(19)
(11)EP 2 207 786 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
07.03.2012 Bulletin 2012/10

(21)Application number: 08840633.5

(22)Date of filing:  16.10.2008
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07H 19/04(2006.01)
A61P 35/00(2006.01)
A61K 31/706(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2008/080163
(87)International publication number:
WO 2009/052287 (23.04.2009 Gazette  2009/17)

(54)

2'-FLUORO-2'-DEOXYTETRAHYDROURIDINES AS CYTIDINE DEAMINASE INHIBITORS

2'-FLUOR-2'-DESOXYTETRAHYDROURIDINE ALS CYTIDINDEAMINASEINHIBITOREN

2'-FLUORO-2'-DÉSOXYTETRAHYDROURIDINES COMME INHIBITEURS DE CYTIDINE DÉSAMINASE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK TR
Designated Extension States:
AL BA MK RS

(30)Priority: 16.10.2007 US 980397 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
21.07.2010 Bulletin 2010/29

(60)Divisional application:
12151552.2

(73)Proprietor: Eisai Inc.
Woodcliff Lake, NJ 07677 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • HAMILTON, Gregory, S.
    Catonsville Maryland 21228 (US)
  • TSUKAMOTO, Takashi
    Ellicott City Maryland 21042 (US)
  • FERRARIS, Dana, V.
    Eldersburg Maryland 21784 (US)
  • DUVALL, Bridget
    Nottingham Maryland 21236 (US)
  • LAPIDUS, Rena
    Baltimore Maryland 21208 (US)

(74)Representative: HOFFMANN EITLE 
Patent- und Rechtsanwälte Arabellastraße 4
81925 München
81925 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A-2008/085611
US-A- 4 017 606
  
  • K. A. WATANABE ET AL.: "Nucleosides. 110. Synthesis and Antiherpes Virus Activity of Some 2'-Fluoro-2'-deoxyarabinofuranosylpyrimidi ne Nucleosides" J. MED. CHEM., vol. 22, no. 1, 1979, pages 21-24, XP002511651
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/980,397, filed October 16, 2007, the entire contents of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0002] The present invention provides certain tetrahydrouridine derivative compounds which are inhibitors of the enzyme cytidine deaminase, pharmaceutical compositions comprising such compounds, and methods of making and using such compounds.

BACKGROUND



[0003] The enzymes adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4) and cytidine deaminase (CDA, EC 3.5.4.5) function to deaminate natural aminopurine and aminopyrimidine nucleosides, respectively, in human and other organisms. They may also convert active nucleoside-based drugs into inactive metabolites. For example, the purine nucleoside drug arabinosyladenine (fludarabine, ara-A) is deaminated by ADA; the resulting compound, with the parent amino group replaced with hydroxyl, is inactive as an antitumor agent compared to the parent compound. Similarly, the antileukemia drug arabinosylcytosine (cytarabine, ara-C) is metabolically degraded by CDA into inactive arabinosyluracil.

[0004] CDA is a component of the pyrimidine salvage pathway. It converts cytidine and deoxycytidine to uridine and deoxyuridine, respectively, by hydrolytic deamination (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1991, 290, 285-292; Methods Enzymol. 1978, 51, 401-407; Biochem. J. 1967, 104, 7P). It also deaminates a number of synthetic cytosine analogs which are clinically useful drugs, such as ara-C mentioned above (Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 1998, 42, 373-378; Cancer Res. 1989, 49, 3015-3019; Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 1990, 1, 255-262). Conversion of the cytosine compounds to the uridine derivatives usually confers loss of therapeutic activity or addition of side-effects. It has also been shown that cancers that acquire resistance to cytosine analog drugs often overexpress CDA (Leuk Res. 1990, 14, 751-754). Leukemic cells expressing a high level of CDA can manifest resistance to cytosine antimetabolites and thereby limit the antineoplastic activity of such therapeutics (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1993, 45, 1857-1861). Inhibitors of CDA could therefore be useful adjuvants in combination chemotherapy.

[0005] Tetrahydrouridine (THU) has been known as an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase for a number of years.



[0006] Various reports have suggested that co-administration with THU increases the efficacy and oral activity of cytidine-based drugs. For example, THU has been shown to enhance the oral activity of anti-leukemic agent 5-azacytidine in L1210 leukemic mice (Cancer Chemotherapy Reports 1975, 59, 459-465). The combination of THU plus 5-azacytidine has also been studied in a baboon sickle cell anemia model (Am. J. Hematol. 1985, 18, 283-288), and in human patients with sickle cell anemia in combination with orally administered 5-azacytidine (Blood 1985, 66, 527-532).



[0007] THU has also been shown to enhance the oral efficacy of ara-C in L1210 leukemic mice (Cancer Research 1970, 30, 2166; Cancer Invest 1987, 5, (4), 293-9), and in tumor-bearing mice (Cancer Treat. Rep. 1977, 61, 1355-1364). The combination of intravenously-administered ara-C with intravenously-administered THU has been investigated in several clinical studies in humans (Cancer Treat. Rep. 1977, 61, 1347-1353; Cancer Treat. Rep. 1979, 63, 1245-1249; Cancer Res. 1988, 48, 1337-1342). In particular, combination studies in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have been performed (Leukemia 1991, 5, 991-998; Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 1993, 31, 481-484).
5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) is an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with potential utility for the treatment of AML and CML as well. Like the other cytidine-based drugs, its oral bioavailability and efficacy are limited by deactivation by CDA. THU has been shown to improve the potency of decitabine in a sickle cell disease model in baboons (Am. J. Hematol. 1985, 18, 283-288). In addition, another known CDA inhibitor, zebularine, has been shown to enhance the efficacy of decitabine in mice with L1210 leukemia (Anticancer Drugs 2005, 16, 301-308).

[0008] Gemcitabine, another cytidine-based antineoplastic drug, has also been studied in conjunction with CDA inhibitors (Biochem. Pharmacol. 1993, 45, 1857-1861). Co-administration with THU has been shown to alter the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of gemcitabine in mice (Abstr. 1556, 2007 AACR Annual Meeting, April 14-18, 2007, Los Angeles, CA; Clin. Cancer Res. 2008, 14, 3529-3535).
5-Fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (fluorocytidine, FdCyd) is another cytidine-based anticancer drug which is an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase. The modulation of its metabolism and pharmacokinetics by THU in mice has been studied (Clin Cancer Res., 2006, 12, 7483-7491; Cancer Chemother. Pharm. 2008, 62, 363-368).

[0009] The results of the aforementioned studies suggest that there is therapeutic utility in the administration of CDA inhibitors together with cytidine-based drugs such as ara-C, decitabine, 5-azacytidine and others. However, early CDA inhibitors such as THU suffer from drawbacks that include acid instability (J. Med. Chem. 1986, 29, 2351) and poor bioavailability (J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1978, 18, 259).

[0010] There is therefore an ongoing need for new, potent and therapeutically useful inhibitors of CDA.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0011] The present invention provides certain tetrahydrouridine derivative compound, pharmaceutical compositions comprising such compounds, and methods of making and using such compounds. The compounds, compositions and methods of the invention may provide certain benefits. For example, the compounds and compositions of the invention may inhibit CDA enzyme activity and/or enhance the half-life, bioavailability and/or efficacy of drugs that are substrates for CDA. Additionally, the compounds, compositions and methods of the invention may exhibit improved aqueous solubility, chemical stability, drug absorption levels, toxicity levels, shelf-life, reproducibility in manufacturing and formulation, and therapeutic efficacy.

[0012] In one embodiment, the invention provides a compound of Formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro. In some embodiments, a disclosed pharmaceutical composition or method of use may comprise a compound with an (R) configuration an (S) configuration, or a mixture of (R) and (S) configurations.

[0013] In further embodiments, the compound of Formula I has the stereochemistry of either Ia or Ib:



[0014] In further embodiments, the compound of Formula I is Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:



[0015] In further embodiments, the compound of Formula I is selected from the group consisting of Compounds 1a, 1b and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.



[0016] Since the compounds of the invention may possess at least one chiral center, they may exist in the form of enantiomers, diastereomers, racemic mixtures, non-racemic mixtures or other stereoisomers. The present invention encompasses all such possible isomers, as well as geometric isomers and tautomers.

[0017] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising:
  1. (i) an effective amount of a compound of the invention as described herein, including but not limited to each express embodiment; and
  2. (ii) a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.


[0018] In further embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition further comprises an effective amount of at least one additional therapeutic agent, such as a CDA substrate drug or chemotherapeutic agent.

[0019] The "effective amount" of the compound of the invention may vary from 0.1 wt. % to about 100 wt. %. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the compound is 0.1 to 20% w/w. In other embodiments, the effective amount is 1-10% w/w. In yet other embodiments, the effective amount is 2-5% w/w.

[0020] The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be formulated for administration in solid or liquid form, including those adapted for the following: (1) oral administration, for example, drenches (for example, aqueous or non-aqueous solutions or suspensions), tablets (for example, those targeted for buccal, sublingual and systemic absorption), caplets, boluses, powders, granules, pastes for application to the tongue, hard gelatin capsules, soft gelatin capsules, mouth sprays, troches, lozenges, pellets, syrups, suspensions, elixirs, liquids, emulsions and microemulsions; (2) parenteral administration, for example, by subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous or epidural injection as, for example, a sterile solution or suspension; (3) topical application, for example, as a cream, ointment, patch, pad or spray applied to the skin; (4) intravaginally or intrarectally, for example, as a pessary, cream or foam; (5) sublingually; (6) ocularly; (7) transdermally; or (8) nasally. The pharmaceutical compositions may be formulated for immediate, sustained or controlled release.

[0021] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions are formulated for oral administration. In further embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions are formulated for oral administration in solid form.

[0022] Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for inhibiting cytidine deaminase, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention as described herein, including but not limited to each express embodiment.

