(19)
(11)EP 2 280 927 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
02.11.2016 Bulletin 2016/44

(21)Application number: 09733490.8

(22)Date of filing:  08.04.2009
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C07C 205/02  (2006.01)
C07C 215/08  (2006.01)
C07C 215/20  (2006.01)
C07C 201/08  (2006.01)
C07C 205/06  (2006.01)
C07C 205/16  (2006.01)
C07C 205/15  (2006.01)
C07C 215/10  (2006.01)
C07C 239/10  (2006.01)
C07C 205/05  (2006.01)
C07C 201/12  (2006.01)
C07C 205/18  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2009/039901
(87)International publication number:
WO 2009/129097 (22.10.2009 Gazette  2009/43)

(54)

PROCESSES FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF NITROBUTANE AND ITS DERIVATIVES

VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG VON NITROBUTAN UND DESSEN DERIVATEN

PROCÉDÉS DE PRODUCTION DE NITROBUTAN ET DES DÉRIVÉS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 16.04.2008 US 45380 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
09.02.2011 Bulletin 2011/06

(60)Divisional application:
16184250.5

(73)Proprietor: ANGUS Chemical Company
Buffalo Grove, IL 60089 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • TRAUTH, Daniel, M.
    Crystal Lake IL 60014 (US)
  • GREEN, George, David
    Cary IL 60013 (US)
  • SWEDO, Raymond
    Mt. Prospect IL 60056 (US)
  • JAMES, Richard, L.
    Eros LA 71238 (US)
  • TOMLINSON, Ian, A.
    Midland MI 48642 (US)

(74)Representative: Beck Greener 
Fulwood House 12 Fulwood Place
London WC1V 6HR
London WC1V 6HR (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A-00/42079
US-A- 2 139 121
US-A- 2 489 320
US-A- 4 304 942
US-A- 5 604 229
US-A1- 2004 152 749
DE-A1- 19 527 121
US-A- 2 139 124
US-A- 3 962 271
US-A- 4 861 925
US-A- 6 072 063
US-B1- 6 279 656
  
  • ROSINI ET AL: "Functionalized Nitroalkanes as Useful Reagents for Alkyl Anion Synthons" SYNTHESIS, 1988, pages 833-847, XP002539598
  • NOLAND ET AL: "Heterocyclic Spiranes. Oxazolidines from (1-Aminocyclohexyl)methanol" JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, vol. 25, 1960, pages 1155-1159, XP002539599
  • RYER ET AL: "Reactions of N-Monoalkylhydroxylamines with Sulfur Dioxide, Sulfur Trioxide and Phthalic Anhydride" JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 73, no. 12, 1951, pages 5675-5677, XP002539455
  • W.B. WHEATLEY: "alpha,alpha-Dimethylcholine: Esters and Carbamates" JOURNAL OF AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 76, 1954, pages 2832-2834, XP002539600
  • ASINGER ET AL: "Zur Frage der Isomerenbildung bei der Nitrierung einfacher und substituierter Paraffinkohlenwasserstoffe" CHEM. BER., vol. 100, no. 2, 1967, pages 438-447, XP002539456
  • CARLO DELL'ERBA ET AL: "Synthetic Exploitation of the Ring-Opening of 3,4-Dinitrothiophene. Part 3. Access to 1,4-Diaryl- and 1,4-Dialkyl-2-nitrobutanes" TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 33, no. 46, 1992, pages 7047-7048, XP002539601
  • E. GHIDINI ET AL: "Synthesis of a new series of N-hydroxy, N-alkylamides of aminoacids as ligands of NMDA glycine site" EUROP. J. MED. CHEM., vol. 34, no. 9, 1999, pages 711-717, XP002539457
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The invention relates to a process for making nitrated hydrocarbons, such as nitroalkanes, nitrocycloalkanes, and nitroaralkyls, and to processes for making derivative compounds of the nitrated hydrocarbons.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] The nitration of hydrocarbons generally produces a variety of products depending upon the reaction conditions and the feedstock structure. Certain products, however, may be more desirable than others and it has been a long-time goal to selectively produce the more useful nitrated compounds at the expense of less useful compounds, such as oxidation byproducts.

