(19)
(11)EP 2 224 231 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
04.12.2019 Bulletin 2019/49

(21)Application number: 08862844.1

(22)Date of filing:  12.12.2008
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01N 27/12  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2008/072709
(87)International publication number:
WO 2009/078370 (25.06.2009 Gazette  2009/26)

(54)

GAS SENSOR

GASSENSOR

DÉTECTEUR DE GAZ


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 14.12.2007 JP 2007323238

(43)Date of publication of application:
01.09.2010 Bulletin 2010/35

(73)Proprietor: NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd.
Nagoya-shi Aichi 467-8525 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • IKAWA, Koichi
    Nagoya-shi Aichi 467-8525 (JP)
  • KIDA, Masahito
    Nagoya-shi Aichi 467-8525 (JP)
  • KITO, Shinichiro
    Nagoya-shi Aichi 467-8525 (JP)
  • TSUJIMURA, Yoshinori
    Nagoya-shi Aichi 467-8525 (JP)
  • KOJIMA, Takio
    Nagoya-shi Aichi 467-8525 (JP)

(74)Representative: Grünecker Patent- und Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB 
Leopoldstraße 4
80802 München
80802 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
JP-A- 2002 286 673
JP-A- 2005 226 992
JP-A- 2010 091 501
US-A- 5 510 013
JP-A- 2005 164 570
JP-A- 2007 139 669
JP-U- 64 017 460
US-A- 5 510 013
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0001] The present invention relates to a gas sensor including a gas sensing layer containing a metal oxide semiconductor as a main component.

    BACKGROUND ART



    [0002] There is a known gas sensor which includes a metal oxide semiconductor such as tin oxide (SnO2), supporting noble metal such as platinum (Pt) as a catalyst and which is arranged to sense a concentration change of a measurement gas to be sensed by utilizing an electric characteristic (such as resistance) varied by the measurement gas. In a production method of such a gas sensor, the noble metal is supported in a dispersed state on the surface of the metal oxide semiconductor by calcination after impregnation of metal oxide semiconductor powder in a liquid solution containing the noble metal element (cf. patent document 1, for example).

    [0003] It is known to achieve a high gas sensitivity to various smells (bad smells, especially) considered to be caused by hydrogen sulfide or mercaptans by the use of a gas sensing layer including a basic metal oxide supported, as catalyst, on a metal oxide semiconductor (cf. patent document 2, for example). However, the basic metal oxide is high in electric resistance, and the structure of the basic metal oxide supported on the metal oxide semiconductor powder individually as in the patent document 1 increases the elelectric resistance of the gas sensing layer, and makes difficult the circuit design of the gas sensor. It is possible to prevent an increase of the electric resistance of the gas sensing layer with the structure in which the basic metal oxide is supported on the surface of sintered product (gas sensing layer) obtained by sintering the gas sensing layer of metal oxide semiconductor powder (cf. a patent document 3, for example).

    [0004] The gas sensing layer of such a gas sensor does not react with the measurement gas at normal temperature, and the gas sensing layer becomes activated and reactive to the measurement gas when heated to 200∼400 °C. Therefore, in general, a heat generating resistor is provided in a base member such as a semiconductor substrate on which the gas sensing layer is formed. However, when the gas sensor is driven at high temperatures by using the heat generating resistor, there is a possibility of separation at the interface between the gas sensing layer and the base member due to a difference in thermal expansion between the gas sensing layer and base member. Moreover, in such a gas sensor, there is a natural demand for increasing the mechanical adhesive strength between the gas sensing layer and base member to obtain a high reliability. Therefore, there are proposed various structures having an adhesion layer formed between the gas sensing layer and the base member. One example proposes a heat type sensor arranged to mitigate heat expansion with a hafnium oxide layer formed between a heater of platinum (Pt) in the form of a thin film resistor and an underlying insulating film (cf. a patent document 4, for example). Another example proposes a gas sensor arranged to mitigate a thermal expansion coefficient by increasing the surface area of an electrode layer by producing concavities and convexities in the surface of the electrode layer on the substrate, and further by providing, between this electrode layer and the gas sensing layer, an intermediate layer of an electrically conductive functionally graded material in which the compositions of the materials of both layers are varied gradually (cf. a patent document 5).

    [0005] JP 2007139669 A discloses a sensor wherein after the electrodes are placed on a protective film, an adhesion layer is provided to attach the gas sensing layer to the protective film. The adhesive layer is deposited over the entire surface of the electrode. A system, which makes up a gas sensor is also described in US 5 510 013. To improve the adherence of the sensor layer to the substrate, an anchoring strip is printed by a printing paste on the surface.

    Patent Document 1: JP 63-279150 (A)

    Patent Document 2: JP 06-27719 (B)

    Patent Document 3: JP 05-51096 (B)

    Patent Document 4: JP 2001-91486 (A)

    Patent Document 5: JP 09-33470 (A)


    Disclosure of Invention



    [0006] However, though the structure of the heat type sensor proposed by patent document 4 is effective for improving the adhesion between thin films having great contact areas, this structure is not effective between a thick film gas sensing layer and a base member because the contact area is small. The gas sensor proposed by patent document 5 is able to achieve the adhesion between the base member and the gas sensing layer by producing irregularities in the surface of the electrode layer and forming the conductive intermediate layer on the electrode layer. However, since the gas reaction of the measurement gas occurs at the interface between the sensing electrode and the gas sensing layer, an adverse influence might be exerted on the gas sensitivity by the formation of the conductive intermediate layer having a composition different from that of the gas sensing layer, between the electrode layer and the gas sensing layer. To solve the aforementioned problems, the present invention provides a gas sensor having the features defined in claim 1 . Further preferred embodiments are defined in the dependent claims.

    [0007] In a gas sensor comprising a gas sensing layer which is formed on a base member and which includes, as a main component, a metal oxide semiconductor having an electric characteristic which is varied in accordance with variation of a concentration of a specific or given gas in a measurement gas to be tested, the gas sensor according to an embodiment 1 of this disclosure is characterized in that the gas sensor further comprises a pair of sensing electrodes formed on the base member and arranged to sense variation of the electric characteristic of the gas sensing layer, and an adhesive layer contacting with the gas sensing layer, the sensing electrodes being in contact with the gas sensing layer, but not in contact with the adhesive layer; and that the base member includes: a semiconductor substrate formed with an opening portion extending in a thickness direction, an insulating layer which is formed on the semiconductor substrate and which includes a separating wall portion formed at a position confronting the opening portion, a heat generating resistor formed on the separating wall portion, and a protection film formed on the insulating layer to cover the heat generating resistor, the sensing electrodes, the adhesion layer, and the gas sensing layer being formed on the protection layer of the base member.

    [0008] The gas sensor according to the embodiment 1 has the structure in which the sensing electrodes are in contact with the gas sensing layer but they are not in contact with the adhesion layer. With this structure, it is possible to improve the adhesion between the base member and the gas sensing layer effectively and simultaneously obtain a good gas sensitivity to the specified gas. Furthermore, because the adhesion layer is out of contact with the sensing electrodes, it is not necessary to make the adhesion layer completely insulating, and it is possible to use, as the adhesion layer, an incomplete insulating film or a conductive film, so that the selection of the adhesion layer is widened. Because the adhesion layer is not in contact with the sensing electrodes, it is possible to put the surfaces of the sensing electrodes securely in contact with the gas sensing layer, and hence further improve the gas sensitivity. Moreover, the gas sensing layer is formed on the protection layer so as to confront the heat generating resistor, and the heat generating resistor is formed at the position confronting the opening portion formed in the semiconductor substrate. Therefore, the heat generating resistor can heat the gas sensing layer efficiently for activation, and the gas sensor can sense the concentration variation of the specified gas properly.