[0023] In some embodiments, the subject is a mammal. In further embodiments, the subject is a human.

[0024] Another embodimentof the present invention relates to the use of the compounds of the present invention in a method for treating cancer, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof:
  1. (i) an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention as described herein, including but not limited to each express embodiment; and
  2. (ii) a CDA substrate drug, including but not limited to each express embodiment described herein.


[0025] In some embodiments, the subject is a mammal. In further embodiments, the subject is a human.

[0026] In some embodiments, the cancer is selected from hematological cancers and solid cancers. In further embodiments, the hematological cancer selected from MDS and leukemia. In further embodiments, the solid cancer is selected from pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, peritoneal cancer, non small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. In yet further embodiments, the leukemia is acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

[0027] Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method for inhibiting degradation of a CDA substrate drug by cytidine deaminase, comprising administering an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention as described herein, including but not limited to each express embodiment, to a subject that is undergoing treatment with the CDA substrate drug. The CDA substrate drug, including but not limited to each express embodiment described herein.

[0028] In some embodiments, the subject is a mammal. In further embodiments, the subject is a human.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0029] 

FIG. 1 is a graph that shows the effect of Compound 1 on decitabine induced survival in the L 1210 mouse lymphoma model.

FIG. 2 is a graph that shows the effect of Compound 1a on decitabine induced survival in the L1210 mouse lymphoma model.

FIG. 3 is a graph that shows the effect of Compound 1 on Ara-C (200 mg/kg) induced survival in the L 1210 model.

FIG. 4 is a graph that shows the effect of Compound 1 on Ara-C (100 mg/kg) induced survival in the L 1210 model.

FIG. 5 is a graph that shows the effect of Compound 1 on Ara-C (50 mg/kg) induced survival in the L1210 model.

FIG. 6 is a graph that shows the effect of Compound 1 on Ara-C (25 mg/kg) induced survival in the L1210 model.

FIG. 7 is a graph that shows the effect of Compound 1 on gemcitabine-induced reduction of tumor volume in the mouse A2780 human ovarian cancer xenograft model.

FIG. 8 is an ORTEP plot of the crystal structure of Compound 1a.

FIG. 9 is the 1H NMR structure of THU in D20.

FIG. 10 is the 1H NMR structure of THU in D20, in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid, at different times.

FIG. 11 is the 1H NMR structure of Compound 1a in D20.

FIG. 12 is the 1H NMR structure of Compound 1a in D20, in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid, at different times.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0030] The present invention provides certain tetrahydrouridine derivative compounds, pharmaceutical compositions comprising such compounds, and methods of making and using such compounds. The compounds, compositions and methods of the invention may provide certain benefits. For example, the compounds and compositions of the invention may inhibit CDA enzyme activity and/or enhance the half-life, bioavailability and/or efficacy of drugs that are substrates for CDA. Additionally, the compounds, compositions and methods of the invention may exhibit improved aqueous solubility, chemical stability, drug absorption levels, toxicity levels, shelf-life, reproducibility in manufacturing and formulation, and therapeutic efficacy.

Definitions



[0031] Throughout the specification and claims, the following definitions apply.

[0032] As used in the specification and claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to a pharmaceutical composition comprising "a compound" may encompass two or more compounds.

[0033] "CDA substrate drug" refers to a drug that can be deaminated by CDA. Nonlimiting examples of a CDA substrate include cytidine analogs, such as decitabine, 5-azacytidine, gemcitabine, ara-C, troxacitabine, tezacitabine, 5'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, and cytochlor.

[0034] "Effective amount" refers to the amount required to produce a desired effect (e.g., enhancing the half-life, bioavailability or efficacy of a CDA substrate drug, treating cancer in a subject, inhibiting cytidine deaminase in a subject, or inhibiting degradation of a CDA substrate drug by cytidine deaminase).

[0035] "Half-life" refers to the period of time required for the concentration or amount of a compound in a subject to be reduced to exactly one-half of a given concentration or amount.

[0036] "Pharmaceutically acceptable" refers to those properties and/or substances that are acceptable to the patient from a pharmacological and/or toxicological point of view, and/or to the manufacturing pharmaceutical chemist from a physical and/or chemical point of view regarding composition, formulation, stability, patient acceptance, bioavailability and compatibility with other ingredients.

[0037] "Pharmaceutically acceptable excipient" can mean any substance, not itself a therapeutic agent, used as a carrier, diluent, adjuvant, binder, and/or vehicle for delivery of a therapeutic agent to a subject, or added to a pharmaceutical composition to improve its handling or storage properties or to permit or facilitate formation of a compound or composition into a unit dosage form for administration. Pharmaceutically acceptable excipients are well known in the pharmaceutical arts and are described, for example, in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa (e.g., 20th Ed., 2000), and Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, American Pharmaceutical Association, Washington, D.C., (e.g., 1st, 2nd and 3rd Eds., 1986, 1994 and 2000, respectively). As will be known to those skilled in the art, excipients may provide a variety of functions and may be described as wetting agents, buffering agents, suspending agents, lubricating agents, emulsifiers, disintegrants, absorbents, preservatives, surfactants, colorants, flavorants, and sweeteners. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients include without limitation: (1) sugars, such as lactose, glucose and sucrose; (2) starches, such as corn starch and potato starch; (3) cellulose and its derivatives, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and hydroxypropylcellulose; (4) powdered tragacanth; (5) malt; (6) gelatin; (7) talc; (8) excipients, such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes; (9) oils, such as peanut oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil; (10) glycols, such as propylene glycol; (11) polyols, such as glycerin, sorbitol, mannitol and polyethylene glycol; (12) esters, such as ethyl oleate and ethyl laurate; (13) agar; (14) buffering agents, such as magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide; (15) alginic acid; (16) pyrogen-free water; (17) isotonic saline; (18) Ringer's solution; (19) ethyl alcohol; (20) pH buffered solutions; (21) polyesters, polycarbonates and/or polyanhydrides; and (22) other non-toxic compatible substances employed in pharmaceutical formulations.

[0038] "Pharmaceutically acceptable salt" refers to an acid or base salt of a compound of the invention, which salt possesses the desired pharmacological activity and is neither biologically nor otherwise undesirable. The salt can be formed with acids that include without limitation acetate, adipate, alginate, aspartate, benzoate, benzenesulfonate, bisulfate butyrate, citrate, camphorate, camphorsulfonate, cyclopentanepropionate, digluconate, dodecylsulfate, ethanesulfonate, fumarate, glucoheptanoate, glycerophosphate, hemisulfate, heptanoate, hexanoate, hydrochloride hydrobromide, hydroiodide, 2-hydroxyethane-sulfonate, lactate, maleate, methanesulfonate, 2-naphthalenesulfonate, nicotinate, oxalate, thiocyanate, tosylate and undecanoate. Examples of a base salt include without limitation ammonium salts, alkali metal salts such as sodium and potassium salts, alkaline earth metal salts such as calcium and magnesium salts, salts with organic bases such as dicyclohexylamine salts, N-methyl-D-glucamine, and salts with amino acids such as arginine and lysine. In some embodiments, the basic nitrogen-containing groups can be quarternized with agents including lower alkyl halides such as methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl chlorides, bromides and iodides; dialkyl sulfates such as dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl and diamyl sulfates; long chain halides such as decyl, lauryl, myristyl and stearyl chlorides, bromides and iodides; and aralkyl halides such as phenethyl bromides.

[0039] "Unit dosage form" refers to a physically discrete unit suitable as a unitary dosage for human or other animal subjects. Each unit dosage form may contain a predetermined amount of an active substance (e.g., compound or composition of the invention, CDA substrate drug and/or other therapeutic agent) calculated to produce a desired effect.

[0040] "isomers" refer to compounds having the same number and kind of atoms and hence the same molecular weight, but differing with respect to the arrangement or configuration of the atoms.

[0041] "Stereoisomers" refer to isomers that differ only in the arrangement of the atoms in space.

[0042] "Diastereoisomers" refer to stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other.

[0043] "Enantiomers" refers to stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. Enantiomers include "enantiomerically pure" isomers that comprise substantially a single enantiomer, for example, greater than or equal to 90%, 92%, 95%, 98%, or 99%, or equal to 100% of a single enantiomer.

[0044] "Epimers" refer to stereoisomers of a compound that have different configurations at only one of several stereogenic centers.

[0045] "Racemic" refers to a mixture containing equal parts of individual enantiomers.

[0046] "Non-racemic" refers to a mixture containing unequal parts of individual enantiomers. A non-racemic mixture may be enriched in the R- or S-configuration, including, without limitation, about 50/50, about 60/40, and about 70/30 R- to S-enantiomer, or S- to R-enantiomer, mixtures.

[0047] "Optional" or "optionally" means that the subsequently described event or circumstance may or may not occur, and that the description includes instances where the event or circumstance occurs and instances in which it does not. For example, an alkyl that is "optionally substituted" encompasses both an alkyl that is unsubstituted and an alkyl that is substituted.

[0048] "Subject" refers to a cell or tissue, in vitro or in vivo, an animal or a human. An animal or human subject may also be referred to as a "patient."

[0049] "Animal" refers to a living organism having sensation and the power of voluntary movement, and which requires for its existence oxygen and organic food.

[0050] "Mammal" refers to a warm-blooded vertebrate animal with hair or fur. Examples include without limitation members of the human, equine, porcine, bovine, murine, canine or feline species.

[0051] "Treating" in reference to a disease, disorder or condition refers to: (i) inhibiting a disease, disorder or condition, e.g., arresting its development; and/or (ii) relieving a disease, disorder or condition, e.g., causing regression of the clinical symptoms.

[0052] "Preventing" in reference to a disease, disorder or condition refers to preventing a disease, disorder or condition, e.g., causing the clinical symptoms of the disease, disorder or condition not to develop.