[0003] In contrast to commercial vapor phase nitration, the mixed vapor-liquid phase or high pressure nitration of hydrocarbons has been postulated in the past to be a technique by which desirable nitroparaffins can be potentially produced. See e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 2,489,320 (Nygaard et al.) and Albright, L. F., "Nitration of Paraffins," Chem. Engr., (1966) pp. 149-156. In addition, US 2,511,454 discloses a process for preparing secondary mononitrobutane and secondary mononitropentane comprising reacting n-butane or n-pentane with 40-70 percent nitric acids at a temperature between 150 °C and 250 °C, an elevated pressure in excess of 10 atm (150 psi) and with a space velocity in excess of 0.1. The prior art mixed vapor-liquid phase process, however, was never practical for a number of reasons, including because the conversion of nitric acid is low, the nitric acid is not readily recoverable, problems with reactor corrosion by the nitric acid, and difficulty in controlling reaction exotherm.

[0004] Obtaining a high yield of nitrated hydrocarbons is a critical economic factor to be considered since low yields necessitate the use of more feed and therefore result in higher costs. Furthermore, when nitric acid is used as the nitrating agent, the unreacted nitric acid becomes a waste product and costs are incurred for proper disposal of the waste. High conversion of the reactant hydrocarbon is also economically critical in order to minimize capital and energy expenses associated with the purification and recycling of unreacted reactants. A need exists, therefore, for more economical, selective, and environmentally friendly processes for the manufacture of nitrated hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0005] In one aspect, the invention provides a process for the selective nitration of n-butane. The process comprises: providing a downflow configured reactor; reacting n-butane with aqueous nitric acid at a pressure of from 68 atm (1000 psi) to 102 atm (1500 psi) and a temperature of between 220 and about 325 degrees Celsius; and recovering the formed nitrated compounds, wherein the aqueous nitric acid is a 25 to 35 weight percent solution.

[0006] In a second aspect, the invention provides processes for preparing industrially useful downstream derivatives of nitrated hydrocarbons, such as nitroalcohols, aminoalcohols, N-alkylaminoalcohols, alkylhydroxylamines, and oxazolidines.

[0007] The invention further provides methods of using the nitrated hydrocarbons and derivatives thereof in various applications.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0008] As noted above, in one aspect, the invention relates to a process for the selective nitration of n-butane. The combination of reaction conditions, nitrating agent concentration, and use of a downflow reactor according to the invention provides the process with a number of improvements over the prior art, and particularly in terms of the reduced formation of oxidation byproducts and the increased conversion of starting materials to either desired product or to materials that are readily recyclable or treatable.

[0009] The invention process is carried out in a downflow configured reactor. That is, the reactor is positioned substantially vertically and the reactants are introduced at the upper end and the product mixture collected at the lower end of the reactor.

[0010] Operation of the reactor in a downflow mode according to the invention provides nitrated compounds that contain relatively low levels of oxidation byproducts as compared to prior art systems, which generally utilize horizontal, upflow, coiled or batch autoclave type apparatuses. Without wishing to be bound by any particular theory, it is believed that the advantages of the downflow reactor result primarily from its ability to minimize the amount and residence time of the liquid phase during the nitration reaction. The liquid phase in general contains a low mole ratio of hydrocarbons to nitric acid, which favors oxidation chemistry at the expense of nitration. Oxidation therefore primarily occurs in the liquid phase. Because the gas in a downflow reactor is the continuous phase and the liquid trickles down the reactor walls or packing, the amount of liquid phase(s) in the downflow reactor is maintained at a low level. Consequently oxidation chemistry is minimized.

