroxydiphenylsulfoxide, 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxydiphenylsulfone, tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)methane), 4,4',4"-trihydroxy-3,5,3',5'-tetramethyltriphenylmethane, 4,4',3",4"-tetrahydroxy-3,5,3',5'-tetramethyltriphenylmethane, 4,4',2",3",4"-pentahydroxy-3,5,3',5'-tetramethyltriphenylmethane, 2,3,4,2',3',4'-hexahydroxy-5,5'-diacetyltriphenylmethane, 2,3,4,2',3',4',3",4"-octahydroxy-5,5-diacetyltriphenylmethane, 2,4,6,2',4',6'-hexahydroxy-5,5'-dipropionyltriphenylmethane, 3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-1,1'-spirobi-indane-5,6,5',6'-tetrol, 3,3,3'3'-tetramethyl-1,1'-spirobi-indane-5,6,7,6'6',7'-hexol, 3,3,3'3'-tetramethyl-1,1'-spirobi-indane-4,5,6,4',5',6'-hexol, 3,3-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)phthalide, 3,3-bis(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenyl)phthalide, 3',4',5',6'-tetrahydroxyspiro(phthalide-3,9'-xanthene), α,α',α"-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-diethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-di-n-propyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-diisopropyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3,5-di-n-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(3-methoxy4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, α,α',α"-tris(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, 2,4,6-tris(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenylthiomethyl)mesitylene, 1-[α-methyl-α-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-[α,α'-bis(4"-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[α-methyl-α-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-[α,α'-bis(4"-hydroxy-phenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[alpha-methyl-α-(3',5'-dimethyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[α-methyl-α-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-[α',α'-bis(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[α-methyl-α-(2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-[α',α'-bis(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[1'-methyl-1'-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]4-[1',1'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, bis[3-(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl]methane, bis[3-(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-hydroxy-5-ethylphenyl]methane, bis[3-(3,5-diethyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl]methane, bis[3-(3,5-diethyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-hydroxy-5-ethylphenyl]methane, 2,4-bis[2-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methylbenzyl]-6-cyclohexylphenol, 2,4-bis[4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methylbenzyl]-6-cyclohexylphenol, bis[2-hydroxy-3-(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methylphenyl]methane, bis[2-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-5-methylphenyl]methane, bis[4-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-5-methylphenyl]methane, bis[2,5-dimethyl-3-(4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]methane, bis[2,5-dimethyl-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]methane, bis[2,5-dimethyl-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]methane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-1-[4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-1-[4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)-1-[4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(2,6-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)-1-[4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(2,6-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1-methylethyl]phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]phenyl]ethane, 1,1-bis(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]phenyl]ethane, bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5-trimethylphenyl)-2-hydroxyphenylmethane, 1,4-bis[1-(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)isopropyl]benzene, 2,4-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenylmethyl)-6-methylphenol, bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-hydroxyphenylmethane, bis(4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-hydroxyphenylmethane, bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)-3,4-dihydroxyphenylmethane, 1-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)isopropyl]-4-[1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1-[1-(3-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)isopropyl]-[4-[1,1-bis(3-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzene, 2,6-bis[1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)isopropyl]-4-methylphenol, 4,6-bis[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)isopropyl]resorcin, 4,6-bis(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenylmethyl)pyrogallol, 4,6-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenylmethyl)pyrogallol, 2,6-bis(3-methyl-4,6-dihydroxyphenylmethyl)-4-methylphenol, 2,6-bis(2,3,4-trihydroxyphenylmethyl)-4-methylphenol, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane, 4,4',4"-ethylidinetrisphenol, 4-[bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-2-ethoxyphenol, 4,4'-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]bis[2,3-dimethylphenol], 4,4'-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]bis[2,6-dimethylphenol], 4,4'-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]bis[2,6-dimethylphenol], 2,2'-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]bis[3,5-dimethylphenol], 2,2'-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]bis[3,5-dimethylphenol], 4,4'-[(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene]bis[2,3,6-trimethylphenol], 4-[bis(3-cyclohexyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylphenyl)methyl]-1,2-benzenediol, 4,6-bis[(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-1,2,3-benzenetriol, 4,4'-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]bis[3-methylphenol], 4,4',4"-(3-methyl-1-propanyl-3-ylidine)trisphenol, 4,4',4",4"'-(1,4-phenylenedimethylidine)tetrakisphenol, 2,4,6-tris[(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-1,3-benzenediol, 2,4,6-tris[(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-1,3-benzenediol, 4,4'-[1-[4-[1-[4-hydroxy-3,5-bis[(hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)methyl]phenyl]-1-methylethyl]phenyl]ethylidene]bis[2,6-bis(hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)methyl]phenol,
and mixtures thereof.