    [0009] The gas sensor of the disclosure may be so configured that the sum of the thicknesses of the insulating layer and the protection layer is smaller than or equal to 2 µm, the surface roughness Ra of a surface of the protection layer is smaller than or equal to 0.03 µm, and the gas sensing layer thicker than 2 µm is formed on the surface of the protection layer.

    [0010] In this gas sensor, the sum of the thicknesses of the insulating layer and the protection layer is smaller than or equal to 2 µm. Therefore, it is possible to decrease the quantity of heat to be generated by the heat generating resistor. Moreover, the insulating layer and the protection layer are formed, on the semiconductor substrate, by thin film formation, and accordingly the surface of the protection layer on which the gas sensing layer is formed is in the state having a surface roughness Ra of 0.030 µm or less like a mirror surface. However, in this disclosure, the adhesion layer is provided on the protection layer, as mentioned above. This arrangement improves the adhesion between the gas sensing layer and the base member (protection film), and makes it possible to form the gas sensing layer having a thickness greater than or equal to 2 µm, on the surface of the protection layer in the surface state near a mirror surface, with the adhesion being secured.

    [0011] The gas sensor of this disclosure may be so configured that the mean or mean value of five greatest peak heights from the surface of the protection layer among heights of surface roughness peaks forming convexities of a surface of the adhesion layer as viewed in a section extending in the thickness direction of the adhesion layer is greater than the sum of thicknesses of the insulating layer and the protection layer.

    [0012] In this gas sensor, with the surface condition in which the mean of five greatest peak heights among the heights of surface roughness peaks of the adhesion layer from the surface of the protection layer as viewed in a section extending in the thickness direction of the adhesion layer is greater than the sum of thicknesses of the insulating layer and the protection layer, the concavities and convexities of the adhesive layer are made greater, and the adhesion of the gas sensing layer can be improved by the anchor effect. In this disclosure, this mean or mean value is defined as a value obtained by averaging the five greatest peak heights from the surface of the protection layer among heights of roughness peaks forming convexities in the surface of the adhesion layer (rectilinear distances in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the protection layer) as viewed in a section obtained by cutting the base member of the gas sensor inclusive of the adhesion layer by a plane extending in the thickness direction, and magnified by a predetermined magnification with a scanning electron microscope.

    [0013] The gas sensor of this disclosure may be so configured that the sum of thicknesses of the insulating layer and the protection layer is smaller than or equal to 2 µm, the surface roughness of a surface of the protection layer is smaller than or equal to 0.030 µm, and the gas sensing layer having a thickness which is greater than 2 µm and which is equal to or greater than the double of the above-mentioned sum is formed on the surface of the protection layer.

    [0014] In this gas sensor, the total thickness of the insulating layer and protection layer is equal to or smaller than 2 µm. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the quantity of heat to be produced by the heat generating resistor. Furthermore, because the adhesion between the gas sensing layer and the base member (the protection layer) is improved by the adhesion layer, it is possible to form the gas sensing layer having the thickness which is greater than or equal to 2 µm and which is equal to or greater than the double of the above-mentioned sum, on the surface of the protection layer which is in the mirror like surface state having the surface roughness Ra equal to or smaller than 0.030 µm, with the secured adhesion.

    [0015] The gas sensor of this disclosure may be so configured that the adhesion layer is formed at least between the sensing electrodes.

    [0016] In this gas sensor, the adhesion layer is formed between the sensing electrodes at least. The clearance between the sensing electrodes is relatively narrow, so that it is difficult to improve the adhesion between the surface of the base member located between the sensing electrodes and the gas sensing layer. However, with the configuration of this disclosure, it is possible to improve the adhesion effectively between the surface of the base member located between the sensing electrodes and the gas sensing layer.

    [0017] The gas sensor of this disclosure may be so configured that the sensing electrodes are shaped like the teeth of a comb, the teeth of the sensing electrodes are so arranged that a tooth of one electrode is inserted between two of the teeth of the other, and the adhesion layer is formed between the teeth of one electrode and the teeth of the other electrode.

    [0018] In this gas sensor, because the sensing electrodes are shaped like the teeth of a comb, the teeth of the sensing electrodes are so arranged that a tooth of one electrode is inserted between two of the teeth of the other, and since the adhesion layer is formed between the teeth of one electrode and the teeth of the other electrode, it is possible to improve the adhesion between the surface of the base member located between the sensing electrodes and the gas sensing layer more effectively.

    [0019] The gas sensor of this disclosure may be so configured that the adhesion layer is formed continuously in a region between the sensing electrodes and regions surrounding the sensing electrodes.

    [0020] Because of the adhesion layer formed continuously between the sensing electrodes and around the sensing electrodes, this gas sensor can improve the adhesion between the base member and the gas sensing layer more effectively.

    [0021]  The gas sensor of this disclosure may be so configured that the adhesion layer is an insulating layer.

    [0022] In this gas sensor, because of the adhesion layer being insulating, the adhesion layer does not exert influence on the electric conductivity of the gas sensing layer, and therefore, the gas sensor can provide a good gas sensitivity to the specified gas.

    [0023] The gas sensor of this disclosure may be so configured that the material of the gas sensing layer is interposed between particles of the material of the adhesion layer.

    [0024] In this gas sensor, because of the structure in which the material of the gas sensing layer is interposed between particles of the material of the adhesion layer, it is possible to further improve the adhesion between the adhesion layer and the gas sensing layer and to prevent delamination between the adhesion layer and the gas sensing layer.

    [0025] The gas sensor of this disclosure may be so configured that the projected area obtained by projecting the contact surface between the gas sensing layer and the adhesion layer, on the base member, from a side (gas sensing layer's side) on which the gas sensing layer formed on the base member is located is greater than or equal to 50% of a projected area obtained by projecting contact surfaces between the gas sensing layer and the adhesion layer and sensing electrodes, on the base member, from the side on which the gas sensing layer is located.

    [0026] With the structure in which the projected area obtained by projecting the contact surface between the gas sensing layer and the adhesion layer, on the base member, from the side (gas sensing layer's side) on which the gas sensing layer is located is greater than or equal to 50% of the projected area obtained by projecting the contact surfaces between the gas sensing layer and the adhesion layer and sensing electrodes, on the base member, from the side on which the gas sensing layer is located, this gas sensor can provide the adhesion between the base member and the gas sensing layer more reliably.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



    [0027] 

    FIG. 1 is a plan view of a gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken across a line A-A shown in FIG. 1 as viewed in a direction of arrows.

    FIG. 3 is a plan view of a heat generating resistor included in the gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken across a line B-B shown in FIG. 1 as viewed in a direction of arrows.

    FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken across a line C-C shown in FIG. 2 as viewed in a direction of arrows.

    FIG. 6 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken across the line A-A shown in FIG. 1 as viewed in the direction of arrows, showing the vicinity of a gas sensing layer 4.