[0011] In contrast, in an upflow reactor, also referred to as a bubble column, the liquid is the continuous phase (and bubbles rise quickly through the continuous liquid phase). Thus, an upflow reactor maximizes the liquid holdup. Because, as noted above, oxidation primarily occurs in the liquid phase, the upflow reactor maximizes the formation of oxidation byproducts. Similarly, coil and horizontal reactor configurations also increase liquid residence time and therefore oxidation chemistry as compared to a downflow reactor. A further disadvantage of coiled reactors is that they are not well-suited for industrial scale production because of the difficulty of fabricating large scale reactors in this shape.

[0012] The downflow configured reactor for use in the invention is preferably made of a corrosion resistant material, such as titanium. The reactor is optionally surrounded by a shell with input and output ports for circulating a heat transfer fluid. The heat transfer fluid, which can be, for example, an oil, allows the temperature of the reaction to be controlled to within the desired parameters. It should be noted, however, that because the reaction between the nitric acid and hydrocarbon is exothermic, use of a shell and a heat transfer fluid are not required. The temperature of the reaction can be regulated to be within the desired parameters by simply regulating the addition rate and/or concentration of the reactants.

[0013] To facilitate operation in downflow mode, the reactor is generally of an elongated and linear shape, such as a tube, and is positioned so that reactants are added through an entry port at or near the top of the reactor and then flowed down the reactor for sufficient residence time to allow reaction to occur and formation of the desired product. The product mixture is collected through an exit port at or near the bottom of the reactor.

[0014] The reactor is optionally packed in order to improve reactant mixing and heat transfer and/or to vary the reactor volume. Suitable packing materials include, for example, glass beads, random packing, or structured packing, such as those typically employed in distillation devices. Other packing materials are known in the art and may be used.

[0015] The hydrocarbon feed and nitric acid can be mixed, or partially mixed, prior to entry into the reactor or, alternatively, they can be added individually, with mixing to occur within the reactor. Further, the reactants, whether added together or individually, can be preheated prior to entry into the reactor.

[0016] The nitric acid is delivered to the reactor in the form of an aqueous solution that contains 25 weight percent of the acid to 35 weight percent of the acid.

[0017] The mole ratio of hydrocarbon to nitric acid should be at least 1:1, more preferably at least 1.2:1.

[0018] The reaction temperature within the reactor is controlled (for example with heat exchange fluid or using heat generated from the reaction, as described above) to between 220 degrees Celsius and 325 degrees Celsius. In some embodiments, the temperature is at least 230 degrees or at least 240 degrees. In further embodiments, the temperature is no more than 290 degrees, no more than 280 degrees, no more than 270 degrees, or no more than 250 degrees. In other embodiments, the temperature is between 220 and 250 degrees Celsius.

[0019] The pressure in the reactor is maintained at at least 68 atm (1000 psi), and further preferably at at least 82 atm (1200 psi)

[0020] Further, the pressure is 102 atm (1500 psi) or less, more preferably 95 atm (1400 psi) more preferably or less. Various methods known in the art can be used for maintaining the pressure within the desired range including, for example, through the use of a back-pressure regulator.

[0021] The residence time of the reactants in the reactor is preferably at least 30 seconds, more preferably at least 90 seconds. Residence time can be controlled in various ways including, for example, by the length and/or width of the reactor or through the use of packing material. Residence time is determined by dividing the volume of the reactor by the inlet flow rates.

[0022] Following sufficient residence time, the nitration products are collected from the reactor through the reactor's exit port. Further processing, such as distillation, may be carried out on the nitrated products to, for example, isolate or purify the desirable materials.

[0023] In the invention, the hydrocarbon is n-butane and the nitric acid is delivered as 25-35 weight percent, preferably about 30 weight percent, solution.

[0024] As noted above, one of the advantages of the process of invention is that it results in increased conversion rates of starting reactants to either desired product or to materials that are readily recyclable or treatable, as compared to prior art systems. In some embodiments, therefore, at least 90 weight %, more preferably at least 95 weight %, of the nitric acid is consumed during the nitration reaction (determined as follows: (grams nitric acid in - grams nitric acid out)/grams nitric acid in). Most of the converted nitric acid that does not result in nitrated hydrocarbons is, for some feedstocks, in the readily recovered form of nitric oxide (NO).