[0026] The vinyl ether used herein has the formula

where R50 is unsubstituted or substituted alkyl or unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl. Examples of vinyl ethers include ethyl vinyl ether, butyl vinyl ether, hexyl vinyl ether, octyl vinyl ether, decyl vinyl ether, ethylhexyl vinyl ether, methoxyethyl vinyl ether, ethoxyethyl vinyl ether, chloroethyl vinyl ether, 1-methyl-2,2-dimethylpropyl vinyl ether, 2-ethylbutyl vinyl ether, hydroxyethyl vinyl ether, diethylene glycol vinyl ether, dimethylaminoethyl vinyl ether, dimethylaminoethyl vinyl ether, diethylaminoethyl vinyl ether, butylaminoethyl vinyl ether and tetrahydrofurfuryl vinyl ether, etc.

[0027] A compound that can also be reacted with the, for example, hydroxystyrene/acrylate or novolak polymer/polyhydroxy compound having 2 to 7 phenolic groups, is an unsubstituted or substituted unsaturated heteroalicyclic compound such as, for example, 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran.

[0028] The resin binders (1) to (5) are made by mixing the components to be reacted without the need for a catalyst. The method is exemplified in the examples below, but typically the reactions can be run between about 80°C to about 140°C for several hours, for example 6 to 24 hours.

[0029] Although any photoactive compound may be used in the photoresist, commonly a compound capable of producing a strong acid upon irradiation, a photoacid generator (PAG), of the novel composition is selected from those which absorb at the desired exposure wavelength, for example, below 370 nm, including 365 nm. The photogenerated acid deprotects the alkali insoluble polymer of the photoresist to give a polymer which is now soluble in the alkaline developer in the exposed regions. Any PAG may be used which generates a strong acid, particularly a sulfonic acid. Suitable examples of acid generating photosensitive compounds include, without limitation, ionic photoacid generators (PAG), such as diazonium salts, iodonium salts, sulfonium salts, or non-ionic PAGs such as diazosulfonyl compounds, sulfonyloxy imides, nitrobenzyl sulfonate esters, and imidosulfonates, although any photosensitive compound that produces an acid upon irradiation may be used. The onium salts are usually used in a form soluble in organic solvents, mostly as iodonium or sulfonium salts, examples of which are diphenyliodonium trifluoromethane sulfonate, diphenyliodonium nonafluorobutane sulfonate, triphenylsulfonium trifluromethane sulfonate and triphenylsulfonium nonafluorobutane sulfonate. Other useful onium salts such as those disclosed in U.S. patent 6,991,888, US-A 2004/0265733, US Patent 7,358,408, and US-A 2005/0271974. Other compounds that form an acid upon irradiation that may be used are triazines, oxazoles, oxadiazoles, thiazoles, substituted 2-pyrones. PAGS such as those described in US2002/0061464 are also useful. Phenolic sulfonic esters, trichloromethyltriazines, bis-sulfonylmethanes, bis-sulfonylmethanes or bis-sulfonyldiazomethanes, triphenylsulfonium tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide, triphenylsulfonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, diphenyliodonium tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide, diphenyliodonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, N-hydroxynaphthalimide triflate, and their homologues are also possible candidates.