    FIG. 7 is a vertical sectional view of the gas sensor 1 in the process of the production method of gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 8 is a vertical sectional view of the gas sensor 1 in the process of the production method of gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 9 is a vertical sectional view of the gas sensor 1 in the process of the production method of gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 10 is a vertical sectional view of the gas sensor 1 in the process of the production method of gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 11 is a vertical sectional view of the gas sensor 1 in the process of the production method of gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 12 is a vertical sectional view of the gas sensor 1 in the process of the production method of gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 13 is a vertical sectional view of the gas sensor 1 in the process of the production method of gas sensor 1.

    FIG. 14 is a sectional view taken across the line C-C shown in FIG. 2 as viewed in the direction of arrows, showing the gas sensor 1 in a first variation example of the adhesion layer 7.

    FIG. 15 is a sectional view taken across the line C-C shown in FIG. 2 as viewed in the direction of arrows, showing the gas sensor 1 in a second variation example of the adhesion layer 7.

    FIG. 16 is a sectional view taken across a line C-C shown in FIG. 2 as viewed in a direction of arrows, showing the gas sensor in a variation example of the sensing electrodes 6.

    FIG. 17 is an enlarged partial sectional view taken across the line A-A shown in FIG. 1 as viewed in the direction of arrows, showing the vicinity of a gas sensing layer 4.

    FIG. 18 is a graphic view showing the results of shock test.

    FIG. 19 is a view showing a magnified image of a section of the gas sensor taken by a scanning electron microscope to show the state of the adhesion layer of the gas sensor in the variation example.


    BEST MODE(S) FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION



    [0028] The following is explanation on a gas sensor of one embodiment of the present invention, with reference to the drawings. First, the construction of a gas sensor 1 is explained with reference to FIGS. 1∼6. An up and down direction is an up and down direction as viewed in FIG. 2, and a left and right direction is a left and right direction in FIGS. 1∼6.

    [0029] As shown in FIG. 1, gas sensor 1 is a rectangular gas sensor having a flat rectangular shape having a length of 2.6mm and a width of 2 mm. As shown in FIG. 2, gas sensor 1 has the construction including an insulating coat layer 3 which is formed on an upper surface of a silicon substrate 2, a heat generating resistor 5 which is formed in the insulating coat layer 3, and adhesion layer 7 and gas sensing layer 4 which are formed on an upper surface of the insulating coat layer 3. Gas sensing layer 4 has such properties that its own electric resistance is varied by a specified gas or predetermined gas in a measurement gas to be tested. In this gas sensor 1, gas sensing layer 4 includes 0.2 weight % calcium oxide contained, as a catalyst, in tin dioxide. By using this gas sensing layer 4, the gas sensor 1 can sense the specified gas such as ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl disulfide ((CH3)2S2), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and trimethylamine ((CH3)3N), in the measurement gas mixture. In this invention, the term "sense" means not only to sense the existence or nonexistence of a specified gas contained a measurement gas to be tested, but to sense variation of the concentration of the specified gas as well. Silicon substrate 2 corresponds to "semiconductor substrate" of the present invention, and the silicon substrate 2 and insulating coat layer 3 (base member 15) correspond to "base member" of the present invention. Furthermore, the insulating coat layer 3 corresponds to "insulating layer" of the present invention. Components of gas sensor 2 will be explained more in detail, hereinafter.

    [0030] As shown in FIG. 2, silicon substrate 2 is in the form of a flat plate of silicon, having a predetermined thickness. An opening portion 21 is formed in the lower surface of silicon substrate 2, by removing part of silicon substrate 2, and a part of an insulating layer 32 is bared, as a separating wall portion 39, by the opening portion 21. Thus, in this gas sensor 1, the silicon substrate 2 including opening portion 21 and the insulating coat layer 3 constitute a base member 15 having a diaphragm structure. This opening portion 21 is so formed that the heat generating resistor 5 buried in an insulating layer 33 is disposed in the separating wall portion 39 in a plan view as viewed from the opening's side of opening portion 21.

    [0031] Insulating coat layer 3 is composed of insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35 which are formed on the upper surface of silicon substrate 2. Insulating layer 32 formed on the upper surface of silicon substrate 2 is a film having a predetermined thickness, of silicon nitride (Si3N4). Part of the lower surface of this insulating layer 32 is bared in the opening portion 21 of silicon substrate 2. The insulating layer 33 formed on the upper surface of this insulating layer 32 is a film having a predetermined thickness, of silicon oxide (SiO2). In this insulating layer 33, there are formed the heat generating resistor 5, lead sections 12 for supplying electricity to heat generating resistor 5, etc. The protection layer 35 in the form of a film having a predetermined thickness, of silicon nitride (Si3N4) is formed on the upper surface of insulating layer 33. Protection layer 35 is formed so as to cover the heat generating resistor 5 and lead sections 12 for supplying electricity to heat generating resistor 5. Thereby, protection layer 35 functions to protect these portions against contamination and injury. These insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35 are formed by thin film formation as mentioned later. The surface roughness Ra of the surface of protection layer 35 (that is, the surface on which the gas sensing layer 4 is formed) is lower than or equal to 0.030 µm (in this embodiment, 0.002 µm). Accordingly, the surface of protection layer 35 is in a condition similar to a mirror surface. It is possible to measure the surface roughness Ra of protection layer 35 with a step measuring device made by KLA- Tencor company (device name: SURFACE PROFILER Alpha-Step 500).

    [0032] Heat generating resistor 5 is formed in insulating layer 33 at a position corresponding to the upper portion of opening portion 21 of silicon substrate 2, for example, in the form of a spiral in a plan view, as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. Moreover, lead sections 12 connected with heat generating resistor 5, for supplying electricity to heat generating resistor 5, are buried in insulating layer 33. As shown in FIG. 4, at ends of lead sections 12, there are formed contact pads 9 for connection with an external circuit. Each of heat generating resistor 5 and lead sections 12 has a two-layer structure including a platinum (Pt) layer and a tantalum (Ta) layer. Each contact pad 9 is a pad of gold (Au) formed on the surface of an extraction electrode composed of the platinum (Pt) layer and tantalum (Ta) layer. In gas sensor 1, there are provided a pair of the contact pads 9.

    [0033] Sensing electrodes 6 and lead sections 10 (cf. FIG. 4) for supplying electricity to the sensing electrodes 6 are formed, on the upper surface of protection layer 35, in the same plane parallel to silicon substrate 2 so that sensing electrodes 6 are located just above heat generating resistor 5. Sensing electrodes 6 and lead sections 10 are formed by a tantalum (Ta) layer formed on protection layer 35, and a platinum (Pt) layer formed on the surface of the tantalum layer. Contact pads 11 of gold (Au) is formed on the surface of lead sections 10 at ends of lead sections 10, and contact pads 11 form oxide semiconductor contact portions 8 for connection with an external circuit, as shown n FIG. 4. In gas sensor 1, there are provided a pair of the oxide semiconductor contact portions 8, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 4.

