(19)
(11)EP 2 249 392 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/21

(21)Application number: 10154064.9

(22)Date of filing:  19.02.2010
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 29/08(2006.01)
H01L 21/331(2006.01)
H01L 29/739(2006.01)

(54)

Reverse-conducting semiconductor device

Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung

Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inversée


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 29.04.2009 EP 09159009

(43)Date of publication of application:
10.11.2010 Bulletin 2010/45

(73)Proprietor: ABB Power Grids Switzerland AG
5400 Baden (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • Rahimo, Munaf
    4716, Gänsbrunnen (CH)
  • Kopta, Arnost
    8049, Zürich (CH)
  • Schnell, Raffael
    5703, Seon (CH)
  • Storasta, Liutauras
    5600, Lenzburg (CH)
  • von Arx, Christoph
    4600, Olten (CH)

(74)Representative: PG Patent Attorneys 
ABB Power Grids Switzerland AG Bruggerstrasse 72
5400 Baden
5400 Baden (CH)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 184 781
US-A1- 2008 135 871
DE-A1-102005 019 178
US-B2- 7 112 868
  
  • B.JAYANT BALIGA: "Power Semiconductor Devices", 31 December 1995 (1995-12-31), PWS, USA, XP002642071, pages 428-434, * Section 8.2.1 *
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Technical Field



[0001] The invention relates to the field of power electronics and more particularly to a reverse-conducting semiconductor device.

Background Art



[0002] In US 2008/0135871 A1 a reverse-conducting semiconductor device 200', reverse-conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor (RC-IGBT) as shown in FIG 1 is described, which comprises within one wafer 100 an insulated gate bipolar transistor with a built-in freewheeling diode. As shown in Fig. 1, such a reverse-conducting semiconductor device 200' comprises an n type base layer 101 with a first main side, which is the emitter side 104 of the integrated IGBT, and a second main side, which is the collector side 103 of the IGBT and which lies opposite the emitter side 104. A fourth p type layer 4 is arranged on the emitter side 104. On the fourth layer 4 third n type layers 3 with a higher doping than the base layer 101 are arranged.

[0003] A sixth electrically insulating layer 6 is arranged on the emitter side 104 and covers the fourth layer 4 and the base layer 101 and partially covers the third layer 3. An electrically conductive fifth layer 5 is completely embedded in the sixth layer 6. Above the central part of the fourth layer 4 no third or sixth layer 3, 6 is arranged.

[0004] On this central part of the fourth layer 4, a first electrical contact 8 is arranged, which also covers the sixth layer 6. The first electrical contact 8 is in direct electrical contact to the third layer 3 and the fourth layer 4, but is electrically insulated from the fifth layer 5.

[0005] On the second main side, a seventh layer 7 formed as a buffer layer is arranged on the base layer 101. On the seventh layer 7, n type first layers 1 and p type second layers 2 are arranged alternately in a plane. The first layers 1 as well as the seventh layer 7 have a higher doping than the base layer 101.

[0006] A second electrical contact 9 is arranged on the collector side 103 and it covers the first and second layers 1, 2 and is in direct electrical contact to them.

[0007] In such a reverse-conducting semiconductor device 200' a freewheeling diode is formed between the second electrical contact 9, part of which forms a cathode electrode in the diode, the n type first layer 1, which forms a cathode region in the diode, the base layer 101, part of which forms the diode base layer, the p type fourth layer 4, part of which forms an anode region in the diode and the first electrical contact 8, which forms an anode in the diode.

[0008] An insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is formed between the second electrical contact 9, part of which forms the collector electrode in the IGBT, the p type second layer 2, which forms a collector region in the IGBT, the base layer 101, part of which forms the IGBT base layer, the fourth layer 4, part of which forms a p-base region in the IGBT, the third layer 3, which forms a n type source region in the IGBT, and the first electrical contact 8, which forms an emitter electrode. During on-state of the IGBT a channel is formed between the emitter electrode, the source region and the p-base region towards the n-base layer.

[0009] The n type first layer 1 comprises a plurality of fourth regions 15 with a fourth region width 16. The p type second layer 2 comprises a plurality of fifth region 25 with a fifth region width 26. The second layer 2 forms a continuous layer, in which each fourth region 15 is surrounded by the continuous second layer 2.

[0010] In FIG 2 the first and second layer 1, 2 are shown over the whole wafer area through a cut along the line A - A from FIG 1. This line is also indicated in FIG 2 in order to show that the RC-IGBT 200' does not have the same structure for the first and second layer 1, 2 over the whole plane of the wafer 100. In the upper part of the figure (see line A - A) the structure of regularly arranged fourth regions 15 and which line lies in the active region 110 of the device, i.e. FIG 2 also shows the termination area 111 of the device.

[0011] In the lower part of FIG 2, it is shown that the second layer 2 further comprises a sixth region 27 (surrounded by a dashed line in the figure), which has a larger sixth region width 28, which is larger than the width 26 of any fifth region 25. The width 28 of a sixth region 27 plus the width 16 of a fourth region 15 is 1.5 to 5 times larger than the width 26 of a fifth region 25 plus the width 16 of a fourth region 15. The sixth region 27 is arranged at the border of the active region 110 and adjacent to or at least close to the termination region 111 of the wafer.

[0012] However, both IGBT and diode are generating losses. The sixth region 27, which is a pure IGBT area, produces the highest losses, so that the highest temperatures occur on such areas. Due to the arrangement of the sixth region 27 on the border of the wafer, the temperature distribution in the semiconductor device is therefore inhomogeneous.

[0013] Furthermore, by the excentral arrangement of the sixth region 27 the safe operating area (SOA) of the IGBT is reduced, because the sixth region 27 extends into the junction termination area, which is an electrically non-active region. By this arrangement also snap-back effects occur more easily in the on-state mode. In the designs shown in US 2008/0135871 A1 the p doped IGBT areas are optimized, i.e. made large, but the diode areas are minimized by that approach, thereby making the device more sensitive for snap-back effects.

[0014] DE 10 2005 019 178 A1 shows a RC-IGBT, which has on the collector side n doped regions and p doped region of a small size (distance between central points of two neighbored small p regions is 5 to 50 µm), whereas such a distance is 25 to 250 µm for the p doped regions of larger size. Square and circular shapes are described for the large p region.

[0015] Document EP2184781 A1 is an European patent application falling within the terms of Art. 54(3) EPC. It discloses a reverse-conducting semiconductor device provided with a freewheeling diode and an insulated gate bipolar transistor on a common wafer. The device according to EP2184781 A1 comprises regions which are either dedicated as IGBT regions or diode regions not operating in the opposite mode.