[0025] In a further preferred embodiment, the conversion of hydrocarbon feedstock to nitrated hydrocarbon (determined by dividing the number of moles of nitrated hydrocarbon formed by the number of moles of hydrocarbon that is fed into the reaction) is at least 25 mole percent, more preferably at least 40 mole percent, and even more preferably at least 50 mole percent.

[0026] Nitrated hydrocarbons prepared according to the process of the invention include compounds of the formula (I):

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl; R1 is H or C1 alkyl; and Ry is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R1 and Ry are not simultaneously H, and when R is a C3 alkyl, R1 and Ry are simultaneously H.

[0027] It should be noted that some of the nitrated compounds and derivatives described herein are formed as mixtures. While it may be desirable to obtain one or more of the isomers in a substantially pure form, in many applications isomer purity is not necessary and the combined mixture is generally suitable for use as is. The invention therefore encompasses mixtures of two or more of the nitrated compounds, and mixtures of two or more of their derivatives.

[0028] In a second aspect, the invention provides processes for the preparation of a variety of downstream derivatives (or mixtures thereof) from the compounds of formula (I) (see Scheme 1). Such derivatives are useful in many industrially important applications.



[0029] Thus, according to one embodiment of the second aspect of the invention, a process is provided for the preparation of a nitroalcohol of the formula II:

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl; R2 is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R2 is not H; and R5 is independently H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl. The process of this embodiment comprises: (a) providing a nitrated hydrocarbon of formula (I), wherein Ry is H, prepared as described above; and (b) condensing the nitrated hydrocarbon with an aldehyde in the presence of an alkaline catalyst.

[0030] A variety of alkaline catalysts can be used for the condensation reaction, although sodium hydroxide or trimethylamine are preferred. Aldehydes for the condensation step are generally of the formula R5-C(=O)-H and include, for instance, such aldehydes as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, cyclohexanecarbaldehyde, and benzaldehyde (optionally substituted with alkyl, nitro, alkoxy, hydroxy, halogen, amide or ester groups), with formaldehyde being particularly preferred. Typically the reaction involves batchwise or continuously reacting the nitrated compound with an aqueous solution of the aldehyde at a mole ratio of about 1:1 and at a temperature of approximately 70-80 °C. The catalyst is preferably used in an amount sufficient to provide a normality of about 0.01-0.05 in the reaction mixture. Typically, the reaction is conducted without solvent. The product can be used directly as the aqueous solution or it can be recovered such as by stripping off volatiles under vacuum. Various known techniques, such as crystallization, may be used for further purifying the product.

[0031] For nitroalkanes of formula (I) in which the nitro group is present on a carbon bearing two hydrogens (i.e., R1 and Ry are both H), the condensation may optionally occur up to two times to generate a nitroalcohol with two hydroxy groups (i.e., R2 in formula (II) is -CH(R5)OH) by using two or more equivalents of the aldehyde.

[0032] In some embodiments, preferred compounds of formula (II) prepared according to the above process are those wherein R5 is H.

[0033] In a second embodiment of the second aspect of the invention, a process is provided for the preparation of an aminoalcohol of the formula (III):

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl; R2 is H or C1 alkyl provided that when R is an ethyl group, R2 is not H; and R5 is independently H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl. The process of this embodiment comprises: (a) providing a nitroalcohol of formula (II) prepared as described above; and (b) chemically reducing the nitroalcohol to the aminoalcohol. Chemical reduction of nitro compounds to amine is well known and a variety of techniques may be found in "Comprehensive Chemical Transformations", Richard C. Larock ed.; VCH Publishers, 1989, pages 411 - 415. Hydrogenation in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst is preferred.