[0030] Other examples of photoactive compounds include





where R21-R23 are independently (C1-C8)alkyl or (C1-C8)alkoxy substituents, X- is a sulfonate counterion, n=1-20, and R20 is independently selected from (C1-C8)alkyl, (C1-C8)alkoxy, phenyl, styrylphenyl, (C1-C8)alkoxy-styrylphenyl, furylethylidene, (C1-C8)alkyl substituted furylethylidene, naphthyl, (C1-C8)alkyl or (C1-C8)alkoxy substituted naphthyl. Mixtures of photoactive compounds may also be used; for example, a mixture of a triazine and an imide. The photoactive compound, for example, a photoacid generator, may be incorporated in a range from 0.1 to 10 weight % by solids, further from 0.3 to 5 weight % by solids, and more further 0.5 to 2.5 weight % by solids.

[0031] Bases may be added at levels from about 0.01 weight % to about 5 weight % of solids, further up to 1 weight % of solids, and more further to 0.07 weight % of solids. Examples of nitrogen containing bases include amines, such as triethylamine, triethanolamine, aniline, ethylenediamine, pyridine, tetraalkylammonium hydroxide or its salts (for example, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, tetramethylammonium acetate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, tetrabutylammonium acetate). Examples of photosensitive bases are diphenyliodonium hydroxide, dialkyliodonium hydroxide, trialkylsulfonium hydroxide, etc. The base may be added at levels up to 100 mole % relative to the photoacid generator. Although, the term base additive is employed, other mechanisms for removal of acid are possible, for instance by using tetraalkylammonium salts of volatile acids (e.g. CF3CO2-) or nucleophilic acids (eg Br-), which respectively remove acid by volatilization out of the film during post-exposure bake or by reaction of a nucleophilic moiety with the acid precursor carbocation (e.g. reaction of tert-butyl carbocation with bromide to form t-butylbromide).

[0032] The use of non volatile amine additives is also possible. Examples of amines would be ones having a sterically hindered structure so as to hinder nucleophilic reactivity while maintaining basicity, low volatility and solubility in the resist formulation, such as a proton sponge, 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]-5-nonene, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]-7-undecene, cyclic akylamines, or polyether bearing amines such as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,274,286.

[0033] The photoresist herein may contain other components such as additives, surfactants, dyes, plasticizers, and other secondary polymers. Surfactants are typically compounds/polymers containing fluorine or silicon compounds which can assist in forming good uniform photoresist coatings. Certain types of dyes may be used to provide absorption of unwanted light. Plasticizers may be used, especially for thick films, to assist in flow properties of the film, such as those containing sulfur or oxygen. Examples of plasticizers are adipates, sebacates and phthalates. Surfactants and/or plasticizers may be added at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to about 10 weight % by total weight of solids in the photoresist composition.

[0034] In producing the photoresist composition, the solid components of the photoresist are mixed with a solvent or mixtures of solvents that dissolve the solid components of the photoresist. Suitable solvents for photoresists may include, for example, a glycol ether derivative such as ethyl cellosolve, methyl cellosolve, propylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether, propylene glycol n-propyl ether, or diethylene glycol dimethyl ether; a glycol ether ester derivative such as ethyl cellosolve acetate, methyl cellosolve acetate, or propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate; carboxylates such as ethyl acetate, n-butyl acetate and amyl acetate; carboxylates of di-basic acids such as diethyloxylate and diethylmalonate; dicarboxylates of glycols such as ethylene glycol diacetate and propylene glycol diacetate; and hydroxy carboxylates such as methyl lactate, ethyl lactate, ethyl glycolate, and ethyl-3-hydroxy propionate; a ketone ester such as methylpyruvate or ethyl pyruvate; an alkoxycarboxylic acid ester such as methyl 3-methoxypropionate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionate, or methylethoxypropionate; a ketone derivative such as methyl ethyl ketone, acetyl acetone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone or 2-heptanone; a ketone ether derivative such as diacetone alcohol methyl ether; a ketone alcohol derivative such as acetol or diacetone alcohol; lactones such as butyrolactone; an amide derivative such as dimethylacetamide or dimethylformamide, anisole, and mixtures thereof.