[0053] "Cancer" refers to an abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, in some cases, to metastasize (spread). Specific cancers types include without limitation the cancers identified in Publication No. US 2006/0014949 and the following:
  • cardiac: sarcoma (e.g., such as angiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and the like), myxoma, rhabdomyoma, fibroma, lipoma and teratoma;
  • lung: bronchogenic carcinoma (e.g., such as squamous cell, undifferentiated small cell, undifferentiated large cell, adenocarcinoma and the like), alveolar (e.g., such as bronchiolar) carcinoma, bronchial adenoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, chondromatous hamartoma, mesothelioma;
  • gastrointestinal: esophagus (e.g., such as squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, lymphoma and the like), stomach (e.g., such as carcinoma, lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma and the like), pancreas (e.g., such as ductal adenocarcinoma, insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma, carcinoid tumors, vipoma and the like), small bowel (e.g., such as adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, carcinoid tumors, Karposi's sarcoma, leiomyoma, hemangioma, lipoma, neurofibroma, fibroma, and the like), large bowel (e.g., such as adenocarcinoma, tubular adenoma, villous adenoma, hamartoma, leiomyoma and the like);
  • genitourinary tract: kidney (e.g., such as adenocarcinoma, Wilm's tumor nephroblastoma, lymphoma, leukemia, and the like), bladder and urethra (e.g., such as squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and the like), prostate (e.g., such as adenocarcinoma, sarcoma), testis (e.g., such as seminoma, teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratocarcinoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, interstitial cell carcinoma, fibroma, fibroadenoma, adenomatoid tumors, lipoma and the like);
  • liver: hepatoma (e.g., hepatocellular carcinoma and the like), cholangiocarcinoma, hepatoblastoma, angiosarcoma, hepatocellular adenoma, hemangioma;
  • bone: osteogenic sarcoma (e.g., such as osteosarcoma and the like), fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, malignant lymphoma (e.g., such as reticulum cell sarcoma), multiple myeloma, malignant giant cell tumor chordoma, osteochronfroma (e.g., such as osteocartilaginous exostoses), benign chondroma, chondroblastoma, chondromyxofibroma, osteoid osteoma and giant cell tumors;
  • nervous system: skull (e.g., such as osteoma, hemangioma, granuloma, xanthoma, osteitis deformans and the like), meninges (e.g., such as meningioma, meningiosarcoma, gliomatosis and the like), brain (e.g., such as astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, glioma, ependymoma, germinoma [pinealoma], glioblastoma multiform, oligodendroglioma, schwannoma, retinoblastoma, congenital tumors and the like), spinal cord (e.g., such as neurofibroma, meningioma, glioma, sarcoma and the like);
  • gynecological: uterus (e.g., such as endometrial carcinoma and the like), cervix (e.g., such as cervical carcinoma, pre-tumor cervical dysplasia and the like), ovaries (e.g., such as ovarian carcinoma [serous cystadenocarcinoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, unclassified carcinoma], granulosa-thecal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, dysgerminoma, malignant teratoma, and the like), vulva (e.g., such as squamous cell carcinoma, intraepithelial carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, fibrosarcoma, melanoma and the like), vagina (e.g., such as clear cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, botryoid sarcoma (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma], fallopian tubes (carcinoma) and the like);
  • hematologic: blood (e.g., such as myeloid leukemia [acute and chronic], acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, myeloproliferative diseases, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome and the like), Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma;
  • skin: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, Karposi's sarcoma, moles dysplastic nevi, lipoma, angioma, dermatofibroma, keloids, psoriasis and the like; and
  • adrenal glands: neuroblastoma.

Compounds



[0054] One aspect of the present invention relates to a compound of Formula I:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro. In some embodiments, a disclosed pharmaceutical composition or method of use may comprise a compound with an (R) configuration an (S) configuration, or a mixture of (R) and (S) configurations.

[0055] In further embodiments, the compound of Formula I has the stereochemistry of either Ia or Ib:



[0056] In further embodiments, the compound of Formula I is Compound 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:



[0057] In further embodiments, the compound of Formula I is selected from the group consisting of Compounds 1a, 1b and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.



[0058] Since the compounds of the invention may possess at least one chiral center, they may exist in the form of enantiomers, diastereomers, racemic mixtures, non-racemic mixtures or other stereoisomers. The present invention encompasses all such possible isomers, as well as geometric isomers and tautomers.

[0059] Stereoisomers may be prepared or isolated by known methods. For example, diastereoisomers may be separated by physical separation methods such as fractional crystallization and chromatographic techniques, and enantiomers may be separated from each other by the selective crystallization of the diastereomeric salts with optically active acids or bases or by chiral chromatography. Pure stereoisomers may also be prepared synthetically from appropriate stereochemically pure starting materials, or by using stereoselective reactions.

Pharmaceutical Compositions



[0060] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising:
  1. (i) an effective amount of a compound of the invention as described herein, including but not limited to each express embodiment; and
  2. (ii) a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.


[0061] In further embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition further comprises an effective amount of at least one additional therapeutic agent, such as a CDA substrate drug or chemotherapeutic agent.

[0062] The CDA substrate drug may be any drug that can be deaminated by CDA. Nonlimiting examples of a CDA substrate include cytosine and cytidine analogs, such as decitabine, 5-azacytidine, gemcitabine, ara-C, troxacitabine, tezacitabine, 5'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, cytochlor, and the compounds disclosed in US Publication No. 2006/0014949. In some embodiments, the CDA substrate drug is decitabine. In other embodiments, the CDA substrate drug is 5-azacytidine. In yet other embodiments, the CDA substrate drug is gemcitabine. In yet other embodiments, the CDA substrate drug is ara-C.

[0063] Examples of a chemotherapeutic agent include without limitation:

alkylating agents (e.g., which may include doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, estramustine, carmustine, mitomycin, bleomycin and the like);

antimetabolites (e.g., which may include 5-Fluoro-Uracil, capecitabine, gemcitabine, nelarabine, fludarabine, methotrexate and the like);

platinating agents (e.g., which may include cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin and the like);

topoisomerase inhibitors (e.g., which may include topotecan, irinotecan, etoposide and the like);

tubulin agents (e.g., which may include paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine, vinblastine, vincristine, other taxanes, epothilones, and the like);

signalling inhibitors (e.g., kinase inhibitors, antibodies, farnesyltransferase inhibitors, and the like); and

other chemotherapeutic agents (e.g, tamoxifen, anti-mitotic agents such as polo-like kinase inhibitors or aurora kinase inhibitors, and the like).



[0064] The "effective amount" of the compound of the invention may vary from 0.1 wt. % to about 100 wt. %. In some embodiments, the effective amount of the compound is 0.1 to 20% w/w. In other embodiments, the effective amount is 1-10% w/w. In yet other embodiments, the effective amount is 2-5% w/w.

[0065] The pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be formulated for administration in solid or liquid form, including those adapted for the following: (1) oral administration, for example, drenches (for example, aqueous or non-aqueous solutions or suspensions), tablets (for example, those targeted for buccal, sublingual and systemic absorption), caplets, boluses, powders, granules, pastes for application to the tongue, hard gelatin capsules, soft gelatin capsules, mouth sprays, troches, lozenges, pellets, syrups, suspensions, elixirs, liquids, emulsions and microemulsions; (2) parenteral administration, for example, by subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous or epidural injection as, for example, a sterile solution or suspension; (3) topical application, for example, as a cream, ointment, patch, pad or spray applied to the skin; (4) intravaginally or intrarectally, for example, as a pessary, cream or foam; (5) sublingually; (6) ocularly; (7) transdermally; or (8) nasally. The pharmaceutical compositions may be formulated for immediate, sustained or controlled release.

[0066] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions are formulated for oral administration. In further embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions are formulated for oral administration in solid form.

[0067] Pharmaceutical compositions of the invention can be prepared using known materials and techniques, which may include but are not limited to mixing and/or blending the compound of the invention with the pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and optional therapeutic agent(s).

Methods



[0068] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method for inhibiting cytidine deaminase, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention as described herein, including but not limited to each express embodiment.

[0069] In some embodiments, the subject is a mammal. In further embodiments, the subject is a human.

[0070] Another aspect of the present invention relates to the use of the compounds of the present invention in a method for treating cancer, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof:
  1. (i) an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention as described herein, including but not limited to each express embodiment; and
  2. (ii) a CDA substrate drug, including but not limited to each express embodiment described herein.


[0071] In some embodiments, the subject is a mammal. In further embodiments, the subject is a human.

[0072] In some embodiments, the cancer is selected from hematological cancers and solid cancers. In further embodiments, the hematological cancer selected from MDS and leukemia. In further embodiments, the solid cancer is selected from pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, peritoneal cancer, non small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. In yet further embodiments, the leukemia is acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

[0073] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method for inhibiting degradation of a CDA substrate drug by cytidine deaminase, comprising administering an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention as described herein, including but not limited to each express embodiment, to a subject that is undergoing treatment with the CDA substrate drug. The CDA substrate drug, including but not limited to each express embodiment described herein.

[0074] In some embodiments, the subject is a mammal. In further embodiments, the subject is a human.

[0075] Administration of the compound or composition of the invention may be via any accepted mode known to one skilled in the art, for example, orally, parenterally, by inhalation spray, topically, rectally, nasally, buccally, vaginally, intraoccularly, intrapulmonarily, or via an implanted reservoir. The term "parenterally" includes without limitation subcutaneously, intravenously, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, intrathecally, intraventricularly, intrasternally, intracranially, by intraosseous injection and by infusion techniques.

[0076] Any administration regimen well known to those skilled in the art for regulating the timing and sequence of drug delivery can be used and repeated as necessary to effect treatment in the methods of the invention. For example, the compound or composition of the invention may be administered 1, 2, 3 or 4 times daily, by a single dose, multiple discrete doses or continuous infusion.