    [0034] Sensing electrodes 6 have a comb-like planar shape for example, as shown in FIG. 5. Comb teeth 67 of sensing electrodes 6 are interdigitated so that a tooth 67 of one electrode is disposed between teeth 67 of the other. The adhesion layer 7 meanders continuously between the teeth 67 of the first sensing electrode 6 and the teeth 67 of the second sensing electrode 6, with a noncontact clearance or interspace separating the adhesion layer from the teeth 6. The sensing electrodes 6 are arranged in a pair for sensing variation of an electric characteristic in the gas sensing layer 4. As shown in FIG. 5, adhesion layer 7 extends not only in the region between the teeth 67 of sensing electrodes 6, but further extends continuously around the sensing electrodes 6. Adhesion layer 7 is formed so that adhesion layer 7 is separated from the outside borders of the sensing electrodes by a noncontact clearance or interspace. As shown in FIG. 2, each of the sensing electrodes 6 has a confronting surface 61 confronting gas sensing layer 6 and side surfaces between which the surface 61 is formed, and the confronting surface 61 and side surfaces of each sensing electrode 6 abut entirely on the gas sensing layer 4 so that each sensing electrode 6 is electrically connected with gas sensing layer 4. In this way, the confronting surface 61 and side surfaces of each electrode 6 are fully in contact with gas sensing layer 4, so that gas reaction in the interface between gas sensing layer 4 and sensing electrodes 6 is not obstructed at all by other members including adhesion layer 7. Furthermore, heat generating resistor 5 can heat the gas sensing layer 4, and activate gas sensing layer 4 quickly and adequately. From this view point, too, it is possible to improve the gas sensitivity of gas sensor 1. On the other hand, a surface 62 of each sensing electrode 6 confronting protection layer 35 abuts on protection layer 35. Between the adjacent sensing electrodes 6, there is provided the adhesion layer 7 for improving the adhesion of the base member 15 and the gas sensing layer 4, and for preventing exfoliation of gas sensing layer 4 from base member 15 in such a noncontact manner that adhesion layer 7 is not in contact with sensing electrodes 6. Thus, sensing electrodes 6 are in contact with gas sensing layer 4, but sensing electrodes 6 are out of contact with adhesion layer 7.

    [0035] This adhesion layer 7 is a layer for improving the adhesion between base member 15 and gas sensing layer 4, and adhesion layer 7 has a structure obtained by aggregation of particles of insulating metal oxides, as shown schematically in FIG. 6. Therefore, adhesion layer 7 has an irregular or rugged surface 71. The material of gas sensing layer 4 enters among particles of the material of adhesion layer 7. With this structure, the adhesion between the base member 15 and gas sensing layer 4 in the form of a thicker film is improved. For example, the adhesion layer 7 is formed by forming a hillock Al film by sputtering, and then performing oxidation.

    [0036] This adhesion layer 7 is formed so as to extend in the region between the comb-shaped sensing electrodes 6 as shown in the lateral sectional view of FIG. 5, and to be out of contact with the peripheries of sensing electrodes 6. Moreover, as shown in the vertical sectional view of FIG. 2, the adhesion layer 7 is not formed between the sensing electrodes 6 and gas sensing layer 4. All the outside surfaces of sensing electrodes 6 abuts on the gas sensing layer 4, except for the surfaces 62. Though the adhesion layer 7 is provided between the adjacent sensing electrodes 6, the sensing electrodes 6 and the adhesion layer 7 are not in contact with each other. This structure improves the adhesion between base member 15 and gas sensing layer 4 without exerting influence on the gas reaction in the interface between the sensing electrodes 6 and the gas sensing layer 4. Moreover, though detachment of the gas sensing layer 4 often starts from an end portion of the gas sensing layer 4, the adhesion layer 7 according to this embodiment is formed around sensing electrodes 6, and the upper surface of adhesion layer 7 contacts with an end portion of gas sensing layer 4. Therefore, this structure can prevent detachment of gas sensing layer 4 from an end portion.

    [0037] Adhesion layer 7 is not in contact with the sensing electrodes 6. Therefore, it is possible to make the adhesion layer 7 of a material having an electrical conductivity. Preferably, adhesion layer 7 may be made of insulating oxide such as alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2) in order to prevent influence on the gas reaction in the interface between sensing electrodes 6 and gas sensing layer 4.

    [0038] A production method of producing the thus-constructed gas sensor 1 is explained with reference to FIGS. 7∼13. In the following explanation, an intermediate product of the gas sensor 1 in the process of the production method is called a substrate plate.

    (1) Cleaning silicon substrate 2



    [0039] First, a cleaning operation is performed by immersing silicon substrate 2 having a thickness of 400 µm in a cleaning liquid.

    (2) Forming insulating layer 32 and insulating layer 232



    [0040] Next, insulating layer 32 and insulating layer 232 are formed on the upper and lower surfaces of silicon substrate 2, respectively, by LP-CVD by using, as source gas, dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2), ammonia (NH3) so that each of insulating layers 32 and 232 is made from a film of silicon nitride (Si3N4) having a thickness of 200 nm (cf. FIG. 7).

    (3) Forming insulating layer 33



    [0041] Then, insulating layer 33 is formed on the surface of insulating layer 32, by plasma CVD by using, as source gas, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), oxygen (O2) so that insulating layer 33 is made from a film of silicon oxide (SiO2) having a thickness of 100 nm (cf. FIG. 7).

    (4) Forming heat generating resistor 5 and lead sections 12



    [0042] Then, by using a DC sputtering system, a layer of tantalum (Ta) having a thickness of 20 nm is formed on the surface of insulating layer 33, and a layer of platinum (Pt) having a thickness of 220 nm is formed on the tantalum layer. After the sputtering operation, patterns of heat generating resistor 5 and lead sections 12 are formed by performing a patterning operation of resist by photolithography, and a wet etching operation with aqua regia(cf. FIG. 8).

    (5) Increasing the film thickness of insulating layer 33



    [0043] Then, the film thickness of insulating layer 33 is increased by forming a new insulating layer on the surfaces of insulating layer 33, heat generating resistor 5 and lead sections 12, by plasma CVD by using, as source gas, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), oxygen (O2) as in the step (3) so that the new insulating layer is made from a film of silicon oxide (SiO2) having a thickness of 100 nm, as shown in FIG. 9. In this way, heat generating resistor 5 and lead sections 12 are buried in the insulating layer 33 having a thickness of 200nm.

    (6) Forming protection layer 35



    [0044] Moreover, protection layer 35 is formed on the upper surface of insulating layer 33, by LP-CVD by using, as source gas, dichlorosilane (SiH2Cl2), ammonia (NH3) as in step (2) so that protection layer 35 is made from a film of silicon nitride (Si3N4) having a thickness of 200 nm (cf. FIG. 9).

    (7) Forming holes for contact pads 9



    [0045] Then, contact holes 13 are opened at portions for forming contact pads 9 and thereby the end portions of lead sections 12 are partly bared (cf. FIG. 9) by performing a patterning operation of a resist by photolithography and etching the protection layer 35 and insulating layer 33 by dry etching method.

    (8) Forming sensing electrodes 6 and lead sections 10



    [0046] Then, by using the DC sputtering system, a layer of tantalum (Ta) having a thickness of 20 nm is formed on the surface of protection layer 35, and a layer of platinum (Pt) having a thickness of 40 nm is formed on the tantalum layer. After the sputtering operation, patterns of comb sensing electrodes 6, lead sections 10 etc. are formed by performing a patterning operation of resist by photolithography, and a wet etching operation with aqua regia(cf. FIG. 10).