Disclosure of Invention



[0016] It is an object of the invention to provide a reverse-conducting semiconductor device with improved electrical and thermal properties.

[0017] This object is achieved by a reverse-conducting semiconductor device according to claim 1.

[0018] In the following parts of the description the terms and expressions "embodiment", "according to the invention", "inventive device", "inventive reverse-conducting semiconductor device", "inventive RC-IGBT" and "inventive reverse-conducting IGBT" are used. Irrespective of these terms and expressions, only those examples that fall under the scope of the independent claims form part of the invention.

[0019] The inventive reverse-conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor (RC-IGBT) comprises a freewheeling diode and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) on a common wafer, part of which wafer forms a base layer of a first conductivity type with a first doping concentration and a base layer thickness. The insulated gate bipolar transistor comprises a collector side and an emitter side, whereas the collector side is arranged opposite of the emitter side of the wafer.

[0020] The base layer thickness is the maximum vertical distance between the collector and emitter side of that part of the wafer with the first doping concentration.

[0021] A first layer of the first conductivity type and higher doping concentration than the first doping concentration and a second layer of a second conductivity type are alternately arranged on the collector side. The first layer comprises at least one or a plurality of first region, wherein each first region has a first region width.

[0022] The second layer comprises at least one or a plurality of second and at least one or a plurality of third regions, wherein each second region has a second region width and the third region has a third region width.

[0023] Any region (first, second or third region) has a region width and a region area, which is surrounded by a region border.

[0024] In an exemplary embodiment, a shortest distance is the minimum length between a point within said region area and a point on said region border. In that exemplary embodiment, each region width is defined as two times the maximum value of any shortest distance within said region.

[0025] At the emitter side, a third layer of the first conductivity type, a fourth layer of the second conductivity type and an electrically conductive fifth layer in form of a gate electrode are arranged.

[0026] The reverse-conducting semiconductor device comprises an electrically active region, which active region is an area in the wafer, which includes and is arranged below any of the third layer, fourth layer or fifth layer.

[0027] The following geometrical rules have to be fulfilled:
  • each third region area is an area, in which any two first regions have a distance bigger than two times the base layer thickness,
  • the at least one second region is that part of the second layer (2), which is not the at least one third region (22),
  • the at least one third region is arranged in the central part of the active region in such a way that there is a minimum distance between the third region border to the active region border of at least once the base layer thickness,
  • the sum of the areas of the at least one third region is between 10 and 30 % of the active region,
  • each first region width is smaller than the base layer thickness.


[0028] The third region represents a pilot IGBT region, in which snap-back effects at low currents are eliminated. A minimum distance between this third region and the border of the active region is essential for good thermal performance and improvement of the device SOA since the pilot IGBT does not include transition parts of the chip such as those from active to termination regions. Furthermore, by using a third region, snap-back behaviour is improved compared to distributed smaller pilot regions.

[0029] By introducing a larger third region compared to the smaller second regions, large areas of the device with shorted structures (first regions) are maintained.

[0030] The third region is surrounded by shorted regions with alternating regions of the first and second conductivity type. The at least one second region is that part of the second layer, which is not a third region. For better diode area, a stripe design can be used. Connection regions may be established between the p stripe second regions and the large p third region.

[0031] The heat flux improves by arranging the pure IGBT area in the central part of the wafer, so that the heat can distribute in all directions and the heat distribution is more homogeneous.

[0032] Since the small first and second regions do not heavily influence the IGBT snap-back mode in line with the above design rule, their dimensions are adjusted to achieve the required diode area.

[0033] By the introduction of the third region with much increased dimensions compared to the first and second regions, a region is created which is dedicated as IGBT region not operating in the diode mode. The p-type third region as pilot region ensures increased IGBT area.

[0034] The first and second regions form the main shorted region in which the silicon area included is utilized in both IGBT and diode mode. These regions also influence the main IGBT electrical properties. The third region is mainly present to give more freedom to determine the IGBT to diode area ratio and decouple this design aspect from the standard approach involving the first regions only.

[0035] Fig. 17 shows the collector current IC versus the collector-emitter voltage VCE for the on-state characteristics. Curve B shows the behaviour of a standard prior art reverse conducting semiconductor device, i.e. a device with first and second regions and without a third region. Such a device shows a very strong snapback effect. The curve C is a RC-IGBT with a plurality of smaller distributed pilot IGBT third regions, which are arranged adjacent to the junction termination area with a total area of 20 % of active region. Around 15 A there is an undesired sharp transition current curve. Curve D shows an inventive RC-IGBT with a centered pilot IGBT third region of 20 % of active region. The transition current curve is much smoother than for the case of the distributed third regions (curve C). For comparison reasons a curve A is included in Fig. 17 for a standard prior art IGBT. The inventive RC-IGBT is comparable to the behaviour of the standard IGBT.

[0036] In an alternative embodiment, a reverse-conducting semiconductor device is provided, which comprises a freewheeling diode and an insulated gate bipolar transistor on a common wafer, part of which wafer forms a base layer, which has a base layer thickness, wherein the insulated gate bipolar transistor comprises a collector side and an emitter side. The collector side is arranged opposite of the emitter side of the wafer. The base layer thickness is the thickness as shown in FIG. 3 by the dashed line. A first layer of a first conductivity type and a second layer of a second conductivity type are alternately arranged on the collector side. The first layer comprises at least one first region, wherein each first region has a first region width. The second layer comprises at least one second region and a third region, wherein each second region has a second region width and the third region has a third region width. The reverse-conducting semiconductor device further comprises an electrically active region. The active region is the area in which the device conducts current during on-state, in the case of an IGBT this is the MOS cell with the third layer, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the sixth region. The third region is arranged in the central part of the active region in such a way that there is a minimum distance between the third region border to the active region border of at least once the base layer width. The total area of the third region is between 10 and 30 % of the total active region. In the third region area any two first regions have a distance bigger than two times the base layer width and each first region width is smaller than the base layer width. In an exemplary embodiment, the width of the third region width 23 is equal or larger than once the base layer thickness 102, in another exemplary embodiment twice the base layer thickness 102.

[0037] Further preferred embodiments of the inventive subject matter are disclosed in the dependent claims.