[0077] The compound or composition of the invention may be administered prior to, at substantially the same time with, or after administration of the CDA substrate drug. The administration regimen may include pretreatment and/or co-administration with at least one additional therapeutic agent. In such case, the compound or composition of the invention, CDA substrate drug and at least one additional therapeutic agent may be administered simultaneously, separately, or sequentially.

[0078] Examples of administration regimens include without limitation:

administration of each compound, composition, CDA substrate drug, and/or therapeutic agent in a sequential manner; and

co-administration of each compound, composition, CDA substrate drug, and/or therapeutic agent in a substantially simultaneous manner (e.g., as in a single unit dosage form) or in multiple, separate unit dosage forms for each compound, composition, CDA substrate drug, and/or therapeutic agent.



[0079] It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the "effective amount" or "dose level" will depend on various factors such as the particular administration mode, administration regimen, compound, and composition selected, and the particular disease and patient being treated. For example, the appropriate dose level may vary depending upon the activity, rate of excretion and possible toxicity of the specific compound or composition employed; the age, body weight, general health, gender and diet of the patient being treated; the frequency of administration; the other therapeutic agent(s) being co-administered; and the type and severity of the disease.

[0080] The present invention contemplates dose levels on the order of about 0.001 to about 10,000 mg/kg/d. In some embodiments, the dose level is about 0.1 to about 1,000 mg/kg/d. In other embodiments, the dose level is about 1 to about 100 mg/kg/d. In yet other embodiments, the dose level is about 1 to about 50 mg/kg/d. In yet other embodiments, the dose level is about 1 to about 25 mg/kg/d. Appropriate dose levels, mode of administration, and administration regimen may be ascertained by those skilled in the art using known techniques.

[0081] It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that specific embodiments of the present invention may be directed to one, some or all of the above-indicated aspects as well as other aspects, and may encompass one, some or all of the above- and below- indicated embodiments, as well as other embodiments.

[0082] Other than in the working examples, or where otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of ingredients, reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified by the term "about". Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, such numbers are approximations that may vary depending upon the-desired properties sought to be obtained by the present invention. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims, each numerical parameter should be construed in light of the number of significant digits and ordinary rounding techniques.

[0083] While the numerical ranges and parameters setting forth the broad scope of the invention are approximations, the numerical values set forth in the working examples are reported as precisely as possible. Any numerical value, however, inherently contains certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements.

EXAMPLES



[0084] The following examples are illustrative of the present invention and are not intended to be limitations thereon.

Synthesis of Compounds



[0085] Compound of the invention can be prepared as described herein and/or by the application or adaptation of known methods. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that one or more of the reactants, steps and/or conditions described in the reaction schemes may require adjustment to accommodate other substituents at R1 and R2.

Example 1:



[0086] Scheme 1. Synthesis of difluorotetrahydrouridine derivatives (Compounds 1a and 1b)



2'2'-DiFluoro-DiHydro-Uridine (DFDHU, 25). Gemcitabine 24 (3.0 g, 11.4 mmol) is dissolved in H2O (50 mL). Rhodium on alumina (900 mg) is added to the solution and the mixture is hydrogenated overnight at 40 psi. The next day, the mixture is filtered, the water is removed in vacuo and the resulting sticky solid is dissolved in H2O again. Rhodium on alumina is added to the solution (900 mg) and the material is hydrogenated overnight at 40 psi. The rhodium is filtered off and the resulting filtrate is concentrated to afford a crude mixture of difluorodihydrouridine (5, DFDHU) and -10% of difluorotetrahydrouridine 1a and 1b (DFTHU). The crude mixture is purified on reverse phase HPLC (reverse phase C18 @ 5% CH3CN/H2O) to afford 1.84 g (61%, 14.5 minutes) of DFDHU 25 and 175 mg (17%, 1a, 9.5 minutes and 1b, 13.9 minutes) of the epimers of DFTHU. The absolute configuration of C-4 for compound 1a is determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and is consistent with literature precedents on the crystal structure of cytidine deaminase in complex with a single epimer of tetrahydrouridine. 1HNMR of 5: 6.00 (dd, 1H), 4.20 (q, 1H), 3.92-3.72 (m, 3H), 3.64 (m, 1H), 3.43 (m, 1H), 2.68 (t, 2H).
2'2'-DiFluoro-TetraHydroUridine (DFTHU, 1a and 1b). The DFDHU 25 (1.2 g, 4.9 mmol) is dissolved in 30 mL of MeOH and cooled to 0°C. Sodium borohydride (540 mg, 14.6 mmol) is added portion-wise to the solution and the reaction is slowly warmed to room temperature. After 4 hours of stirring at room temperature (r.t.), the MeOH is removed in vacuo and the residue is dissolved in 15 mL of H2O. The solution is neutralized with 2.0 N HCl to pH 7. The solution is then purified via prep HPLC (reverse phase C18 @ 5% CH3CN/H2O). The salts come out at 5.2 minutes. One peak is apparent at 7.5 minutes (12%). One epimer of the DFTHU 1a comes out at 9.5 minutes (350, 29%). The other epimer 1b comes out at 14.3 minutes (370 mg, 31%). The deoxygenated product 26 elutes at 17 minutes (200 mg, 17%).
1a 1HNMR (D2O, 9.5 minutes): 6.03 (dd, 1H), 5.04 (bs, 1H), 4.20 (q, 1H), 3.90-3.71 (m, 3H), 3.53 (dt, 1H), 3.30 (dt, 1H), 1.92-1.75 (m, 2H). Anal. Calcd. for C9H14N2O5F2 (0.15 H2O): C, 39.90; H, 5.32; N, 10.34. Found: C, 39.87; H, 5.41; N, 10.26.
1b 1HNMR (D2O, 14.3 minutes): 5.97 (dd, 1H), 5.03 (bt, 1H), 4.16 (q, 1H), 3.91-3.68 (m, 3H), 3.41 (dt, 1H), 3.20 (dt, 1H), 1.95-1.80 (m, 2H). Anal Calcd. for C9H14N2O5F2 (0.60 H2O): C, 38.74; H, 5.49; N, 10.04. Found: C, 38.55; H, 5.36; N, 9.87. 26 1H NMR (D2O) δ 5.99 (dd, J = 15 Hz, 6 Hz, 1H), 4.17 ( m, 1H), 3.89 (m, 1H), 3.75 (m, 2H), 3.42 (m, 1H), 3.21 (t, J = 6 Hz, 2H), 3.18 (m, 1H), 1.86 (m, 2H).

Example 2:


CDA enzymatic activity



[0087] The ability of the compounds of the invention to inhibit the enzymatic activity of CDA may be demonstrated using the following assay method.

[0088] The procedure to determine CDA enzymatic activity is based on published methodologies (for example, Cacciamani, T. et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1991, 290, 285-92; Cohen R. et al., J. Biol. Chem., 1971, 246, 7566-8; Vincenzetti S. et al., Protein Expr. Purif. 1996, 8, 247-53). The assay follows the change in absorbance at 286 nm of the CDA-catalyzed deamination of cytidine to form uridine. The reaction is carried out in potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 20 mM, containing 1 mM DTT) in a total volume of 200 µl in a 96-well plate format. The final reaction mixture contains cytidine (50 µM) and purified human recombinant CDA. Purified enzyme is diluted so as to produce an absorbance change of approximately 2 milli-absorbance units / minute. Base line measurements of absorbance change over time are made before CDA addition to insure no change of absorbance in the absence of CDA. After CDA addition, absorbance change is monitored for 20 - 30 minutes. When potential inhibitors are present, eight concentrations of each in the 0.1 nM - 1 mM range are tested in order to obtain IC50 values. The slope of the change of absorbance over time for samples containing both cytidine and CDA but no inhibitor (totals) is normalized to 100%. CDA enzymatic activity left in the presence of a compound expressed as percent of total activity is subtracted from 100% in order to obtain percent inhibition at varying compound concentrations.

[0089] Using the above described assay, the inhibitory potency of Compounds 1 are evaluated. The IC50 values of the compounds are set forth in Table 1. "1a" and "1b" denote single stereoisomers; "1" denotes an epimeric mixture.
Table 1. Inhibitory Potency of Test Compounds
CompoundIC50 (nM)
1a 400 ± 60
1b 5000 ± 1000
1 400 ± 60

Enhancement of Efficacy of CDA Substrate Drugs



[0090] The ability of the compounds of the invention to enhance the efficacy of CDA substrate drugs may be demonstrated in the L1210 mouse lymphoma, model.

Example 3:


The effect of CDA inhibitor, Compound 1, on decitabine (0.1mg/kg) induced survival in the L1210 survival model Methods



[0091] 30 CD2F1 6-7 weeks old female mice are randomly separated into 6 groups:
Group # 
1 L1210 i.v and Vehicle + Vehicle p.o. x 2 for 4 days
2 L1210 i.v. and Vehicle + Compound 1 10 mg/kg p.o. x 2 for 4 days
3 L1210 i.v. and Vehicle + 0,1 mg/kg decitabine p.o. x 2 for 4 days
4 L1210 i.v. and Compound 1 1 mg/kg + 0.1 mg/kg decitabine p.o. x 2 for 4 days
5 L1210 i.v. and Compound 1 10mg/kg + 0.1 mg/kg decitabine p.o. x 2 for 4 days
6 L1210 i.v. and Vehicle + 0.1 mg/kg decitabine i.p. x 2 for 4 days
L1210 Intravenous (i.v.) Injection: Prior to experiment, L1210 cells are passed at least 3 times in CD2F1 female mice. The mice are injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with L1210 ascites one prior week to sacrifice using CO2. Each mouse is placed on its back, its belly surface is cleaned with alcohol wipes and a small incision is made into its peritoneal cavity. 2 ml of ice cold 2.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in saline is injected into the cavity. Fluid is withdrawn from the cavity, transferred with an 18G 3 cc syringe into a clean sterile tube, and kept on ice. The fluid is diluted 1:10 in 2.1% BSA in saline and one drop of zap-o-globin is added to 2 ml of diluted ascites. Diluted ascites (dilute 1:10 again) are counted on a hematocytomer and the number of cells/ml is calculated. A stock of ascites in BSA solution is diluted to 1x104 cells/0.1 ml. Mice are injected with 0.1 ml of cell solution with a 27G needle. Dose Solution Preparation: When appropriate, mice are dosed with a vehicle or Compound 1 p.o 30 minutes prior to decitabine.