    (9) Forming adhesion layer 7



    [0047] On the sensing electrodes 6 and protection layer 35, a hillock Al film to form adhesion layer 7 is deposited by sputtering method. Then, after an resist patterning operation by photolithography, the adhesion layer 7 is formed between the comb sensing electrodes 6 and on the protection layer 35 around sensing electrodes 6 (cf. FIG. 10), by removing unwanted Al film on and around the sensing electrodes 6 by a wet etching operation using phosphoric acid as a main component, and then performing oxidation to obtain Al2O3.

    (10) Forming contact pads 11,9



    [0048] By using the DC sputtering system, a gold (Au) layer having a thickness of 400 nm is formed on the surface of the substrate plate on the electrode's side of the substrate plate formed with the above-mentioned electrode portions. After the sputtering operation, the contact pads 11 and 9 are formed by performing a patterning operation of resist by photolithography and a wet etching operation (cf. FIG. 11).

    (11) Forming the opening portion 21 (formation of diaphragm)



    [0049] Then, a patterning operation of resist is performed by photolithography and an insulating film serving as a mask is formed by a dry etching operation. Then, the substrate plate is immersed in a solution of tetramethlammonium hydroxide (TMAH), and thereby the opening portion 21 is formed by anisotropic etching of silicon substrate 2 so as to form an opening in the lower surface of silicon substrate 2, and to bare the portion of insulating layer 32 to form the separating wall portion 39 at the position corresponding to the position of heat generating resistor 5 (cf. FIG. 12).

    (12) Forming gas sensing layer 4



    [0050] Furthermore, gas sensing layer 4 is formed by applying, to the sensing electrodes 6 and adhesion layer 7, an oxide semiconductor paste containing tin oxide as a main component and addition of calcium oxide by thick film printing, and thereby forming a paste layer having a thickness of 30 µm (cf. FIG. 12). The oxide semiconductor paste is prepared in the following process. First, tin hydroxide is separated by dissolving tin chloride (SnCl2) in purified water by adding and stirring sufficiently, and thereafter dropping ammonia water. Then, precipitated powder is washed a few times with purified water to remove ammonium ions and chlorine ions, and dried. After drying, the precipitated powder and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) are dispersed in purified water, followed by sufficient stirring and drying. In this case, the amount of the calcium hydroxide added to the precipitated powder is so determined as to make the weight percent in term of calcium oxide (CaO) equal to 0.2 weight %. After drying, calcination is performed at 800 °C for 5 hours, and the obtained powder in the amount of 5 g is pulverized by a mortar grinder or automatic mortar for one hour. Thereafter, an organic solvent is mixed and the powder is further pulverized for four hours by the motor grinder (or a pot mill). By further performing the pulverization by adding a binder and a viscosity modifier for four hours, a paste having a viscosity of 140Pa·s at 25 °C is prepared.

    (13) Calcining the substrate plate



    [0051] The substrate plate formed with sensing electrodes 6, adhesion layer 7 and gas sensing layer 4 is obtained by calcining the substrate plate at 650 °C for one hour in a heat treating furnace.

    (14) Cutting the substrate plate



    [0052] The gas sensor 1 having a planar size of 2.6mm×2mm is obtained by cutting the substrate plate with a dicing saw. The thickness (average thickness) of the gas sensing layer 4 of this gas sensor 1 is about 1 5 µm, as a result of measurement using the above-mentioned step measuring device. By this measurement, it is confirmed that the gas sensing layer 4 having the thickness greater than or equal to the double of the total (600nm) of the thicknesses of insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35 is formed contiguously and tightly on the surface of protection layer 35 having a surface roughness Ra equal to or lower than 0.03 µm.

    [0053] In the above-mentioned fabricating method of the gas sensor 1, it is optional to form a thermally-oxidized film on silicon substrate 2 before step (2) "Forming insulating layer 32 and insulating layer 232". Moreover, though the contact holes 13 are formed in step (7) "Forming holes for contact pads 9", it is optional to form the contact holes 13 after step (8) of "Forming sensing electrodes 6 and lead sections 10". Furthermore, it is optional to omit the operation of oxidizing hillock Al into Al2O3 in the step (9) of "Forming adhesion layer 7".

    [0054] As explained above in detail, in the gas sensor 1 according to this embodiment, the confronting surfaces of sensing electrodes 6 confronting the gas sensing layer 4 and the side surfaces of the sensing electrodes 6 abut on the gas sensing layer 4, so that the contact area between the sensing electrodes 6 and gas sensing layer 4 can be secured. Furthermore, sensing electrodes 6 are not in contact with adhesion layer 7. This structure can provide a good gas sensitivity in sensing the specific gas while effectively improving the adhesion between the base member 15 and gas sensing layer 4.

    [0055] Moreover, sensing electrodes 6 are shaped like a comb, the teeth of sensing electrodes 6 are interdigitated so that one of the teeth 67 of one electrode is disposed between two of the teeth 67 of the other electrode, and the adhesion layer is formed between the teeth 67 of one electrode and the teeth 67 of the other electrode. This arrangement can effectively improve the adhesion between the surface of base member 15 lying between sensing electrodes 6 and the gas sensing layer 4.

    [0056]  Moreover, the gas sensor 1 of this embodiment can provide a novel effect of improving the adhesion between base member 15 and gas sensing layer 4 and at the same time obtaining the good gas sensitivity. Furthermore, since, even if the current supplied to gas sensing layer 4 or the voltage applied to gas sensing layer 4 is decreased, it is possible to sense the concentration variation of the specified gas sufficiently, the gas sensor 1 of this embodiment can provide a secondary effect of making the circuit design of the gas sensor easier and uncostly. Since the heat generating resistor 5 is formed at the position confronting the opening portion 21 formed in silicon substrate 2, the heat generating resistor 5 can heat the gas sensing layer 4 efficiently, and thereby activate the gas sensor to the condition capable of sensing the concentration variation of the specified gas in the measurement gas.

    [0057] The present invention is not limited to the above-mentioned embodiment. Various variations are possible within the purview of the present invention. For example, at (9) "Forming adhesion layer 7", the adhesion layer 7 is formed by depositing a hillock AL film by sputtering, then removing unwanted Al film around the sensing electrodes 6 by a wet etching operation using phosphoric acid as a main component, after an resist patterning operation by photolithography, and finally performing oxidation to obtain Al2O3. However, it is optional to form the adhesion layer 7 by other methods such as dip method, electrophoresis method, liquid film transfer method, mist transport method, screen printing method and spin coating method. Furthermore, instead of forming adhesion layer 7 after the formation of sensing electrodes 6 and lead sections 10, it is optional to form the adhesion layer 7 before the formation of sensing electrodes 7 and lead sections 10. In this case, for example, a sol solution layer to become the adhesion layer 7 is formed, in the form of a film, on the protection layer 35. Thereafter, portions to form sensing electrodes 6 and lead sections 10 are removed by etching or other methods, and then the sensing electrodes 6 and lead section 10 are formed in the removed portions.

    [0058] Although the insulating coat layer 3 has a multi-layer structure composed of silicon oxide and silicon nitride, it is optional to employ a single layer structure of silicon oxide or silicon nitride. In the above-explained embodiment, heat generating resistor 5 is buried in insulating layer 33. However, the invention is not limited to this arrangement. For example, heat generating resistor 5 may be buried in insulating layer 32.