Brief Description of Drawings



[0038] The subject matter of the invention will be explained in more detail in the following text with reference to the attached drawings, in which:
FIG 1
shows a cross sectional view on a prior art reverse-conducting IGBT;
FIG 2
shows a plan view of the structures of the first and second layers of a prior art RC-IGBT;
FIG 3
shows a cross sectional view on an inventive reverse-conducting IGBT;
FIG 4
shows a plan view of the structures of first and second regions of a reverse-conducting IGBT according to the invention;
FIG 5
shows a plan view of the structures of first and second regions of another reverse-conducting IGBT according to the invention;
FIG 6 - 8
shows plan views of the structures of first layers with first regions and second layers with second and third regions of other reverse-conducting IGBT according to the invention;
FIG 9
shows the layers on the emitter side of another inventive reverse-conducting IGBT with trench gate electrodes;
FIG 10
shows the layers on the emitter side of another inventive reverse-conducting IGBT with an enhancement layer; .
FIG 11 - 16
show plan views of the structures of first layers with first regions and second layers with second and third regions of other reverse-conducting IGBT according to the invention;
FIG 17
shows the transition curve of the collector current IC versus the collector-emitter voltage VCE; and
FIG 18 - 24
show plan views of the structures of first layers with first regions and second layers with second and third regions of other reverse-conducting IGBT according to the invention.


[0039] The reference symbols used in the figures and their meaning are summarized in the list of reference symbols. Generally, alike or alike-functioning parts are given the same reference symbols. The described embodiments are meant as examples and shall not confine the invention.

Modes for Carrying out the Invention



[0040] In Fig. 3 a first embodiment of an inventive reverse-conducting semiconductor device 200, also named reverse-conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor (RC-IGBT) is shown. The RC-IGBT 200 comprises an n type base layer 101 with a first main side, which forms the emitter side 104 of the integrated IGBT, and a second main side opposite the first main side, which forms the collector side 103 of the integrated IGBT. The base layer 101 is that part of a wafer 100, which has a first low doping concentration and is of the first conductivity type, typically the un-amended doping in the finalized reverse-conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor. Alternatively, the device could also be manufactured starting from a wafer of the second conductivity type, on which the base layer 101 is created, e.g. by epitactical growing. In an exemplary embodiment, the base layer thickness 102 is the maximum vertical distance between the collector and emitter side of that part of the wafer with the first doping concentration.

[0041] A p type fourth layer 4 is arranged on the emitter side 104. At least one n type third layer 3 is also arranged on the emitter side 104 and it is surrounded by the fourth layer 4. The at least one third layer 3 has a higher doping than the base layer 101. A sixth electrically insulating layer 6 is arranged on the emitter side 104 on top of the base layer 101, the fourth and third layer 4, 3. It at least partially covers the at least one third layer 3, the fourth layer 4 and the base layer 101. An electrically conductive fifth layer 5 is arranged on the emitter side 104 electrically insulated from the at least one fourth layer 4, the third layer 3 and the base layer 101 by the sixth layer 6. Exemplarily, the fifth layer 5 is completely covered by the sixth layer 6.

[0042] Typically the sixth layer 6 comprises a first electrically insulating layer 61, preferably made of a silicon dioxide, and a second electrically insulating layer 62, preferably also made of a silicon dioxide, preferably of the same material as the first electrically insulating layer 61. The second electrically insulating layer 62 covers the first electrically insulating layer 61. For an RC-IGBT 200 with a fifth layer 5 formed as a planar gate electrode as shown is Fig. 3 the first electrically insulating layer 61 is arranged on top of the emitter side 104. In between the first and second electrically insulating layers 61, 62, which form the sixth layer 6, the fifth layer 5, which forms a gate electrode, is embedded, typically it is completely embedded. Thus, the fifth layer 5 is separated from the base layer 101, the fourth and third layer 4, 3 by the first electrically insulated layer 61. The fifth layer 5 is typically made of a heavily doped polysilicon or a metal like aluminum.

[0043] The at least one third layer 3, the fifth layer 5 and the sixth layer 6 are formed in such a way that an opening is created above the fourth layer 4. The opening is surrounded by the at least one third layer 3, the fifth layer 5 and the sixth layer 6.

[0044] A first electrical contact 8 is arranged on the emitter side 104 within the opening so that it is in direct electrical contact to the fourth layer 4 and the third layer 3. This first electrical contact 8 typically also covers the sixth layer 6, but is separated and thus electrically insulated from the fifth layer 5 by the second electrically insulating layer 62.

[0045] An n type first layer 1 and a p type second layer 2 are arranged on the collector side 103 and the first layer 1 has a higher doping concentration than the first doping concentration of the base layer 101. The first and second layers 1, 2 can be arranged in the same plane or, alternatively, they can also be arranged in different planes, whereas the planes from the first and second layer 1, 2 are spaced from each other, preferably at least by the thickness of that layer, which is arranged farer away from the collector side 103. Devices with such first and second layers 1, 2 being arranged in different planes and their manufacturing methods are known from the European patent applications with filing numbers EP 07150162 and EP 07150165.

[0046] The semiconductor device comprises an electrically active region 110 and a termination region 111, which surrounds the active region 110 up to the edge of the substrate. The active region 110 is the area in which the device conducts current during on-state, in the case of an IGBT this is the MOS cell. The active region is that area within the wafer, which includes the third layer 3 and fourth layer 4 and is arranged below the third layer 3, fourth layer 4 and fifth layer 5. With below the area is meant which is arranged in the wafer between the emitter side 104 and the collector side 103, in which area any of the third layer 3, fourth layer 4 or fifth layer 5 are arranged.

[0047] In the termination area 111, typically first and second regions 10, 20 are arranged, but alternatively this region may also consist of a single n doped region or of a single p doped region. Within the termination area, on top of such first and second regions 10, 20, or only the single n or p region on the collector side 103, neither a third layer 3, a fourth layer 4 or a gate electrode is arranged.

[0048] A second electrical contact 9 is arranged on the collector side 103 and it is in direct electrical contact to the at least one first and second layers 1, 2. Typically, Ti, Ni, Au or Al are chosen as a material for the second electrical contact 9.

[0049] In the inventive RC-IGBT 200 a diode is formed between the first electrical contact 8, which forms an anode electrode in the diode, the fourth layer 4, part of which forms an anode layer, the base layer 101, part of which forms a base layer for the diode, the n type first layer 1 and which layer forms a cathode layer, and the second electrical contact 9, which forms a cathode electrode.

[0050] In the inventive RC-IGBT 200 an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is formed between the first electrical contact 8, which forms an emitter electrode in the IGBT, the third layer 3, which forms a source region, the fourth layer 4, part of which forms a channel region, the base layer 101, part of which forms a base region for the IGBT, the p type second layer 2, which forms a collector layer and the second electrical contact 9, part of which forms a collector electrode.

[0051] Alternatively to the inventive RC-IGBT with a planar gate electrode, the inventive RC-IGBT may comprise a fifth layer 5', formed as trench gate electrode as shown in FIG 9. The trench gate electrode is arranged in the same plane as the fourth layer 4 and adjacent to the third layer 3, separated from each other by a first insulating layer 61, which also separates the fifth layer 5' from the base layer 101. A second insulating layer 62 is arranged on top of the fifth layer 5' formed as a trench gate electrode, thus insulating the fifth layer 5' from the first electrical contact 8.