[0035] The prepared photoresist composition solution, can be applied to a substrate by any conventional method used in the photoresist art, including dipping, spraying, whirling and spin coating. When spin coating, for example, the resist solution can be adjusted with respect to the percentage of solids content, in order to provide coating of the desired thickness, given the type of spinning equipment utilized and the amount of time allowed for the spinning process. Suitable substrates include, without limitation, silicon, copper, aluminum, polymeric resins, silicon dioxide, metals, doped silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, tantalum, polysilicon, ceramics, aluminum/copper mixtures; gallium arsenide and other such Group III/V compounds.

[0036] The photoresist coatings produced by the described procedure are particularly suitable for application to copper coated wafers, such as are utilized in the production of microprocessors and other miniaturized integrated circuit components. A silicon/silicon dioxide wafer can also be used. The substrate may also comprise various polymeric resins, especially antireflective coatings. The substrate may have an adhesion promoted layer of a suitable composition, such as one containing hexa-alkyl disilazane.

[0037] The photoresist composition solution is then coated onto the substrate, and the substrate is treated at a temperature from about 70° C. to about 150° C. for from about 30 seconds to about 6 minutes on a hot plate or for from about 15 to about 90 minutes in a convection oven. This temperature treatment is selected in order to reduce the concentration of residual solvents in the photoresist, while not causing substantial thermal degradation of the photoabsorbing compounds. In general, one desires to minimize the concentration of solvents and this first temperature treatment is conducted until substantially all of the solvents have evaporated and a coating of photoresist composition, on the order of 2-200 micrometer (microns) in thickness, remains on the substrate. Multiple coatings may be done to achieve thick films. The temperature is from about 95° C. to about 135° C. The temperature and time selection depends on the photoresist properties desired by the user, as well as the equipment used and commercially desired coating times. The coating substrate can then be exposed to actinic radiation, e.g., ultraviolet radiation, at a wavelength of from about 300 nm (nanometers) to about 450 nm, x-ray, electron beam, ion beam or laser radiation, in any desired pattern, produced by use of suitable masks, negatives, stencils, templates, etc. Generally, thick photoresist films are exposed using broadband radiation, using equipments such as Ultratech, Karl Suss or Perkin Elmer broadband exposure tools, although 436 nm and 365 nm Steppers may also be used.

[0038] The photoresist is then optionally subjected to a post exposure second baking or heat treatment either before or after development. The heating temperatures may range from about 90°C. to about 150°C., further from about 90°C. to about 130°C. The heating may be conducted for from about 30 seconds to about 3 minutes, further from about 60 seconds to about 2 minutes on a hot plate or about 30 to about 45 minutes by convection oven.

[0039] The exposed photoresist-coated substrates are developed to remove the image-wise exposed areas by immersion in a developing solution or developed by spray development process. The solution can be agitated, for example, by nitrogen burst agitation. The substrates are allowed to remain in the developer until all, or substantially all, of the photoresist coating has dissolved from the exposed areas. Developers include aqueous solutions of ammonium or alkali metal hydroxides. One example of a hydroxide is tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide. Other included bases are sodium or potassium hydroxide. Additives, such as surfactants, may be added to the developer. After removal of the coated wafers from the developing solution, one may conduct an optional post-development heat treatment or bake to increase the coating's adhesion and density of the photoresist. The imaged substrate may then be coated with metals, or layers of metals to form bumps as is well known in the art, or processed further as desired.

[0040] The following examples provide detailed illustrations of the methods of producing and utilizing compositions of the present invention. These examples are not intended, however, to limit or restrict the scope of the invention in any way and should not be construed as providing conditions, parameters or values which must be utilized exclusively in order to practice the present invention.