[0092] Compound 1 is prepared at 1 mg/ml in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and then diluted to 0.1 mg/ml in PBS for the lower dose.

[0093] Decitabine is prepared at a 1 mg/ml stock in PBS and diluted appropriately to achieve a 0.01 and 0.02 mg/ml dosing solution.

[0094] Dosing Scheme: Decitabine is prepared fresh twice a day. All dose solutions are stored on ice while dosing. Mice are dosed i.p. or orally (p.o.) twice a day (8 hours apart) for 4 consecutive days. Final dosing scheme and total decitabine and Compound 1 doses are outlined in Table 2.
Table 2. Dosing Scheme
Group #DrugDecitabine Dose (route administered)Cumulative Decitabine DoseCompound 1 DoseCumulative Compound 1 Dose
1 Vehicle Vehicle 0 mg/kg Vehicle 0 mg/kg
2 Compound 1 Vehicle 0 mg/kg 10 mg/kg 80 mg/kg
3 Decitabine 0.1 mg/kg p.o. 0.8 mg/kg Vehicle 0 mg/kg
4 Decitabine / Compound 1 0.1 mg/kg p.o. 0.8 mg/kg 1 mg/kg 40 mg/kg
5 Decitabine / Compound 1 0.1 mg/kg p.o. 0.8 mg/kg 10 mg/kg 80 mg/kg
6 Decitabine 0.1 mg/kg i.p. 0.8 mg/kg Vehicle 0 mg/kg


[0095] Survival and Autopsy: Mice are observed for survival and weighed daily (Monday to Friday) for the duration of the study (30 days). Dead mice are autopsied and observed for the presence of tumors in organs. Tumor deaths are determined by liver weights greater than 1.6 g and spleen weights greater than 150 mg as per Covey et al., Eur. J. Cancer Oncol. 1985.

[0096] Mice dosed with decitabine or decitabine plus Compound 1 live longer than mice dosed with vehicle control or Compound 1 alone (FIG. 1 and Table 3; p<0.05). A trend for a dose response is observed with Compound 1 in combination with decitabine.

[0097] Decitabine (0.1 mg/kg) p.o. is less effective than 0.1 mg/kg decitabine i.p., but not significantly different (Table 3; FIG. 1, p=0.052).

[0098] Co-administration of 10 mg/kg Compound 1 with 0.1 mg/kg decitabine p.o. significantly enhances survival compared to 0.1 mg/kg decitabine p.o. alone (p=0.0031) and 0.1 mg/kg decitabine i.p. (p=0.016; Table 3, FIG. 1). Co-administration of 1 mg/kg Compound 1 with 0.1 mg/kg decitabine p.o. significantly enhances survival compared to 0.1 mg/kg decitabine p.o. alone (p=0.0031), but not compared to 0.1 mg/kg decitabine i.p. (p=0.13; Table 3, FIG. 1).

[0099] Table 3 lists the mean survival of each treatment group and the percent ILS (increased life span) compared to the vehicle group. All treated groups live significantly longer than vehicle controls and CDA inhibitor alone groups (p<0.05).

[0100] Table 3 lists the weights of the livers and spleens of mice on autopsy. All mice except for the one 0.1 mg/kg decitabine i.p. mouse died a 'tumor burden' related death as indicated by the liver weights greater than 1 g and the spleen weights greater than 80 mg (Covey et al., supra). The weights of liver and spleen from 3 control mice are 0.97±0.08g and 0.08±0.02g. Gross observations are noted concerning the overall appearance of the peritoneal and thoracic cavities.
Table 3. Effect of Decitabine and Compound 1 on Survival and Liver and Spleen Weights in L1210 IV Survival Model
Group #L1210 cellsMean Survival (days) ± SD* % ILS (Increased Life Span)Mean Liver wts. (g) ± SDMean Spleen wts. (g) ± SD
1 1x104 7.40±0.55 n/a 1.81±0.13 0.31±0.05
2 1x104 7.40±0.55 0.00 1.99±0.22 0.39±0.07
3 1x104 10.6±0.56 43.24 2.05±0.17 0.33±0.06
4 1x104 12.8±0.45 72.97 2.03±0.08 0.29±0.03
5 1x104 14.2±0.45 91.89 2.02±0.27 0.29±0.07


FIG. 1 is a graph that shows the effect of Compound 1 on decitabine (DAC) induced survival in the L 1210 mouse lymphoma model.

Example 4:


The effect of CDA inhibitor, Compound 1a, on decitabine (0.1mg/kg) induced survival in the L1210 survival model



[0101] Compound 1a is evaluated in the L1210 model following the protocol of Example 3. Mice dosed with decitabine ("DAC"), and DAC plus Compound 1a, live longer than those receiving vehicle control and CDA inhibitor alone (FIG. 2; p < 0.05). In combination with DAC, 10 mg/kg Compound 1a is more effective at extending survival than the lower doses.

Example 5:



[0102] The effect of CDA inhibitor, Compound I on cytarabine (ara-C) induced survival in the L1210 survival model
50 CD2F1 6-7 weeks old female mice are randomly separated into 10 groups. (N = 5 mice/group):
Group # 
1 L1210 i.v. and Veh + Veh (PBS) p.o. x 2 for 4 days
2 L1210 i.v. and Veh + Ara-C 200 mg/kg p.o. x 2 for 4 days
3 L1210 i.v. and Veh + Ara-C 100 mg/kg p.o. x 2 for 4 days
4 L1210 i.v. and Veh + Ara-C 50 mg/kg p.o. x 2 for 4 days
5 L1210 i.v. and Veh + Ara-C 25 mg/kg p.o x 2 for 4 days
6 L1210 i.v. and Compound 1 10 mg/kg + Ara-C 200mg/kg x 2 for 4 days
7 L1210 i.v. and Compound 1 10 mg/kg + Ara-C 100mg/kg x 2 for 4 days
8 L1210 i.v. and Compound 1 10 mg/kg + Ara-C 50 mg/kg x 2 for 4 days
9 L1210 i.v. and Compound 1 10 mg/kg + Ara-C 25mg/kg x 2 for 4 days
10 L1210 i.v. and Compound 1 10 mg/kg + Veh p.o. x 2 for 4 days
L1210 IV injection: CD2F1 female mice are injected i.p. with L1210 ascites one prior week to sacrifice (CO2). L1210 cells are passed at least 3 times in vivo prior to experiment. The mouse is placed on its back, belly surface cleaned with alcohol wipes and a small incision made into peritoneal cavity. 2 ml of ice cold 2.1% BSA in saline is injected into cavity and then fluid withdrawn and transferred with an 18G 3cc syringe into a clean sterile tube and kept on ice. The fluid is diluted 1:10 in 2.1% BSA in saline and one drop of zap-o-globin is added to 2 ml of diluted ascites. Diluted ascites (dilute 1:10 again) are counted on a hematocytomer and the number of cells/ml is calculated. Stock of ascites in BSA solution is diluted to 1x104 cells/0.1 ml. Mice are injected with 0.1 ml of cell solution with 27G needle. Total i.v. injections take about 50 minutes.
Dose Solution Preparation: When appropriate mice are dosed with vehicle or Compound 1 p.o. 30 minutes prior to Ara-C. Compound 1 is prepared at 1 mg/ml in PBS and Ara-C is prepared at a 20 mg/ml stock in PBS and then diluted appropriately for lower doses.
Dosing Scheme: Compound 1 is prepared at the beginning of the study and stored at 4°C. Ara-C is prepared fresh twice a day. All solutions are stored on ice while dosing. Mice are dosed orally twice a day (8 hours apart) for 4 consecutive days. Final dosing scheme and total Ara-C and Compound 1 dose is outlined in Table 4.
Table 4. Dosing Scheme
Group #DrugAra-C DoseCumulativeCompound 1Cumulative
  (route adm.)Ara-C DoseDoseCompound 1 Dose
1 Veh Veh 0 mg/kg Veh 0 mg/kg
2 Compound 1 Veh 0 mg/kg 10 mg/kg 40 mg/kg
3 Ara-C 200 mg/kg p.o. 800 mg/kg Veh 0 mg/kg
4 Ara-C 100 mg/kg p.o. 400 mg/kg Veh 0 mg/kg
5 Ara-C 50 mg/kg p.o. 200 mg/kg Veh 0 mg/kg
6 Ara-C 25 mg/kg p.o. 100 mg/kg Veh 0 mg/kg
7 Ara-C 200 mg/kg p.o. 800 mg/kg 10 mg/kg 40 mg/kg
8 Ara-C 100mg/kg p.o. 400 mg/kg 10 mg/kg 40 mg/kg
9 Ara-C 50 mg/kg p.o. 200 mg/kg 10 mg/kg 40 mg/kg
10 Ara-C 25 mg/kg p.o. 100 mg/kg 10 mg/kg 40 mg/kg
Survival and Autopsy: Mice are observed for survival and weighed daily (Mon-Fri) for the duration of the study (45 days). Dead mice are autopsied and observed for the presence of tumors in organs. Tumor deaths are determined by liver weights greater than 1.6 g and spleen weights greater than 150 mg as per Covey et al., supra.