[0052] The n type first layer 1 comprises at least one or a plurality of first regions 10, wherein each first region 10 has a first region width 11. Typically the first layer 1 comprises a plurality of first regions 10.

[0053] The p type second layer 2 comprises at least one or a plurality of second regions 20 and at least one or a plurality of third regions 22, wherein each second region 20 has a second region width 21 and the third region 22 has a third region width 23.

[0054] Any of the first, second and third regions has a region width and a region area, which is surrounded by a region border.

[0055] In an exemplary embodiment, a shortest distance is the minimum length between a point within said region area and a point on the region border. The region width is measured in a plane parallel to the collector side 103. Each region width in this exemplary embodiment is defined as two times the maximum value of any shortest distance within said region.

[0056] FIG 4 shows a cut through the first and second layer 1, 2 along the line B - B from FIG 3. This line is also indicated in FIG 4 in order to show that the RC-IGBT does not have the same structure for the first and second layer 1, 2 over the whole plane of the wafer 100. There are parts in which the first and second layer 1, 2 only comprises first and second regions 10, 20 as shown in FIG 4 and 5 and which are also present in the FIG 6, 7 and 8 e.g. along the line B - B. In other parts of the RC-IGBT 200, the first and second layer 1, 2 comprise a third region 22, which form a pilot region.

[0057] Each third region area is an area, in which any two first regions 10 have a distance bigger than two times the base layer thickness 102. That means that the third region 22 may be enclosed by first regions 10 which have a smaller distance to each other, but across the third region area, the distance between any two first regions 10 has to be larger than two times the base layer thickness 102. In other preferred embodiments, each third region area is an area, in which any two first regions 10 have a distance bigger than 2.5, in particular 3 times the base layer thickness 102. The at least one second region is that part of the second layer 2, which is not the at least one third region 22.

[0058] The third region 22, i.e. the p doped area, in which any two first regions 10 have a distance bigger than two times the base layer thickness 102, is arranged in the central part of the active region in such a way that there is a minimum distance between the third region border to the active region border of at least once the base layer thickness 102, in particular twice the base layer thickness 102. The sum of the areas of the at least one third region 22 is between 10 % and 30 % of the active region 110. Furthermore, each first region width 11 is smaller than the base layer thickness 102.

[0059] The second regions 20 and the first regions 10 form shorted regions. The second regions 20 are regions of the second conductivity type, which are not a third region 22. In another preferred embodiment, at least one second region width 21 is equal to or larger than once the base layer thickness 102, in particular each second region width 21 is equal to or larger than the base layer thickness 102, and each first region width 11 is smaller than the base layer thickness 102.

[0060] In another preferred embodiment the total area of the second and third regions 20, 22 to total area of the wafer 100 is between 70 % up to 90 %. In such a device the total area of the first regions 10 to total area of the wafer 100 is between 10 % up to 30 %.

[0061] In a further preferred embodiment the sum of the areas of the at least one third region 22 is between 15 to 25 % and exemplarily about 20 % to the active region.

[0062] Typical designs for the first and second regions 10, 20 are a stripe design (as shown in FIG 4 or 5) or a design, the third region is surrounded by the first and second regions and in which the first and second regions are self-contained shapes with an outer shape which enclose each other. In such a design, the first regions 10 may be in exemplary embodiments of a square, rectangular or circular outer shape (the regions being formed as rings, which enclose one another). However, any appropriate design may be used for the first and second regions.

[0063] The widths 11, 21 of the shorted first and/or second regions 10, 20 can be constant over the whole wafer area so that the first and third regions 10, 20 are arranged in a regular geometrical manner over the wafer 100 as e.g. shown in the FIG.s 4 and 5, but their widths may also vary over the wafer 100. In case of the second regions 20 being formed as stripes, the stripes can be surrounded be first regions as shown in Fig. 4 and 5, but the first and second regions can also extend from one side of the border of the active region to the other as shown in FIG. 21.

[0064] In the Figs. 18 to 24 only the active region 110 of the device is shown. The termination region 111, in which typically first and second regions 10, 20 are arranged, but alternatively this region may also consist of an n doped region or of a p doped region, surrounds the active region 110.

[0065] As shown in FIG. 18 to 21, the widths 21 of the second regions 20 may vary over the wafer 100 such that the widths of the second regions decrease from that second region, which is arranged closest to the border of the at least one third region, towards the border of the active region. The second regions are shown in these figures as a black line. For such a device, the widths 11 of the first regions 10 may be constant (FIG. 18) or it may vary, e.g. it may also decrease towards the border of the active region (FIG. 19). Optionally, but not necessarily the second regions may have the same design of the region border as the third region, but with larger dimensions. In Fig. 18, the second regions are squares, which surround the third region. Fig. 20 shows exemplarily the third and second regions as circles. Fig. 21 shows the regions as stripes. In all cases, the first and second regions in the active region fulfill the geometrical rules given above. As shown in Fig. 21, the decrease of the widths of the second regions may be present in only one direction (e.g. the direction of the width, i.e. the direction perpendicular to the length direction of the rectangles or stripes), whereas in another direction the width may be constant (length direction of the rectangles). The direction is measured in a plane parallel to the collector side 103.

[0066] By the presence of a large third region as a pilot region in the device the initial snap-back is removed. As the remaining second regions have smaller dimensions, a secondary snap-back may be present when these p doped regions are turned on one after the other and cause negative resistance jumps in the on-state characteristics. By having a second region with a greater width close to the third region and by decreasing the widths of the subsequent second regions, a smooth transistion is achieved, by which the snap-back effect is further lowered or even avoided.

[0067] In an exemplary embodiment, the third region 22 consists of a single region (as shown in the figures 6, 7, 8, 11, 12 and 13). The third region may alternatively also comprise a plurality of regions, which are separated from each other by at most twice the base layer thickness, in particular by at most once the base layer thickness (Fig. 14, 15, 16). In case of the third region comprising a plurality of regions, typically first regions are arranged between two regions belonging to the third region or at least the intermediate space comprises first regions, i.e. the intermediated space comprises first and second regions.

[0068] In another exemplarily embodiment the first regions 10 are arranged as stripes over the wafer 100. A plurality of stripes is arranged in a row and a plurality of such rows are arranged in columns within the active region 110.

[0069] In another exemplary embodiment the third region 22 is connected to each second region 20 within the active region 110.

[0070] The third region or regions 22 has in another preferred embodiment a square, rectangular, circular, star, diamond, tri-star or polygonal shape like a hexagon or another polyangular design.