[0034] Hydrogenation with a hydrogenation catalyst is a well known technique and the conditions for the reaction can be easily determined by a person of ordinary skill in the art. Suitable catalysts include, without limitation, Raney nickel, platinum and palladium. Raney nickel is preferred. Typically, the hydrogenation is conducted in an aqueous methanol or ethanol solution at a temperature of about 70-100 °C and a pressure of about 400-600 p.s.i.g. The catalyst is used in a concentration of between about 2 and 10 weight percent of the nitroalcohol to be hydrogenated. The product can be readily recovered through filtration of catalyst, followed by stripping of solvents. Various known techniques, such as crystallization or distillation, may be used for further purifying the product.

[0035] The aminoalcohols of formula (III) are useful, for instance, as neutralizing agents and pigment dispersants such as in paints and coatings, as CO2 or H2S scavengers in petroleum refinery operations and natural gas processing, and as catalysts or hardeners in epoxy or polyurethane applications. In some embodiments, preferred compounds of formula (III) are those wherein R5 is H. In some embodiments, it is preferred that R5 is phenyl, optionally substituted with hydroxy, halogen, nitro, C1-C6 alkoxy, -CO2-C1-C6 alkyl, or -CONRARB, where RA and RB are independently H or C1-C6 alkyl.

[0036] According to a third embodiment, a process is provided for the preparation of an oxazolidine of the formula (IV):

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl; R3 is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R3 is not H; and R4 is H; and R5 is H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl. The process of this embodiment comprises: (a) providing an aminoalcohol of formula (III) prepared as described above; and (b) reacting the aminoalcohol of formula (III) with formaldehyde.

[0037] Single oxazolidine structures of formula (IV) may be produced by the reaction of equimolar amounts of formaldehyde and the aminoalcohol of formula (III).

[0038] Typically, the reaction is conducted without solvent at about 50-70 °C temperature for a period of 1-2 hours. The product can be directly used without additional processing as the aqueous solution obtained from the condensation reaction, or further purification can be carried out, such as by distillation and/or crystallization.

[0039] Oxazolidines of formula (IV) are useful in a variety of applications, including as curing agents, such as for phenolic novolac resins, or as biocides. In some embodiments, preferred compounds of formula (IV) prepared according to the above process are those wherein R5 is H.

[0040] According to a fourth embodiment of the second aspect of the invention, a process is provided for the preparation of an N-alkylhydroxylamine of the formula V:

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl; R1 is H or C1 alkyl; and Ry is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R1 and Ry are not simultaneously H. The process of this embodiment comprises: (a) providing a nitrated hydrocarbon of formula (I) prepared as described above; (b) chemically reducing the nitrated hydrocarbon to the hydroxylamine. Chemical reductions of nitro compounds to hydroxylamines are well known and a variety of techniques may be used. Examples of chemical reducing agents used to prepare hydroxylamines from nitroalkanes include samarium iodide, Zn / NH4Cl, aluminum amalgam, and lithium aluminum hydride.

[0041] Partially hydrogenating the nitrated hydrocarbon in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst is a preferred technique.

[0042] Partial hydrogenation of a nitro groups to hydroxylamines is well known in the art and described, for instance, in U.S. Patent 5,288,907. A preferred catalyst for the partial hydrogenation is Pd/Al2O3, although other well known catalysts may be used. Typically the hydrogenation is conducted in water or methanol at 50-75 °C and 30-600 p.s.i.g. H2, witch good agitation for 4-6 hours. The product can be recovered by filtering off the catalyst, then storing, and using directly as an aqueous solution, or further isolation can done, such as by recrystallization.

[0043] Compounds of formula (V) function as radical scavengers and are therefore useful in a variety of applications, such as stabilizers and/or corrosion control agents in fuel, stabilizers of monomers, or as short-stopping agents in rubber polymerizations. A particularly preferred compound of formula (V) is N-sec-butylhydroxylamine.