[0103] Mice dosed with Ara-C alone (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) and Ara-C plus Compound 1 live longer than mice treated with vehicle control and CDA inhibitor alone (FIG.'s 4-7; p<0.05). Compound 1 alone has no effect on survival compared to vehicle controls (FIG. 4).
25 mg/kg Ara-C alone has no effect at extending survival compared to mice treated with vehicle and 10 mg/kg Compound 1 . 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg Ara-C significantly enhance survival (days) in a dose dependent manner compared to mice in the control group. Co-administration of 10 mg/kg Compound 1 with Ara-C p.o. significantly enhances survival compared to the survival time of mice treated with the same dose of Ara-C alone (FIG.'s 4-7).

Example 6:


Effect of Compound 1 on gemcitabine-induced reduction of tumor volume in the mouse A2780 human ovarian cancer xenograft model



[0104] The oral efficacy of gemcitabine is tested in combination with Compound 1 in the human ovarian cancer xenograft A2780. Female NCr nu/nu 5-6 week old mice are implanted subcutaneously with 30 to 60 mg tumor fragments. On day 11 when the tumors are approximately 200 mm3, treatment starts as described in Table 5.
Table 5. Dosing Scheme
GroupsTreatmentGemcitabine ScheduleCompound 1 Schedule
1 Vehicle (saline) PO; q3dx4  
2 Compound 1   PO 10 mg/kg q3dx4
3 Gemcitabine PO 10 mg/kg; q3dx4  
4 Gemcitabine/Compound 1* PO 10 mg/kg; q3dx4 PO 10 mg/kg q3dx4
5 Gemcitabine PO 30 mg/kg; q3dx4  
6 Gemcitabine/Compound 1* PO 30 mg/kg; q3dx4 PO 10 mg/kg q3dx4
• Compound 1 is dosed approximately 30 min prior to Gemcitabine


[0105] Tumor volume is followed throughout the experiment. Tumor volume is measured three times weekly. Tumor burden (mg = mm3) is calculated from caliper measurements by the formula for the volume of a prolate ellipsoid (LxW2)/2 where L and W are the respective orthogonal length and width measurements (mm).

[0106] The primary endpoints used to evaluate efficacy in the A2780 model are complete and partial tumor regressions, tumor growth delay and the number of tumor free survivors at the end of the study. A complete response (CR) is defined as a decrease in tumor size to an undetectable size (< 50mm3). A partial response (PR) is defined as >50% decrease in tumor mass form starting tumor size. A tumor that achieves a CR or PR during the study but starts to grow again is still considered a CR or PR. Tumor free survival (TFS) at the end of the study would be no detectable tumor (<50 mm3) at study termination (day 74). Tumor growth delay (TGD) is defined in this experiment as the median number of days for the treatment group compared to the control group to reach 750 mm3.

[0107] Oral administration of 10 mg/kg PO q3dx4 gemcitabine is not very effective in this model with a tumor growth delay of 6.1 days (not statistically significant), with no CRs, PRs or tumor free survivors at termination of the experiment at day 74. When 10 mg/kg Gemcitabine is dosed in combination with Compound 1, significant delay of tumor growth is observed compared to this dose of gemcitabine alone (19.2 days; p<0.05 compared to Gem alone) with 75% of tumors displaying CR, but there are no TFS at the end of the experiment. In FIG. 8 (Tumor Volume vs Time (days) post treatment start, it is apparent that Compound 1 alone has no effect on tumor growth, while combination treatment with Compound 1 and gemcitabine is more effective than gemcitabine alone.

[0108] Oral administration of 30 mg/kg PO q3dx4 (MTD) gemcitabine is effective in producing a statistically significant tumor growth delay of 22 days with 63% CRs but no TFS. Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine (30 mg/kg PO) plus Compound 1 produced a statistically significant tumor growth delay of > 57 days and 100% CR and a 50% incidence of TFS at day 74, termination of the experiment.
Table 6. Effect of Combination treatment Gemcitabine and Compound 1 on Tumor Growth delay in the A2780 Ovarian cancer model
TreatmentTGDP value
Untreated Control NA  
10 mg/kg Compound 1 0.4 days  
10 mg/kg Gemcitabine 6.1 days  
10 mg/kg Gemcitabine 19.2 days <0.05 compared to 10 mg/kg Gem alone
+ Compound 1    
30 mg/kg Gemcitabine 22 days <0.05 compared to Untreated control
30 mg/kg Gemcitabine + Compound 1 > 57 days <0.05 compared to 30 mg/kg Gem alone

Example 7:


Solid state characterization of Compound 1a


Data Collection



[0109] A colorless prism crystal of Compound 1a (F2O5N2C9H14) having approximate dimensions of 0.48 x 0.43 x 0.32 mm is mounted in a loop. All measurements are made on a Rigaku RAXIS SPIDER imaging plate area detector with graphite monochromated Cu-Kα radiation.

[0110] Indexing is performed from 5 oscillations that are exposed for 60 seconds. The crystal-to-detector distance is 127.40 mm.

[0111] Cell constants and an orientation matrix for data collection correspond to a primitive trigonal cell (laue class: -3ml) with dimensions:

a = 9.78961(18) A

c = 20.4588(7) A

V = 1698.02(7) A3

For Z = 6 and F.W. = 268.22, the calculated density is 1.574 g/cm3. Based on the systematic absences of:
0001: 1 ± 3n and the successful solution and refinement of the structure, the space group is determined to be:
P3121 (#152)

[0112] The data is collected at a temperature of -123 ± 1°C to a maximum 2θ value of 136.4°. A total of 111 oscillation images are collected. A sweep of data is done using ω scans from 20.0 to 200.0° in 5.0° steps, at χ=0.0° and φ = 180.0°. A second sweep is performed from 20.0 to 200.0° in 5.0° steps, at χ=54.0° and φ = 180.0°. A third sweep is performed from 20.0 to 185.0° in 5.0° steps, at χ=54.0° and φ = 90.0°, and a final sweep is performed using ω scans from 20.0 to 50.0° in 5.0° steps, at χ=0.0° and φ = 0.0°. The exposure rate is 12.0 [sec./°]. The crystal-to-detector distance is 127.40 mm. Readout is performed in the 0.100 mm pixel mode.

Data Reduction



[0113] Of the 11772 reflections that are collected, 2052 are unique (Rint = 0.038); equivalent reflections are merged.

[0114] The linear absorption coefficient, µ, for Cu-Kα radiation is 13.035 cm-1. An empirical absorption correction is applied which results in transmission factors ranging from 0.540 to 0.659. The data is corrected for Lorentz and polarization effects. A correction for secondary extinction (Larson, A.C., Crystallographic Computing 1970, 291-294; equation 22, with V replaced by the cell volume) is applied (coefficient = 0.005900).

Structure Solution and Refinement



[0115] The structure is solved by direct methods (SIR92: Larson, A.C., J. Appl. Cryst., 1994, 27, 435) and expanded using Fourier techniques(DIRDIF99: Beurskens, P.T. et al., The DIRD-99 Program System. Technical Report of the Crystallography Laboratory, 1999, University of Nijinegen, The Netherlands). The non-hydrogen atoms are refined anisotropically. Some hydrogen atoms are refined isotropically and the rest are refined using the riding model. The final cycle of full-matrix least-squares refinement (least squares weights = Σw(Fo2-Fc2)2) on F2 is based on 2052 observed reflections and 181 variable parameters and converges (largest parameter shift is <0.01 times its esd) with unweighted and weighted agreement factors of:





[0116] The standard deviation of an observation of unit weight (standard deviation = [Σw(Fo2-Fc2)2/(No-Nv)]1/2, No = number of observations, Nv = number of variables) is 1.10. Unit weights are used. The maximum and minimum peaks on the final difference Fourier map correspond to 0.22 and -0.22 e-3, respectively. The absolute structure is deduced based on Flack parameter, 0.0(1), refined using 839 Friedel pairs (Flack, H. D., Acta Cryst. 1983, A39, 876-881.

[0117] Neutral atom scattering factors are taken from Cromer, D. T. et al., International Tables for X-ray Crystallography 1974, IV, Table 2.2 A. Anomalous dispersion effects are included in Fcalc (Ibers, J. A. et al., Acta Crystallogr. 1964, 17, 781); the values for Δf' and Δf" are those of Creagh, D. C. et al.., International Tables for Crystallography 1992, C, Table 4.2.6.8, 219-222. The values for the mass attenuation coefficients are those of Creagh, D. C. et al.. International Tables for Crystallography 1992, C, Table 4.2.4.3, 200-206. All calculations are performed using the CrystalStructure 3.8 crystallographic software package except for refinement, which is performed using SHELXL-97.