[0071] FIG 6 shows such a third region 22 with a square shape, whereas FIG 7 shows a third region 22 with a circular shape. In the figures 6 to 8, the first and second regions 10, 20 are only indicated by hatching of the area designated with 10, 20 for clarity reasons, but the hatched area is meant to be an area of alternating first and second regions 10, 20 as e.g. shown in fig. 4 and 5.

[0072] A shortest distance is the minimum length between a point within said region area and a point on said region border. The maximum value of any shortest distance within said region is for a square design (FIG 6) the distance between the central point of the square to the middle point of any of the border lines. This is the longest distance to equalize charge during switching of the device. The region width is defined as two times this maximum value, i.e. the width is the length of the edge of the square.

[0073] For a circular shape of the third region 22 as shown in FIG 7 the third region width 23 corresponds to the diameter of the third region (again the maximum value is measured from the central point of the circle to any point on the border of the circular third region.

[0074] By the third region 22 having a star shape with elongated fingers (protrusions) as for example with the cross shape the heat distribution can be improved, because the heat produced in this IGBT area without the necessity of increasing the size of the third region 22. Star shape shall mean any central area of a region, which is surrounded by protrusions (fingers) with at least three such protrusions. A cross as shown in fig. 8 is formed by four such protrusions. Of course, also another number of fingers than four can be used in a star design as three fingers in a triangle (three armed star or tri-star shape) or five or more fingers in the star design.

[0075] In an exemplary embodiment, fingers shall be understood as areas, in which the width is smaller than the length of that area. Such fingers can be formed as a cross (fig. 8), but of course also another number of fingers than 4 can be used as three fingers in a triangle or 5 or more fingers in a star design.

[0076] FIG 8 show the second pilot region 22 in form of a cross. For explaining what the maximum value (third region width 23) of the shortest distance is for this case, the cross is hypothetically divided into four outer rectangles and a central rectangle. The maximum value of any shortest distance between a point within the cross region to the border of the cross region exists from the middle point of the central rectangle of the cross to one of the four points, on which two adjacent outer rectangles adjoin. The third region width 23, which is two times this maximum value, is shown as a dashed line. The maximum value is the longest way an electron or hole has to flow in order to charge or discharge the region if the device is switched between on/off or vice versa.

[0077] Fig. 22 shows another exemplary embodiment of the inventive device, in which the third region 22 in square design is connected to second regions 20, which extend to the border of the active region 110. In case of the device comprising a plurality of third regions 22, these regions 22 are interconnected to one another by second regions 20. In another exemplary embodiment, the second regions 20, which expand to the border of the active region 110, are arranged radial between the at least third region and the border of the active region. By "radial" it is meant that the second regions are arranged star like around the third region 22 such that the second regions are short connections to the border of the active region. Fig. 23 shows the third region in a cross design and Fig. 24 in a stripe design. In these figures, only a part of the second regions radiate from the third region border to the active region border and thus form shortest connections. E.g. in the corners of a square, rectangle or a star, the second regions extend such that the distance between the first regions does not get to large (i.e. the geometrical rules for first region distances are fulfilled).

[0078] By the presence of a large third region as a pilot region in the device the initial snap-back is removed. Due to the smaller size of the second regions a secondary snap-back may be present when these p doped regions are turned on one after the other and cause negative resistance jumps in the on-state characteristics, if the second regions are disconnected from the third region. By having the third region connected to second regions, and by radial extending the second regions between the third region to the border of the active region, the snap-back effect is further lowered or even avoided.

[0079] As also shown in Fig. 3, in another embodiment the RC-IGBT 10 may further comprise an n type seventh layer 7, which is arranged between the base layer 101 and the first and second layer 1, 2 respectively, and which seventh layer 7 has a higher doping concentration than the base layer 101.

[0080] The seventh layer 7 has preferably a maximum doping concentration of at most 1 1016 cm-3.

[0081] In another preferred embodiment shown in Fig. 10, an eighth n doped layer 41, formed as an enhancement layer, is arranged between the fourth layer 4 and the base layer 101 for having lower on-state losses. The eighth layer 41 separates the fourth layer 4 from the base layer 101 and it has higher doping concentration than the base layer 101. The eighth layer 41 can be present in planar gate designs as well as in trench gate designs.

[0082] In another embodiment, the conductivity types of the layers are switched, i.e. all layers of the first conductivity type are p type (e.g. the base layer 101) and all layers of the second conductivity type are n type (e.g. the fourth layer 4).

[0083] The inventive reverse-conducting semiconductor device 200 can for example be used in a converter.

Reference List



[0084] 
1
first layer
10
first region
11
width of first region
15
fourth region
16
width of fourth region
2
second layer
20
second region
21
width of second region
22
third region
23
width of third region
25
fifth region
26
width of fifth region
27
sixth region
28
width of sixth region
3
third layer
4
fourth layer
41
eighth layer
5, 5'
fifth layer
6
sixth layer
61
first electrically insulating layer
62
second electrically insulating layer
7
seventh layer
8
first electrical contact
9
second electrical contact
100
wafer
101
base layer
102
base layer width
103
collector side
104
emitter side
110
Active region
111
termination area
112
Distance between third region border to active region border
200, 200'
RC-IGBT



Claims

1. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200), which comprises a freewheeling diode and an insulated gate bipolar transistor on a common wafer (100), part of which wafer (100) forms a base layer (101) of a first conductivity type with a first doping concentration and a base layer thickness (102), wherein
the insulated gate bipolar transistor comprises a collector side (103) and an emitter side (104) opposite to the collector side (103) of the wafer (100), wherein
the base layer thickness (102) is the maximum vertical distance between the collector and emitter side (103, 104) of that part of the wafer with the first doping concentration,
a first layer (1) of the first conductivity type and higher doping concentration than the first doping concentration and a second layer (2) of a second conductivity type are alternately arranged on the collector side (103), wherein a third layer (3) of the first conductivity type, a fourth layer (4) of the second conductivity type and an electrically conductive fifth layer (5) in form of a gate electrode are arranged on the emitter side (104), wherein the third layer (3) is surrounded by the fourth layer (4) and wherein the electrically conductive fifth layer (5) is electrically insulated from the at least one fourth layer (4), the third layer (3) and the base layer (101) by an insulating layer (6), wherein the first layer (1) comprises at least one first region (10), wherein each first region (10) has a first region width (11), wherein
the second layer (2) comprises at least one second region (20), wherein each second region (20) has a second region width (21), and at least one third region (22), wherein each third region (22) has a third region width (23), wherein
any region has a region width and a region area, which is surrounded by a region border, wherein
a shortest distance is the minimum length between a point within said region area and a point on said region border, wherein
each region width is defined as two times the maximum value of any shortest distance within said region, wherein
the reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) comprises an electrically active region (110), which active region (110) is an area within the wafer (100), which includes and is arranged below the third layer (3), fourth layer (4) and fifth layer (5), wherein
each third region area (22) is an area, which border is defined by any two surrounding first regions (10), wherein
a distance between any two surrounding first regions (10) measured across each third region (22) is bigger than two times the base layer thickness (102), wherein
the at least one second region (20) is that part of the second layer (2), which is not the at least one third region (22), wherein
the at least one third region (22) is arranged in a central part of the active region (110) in such a way that there is a minimum distance between each third region border to the active region border of at least once the base layer thickness (102), wherein
the sum of the areas of the at least one third region (22) is between 10 % and 30 % of the active region (110), wherein
each first region width (11) is smaller than the base layer thickness (102), wherein
the at least one third region (22) has a star shape with either