[0044] The nitrated hydrocarbons and derivatives thereof can be further derivatized to provide additional useful materials. By way of one non-limiting example, the aminoalcohol of formula (III) can be mono or bis-alkylated at the amine to yield N-alkylated aminoalcohols of formula VI:

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl; R2 is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R2 is not H; R5 is independently H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl; and R6 is independently H or C1-C6 alkyl. Compounds of formula VI find use, for instance, as neutralizing agents, dispersants and polyurethane catalysts.

[0045] The compound of formula VI is prepared by reductive alkylation (e.g., methylation) using 1 or 2 equivalents of an aldehyde as the alkyl source (e.g., formaldehyde for methylation) and hydrogen over a hydrogenation catalyst, such as Raney nickel, at elevated temperature (e.g., 70 - 130 °C) and pressure (e.g. 41-51 atm (600-750 psi)).

[0046] In its third aspect (not within the scope of the claims), the invention provides nitrated hydrocarbons and derivative compounds. According to a first embodiment of this third aspect, the nitrated hydrocarbons are of the formula I-1:

wherein R7 is linear C2-C17 alkyl; and R8 is H or linear C1-C8 alkyl, provided that R7 and R8 together with the carbon to which they are attached form a linear C10-C18 alkyl chain, and provided that the compound is not: 1-nitrodecane, 2-nitrodecane, 1-nitroundecane, 2-nitroundecane, 3-nitroundecane, 4-nitroundecane, 5-nitroundecane, 6-nitroundecane, 1-nitrododecane, 2-nitrododecane, 3-nitrododecane, 4-nitrododecane, 5-nitrododecane, 6-nitrododecane, 1-nitrotridecane, 2-nitrotridecane, 3-nitrotridecane, 6-nitrotridecane, 1-nitrotetradecane, 1-nitropentadecane, 1-nitrohexadecane, 2-nitrohexadecane, 1-nitroheptadecane, 1-nitrooctadecane, or 2-nitrooctadecane.

[0047] Preferred compounds according to formula I-1 include those wherein R7 and R8 together with the carbon to which they are attached form a linear C12-C18 alkyl, C14-C18 alkyl, C16-C18 alkyl, C10-C16 alkyl, C10-C14 alkyl, or C10-C12 alkyl.

[0048] Also preferred are compounds wherein R7 and R8 are unsubstituted.

[0049] Particularly preferred compounds according to formula I-1 are: 3-nitrodecane, 4-nitrodecane, 5-nitrodecane, 4-nitrotridecane, 5-nitrotridecane, 7-nitrotridecane, 2-nitrotetradecane, 3-nitrotetradecane, 4-nitrotetradecane, 5-nitrotetradecane, 6-nitrotetradecane, 7-nitrotetradecane, 2-nitropentadecane, 3-nitropentadecane, 4-nitropentadecane, 5-nitropentadecane, 6-nitropentadecane, 7-nitropentadecane, 8-nitropentadecane, 3-nitrohexadecane, 4-nitrohexadecane, 5-nitrohexadecane, 6-nitrohexadecane, 7-nitrohexadecane, 8-nitrohexadecane, 2-nitroheptadecane, 3-nitroheptadecane, 4-nitroheptadecane, 5-nitroheptadecane, 6-nitroheptadecane, 7-nitroheptadecane, 8-nitroheptadecane, 9-nitroheptadecane, 3-nitrooctadecane, 4-nitrooctadecane, 5-nitrooctadecane, 6-nitrooctadecane, 7-nitrooctadecane, 8-nitrooctadecane, and 9-nitrooctadecane.

[0050] In a second embodiment of its third aspect, the invention provides a nitroalcohol of the formula II-1:

wherein R9 is linear C2-C17 alkyl; and R10 is H, linear C1-C8 alkyl, or CH2OH; or R9, R10, and the carbon to which they are attached form an eight membered cycloalkyl ring; provided that:

when R10 is H or linear C1-C8 alkyl, R9 and R10, together with the carbon to which they are attached, form a linear C5-C18 alkyl chain,

when R10 is CH2OH, R9 is linear C12-C16 alkyl; and

the compound is not: 2-nitro-1-hexanol, 2-nitro-1-heptanol, 2-nitro-1-octanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-heptanol, or 2-nitro-1-dodecanol.