Experimental Details


A. Crystal Data



[0118] 
Empirical Formula F2O5N2C9H14
Formula Weight 268.22
Crystal Color, Habit colorless, prism
Crystal Dimensions 0.48 X 0.43 X 0.32 mm
Crystal System trigonal
Lattice Type Primitive
Indexing Images 5 oscillations @ 60.0 seconds
Detector Position 127.40 mm
Pixel Size 0.100 mm
Lattice Parameters a = 9.78961(18) Å
  c = 20.4588(7) Å
  V = 1698.02(7) Å3
Space Group P3121 (#152)
Z value 6
Dcalc 1.574 g/cm3
F000 840.00
µ(CuKα) 13.035 cm-1

B. Intensity Measurements



[0119] 
Diffractometer Rigaku RAXIS-SPIDER
Radiation Cubα (λ = 1.54187 Å) graphite monochromated
Detector Aperture 460 mm x 256 mm
Data Images 111 exposures
ω Oscillation Range (χ=0.0, φ=180.0) 20.0 - 200.0°
ω Oscillation Range (χ=54.0, φ=180.0) 20.0 - 200.0°
ω Oscillation Range (χ=54.0, φ=90.0) 20.0 - 185.0°
ω Oscillation Range (χ=0.0, φ=0.0) 20.0 - 50.0°
Exposure Rate 12.0 sec./°
Detector Position 127.40 mm
Pixel Size 0.100 mm
Max 136.4°
No. of Reflections Measured Total: 11772
  Unique: 2052 (Rint = 0.038)
  Friedel pairs: 839
Corrections Lorentz-polarization
  Absorption
  (trans. factors: 0.540 - 0.659)
  Secondary Extinction
  (coefficient: 5.90000e-003)

C. Structure Solution and Refinement



[0120] 
Structure Solution Direct Methods (SIR92)
Refinement Full-matrix least-squares on F2
Function Minimized Σ w (Fo2 - Fc2)2
Least Squares Weights w = 1/ [σ2(Fo2) + (0.0317 · P)2 + 0.6904 · P]
  where P = (Max(Fo2,0) + 2Fc2)/3
Max cutoff 136.40
Anomalous Dispersion All non-hydrogen atoms
No. Observations (All Reflections) 2052
No. Variables 181
Reflection/Parameter Ratio 11.34
Residuals: R1 (I>2.00σ(I)) 0.0303
Residuals: R (All Reflections) 0.0329
Residuals: wR2 (All Reflections) 0.0733
Goodness of Fit Indicator 1.099
Flack Parameter (Friedel pairs = 839) 0.0(1)
Max Shift/Error in Final Cycle <0.001
Maximum peak in Final Diff. Map 0.22 e-3
Minimum peak in Final Diff. Map -0.22 e-3


[0121] An ORTEP plot (Michael N. Burnett and Carroll K. Johnson, ORTEP-III: Oak Ridge Thermal Ellipsoid Plot Program for Crystal Structure Illustrations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL-6895, 1996) of the determined structure of Compound 1a is shown in FIG. 9.

Example 8:


Enhancement of acid stability of Compound 1a compared to THU



[0122] The stability of Compound 1a and tetrahydrouridine (THU) in acid solution are evaluated by 1H NMR spectroscopy.



[0123] Tetrahydrouridine (THU, 5 mg) is dissolved in D2O (0.75 mL). The 1HNMR (D2O, 300 MHz, 27° C) spectrum is shown in FIG. 10. To this same sample is added one drop of deuterated TFA followed by an immediate 1HNMR spectrum (FIG. 10). Even at this earliest time point, the peak at 5.4 ppm (∼10% conversion by integration) is indicative of the ring expansion to the TH-pyranose. Over the next several hours, spectra (D2O, 300 MHz, 27° C) are taken as shown in FIG. 11. After 4 hours, the TH-pyranose is more prevalent indicating about 60% conversion. At 72 hours, the conversion is almost entirely complete (>80%). Notable changes in the region from 4.0-4.5 are also indicative of THU decomposition and the TH-pyranose formation.

[0124] Compound 1a (5 mg) is dissolved in D2O (0.75 mL). The 1HNMR spectrum (D2O, 300 MHz, 27° C) is shown in FIG. 12. To this same sample is added one drop of deuterated TFA followed by an immediate 1HNMR spectrum (FIG. 12). After the first time point, the only notable change is the epimerization of the aminal which is noted by the extra peaks at 5.92 and 5.93. After 4 hours and 72 hours (FIG. 13), there are no other notable changes in the spectra (D2O, 300 MHz, 27° C). These results indicate that no pyranose formation occurs with Compound 1a under these conditions.

[0125] While the present invention has been described with reference to the specific embodiments thereof, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation, material, composition of matter, process, process step or steps, to the scope of the present invention. All such modifications are intended to be within the scope of the claims appended hereto.


Claims

1. A compound of Formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration; and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro.
 
2. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is represented by Compound 1a or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:


 
3. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is represented by Compound 1a:


 
4. A pharmaceutical composition for inhibiting CDA enzyme activity consisting essentially of a compound of Formula I, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration; and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro;
and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.
 
5. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 4, wherein the compound is represented by Compound 1a or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:


 
6. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 4, wherein the compound is represented by Compound 1a:


 
7. A composition comprising:

(i) a compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration; and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro; and

(ii) a CDA substrate drug selected from the group consisting of 5-azacytidine, gemcitabine, ara-C, tezacitabine, 5-fluoro-2' -deoxycytidine, and cytochlor.


 
8. A composition comprising:

(i) a compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration; and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro; and

(ii) a CDA substrate drug;
wherein the CDA substrate drug is not decitabine.


 
9. A composition comprising:

(i) a compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration; and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro; and

(ii) a CDA substrate drug;
wherein the CDA substrate drug is decitabine.


 
10. The composition of any one of claims 7 or 8, wherein the CDA substrate drug is gemcitabine, ara-C or 5-azacytidine.
 
11. The composition of any one of claims 7-10, wherein the compound is represented by Compound 1a or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:


 
12. The composition of any one of claims 7-10, wherein the compound is represented by Compound 1a:


 
13. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound of any one of claims 1-3 or the composition of any one of claims 7-12; and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.
 
14. Compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration; and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro for use in a method for treating cancer, comprising:

(i) administering to a mammal in need thereof a compound of Formula I, and

(ii) administering to a mammal in need thereof a CDA substrate drug selected from the group consisting of 5-azacytidine, gemcitabine, ara-C, tezacitabine, 5-fluoro-2' -deoxycytidine, and cytochlor.


 
15. Compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration; and wherein R1 and R2 are fluoro for use in a method for treating cancer, comprising:

(i) administering to a mammal in need thereof a compound of Formula I, and

(ii) administering to a mammal in need thereof a CDA substrate drug;

wherein the CDA substrate drug is not decitabine.
 
16. Compound of Formula I or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the carbon marked by an asterisk may have an (R) or an (S) configuration; and wherein R1 and R2 fluoro for use in a method for treating cancer, comprising:

(i) administering to a mammal in need thereof a compound of Formula I, and

(ii) administering to a mammal in need thereof a CDA substrate drug;

wherein the CDA substrate drug is decitabine.
 
17. The compound of any one of claims 14-16, wherein the CDA substrate drug is gemcitabine, ara-C or 5-azacytidine.
 
18. Compound of any one of claims 14-17 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the cancer is selected from the group consisting of hematological cancers and solid cancers.
 
19. Compound of claim 18 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the cancer is a hematological cancer selected from the group consisting of myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia.
 
20. Compound of claim 19 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the hematological cancer is acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia.
 
21. Compound of claim 18 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the cancer is a solid cancer selected from the group consisting of pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, peritoneal cancer, non small cell lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, bladder cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, gynecological cancer, fallopian tube carcinoma, liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, cervical carcinoma, genitourinary tract cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer.
 
22. Compound according to any one of claims 14-21 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the compound is represented by Compound 1a or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:


 
23. Compound according to any one of claims 14-21 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the compound is represented by Compound 1a:


 
24. Compound of any one of claims 14-23 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the compound is administered at substantially the same time with the CDA substrate drug, prior to the CDA substrate drug or after the CDA substrate drug.
 
25. Compound of any one of claims 14-24 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the compound and the CDA substrate drug are administered in a single unit dosage form.
 
26. Compound of any one of claims 14-24 for use in a method for treating cancer, wherein the compound and the CDA substrate drug are administered in multiple, separate unit dosage forms.
 
27. The compound according to any one of claims 1-3, or the pharmaceutical composition according to any one of claims 4-6 or 13, or the composition according to any one of claims 7-12, for use as a medicament.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verbindung der Formel I oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:

worin das mit einem Sternchen markierte Kohlenstoffatom eine (R)- oder eine (S)-Konfiguration haben kann und worin R1 und R2 Fluor sind.
 
2. Verbindung gemäß Anspruch 1, worin die Verbindung durch die Verbindung (1a) dargestellt wird, oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:


 
3. Verbindung gemäß Anspruch 1, worin die Verbindung durch die Verbindung (1a) dargestellt wird


 
4. Pharmazeutisches Zusammensetzung zur Hemmung der CDA-Enzymaktivität, im wesentlichen bestehend aus einer Verbindung der Formel I oder einem pharmazeutisch akzeptablen Salz davon:

worin das mit einem Sternchen markierte Kohlenstoffatom eine (R)- oder eine (S)-Konfiguration haben kann und worin R1 und R2 Fluor sind;
und einem pharmazeutisch akzeptablen Hilfsstoff.
 
5. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung gemäß Anspruch 4, worin die Verbindung durch die Verbindung 1a dargestellt wird, oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:


 
6. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung gemäß Anspruch 4, worin die Verbindung durch die Verbindung 1a dargestellt wird


 
7. Zusammensetzung, umfassend:

(i) eine Verbindung der Formel I oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:

worin das mit einem Sternchen markierte Kohlenstoffatom eine (R)- oder eine (S)-Konfiguration haben kann und worin R1 und R2 Fluor sind; und

(ii) einen Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus 5-Azacytidin, Gemcitabin, Ara-C, Tezacitabin, 5-Fluor-2'-deoxycytidin und Cytochlor.


 
8. Zusammensetzung, umfassend:

(i) eine Verbindung der Formel I oder ein pharmazeutische akzeptables Salz davon

worin das mit einem Sternchen markierte Kohlenstoffatom eine (R)- oder eine (S)-Konfiguration haben kann und worin R1 und R2 Fluor sind; und

(ii) einen Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist;
worin der Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, nicht Decitabin ist.


 
9. Zusammensetzung, umfassend:

(i) eine Verbindung der Formel I oder ein pharmazeutische akzeptables Salz davon

worin das mit einem Sternchen markierte Kohlenstoffatom eine (R)- oder eine (S)-Konfiguration haben kann und worin R1 und R2 Fluor sind; und

(ii) einen Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist;
worin der Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, Decitabin ist.