- three protrusions forming a tri-star,

- four protrusions forming a cross, wherein the first layer (1) does not comprise a region having a region width, which is equal to or larger than two times the base layer thickness (102), or

- five or more protrusions.


 
2. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to claim 1, wherein at least one or each second region width (21) is larger than the base layer thickness (102).
 
3. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to claim 1 or 2,
wherein
each third region area is an area, in which a distance between any two surrounding first regions (10) measured across each third region (22) is bigger than 2.5 or 3 times the base layer thickness (102).
 
4. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the at least one third region (22) is connected to at least one or each second region (20) within the active region (110).
 
5. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to claim 4, wherein the at least one third region (22) is a single third region or in that at least two third regions (22) are interconnected to each other via second regions (20) and in that the single third region or the at least two third regions are connected to second regions (22), which extend to the border of the active region (110).
 
6. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to claims 4 or 5, wherein at least a part or all of the second regions (20) extend radial from the at least one third region (22) to the border of the active region (110).
 
7. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 6, wherein the first regions (10) are arranged as stripes over the wafer (100).
 
8. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to claim 7, wherein a plurality of stripes is arranged in a row and a plurality of such rows are arranged in columns within the active region (110).
 
9. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 6, wherein the first and second regions (10, 20) have self-contained shapes enclosing one another.
 
10. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to claim 9, wherein the first and second regions (10, 20) have a square, rectangular or circular outer shape.
 
11. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 10, wherein either the widths (11, 21) of the at least one first and/or second regions (10, 20) vary over the wafer (100), or
in that the widths (11, 21) of at least one first and/or second regions (10, 20) is constant over the wafer (100).
 
12. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to claim 11,
wherein the widths (21) of the second regions (20) vary over the wafer (100) such that the widths (21) of the second regions (20) decrease from such second region, which is arranged closest to the border of the at least one third region (22), towards the border of the active region (110) in at least one direction.
 
13. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 12, wherein the total area of the first regions (10) to the active region (110) is between 10 % up to 30 %.
 
14. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 13, wherein
the device further comprises a seventh layer (7) with a higher doping concentration than the base layer (101), which seventh layer (7) is arranged between the base layer (101) and the first and second layer (1, 2).
 
15. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 14, wherein
the total area of the at least one third region (22) is between 15 % and 25 % of the total active region (110), in particular about 20 %.
 
16. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 15, wherein
the at least one third region (22) consists of a single region or in that the at least one third region (22) comprises a plurality of regions which are separated from each other by at most twice the base layer thickness (102), in particular by at most once the base layer thickness (102).
 
17. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 16, wherein
there is a minimum distance between each third region border to the active region border of at least twice the base layer thickness (102).
 
18. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 17, wherein
the electrically conductive fifth layer (5) is formed as a trench gate electrode or a planar gate electrode.
 
19. Reverse-conducting semiconductor device (200) according to any of the claims 1 to 18, wherein
an eighth layer (41) of the second conductivity type, which has a higher doping concentration than the fourth layer (4), is arranged between the fourth layer (4) and the base layer (101).
 


Ansprüche

1. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200), die eine freilaufende Diode und einen Bipolartransistor mit isoliertem Gate auf einem gemeinsamen Wafer (100) umfasst, wobei ein Teil des Wafers (100) eine Basisschicht (101) einer ersten Leitfähigkeit mit einer ersten Dotierungskonzentration und einer Basisschichtdicke (102) bildet, wobei
der Bipolartransistor mit isoliertem Gate eine Kollektorseite (103) und eine Emitterseite (104) gegenüber der Kollektorseite (103) des Wafers (100) umfasst, wobei
die Basisschichtdicke (102) der maximale vertikale Abstand zwischen der Kollektor- und Emitterseite (103, 104) des Teils des Wafers mit der ersten Dotierungskonzentration ist,
eine erste Schicht (1) der ersten Leitfähigkeit und mit höherer Dotierungskonzentration als die erste Dotierungskonzentration und eine zweite Schicht (2) einer zweiten Leitfähigkeit abwechselnd auf der Kollektorseite (103) angeordnet sind, wobei eine dritte Schicht (3) der ersten Leitfähigkeit, eine vierte Schicht (4) der zweiten Leitfähigkeit und eine elektrisch leitende fünfte Schicht (5) in Form einer Gate-Elektrode auf der Emitterseite (104) angeordnet sind, wobei die dritte Schicht (3) von der vierten Schicht (4) umgeben ist und wobei die elektrisch leitende fünfte Schicht (5) von der mindestens einen vierten Schicht (4), der dritten Schicht (3) und der Basisschicht (101) durch eine Isolationsschicht (6) elektrisch isoliert ist, wobei
die erste Schicht (1) mindestens ein erstes Gebiet (10) umfasst, wobei jedes erste Gebiet (10) eine erste Gebietsbreite (11) aufweist, wobei
die zweite Schicht (2) mindestens ein zweites Gebiet (20) umfasst, wobei jedes zweite Gebiet (20) eine zweite Gebietsbreite (21) aufweist, und mindestens ein drittes Gebiet (22), wobei jedes dritte Gebiet (22) eine dritte Gebietsbreite (23) aufweist, wobei
jedes Gebiet eine Gebietsbreite und einen Gebietsbereich aufweist, der durch eine Gebietsgrenze umgeben ist, wobei ein kürzester Abstand die Mindestlänge zwischen einem Punkt in dem Gebietsbereich und einem Punkt an der Gebietsgrenze ist, wobei
jede Gebietsbreite als das Doppelte des Maximalwerts jedes kürzesten Abstands in dem Gebiet definiert ist, wobei
die rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) ein elektrisch aktives Gebiet (110) umfasst, wobei das aktive Gebiet (110) ein Bereich in dem Wafer (100) ist, der die dritte Schicht (3), vierte Schicht (4) und fünfte Schicht (5) umfasst und unter diesen angeordnet ist, wobei jeder dritte Gebietsbereich (22) ein Bereich ist, dessen Grenze durch beliebige zwei umgebende erste Gebiete (10) definiert ist, wobei
ein Abstand zwischen beliebigen zwei umgebenden ersten Gebieten (10), gemessen über jedes dritte Gebiet (22), größer als das Doppelte der Basisschichtdicke (102) ist, wobei
das mindestens eine zweite Gebiet (20) der Teil der zweiten Schicht (2) ist, der nicht das mindestens eine dritte Gebiet (22) ist, wobei
das mindestens eine dritte Gebiet (22) in einem mittleren Teil des aktiven Gebiets (110) derart angeordnet ist, dass ein Mindestabstand zwischen jeder dritten Gebietsgrenze zu der aktiven Gebietsgrenze von mindestens einmal der Basisschichtdicke (102) vorhanden ist, wobei die Summe der Bereiche des mindestens einen dritten Gebiets (22) zwischen 10 % und 30 % des aktiven Gebiets (110) liegt, wobei
jede erste Gebietsbreite (11) kleiner als die Basisschichtdicke (102) ist, wobei
das mindestens eine dritte Gebiet (22) eine Sternform aufweist mit entweder