[0051] Preferred compounds according to formula II-1 include those wherein when R10 is H or linear C1-C8 alkyl, R9 and R10, together with the carbon to which they are attached, form a linear C7-C18 alkyl, C9-C18 alkyl, C11-C18 alkyl, C13-C18 alkyl, C15-C18 alkyl, C5-C16 alkyl, C5-C14 alkyl, C5-C12 alkyl, C5-C10 alkyl, or C5-C8 alkyl chain.

[0052] Further preferred are compounds wherein when R10 is CH2OH, R9 is linear C14-C16 alkyl, or C12-C13 alkyl.

[0053] Also preferred are compounds wherein R9 and R10 are unsubstituted.

[0054] Particularly preferred compounds according to formula II-1 are: 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-pentanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-pentanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-hexanol, 2-nitro-2-propyl-1-pentanol, 2-nitro-1-nonanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-octanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-heptanol, 2-nitro-2-propyl-1-hexanol, 2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-nonanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-octanol, 2-nitro-2-propyl-1-heptanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-hexanol, 2-nitro-1-undecanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-nonanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-octanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-heptanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-undecanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-nonanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-octanol, 2-pentyl-2-nitro-1-heptanol, 2-nitro-1-tridecanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-dodecanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-undecanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-nonanol, 2-pentyl-2-nitro-1-octanol, 2-nitro-1-tetradecanol, 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-tetradecanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-tridecanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-dodecanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-undecanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-pentyl-2-nitro-1-nonanol, 2-hexyl-2-nitro-1-octanol, 2-nitro-1-pentadecanol, 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-pentadecanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-tetradecanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-tridecanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-dodecanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-undecanol, 2-pentyl-2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-hexyl-2-nitro-1-nonanol, 2-heptyl-2-nitro-1-octanol, 2-nitro-1-hexadecanol, 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-pentadecanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-tetradecanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-tridecanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-dodecanol, 2-pentyl-2-nitro-1-undecanol, 2-hexyl-2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-heptyl-2-nitro-1-nonanol, 2-nitro-1-heptadecanol, 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-heptadecanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-hexadecanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-pentadecanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-tetradecanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-tridecanol, 2-pentyl-2-nitro-dodecanol, 2-hexyl-2-nitro-1-undecanol, 2-heptyl-2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-nitro-1-octadecanol, 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-octadecanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-heptadecanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-hexadecanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-pentadecanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-tetradecanol, 2-pentyl-2-nitro-1-tridecanol, 2-hexyl-2-nitro-1-dodecanol, 2-heptyl-2-nitro-1-undecanol, 2-octyl-2-nitro-1-decanol, 2-nitro-1-nonadecanol, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-octadecanol, 2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-heptadecanol, 2-propyl-2-nitro-1-hexadecanol, 2-butyl-2-nitro-1-pentadecanol, 2-pentyl-2-nitro-1-tetradecanol, 2-hexyl-2-nitro-1-tridecanol, 2-heptyl-2-nitro-1-dodecanol, 2-octyl-2-nitro-1-undecanol, and 1-hydroxymethyl-1-nitrocyclooctane.

[0055] It should be noted that that the nitration process described above is the preferred procedure by which most of the compounds of formula I-1 are prepared. However, the process tends to provide low yields of 1-nitroalkane products. Therefore, for preparing 1-nitroalkane products, other higher yielding procedures are preferred. One such suitable procedure well known in the art is described in Kornblum, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 76, pp 3209-3211, 1954. By way of illustration, a typical procedure for the preparation of 1-nitrooctane is provided in the examples below.