 
10. Zusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 7 oder 8, wobei der Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, Gemcitabin, Ara-C oder 5-Azacytidin ist.
 
11. Zusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 10, wobei die Verbindung durch die Verbindung 1a dargestellt wird, oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:


 
12. Zusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 10, wobei die Verbindung durch die Verbindung 1a dargestellt wird:


 
13. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend die Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 oder die Zusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 12 und einen pharmazeutisch akzeptablen Hilfsstoff.
 
14. Verbindung der Formel I oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:

worin das mit einem Sternchen markierte Kohlenstoffatom eine (R)- oder eine (S)-Konfiguration haben kann und worin R1 und R2 Fluor sind, zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, umfassend:

(i) die Verabreichung einer Verbindung der Formel I an ein Säugetier, das dieser bedarf, und

(ii) die Verabreichung eines Arzneistoffs, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus 5-Azacytidin, Gemcitabin, Ara-C, Tezacitabin, 5-Fluor-2'-deoxycytidin und Cytochlor, an ein Säugetier, das dieser bedarf.


 
15. Verbindung der Formel I oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:

worin das mit einem Sternchen markierte Kohlenstoffatom eine (R)- oder eine (S)-Konfiguration haben kann und worin R1 und R2 Fluor sind, zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, umfassend:

(i) die Verabreichung einer Verbindung der Formel I an ein Säugetier, das dieser bedarf, und

(ii) die Verabreichung eines Arzneistoffs, der ein CDA-Substrat ist,, an ein Säugetier, das dieser bedarf, wobei der Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, nicht Decitabin ist.


 
16. Verbindung der Formel I oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:

worin das mit einem Sternchen markierte Kohlenstoffatom eine (R)- oder eine (S)-Konfiguration haben kann und worin R1 und R2 Fluor sind, zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, umfassend:

(i) die Verabreichung einer Verbindung der Formel I an ein Säugetier, das dieser bedarf, und

(ii) die Verabreichung eines Arzneistoffs, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, an ein Säugetier, das dieser bedarf, wobei der Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, Decitabin ist.


 
17. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 14 bis 16, wobei der Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, Gemcitabin, Ara-C oder 5-Azacytidin ist.
 
18. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 14 bis 17, zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei der Krebs ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus hämatologischen Krebsarten und soliden Krebsarten.
 
19. Verbindung gemäß Anspruch 18 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei der Krebs ein hämatologischer Krebs ist, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus myelodysplastischem Syndrom und Leukämie.
 
20. Verbindung gemäß Anspruch 19 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei der hämatologische Krebs akute myeloische Leukämie oder chronische myeloische Leukämie ist.
 
21. Verbindung gemäß Anspruch 18, zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei der Krebs ein solider Krebs ist, ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Bauchspeicheldrüsenkrebs, Eierstockkrebs, Peritonealkrebs, nicht-kleinzelligem Lungenkrebs, metastatischem Brustkrebs, Blasenkrebs, Plattenepithelkarzinom, Übergangszellenkarzinom, Adenokarzinom, gynäkologischem Krebs, Eileiterkarzinom, Leberkrebs, hepatozellulärem Karzinom, Lungenkrebs, Gebärmutterhalskarzinom, Krebs des Genitourinaltraktes und gastrointestinalem Krebs.
 
22. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 14 bis 21 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei die Verbindung durch die Verbindung 1a dargestellt wird, oder ein pharmazeutisch akzeptables Salz davon:


 
23. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 14 bis 21 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei die Verbindung durch die Verbindung 1a dargestellt wird:


 
24. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 14 bis 23 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei die Verbindung im wesentlichen gleichzeitig mit dem Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, vor dem Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, oder nach dem Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, verabreicht wird.
 
25. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 14 bis 24 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei die Verbindung und der Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, in einer einzelnen Einheitsdosierungsform verabreicht werden.
 
26. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 14 bis 24 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs, wobei die Verbindung und der Arzneistoff, der ein CDA-Substrat ist, in mehreren getrennten Einheitsdosierungsformen verabreicht werden.
 
27. Verbindung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 oder die pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 6 oder 13 oder die Zusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 12 zur Verwendung als Medikament.
 


Revendications

1. Composé de formule I, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

dans lequel le carbone marqué par un astérisque peut avoir une configuration (R) ou (S) ; et dans lequel R1 et R2 sont fluoro.
 
2. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le composé est représenté par le composé 1a, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci:


 
3. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le composé est représenté par le composé 1a :


 
4. Composition pharmaceutique destinée à inhiber l'activité enzymatique de la CDA constituée essentiellement d'un composé de formule I, ou d'un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

dans lequel le carbone marqué par un astérisque peut avoir une configuration (R) ou (S) ; et dans lequel R1 et R2 sont fluoro;
et un excipient pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
5. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 4, dans laquelle le composé est représenté par le composé 1a, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci:


 
6. Composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 4, dans laquelle le composé est représenté par le composé 1a :


 
7. Composition comprenant :

(i) un composé de formule I ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

dans lequel le carbone marqué par un astérisque peut avoir une configuration (R) ou (S) ; et dans lequel R1 et R2 sont fluoro; et

(ii) un médicament substrat de la CDA choisi dans le groupe constitué par la 5-azacytidine, la gemcitabine, l'ara-C, la tézacitabine, la 5-fluoro-2'-désoxycytidine, et le cytochlor.


 
8. Composition comprenant :

(i) un composé de formule I ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

dans lequel le carbone marqué par un astérisque peut avoir une configuration (R) ou (S) ; et dans lequel R1 et R2 sont fluoro; et

(ii) un médicament substrat de la CDA ;
dans lequel le médicament substrat de la CDA n'est pas la décitabine.


 
9. Composition comprenant :

(i) un composé de formule I ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

dans lequel le carbone marqué par un astérisque peut avoir une configuration (R) ou (S) ; et dans lequel R1 et R2 sont fluoro; et

(ii) un médicament substrat de la CDA ;
dans lequel le médicament substrat de la CDA est la décitabine.


 
10. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 ou 8, dans laquelle le médicament substrat de la CDA est la gemcitabine, l'ara-C ou la 5-azacytidine.
 
11. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 10, dans laquelle le composé est représenté par le composé 1a, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci:


 
12. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 10, dans laquelle le composé est représenté par le composé 1a :


 
13. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant le composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 ou la composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 12 ; et un excipient pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
14. Composé de formule I ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

dans lequel le carbone marqué par un astérisque peut avoir une configuration (R) ou (S) ; et dans lequel R1 et R2 sont fluoro, pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, comprenant :

(i) l'administration à un mammifère en ayant besoin d'un composé de formule I, et

(ii) l'administration à un mammifère en ayant besoin d'un médicament substrat de la CDA choisi dans le groupe constitué par la 5-azacytidine, la gemcitabine, l'ara-C, la tézacitabine, la 5-fluoro-2'-désoxycytidine, et le cytochlor.


 
15. Composé de formule I ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

dans lequel le carbone marqué par un astérisque peut avoir une configuration (R) ou (S) ; et dans lequel R1 et R2 sont fluoro, pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, comprenant :

(i) l'administration à un mammifère en ayant besoin d'un composé de formule I, et

(ii) l'administration à un mammifère en ayant besoin d'un médicament substrat de la CDA ; dans lequel le médicament substrat de la CDA n'est pas la décitabine.


 
16. Composé de formule I ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :

dans lequel le carbone marqué par un astérisque peut avoir une configuration (R) ou (S) ; et dans lequel R1 et R2 sont fluoro, pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, comprenant :

(i) l'administration à un mammifère en ayant besoin d'un composé de formule I, et

(ii) l'administration à un mammifère en ayant besoin d'un médicament substrat de la CDA ; dans lequel le médicament substrat de la CDA est la décitabine.


 
17. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 14 à 16, dans lequel le médicament substrat de la CDA est la gemcitabine, l'ara-C ou la 5-azacytidine.
 
18. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 14 à 17 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, dans lequel le cancer est choisi dans le groupe constitué par les cancers hématologiques et les cancers solides.
 
19. Composé selon la revendication 18 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, dans lequel le cancer est un cancer hématologique choisi dans le groupe constitué par le syndrome myélodysplasique et une leucémie.
 
20. Composé selon la revendication 19 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, dans lequel le cancer hématologique est une leucémie myéloïde aiguë ou une leucémie myéloïde chronique.
 
21. Composé selon la revendication 18 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, où le cancer est un cancer solide choisi dans le groupe constitué par un cancer pancréatique, un cancer ovarien, un cancer péritonéal, un cancer du poumon non à petites cellules, un cancer du sein métastatique, un cancer de la vessie, un carcinome spino-cellulaire, un carcinome à cellules transitionnelles, un adénocarcinome, un cancer gynécologique, un carcinome des trompes de Fallope, un cancer du foie, un carcinome hépatocellulaire, un cancer du poumon, un carcinome du col utérin, un cancer du tractus génito-urinaire, et un cancer gastro-intestinal.
 
22. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 14 à 21 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, dans lequel le composé est représenté par le composé 1a, ou un sel pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci :


 
23. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 14 à 21 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, dans lequel le composé est représenté par le composé 1a :


 
24. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 14 à 23 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, dans lequel le composé est administré sensiblement en même temps que le médicament substrat de la CDA, avant le médicament substrat de la CDA ou après le médicament substrat de la CDA.
 
25. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 14 à 24 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, dans lequel le composé et le médicament substrat de la CDA sont administrés sous une forme posologique unitaire.
 
26. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 14 à 24 pour une utilisation dans un procédé destiné à traiter un cancer, dans lequel le composé et le médicament substrat de la CDA sont administrés sous des formes posologiques unitaires distinctes, multiples.
 
27. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, ou la composition pharmaceutique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 6 ou 13, ou la composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 12, pour une utilisation comme médicament.
 




Drawing





















































Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description