    [0059] As a main component of gas sensing layer 4, the embodiment employs tin oxide which is a metal oxide semiconductor. However, it is optional to use other metal oxide semiconductors such as zinc oxide (ZnO), nickel oxide (NiO), titan oxide (TiO2), and vanadium oxide (VO2). As a basic metal oxide to be added to the metal oxide semiconductor, it is possible to employ: oxide of alkaline earth metal such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and beryllium (Be); oxide of alkali metal such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), and cesium (Cs); and oxide of rare earth such as scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and the lanthanoids.

    [0060] The shape of adhesion layer 7 is not limited to the above-mentioned embodiment. The adhesion layer 7 can be constructed in one of the following variations as shown in FIG. 14 and FIG. 15. Except for the construction of adhesion layer 7, the construction of gas sensor 1 in each of the following variation examples is the same as that of the above-mentioned first embodiment, so that repetitive explanation is omitted. The up and down direction is the up and down direction as viewed in FIGS. 14∼16, and the left and right direction is the left and right direction as viewed in FIGS. 14∼16.

    [0061] As shown in FIG. 14, the adhesion layer 7 of the first variation example is shaped, as viewed in a plan view, in the form of strips or rectangles, and composed of a plurality of segments which are separated from one another and which are arranged in a row between the teeth 67 of one sensing electrode 6 and the teeth 67 of the other sensing electrode 6. The adhesion layer 7 is arranged so as to be out of contact with sensing electrodes 6.

    [0062] As shown in FIG. 15, the adhesion layer 7 of the second variation example is shaped, as viewed in a plan view, in the form of strips or rectangles, and composed of a plurality of segments which are separated from one another and which are arranged in an array so as to surround one sensing electrode 6 and the other sensing electrode 6. The s adhesion layer 7 is arranged so as to be out of contact with sensing electrodes 6.

    [0063] The following is explanation on a variation example of the sensing electrodes 6 with reference to FIG. 16, in which the adhesion layer 7 is omitted. Instead of being shaped like a comb, the sensing electrodes 7 of this variation example are symmetrically formed, as shown in FIG. 16, in the form of parallel electrodes each having a top segment confronting the top segment of the other electrode with a predetermined gap, and a bottom segment which is bent. In this case, it is possible to employ any of the above-mentioned shapes and configurations of adhesion layer 7.

    [0064] In the above-mentioned embodiment and variation examples, preferably, the projected area of the contact surface between the gas sensing layer 4 and adhesion layer 7, projected from the gas sensing layer's side on the base member 15 is equal to or greater than 50 % of the projected area of the contact surfaces of the gas sensing layer 4, the adhesion layer 7 and the sensing electrodes 6, projected from the gas sensing layer's side on the base member 15. With this construction, it is possible to achieve the adhesion between the base member 15 and gas sensing layer 4 more securely. In the above-mentioned embodiment, the gas sensor 1 is so constructed that the projected area obtained by projecting the contact surface between the adhesion layer 7 and the gas sensing layer 4 on the base member 15 becomes equal to 68% of the projected area obtained by projecting the contact surfaces of the gas sensing layer 4 with the adhesion layer 7 and the sensing electrodes 6 on the base member 15.

    [0065] The following is explanation on a variation example of the thicknesses of gas sensing layer 4 and base member 15 with reference to FIG. 17. In this variation, as shown schematically in FIG. 17, the adhesion layer 7 is made thicker than the sum of the thicknesses of insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35, and made higher in the degree of irregularity or ruggedness. The degree of irregularly of adhesion layer 7 tends to increase as the thickness of adhesion layer 7 increases.

    [0066] The production method of producing gas sensor 1 of this variation example is the same as the production method of the above-mentioned embodiment except that, in (9) "Forming adhesion layer 7", the thickness of adhesion layer 7 is increased by adjusting the amount of film deposition of the hillock Al film, and the degree of irregularity of adhesion layer 7 is increased. The insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35 are made in the form of thin film and the thickness is smaller than or equal to 2µm, more specifically the thickness is 600nm. The adhesion layer 7 is formed thicker than the insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35, so that adhesion layer 7 is capable of preventing deflection of the thin formed insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35.

    [0067] To check the condition of adhesive layer 7 in gas sensor 1 of this variation example, gas sensor 1 was cut in the thickness direction of silicon substrate 2 so as to include adhesion layer 7, and the section of adhesion layer 7 obtained by an intersecting plane extending in the thickness direction was observed by a scanning electron microscope in a magnified scale 10000 times larger than the actual size. FIG. 19 shows a magnified photographic image of adhesive layer 7 obtained by the scanning electron microscope. From FIG. 19, it is confirmed that the surface of adhesive layer 7 is in the form of irregular surface 71 having convexities and concavities. To confirm the degree of irregularity of adhesive layer 7, among heights of peaks forming convex portions or convexities of adhesive layer 7, from the surface of protection layer 35 (the rectilinear distance in the direction perpendicular to the surface of protection layer 35), the mean of the heights of the five highest or tallest peaks 81∼85 was calculated. As a result, this mean is greater than the total thickness (600nm) of insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35. In this way, by making the above-mentioned mean of adhesive layer 7 greater than the total thickness of insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35, it is possible to further improve the adhesion between gas sensing layer 4 and base member 15. In this variation example, the thickness (means thickness) of gas sensing layer 4 was equal to about 15 µm as in the above-mentioned embodiment, and the surface roughness Ra of protection layer 35 was 0.002µm.

    [0068] With reference to a graph shown in FIG. 18, the results of a shock test of gas sensor 1 is explained in the following. The shock test was performed by preparing five samples in which the total thickness of insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35 was 0.6 µm (600nm), the adhesive layer 7 was made of alumina (Al2O3), and the degree of irregularity of adhesive layer 7 was adjusted appropriately. After the shock test, the mean height of the five peaks 81∼85 of convex portions of adhesive layer 7 from the surface of protection layer 35 was calculated for each of the five samples by using the above-mentioned calculation method. As a result, the means heights of adhesive layers 7 formed in these samples are: 0.010µm, 0.672µm, 1.168µm, 1.238µm and 2.067µm. The shock test was performed by using a shock test machine SM-110-MP (model name) manufactured by AVEX corporation.

    [0069] According to the results of this shock test, in the case of the above-mentioned mean thickness of adhesive layer 7 being equal to 0.010µm, the gas sensing layer 4 was not separated from base member 15 up to 2214G. In the case of the means thickness of adhesive layer 7 being equal to 0.672µm, the gas sensing layer 4 was not separated from base member 15 up to 2500G. In the case of the means thickness of adhesive layer 7 being equal to 1.168µm, the gas sensing layer 4 was not separated from base member 15 up to 3000G. In the case of the mean thickness of adhesive layer 7 being equal to 1.238µm, the gas sensing layer 4 was not separated from base member 15 up to 2806G. In the case of the mean thickness of adhesive layer 7 being equal to 2.067µm, the gas sensing layer 4 was not separated from base member 15 up to 2794G. Therefore, the gas sensor including adhesive layer 7 having the mean thickness greater than the total thickness of the insulating layers 32 and 33 and protection layer 35 can withstand shock greater than or equal to 2500G, and the adhesion can be improved dramatically between gas sensing layer 4 and base member 15.

    INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY



    [0070] The present invention is applicable to semiconductor gas sensors.


    Claims

    1. A gas sensor comprising:

    a base member (15) including,

    a semiconductor substrate (2) formed with an opening portion (21) extending in a thickness direction,

    an insulating layer (32, 33) which is formed on the semiconductor substrate and which includes a separating wall portion (39) formed at a position confronting the opening portion,

    a heat generating resistor (5) formed on the partition wall portion, and

    a protection layer (35) formed on the insulating layer to cover the heat generating resistor;

    a gas sensing layer (4) which is formed on the protection layer (35) of the base member (15) and which includes, as a main component, a metal oxide semiconductor having an electric characteristic varied in accordance with variation of a concentration of a specific gas in a measurement gas;

    a pair of sensing electrodes (6) formed on the protection layer (35) of the base member (15) and arranged to sense variation of the electric characteristic of the gas sensing layer (4); and

    an adhesion layer (7) which is formed on the protection layer (35) of the base member (15) and which contacts with the gas sensing layer (4);

    characterized in that
    the sensing electrodes (6) are in contact with the gas sensing layer (4) but not in contact with the adhesion layer (7), and
    the adhesion layer (7) is formed continuously between the sensing electrodes (6) and around the sensing electrodes (6).
     
    2. The gas sensor (1) as recited in Claim 1, wherein the sum of thicknesses of the insulating layer (32, 33) and the protection layer (35) is smaller than or equal to 2 µm, a surface roughness Ra of a surface of the protection layer (35) is smaller than or equal to 0.030 µm, and the gas sensing layer (4) having a thickness greater than 2 µm is formed on the surface of the protection layer (35).
     
    3. The gas sensor (1) as recited in Claim 1 or 2, wherein a mean of five greatest peak heights among heights of surface roughness peaks forming convexities of a surface of the adhesion layer (7) from the surface of the protection layer (7) as viewed in a section extending in a thickness direction of the adhesion layer is greater than the sum of thicknesses of the insulating layer (32, 33) and the protection layer (35).
     
    4. The gas sensor (1) as recited in Claim 3, wherein the sum of thicknesses of the insulating layer (32, 33) and the protection layer (35) is smaller than or equal to 2 µm, a surface roughness of a surface of the protection layer (35) is smaller than or equal to 0.030 µm, and the gas sensing layer (4) is formed on the surface of the protection layer (35), which gas sensing layer (4) having a thickness which is greater than 2 µm and which is equal to or greater than the double of the sum of thicknesses of the insulating layer (32, 33) and the protection layer (35),.
     
    5. The gas sensor (1) as recited in anyone of Claims 1-4, wherein the adhesion layer (7) is formed at least between the sensing electrodes (6).
     
    6. The gas sensor (1) as recited in anyone of Claims 1- 5, wherein the sensing electrodes (6) are formed in the shape of a comb, a tooth of one of the electrodes is inserted between teeth of the other of the electrodes (6), and the adhesion layer (7) is formed between the teeth of one of the electrodes and the teeth of the other of the electrodes.
     
    7. The gas sensor (1) as recited in anyone of Claims 1-6, wherein the adhesion layer (7) is an insulating layer.
     
    8. The gas sensor as recited in anyone of Claims 1-7, wherein a material of the gas sensing layer (4) is inserted between particles of a material of the adhesion layer (7).
     
    9. The gas sensor as recited in one of Claims 1-8, wherein a projected area obtained by projecting a contact surface between the gas sensing layer (4) and the adhesion layer (7) from a gas sensing layer's side on which the gas sensing layer (4) formed on the base member is located occupies a percentage greater than or equal to 50% of a projected area obtained by projecting a contact surface between the gas sensing layer (4) and the adhesion layer (7) and sensing electrodes (6) from the gas sensing layer's side on which the gas sensing layer (4) formed on the base member is located.
     
    10. The gas sensor as recited in one of Claims 1-9, wherein the adhesion layer (7) includes an outer portion formed around the sensing electrodes (6) and an inner portion which is formed between the sensing electrodes (6) and which is continuous with the outer portion.
     
    11. The gas sensor as recited in one of Claims 1-10, wherein the adhesive layer (7) is formed between an end portion of the gas sensing layer (4) and the protection layer (35) of the base member (15) to prevent detachment of the gas sensing layer (4) from an outer edge of the gas sensing layer.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Gassensor, umfassend:

    ein Basiselement (15), das Folgendes beinhaltet,

    ein Halbleitersubstrat (2), das mit einem Öffnungsabschnitt (21) ausgebildet ist, der sich in einer Dickenrichtung erstreckt,

    eine Isolationsschicht (32, 33), die auf dem Halbleitersubstrat ausgebildet ist und einen Trennwandabschnitt (39) beinhaltet, der an einer Position gegenüber dem Öffnungsabschnitt ausgebildet ist,

    einen wärmeerzeugenden Widerstand (5), der an dem Trennwandabschnitt ausgebildet ist, und

    eine Schutzschicht (35), die auf der Isolierschicht ausgebildet ist, um den wärmeerzeugenden Widerstand abzudecken;

    eine Gassensorschicht (4), die auf der Schutzschicht (35) des Basiselements (15) ausgebildet ist und als Hauptkomponente einen Metalloxidhalbleiter mit einer elektrischen Eigenschaft beinhaltet, die gemäß der Änderung einer Konzentration eines bestimmten Gases in einem Messgas variiert;

    ein Paar Sensorelektroden (6), die auf der Schutzschicht (35) des Basiselements (15) ausgebildet und angeordnet sind, um die Änderung der elektrischen Eigenschaft der Gassensorschicht (4) zu erfassen; und

    eine Haftschicht (7), die auf der Schutzschicht (35) des Basiselements (15) ausgebildet ist und die mit der Gassensorschicht (4) in Kontakt steht;
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass
    die Sensorelektroden (6) mit der Gassensorschicht (4) in Kontakt sind, aber nicht mit der Haftschicht (7), und

    die Haftschicht (7) kontinuierlich zwischen den Messelektroden (6) und um die Messelektroden (6) herum gebildet ist.


     
    2. Gassensor (1) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Summe der Dicken der Isolationsschicht (32, 33) und der Schutzschicht (35) kleiner oder gleich 2 µm ist, eine Oberflächenrauigkeit Ra einer Oberfläche der Schutzschicht (35) kleiner oder gleich 0,030 µm ist und die Gassensorschicht (4) mit einer Dicke größer als 2 µm auf der Oberfläche der Schutzschicht (35) gebildet ist.
     
    3. Gassensor (1) nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei ein Mittelwert von fünf größten Peakhöhen unter den Höhen von Oberflächenrauigkeitsspitzen, die Konvexitäten einer Oberfläche der Haftschicht (7) von der Oberfläche der Schutzschicht (7) aus gesehen in einem sich in Dickenrichtung der Haftschicht erstreckenden Abschnitt bilden, größer ist als die Summe der Dicken der Isolierschicht (32, 33) und der Schutzschicht (35).
     