Example 1 - Polymer 1



[0041] 87 gm of 50% solution of poly hydroxystyrene/t-butyl acrylate copolymer (60%/40%) in PGMEA (43.5 gm solid polymer) was added to 72.1 gm of 47.1% solution of m-cresol/formaldehyde novolak, having a dissolution rate of 73.0 nm/second (730 Å/second) (as measured using the test method below), in PGMEA (33.96 gm solids), 5.15 gm of additional PGMEA and 10.41 gm ethyl vinyl ether (0.14458 moles) were placed in round bottom 3 neck 250 ml flask, equipped with a condenser, a thermometer and magnetic stirrer (Teflon coated magnet). The system was sealed with a rubber stopper stoppers. The solution was heated gradually to 120°C and kept at that temperature under adequate agitation for 8 hours and then was subsequently cooled to room temperature. No residual ethyl vinyl ether was detected in the solution. The theoretical solids content of this solution was 50.3% and this solution was used as is in further examples.

[0042] The dissolution rate (as measured using the test method below) of a coating of poly hydroxystyrene/t-butyl acrylate copolymer before the reaction was 7.0 nm/second (70 Å/second). The dissolution rate (as measured using the test method below) of a coating from Example 2 was 0.412 nm/second (4.12 Å/second).

Examples of resist formulations


Resist Example 1



[0043] This formulation was prepared by dissolving 0.55284 gm of NIT in 14.284 gm cyclohexanone, 79.985 gm of the solution prepared in Example 1, 4.581 gm 30% solution of Lutonal in PGMEA, 0.438 gm of 17.7% solution of triethanolamine in diacetone alcohol and added 0.04 gm of a 30% solution of APS-137 surfactant in PGMEA.

Comparative examples:



[0044] Resist Example 2 was prepared by dissolving 0.41 gm NIT in 6.513 gm cyclohexanone, 2.21 gm of Lutonal M-40, 100.927 gm of a 50% solution of PHS/t-BA (60/40 polymer in PGMEA), 0.195 gm of a 17.7% solution of triethanolamine in diacetone alcohol and 0.01 gm APS-137 surfactant.

Resist Example 3



[0045] This resist formulation was prepared by dissolving 0.306 gm of NIT in 6.73 gm cyclohexanone, 61.9 gm of 50% PHS/t-BA (60:40) polymer solution in PGMEA, 31.556 gm 47.1% cresol/formaldehyde solution in PGMEA, 9.7 gm of a 20% solution of Lutonal M-40 in PGMEA, 0.814 of a 5% Monazoline C solution in PGMEA and 0.01 gm of APS-137 surfactant.

Test procedures:


Dissolution rate measurement:



[0046] This test was used to characterize different polymers and blends of polymers for their dissolution rate in alkaline aqueous developer. The process compares the dissolution rate of coatings of these polymers prepared under similar coating conditions, using optical interferometric technique to measure the change in coating thickness during development.
  1. 1- A 35% solids solution of the polymer in PGMEA is spin coated on an HMDS (hexamethyldisilazane) primed 4" Si wafer for 40 seconds
  2. 2- The coated wafer is baked at 110°C hot plate for 3 minutes
  3. 3- The coated wafer is placed in a Perkin Elmer dissolution rate monitor (DRM) developer tank containing 300MIF developer at room temperature. The dissolution rate of the polymer is measured statically (without agitation) using the DRM for over two hours time.
  4. 4- The data is plotted and the dissolution rate for the polymer coating is extracted.

Resist preparation:



[0047] The resist samples were prepared by dissolving the solids and polymer solutions as well as all the resist components together in plastic round bottles by rolling them on mechanical rollers for several hours until all solids are dissolved.

Resist test:



[0048] Resist coatings are prepared on Cu wafers using spin coating and baking of the coated wafers for 10 minutes at 110°C on a hot plate. The spin speed used was adjusted to produce 40 µm thick coated resist films for each sample depending on their viscosities.

[0049] The coated resist is exposed to patterned image with intense radiation in the range of 365 - 436 nm broad band wavelengths, then post exposure baked (PEB) at 90°C for one minute. The exposure tool used for such test is a Suss aligner, model MA-200. The wafers were developed for at least 4 minutes in puddle mode with AZ-300MIF developer and rinsed with DI water.