- drei Vorsprüngen, die einen dreiarmigen Stern bilden,

- vier Vorsprüngen, die ein Kreuz bilden, wobei die erste Schicht (1) nicht ein Gebiet mit einer Gebietsbreite umfasst, die gleich oder größer als das Doppelte der Basisschichtdicke (102) ist, oder

- fünf oder mehr Vorsprüngen.


 
2. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach Anspruch 1, wobei mindestens eine oder jede zweite Gebietsbreite (21) größer als die Basisschichtdicke (102) ist.
 
3. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei
jeder dritte Gebietsbereich ein Bereich ist, in dem ein Abstand zwischen beliebigen zwei umgebenden ersten Gebieten (10), gemessen über jedes dritte Gebiet (22), größer als das 2,5- oder 3-Fache der Basisschichtdicke (102) ist.
 
4. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei das mindestens eine dritte Gebiet (22) mit mindestens einem oder jedem zweiten Gebiet (20) in dem aktiven Gebiet (110) verbunden ist.
 
5. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach Anspruch 4, wobei das mindestens eine dritte Gebiet (22) ein einzelnes drittes Gebiet ist oder dass mindestens zwei dritte Gebiete (22) über zweite Gebiete (20) miteinander verbunden sind und dass das einzelne dritte Gebiet oder die mindestens zwei dritten Gebiete mit zweiten Gebieten (22) verbunden sind, die sich zu der Grenze des aktiven Gebiets (110) erstrecken.
 
6. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach den Ansprüchen 4 oder 5, wobei sich zumindest ein Teil oder alle der zweiten Gebiete (20) radial von mindestens dem einen dritten Gebiet (22) zu der Grenze des aktiven Gebiets (110) erstrecken.
 
7. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei die ersten Gebiete (10) als Streifen über dem Wafer (100) angeordnet sind.
 
8. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach Anspruch 7, wobei mehrere Streifen in einer Reihe angeordnet sind und mehrere derartige Reihen in Spalten in dem aktiven Gebiet (110) angeordnet sind.
 
9. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei die ersten und zweiten Gebiete (10, 20) in sich geschlossene Formen aufweisen, die einander umschließen.
 
10. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach Anspruch 9, wobei die ersten und zweiten Gebiete (10, 20) eine quadratische, rechteckige oder kreisförmige Außenform aufweisen.
 
11. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10, wobei entweder die Breiten (11, 21) der mindestens einen ersten und/oder zweiten Gebiete (10, 20) über den Wafer (100) hinweg variieren, oder
dass die Breiten (11, 21) der mindestens einen ersten und/oder zweiten Gebiete (10, 20) über den Wafer (100) hinweg konstant sind.
 
12. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach Anspruch 11, wobei die Breiten (21) der zweiten Gebiete (20) über den Wafer (100) hinweg derart variieren, dass die Breiten (21) der zweiten Gebiete (20) von demjenigen zweiten Gebiet, das am nächsten zu der Grenze des mindestens einen dritten Gebiets (22) angeordnet ist, hin zu der Grenze des aktiven Gebiets (110) in mindestens eine Richtung abnehmen.
 
13. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, wobei der Gesamtbereich der ersten Gebiete (10) zu dem aktiven Gebiet (110) zwischen 10 % bis zu 30 % liegt.
 
14. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13, wobei
die Vorrichtung ferner eine siebte Schicht (7) mit einer höheren Dotierungskonzentration als die Basisschicht (101) umfasst, wobei die siebte Schicht (7) zwischen der Basisschicht (101) und der ersten und zweiten Schicht (1, 2) angeordnet ist.
 
15. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 14, wobei
der Gesamtbereich des mindestens einen dritten Gebiets (22) zwischen 15 % und 25 % des gesamten aktiven Gebiets (110), insbesondere bei ca. 20 %, liegt.
 
16. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 15, wobei
das mindestens eine dritte Gebiet (22) aus einem einzelnen Gebiet besteht oder dass das mindestens eine dritte Gebiet (22) mehrere Gebiete umfasst, die voneinander durch mindestens das Doppelte der Basisschichtdicke (102), insbesondere durch höchstens einmal die Basisschichtdicke (102) getrennt sind.
 
17. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 16, wobei
ein Mindestabstand zwischen jeder dritten Gebietsgrenze zu der aktiven Gebietsgrenze von mindestens dem Doppelten der Basisschichtdicke (102) vorhanden ist.
 
18. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 17, wobei
die elektrisch leitende fünfte Schicht (5) als eine Graben-Gate-Elektrode oder eine planare Gate-Elektrode ausgebildet ist.
 
19. Rückwärtsleitende Halbleitervorrichtung (200) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 18, wobei
eine achte Schicht (41) der zweiten Leitfähigkeit, die eine höhere Dotierungskonzentration als die vierte Schicht (4) aufweist, zwischen der vierten Schicht (4) und der Basisschicht (101) angeordnet ist.
 