    4. Gassensor (1) nach Anspruch 3, wobei die Summe der Dicken der Isolierschicht (32, 33) und der Schutzschicht (35) kleiner oder gleich 2 µm ist, eine Oberflächenrauigkeit einer Oberfläche der Schutzschicht (35) kleiner oder gleich 0,030 µm ist und die Gassensorschicht (4) auf der Oberfläche der Schutzschicht (35) gebildet ist, wobei die Gassensorschicht (4) eine Dicke aufweist, die größer als 2 µm ist und gleich oder größer als das Doppelte der Summe der Dicken der Isolierschicht (32, 33) und der Schutzschicht (35) ist.
     
    5. Gassensor (1), gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1-4, wobei die Haftschicht (7) zumindest zwischen den Sensorelektroden (6) ausgebildet ist.
     
    6. Gassensor (1) nach einem der Ansprüche 1- 5, wobei die Sensorelektroden (6) in Form eines Kammes ausgebildet sind, ein Zahn einer der Elektroden zwischen die Zähne der anderen der Elektroden (6) eingesetzt ist und die Haftschicht (7) zwischen den Zähnen einer der Elektroden und den Zähnen der anderen der Elektroden ausgebildet ist.
     
    7. Gassensor (1), wie in einem der Ansprüche 1-6 beschrieben, wobei die Haftschicht (7) eine Isolierschicht ist.
     
    8. Gassensor nach einem der Ansprüche 1-7, wobei ein Material der Gassensorschicht (4) zwischen Teilchen eines Materials der Haftschicht (7) eingefügt ist.
     
    9. Der Gassensor nach einem der Ansprüche 1-8, wobei eine projizierte Fläche, die durch Projizieren einer Kontaktfläche zwischen der Gassensorschicht (4) und der Haftschicht (7) von der Seite einer Gassensorschicht, auf der sich die auf dem Basiselement gebildete Gassensorschicht (4) befindet, erhalten wird, einen Prozentsatz von mehr als oder gleich 50% einer projizierten Fläche einnimmt, die durch Projizieren einer Kontaktfläche zwischen der Gassensorschicht (4) und der Haftschicht (7) und Sensorelektroden (6) von der Seite der Gassensorschicht, auf der sich die auf dem Basiselement gebildete Gassensorschicht (4) befindet, erhalten wird.
     
    10. Gassensor nach einem der Ansprüche 1-9, wobei die Haftschicht (7) einen äußeren Abschnitt, der um die Sensorelektroden (6) herum ausgebildet ist, und einen inneren Abschnitt, der zwischen den Sensorelektroden (6) ausgebildet ist und der mit dem äußeren Abschnitt kontinuierlich ist, beinhaltet.
     
    11. Gassensor nach einem der Ansprüche 1-10, wobei die Haftschicht (7) zwischen einem Endabschnitt der Gassensorschicht (4) und der Schutzschicht (35) des Basiselements (15) ausgebildet ist, um ein Ablösen der Gassensorschicht (4) von einer Außenkante der Gassensorschicht zu verhindern.
     


    Revendications

    1. Détecteur de gaz comprenant :
    un élément de base (15) incluant :

    un substrat semi-conducteur (2) comportant une partie ouvrante (21) s'étendant dans la direction de l'épaisseur,

    une couche isolante (32, 33) qui est formée sur le substrat semi-conducteur et qui inclut une paroi de séparation (39) formée au niveau d'une position en regard de la partie ouvrante,

    une résistance de génération de chaleur (5) formée sur la paroi de séparation, et

    une couche de protection (35) formée sur la couche isolante afin de recouvrir la résistance de génération de chaleur,

    une couche de détection de gaz (4) qui est formée sur la couche de protection (35) de l'élément de base (15) et qui inclut comme composant principal un semi-conducteur à oxyde métallique présentant une caractéristique électrique qui évolue en fonction de la variation de concentration d'un gaz spécifique dans un gaz de mesure,

    une paire d'électrodes de détection (6) formées sur la couche de protection (35) de l'élément de base (15) et agencées pour détecter toute variation de la caractéristique électrique de la couche de détection de gaz (4), et

    une couche d'adhérence (7) qui est formée sur la couche de protection (35) de l'élément de base (15) et qui est en contact avec la couche de détection de gaz (4),

    caractérisé en ce que

    les électrodes de détection (6) sont en contact avec la couche de détection de gaz (4) mais ne sont pas en contact avec la couche d'adhérence (7), et

    la couche d'adhérence (7) est formée de manière continue entre les électrodes de détection (6) et autour des électrodes de détection (6).


     
    2. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la somme des épaisseurs de la couche isolante (32, 33) et de la couche de protection (35) est inférieure ou égale à 2 µm, la rugosité de surface Ra de la surface de la couche de protection (35) est inférieure ou égale à 0,030 µm, et la couche de détection de gaz (4), présentant une épaisseur supérieure à 2 µm, est formée sur la surface de la couche de protection (35).
     
    3. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, dans lequel la moyenne des cinq hauteurs crête les plus importantes parmi les hauteurs des crêtes de rugosité de surface formant les parties bombées de la surface de la couche d'adhérence (7) depuis la surface de la couche de protection (7), comme on peut le voir dans une coupe s'étendant dans la direction de l'épaisseur de la couche d'adhérence, est supérieure à la somme des épaisseurs de la couche isolante (32, 33) et de la couche de protection (35).
     
    4. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel la somme des épaisseurs de la couche isolante (32, 33) et de la couche de protection (35) est inférieure ou égale à 2 µm, la rugosité de surface de la surface de la couche de protection (35) est inférieure ou égale à 0,030 µm et la couche de détection de gaz (4) est formée sur la surface de la couche de protection (35), ladite couche de détection de gaz (4) présentant une épaisseur qui est supérieure à 2 µm et qui est supérieure ou égale au double de la somme des épaisseurs de la couche isolante (32, 33) et de la couche de protection (35).
     
    5. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel la couche d'adhérence (7) est formée au moins entre les électrodes de détection (6).
     
    6. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel les électrodes de détection (6) sont formées en présentant la forme d'un peigne, une dent de l'une des électrodes étant insérée entre des dents de l'autre des électrodes (6), et la couche d'adhérence (7) est formée entre les dents de l'une des électrodes et les dents de l'autre des électrodes.
     
    7. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel la couche d'adhérence (7) est une couche isolante.
     
    8. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans lequel le matériau de la couche de détection de gaz (4) est inséré entre des particules du matériau de la couche d'adhérence (7).
     
    9. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel la surface projetée obtenue en projetant la surface de contact entre la couche de détection de gaz (4) et la couche d'adhérence (7) depuis un côté de la couche de détection de gaz sur lequel est située la couche de détection de gaz (4), formée sur l'élément de base, occupe un pourcentage supérieur ou égal à 50 % de la surface projetée obtenue en projetant la surface de contact entre la couche de détection de gaz (4) et la couche d'adhérence (7) et les électrodes de détection (6) depuis le côté de la couche de détection de gaz sur lequel est située la couche de détection de gaz (4) formée sur l'élément de base.
     
    10. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel la couche d'adhérence (7) inclut une partie externe formée autour des électrodes de détection (6) et une partie interne qui est formée entre les électrodes de détection (6) et qui est continue avec la partie externe.
     
    11. Détecteur de gaz (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, dans lequel la couche d'adhérence (7) est formée entre une partie terminale de la couche de détection de gaz (4) et la couche de protection (35) de l'élément de base (15) afin d'empêcher la séparation de la couche de détection de gaz (4) de la bordure externe de la couche de détection de gaz.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description