[0050] The resist patterns were examined using electron microscope. The quality of the pattern was characterized by the steepness of the pattern side walls, the degree of resist foot at the wafer substrate and the resolution capability of the resist to resolve 10 µm lines and spaces with high integrity.

Results:



[0051] The relative polymer ratios of all resist formulations and their evaluation results are given in the table below.

[0052] All the inventive formulations of Resist Examples 1 to 9 produced resist patterns with steep sidewall profiles and absence of resist foot on Cu substrates, resolving 10 µm structures with full height in 40 µm thick films. Comparative Resist Examples 10 and 11, using the unmodified (not acetal blocked) PHS/t-BA copolymer as used in the above examples alone or blended with novolak resin produced either poor adhesion, causing the loss of some 10 µm resist patterns, or produced concave profiles and unresolved 10 µm lines.

[0053] The relative polymer composition of each resist formulation and testing results are set forth in the table below.

[0054] Acetal blocked novolak was excluded from this comparison since such blocked novolak resins in general will require very long development times to clear 40 µm resist thickness, typically greater than seven minutes, assuming their typical dissolution rates to be around 100 to 70 nm per second or less. Therefore this can be used as a comparative example to show that acetal blocked blends of novolak and TRISP-PA, as in examples Resist 3 to Resist 9, produce fast development resist capable of clearing 40 µm resist thickness in 4 to 5 minutes development times.
Table
Polymer composition ratios of resists and evaluation results
Resist ExamplePolymer of Example No., wt%PHS/tBA 60:40, wt%Novolak, wt%Thickness10 µmProfile slopeFoot
1 Example 1, 100     40 µm resolved steep Slight foot
2   100   40 µm Adhesion loss, lifted lines steep Slight foot
3   68 37 40 µm 10 µm line erosion, unresolved Poor concaved profiles Present



Claims

1. A photoresist composition comprising a resin binder selected from the group consisting of a reaction product formed in the absence of a catalyst between (i) a novolak polymer, (ii) a polymer comprising substituted or unsubstituted hydroxystyrene and acrylate, methacrylate or a mixture of acrylate and methacrylate, the acrylate and/or methacrylate being protected by an acid labile group that requires a high activation energy for deblocking, and (iii) a compound selected from a vinyl ether and an unsubstituted or substituted unsaturated heteroalicyclic compound.
 
2. The photoresist composition of claim 1 wherein the polymer comprising substituted or unsubstituted hydroxystyrene and acrylate, methacrylate or a mixture of acrylate and methacrylate selected from poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butylmethacrylate) and poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-t-butylacrylate).
 
3. The photoresist composition of claim 1 or 2 wherein the vinyl ether has the formula

where R50 is unsubstituted or substituted alkyl or unsubstituted or substituted cycloalkyl.
 
4. The photoresist composition of any one of claims 1 to 3 wherein the unsubstituted or substituted unsaturated heteroalicyclic compound is 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran.
 
5. The photoresist composition of any one of claims 1 to 3 which further comprises a photoacid generator.
 
6. The photoresist composition of claim 5 which further comprises a base.
 
7. A coated substrate comprising: a substrate having thereon a coating layer of the photoresist composition of any one of claims 1 to 6.
 
8. A method for forming a photoresist relief image on a substrate comprising: (a) applying on a substrate a layer of the photoresist composition of any one of claims 1 to 6, and (b) exposing the photoresist layer to activating radiation and developing the exposed photoresist layer.
 
9. The use of a photoresist composition of any one of claims 1 to 6 for forming a photoresist relief image on a substrate.
 


Ansprüche

1. Fotolackzusammensetzung umfassend ein Harz-Bindemittel ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus einem Reaktionsprodukt, das in Abwesenheit eines Katalysators gebildet wird zwischen (i) einem Novolak Polymer, (ii) einem Polymer umfassend substituiertes oder unsubstituiertes Hydroxystyrol und Acrylat, Methacrylat oder eine Mischung aus Acrylat und Methacrylat, wobei das Acrylat und/oder Methacrylat durch eine säurelabile Gruppe, die eine hohe Aktivierungsenergie zum Entschützen benötigt, geschützt ist, und (iii) einer Verbindung ausgewählt aus Vinylether und einer unsubstituierten oder substituierten ungesättigten heteroalicyclischen Verbindung.
 