Revendications

1. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200), qui comprend une diode de roue libre et un transistor bipolaire à grille isolée sur une tranche commune (100), une partie de la tranche (100) formant une couche de base (101) d'un premier type de conductivité avec une première concentration de dopage et une épaisseur de couche de base (102),
le transistor bipolaire à grille isolée comprenant un côté collecteur (103) et un côté émetteur (104) à l'opposé du côté collecteur (103) de la tranche (100),
l'épaisseur de couche de base (102) étant la distance verticale maximale entre les côtés collecteur et émetteur (103, 104) de la partie de la tranche avec la première concentration de dopage,
une première couche (1) du premier type de conductivité et d'une concentration de dopage supérieure à la première concentration de dopage et une deuxième couche (2) d'un deuxième type de conductivité étant disposées en alternance sur le côté collecteur (103), une troisième couche (3) du premier type de conductivité, une quatrième couche (4) du deuxième type de conductivité et une cinquième couche électriquement conductrice (5) sous la forme d'une électrode de grille étant disposées sur le côté émetteur (104), la troisième couche (3) étant entourée par la quatrième couche (4), et la cinquième couche électriquement conductrice (5) étant isolée électriquement de l'au moins une quatrième couche (4), la troisième couche (3) et la couche de base (101) par une couche isolante (6),
la première couche (1) comprenant au moins une première région (10), chaque première région (10) ayant une largeur de première région (11),
la deuxième couche (2) comprenant au moins une deuxième région (20), chaque deuxième région (20) ayant une largeur de deuxième région (21), et au moins une troisième région (22), chaque troisième région (22) ayant une largeur de troisième région (23),
toute région ayant une largeur de région et une zone de région, qui est entourée par un bord de région,
une distance la plus courte étant la longueur minimale entre un point à l'intérieur de ladite zone de région et un point sur ledit bord de région,
chaque largeur de région étant définie comme deux fois la valeur maximale de toute distance la plus courte à l'intérieur de ladite région,
le dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) comprenant une région électriquement active (110), laquelle région active (110) est une zone à l'intérieur de la tranche (100) qui comporte et est disposée au-dessous de la troisième couche (3), la quatrième couche (4) et la cinquième couche (5),
chaque zone de troisième région (22) étant une zone dont le bord est défini par deux quelconques premières régions environnantes (10),
une distance entre deux quelconques premières régions environnantes (10), mesurée à travers chaque troisième région (22), étant supérieure à deux fois l'épaisseur de couche de base (102),
l'au moins une deuxième région (20) étant la partie de la deuxième couche (2) qui n'est pas l'au moins une troisième région (22),
l'au moins une troisième région (22) étant disposée dans une partie centrale de la région active (110) de telle sorte qu'il existe une distance minimale entre chaque bord de troisième région et le bord de région active valant au moins une fois l'épaisseur de couche de base (102),
la somme des zones de l'au moins une troisième région (22) représentant entre 10 % et 30 % de la région active (110),
chaque largeur de première région (11) étant inférieure à l'épaisseur de couche de base (102),
l'au moins une troisième région (22) ayant une forme en étoile avec

- trois saillies formant une étoile à trois branches,

- quatre saillies formant une croix, la première couche (1) ne comprenant pas de région ayant une largeur de région qui est égale ou supérieure à deux fois l'épaisseur de couche de base (102), ou

- au moins cinq saillies.


 
2. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel au moins une ou chaque largeur de deuxième région (21) est supérieure à l'épaisseur de couche de base (102).
 
3. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel chaque zone de troisième région est une zone dans laquelle une distance entre deux quelconques premières régions environnantes (10), mesurée à travers chaque troisième région (22), est supérieure à 2,5 ou 3 fois l'épaisseur de couche de base (102).
 
4. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel l'au moins une troisième région (22) est reliée à au moins une ou chaque deuxième région (20) à l'intérieur de la région active (110).
 
5. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'au moins une troisième région (22) est une troisième région unique ou en ce qu'au moins deux troisièmes régions (22) sont interconnectées l'une à l'autre par le biais de deuxièmes régions (20) et en ce que l'unique troisième région ou les au moins deux troisièmes régions sont reliées à des deuxièmes régions (22) qui s'étendent jusqu'au bord de la région active (110).
 
6. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon la revendication 4 ou 5, dans lequel au moins une partie ou la totalité des deuxièmes régions (20) s'étendent radialement depuis l'au moins une troisième région (22) jusqu'au bord de la région active (110) .
 
7. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel les premières régions (10) sont disposées comme des bandes sur la tranche (100).
 
8. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon la revendication 7, dans lequel une pluralité de bandes est disposée dans une rangée et une pluralité de ces rangées sont disposées dans des colonnes à l'intérieur de la région active (110).
 
9. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel les premières et deuxièmes régions (10, 20) ont des formes indépendantes s'entourant l'une l'autre.
 
10. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon la revendication 9, dans lequel les premières et deuxièmes régions (10, 20) ont une forme extérieure carrée, rectangulaire ou circulaire.
 
11. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10, dans lequel soit les largeurs (11, 21) de l'au moins une première et/ou l'au moins une deuxième région (10, 20) varient sur la tranche (100), soit en ce que les largeurs (11, 21) d'au moins une première et/ou au moins une deuxième région (10, 20) sont constantes sur la tranche (100).
 
12. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon la revendication 11, dans lequel les largeurs (21) des deuxièmes régions (20) varient sur la tranche (100) de telle sorte que les largeurs (21) des deuxièmes régions (20) diminuent depuis la deuxième région qui est disposée le plus près du bord de l'au moins une troisième région (22) vers le bord de la région active (110) dans au moins une direction.
 
13. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, dans lequel la superficie totale des premières régions (10) par rapport à la région active (110) se situe entre 10 % et 30 %.
 
14. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13, le dispositif comprenant en outre une septième couche (7) avec une plus forte concentration de dopage que la couche de base (101), laquelle septième couche (7) est disposée entre la couche de base (101) et la première et la deuxième couche (1, 2).
 
15. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 14, dans lequel la superficie totale de l'au moins une troisième région (22) représente entre 15 % et 25 % de la région active totale (110), en particulier environ 20 %.
 
16. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 15, dans lequel l'au moins une troisième région (22) consiste en une région unique ou en ce que l'au moins une troisième région (22) comprend une pluralité de régions qui sont séparées les unes des autres par au moins deux fois l'épaisseur de couche de base (102), en particulier au maximum par une fois l'épaisseur de couche de base (102).
 
17. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 16, dans lequel il existe une distance minimale entre chaque bord de troisième région et le bord de région active d'au moins deux fois l'épaisseur de couche de base (102).
 
18. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 17, dans lequel la cinquième couche électriquement conductrice (5) est formée comme une électrode de grille en tranchée ou une électrode de grille planaire.
 
19. Dispositif semi-conducteur à conduction inverse (200) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 18, dans lequel une huitième couche (41) du deuxième type de conductivité, qui a une plus forte concentration de dopage que la quatrième couche (4), est disposée entre la quatrième couche (4) et la couche de base (101).
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description