2. Fotolackzusammensetzung gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei das Polymer umfassend substituiertes oder unsubstituiertes Hydroxystyrol und Acrylat, Methacrylat oder eine Mischung aus Acrylat und Methacrylat ausgewählt ist aus Poly(4-hydroxystyrol-co-t-butylmethacrylat) und Poly(4-hydroxystyrol-co-t-butylacrylate).
 
3. Fotolackzusammensetzung gemäß Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der Vinylether die Formel

hat, wobei R50 unsubstituiertes oder substituiertes Alkyl oder unsubstituiertes oder substituiertes Cycloalkyl ist.
 
4. Fotolackzusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei die unsubstituierte oder substituierte ungesättigte heteroalicyclische Verbindung 3,4-Dihydro-2H-pyran ist.
 
5. Fotolackzusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, die des Weiteren einen Fotosäureerzeuger umfasst.
 
6. Fotolackzusammensetzung gemäß Anspruch 5, die des Weiteren eine Base umfasst.
 
7. Beschichtetes Substrat umfassend: ein Substrat mit einer Beschichtungsschicht aus der Fotolackzusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6 darauf.
 
8. Verfahren zur Bildung einer Fotolackreliefabbildung auf einem Substrat umfassend: (a) Aufbringen einer Schicht der Fotolackzusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6 auf ein Substrat, und (b) Belichten der Fotolackschicht mit aktivierender Strahlung und Entwickeln der belichteten Fotolackschicht.
 
9. Verwendung der Fotolackzusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6 zum Bilden einer Fotolackreliefabbildung auf einem Substrat.
 


Revendications

1. Composition de résine photosensible comprenant un liant de résine choisi dans le groupe constitué par un produit de réaction formé en l'absence d'un catalyseur entre (i) un polymère novolak, (ii) un polymère comprenant de l'hydroxystyrène substitué ou non substitué et de l'acrylate, du méthacrylate ou un mélange d'acrylate et de méthacrylate, l'acrylate et/ou le méthacrylate étant protégé(s) par un groupe labile en milieu acide qui requiert une énergie d'activation élevée pour le déblocage, et (iii) un composé choisi parmi un éther vinylique et un composé hétéroalicyclique insaturé non substitué ou substitué.
 
2. Composition de résine photosensible selon la revendication 1, le polymère comprenant de l'hydroxystyrène substitué ou non substitué et de l'acrylate, du méthacrylate ou un mélange d'acrylate et de méthacrylate choisi parmi le poly(4-hydroxystyrène-co-méthacrylate de t-butyle) et du poly(4-hydroxystyrène-co-acrylate de t-butyle) .
 
3. Composition de résine photosensible selon la revendication 1 ou 2, l'éther vinylique possédant la formule

R50 étant alkyle non substitué ou substitué ou cycloalkyle non substitué ou substitué.
 
4. Composition de résine photosensible selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, le composé hétéroalicyclique insaturé non substitué ou substitué étant le 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyranne.
 
5. Composition de résine photosensible selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 qui comprend en outre un générateur photoacide.
 
6. Composition de résine photosensible selon la revendication 5 qui comprend en outre une base.
 
7. Substrat revêtu comprenant : un substrat possédant sur le dessus une couche de revêtement de la composition de résine photosensible selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6.
 
8. Procédé pour la formation d'une image en relief de résine photosensible sur un substrat comprenant : (a) l'application sur un substrat d'une couche de la composition de résine photosensible selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, et (b) l'exposition de la couche de résine photosensible à un rayonnement activant et le développement de la couche de résine photosensible exposée.
 
9. Utilisation d'une composition de résine photosensible selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6 pour la formation d'une image en relief de résine photosensible sur un substrat.
 




REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description