[0056] In a third embodiment of its third aspect, the invention provides aminoalcohols of the formula III-1:

wherein R11 is linear C2-C17 alkyl; and R12 is H, linear C1-C8 alkyl, or CH2OH; or R11, R12, and the carbon to which they are attached form a C9-C11 cycloalkyl ring; provided that: when R12 is H or linear C1-C8 alkyl, R11 and R12, together with the carbon to which they are attached, form a linear C6-C18 alkyl chain;
when R12 is CH2OH, R11 is linear C7-C17 alkyl; and
the compound is not: 2-amino-1-heptanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-hexanol, 2-amino-1-octanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-amino-1-nonanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-octanol, 2-amino-1-decanol, 2-amino-2-octyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-hexanol, 2-amino-1-undecanol, 2-amino-1-dodecanol, 2-amino-2-decyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-1-tridecanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-dodecanol, 2-amino-1-tetradecanol, 2-amino-2-dodecyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-tridecanol, 2-amino-1-pentadecanol, 2-amino-2-tridecyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-1-hexadecanol, 2-amino-2-tetradecyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-pentadecanol, 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-decanol, 2-amino-1-heptadecanol, 2-amino-2-pentadecyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-1-octadecanol, or 2-amino-2-hexadecyl-1,3-propanediol.

[0057] Preferred compounds according to formula III-1 include those wherein, when R12 is H or linear C1-C8 alkyl, R11 and R12 together with the carbon to which they are attached form a linear C8-C18 alkyl, C10-C18 alkyl, C12-C18 alkyl, C14-C18 alkyl, C16-C18 alkyl, C6-C16 alkyl, C6-C14 alkyl, C6-C12 alkyl, C6-C10 alkyl, or C6-C8 alkyl chain.

[0058] Further preferred are compounds wherein, when R12 is CH2OH, R11 is linear C7-C15 alkyl, C7-C13 alkyl, C7-C11 alkyl, C7-C9 alkyl, C9-C17 alkyl, C11-C17 alkyl, C13-C17 alkyl, or C15-C17 alkyl.

[0059] Also preferred are compounds wherein R11 and R12 are unsubstituted.

[0060] Particularly preferred compounds according to formula III-1 are: 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-pentanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-heptanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-pentanol, 2-amino-2-heptyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-heptanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-hexanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-nonanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-octanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-heptanol, 2-amino-2-nonyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-decanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-nonanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-octanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-heptanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-undecanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-decanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-nonanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-octanol, 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-heptanol, 2-amino-2-undecyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-undecanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-decanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-nonanol, 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-octanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-dodecanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-undecanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-decanol, 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-nonanol, 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-octanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-tetradecanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-tridecanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-dodecanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-undecanol, 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-decanol, 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-nonanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-tetradecanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-tridecanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-dodecanol, 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-undecanol, 2-amino-2-heptyl-1-nonanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-hexadecanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-pentadecanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-tetradecanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-tridecanol, 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-dodecanol, 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-undecanol, 2-amino-2-heptyl-1-decanol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-heptadecanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-hexadecanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-pentadecanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-tetradecanol, 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-tridecanol, 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-dodecanol, 2-amino-2-heptyl-1-undecanol, 2-amino-2-octyl-1-decanol, 2-amino-1-nonadecanol, 2-ammo-2-heptadecyl-1,3-propanediol, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-octadecanol, 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-heptadecanol, 2-amino-2-propyl-1-hexadecanol, 2-amino-2-butyl-1-pentadecanol, 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-tetradecanol, 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-tridecanol, 2-amino-2-heptyl-1-dodecanol, 2-amino-2-octyl-1-undecanol, 1-hydroxymethyl-1-aminocyclononane, 1-hydroxymethyl-1-aminocyclodecane, and 1-hydroxymethyl-1-aminocycloundecane.

[0061] In a fourth embodiment of its third aspect, the invention provides oxazolidines of the formula IV-1:

wherein R13 is C2-C20 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, aryl, or aryl-alkyl-; R14 is H or C1-C12 alkyl, provided that when R13 is an ethyl group, R14 is not H; or R13 and R14 together with the carbon to which they are attached form a C3-C12 cycloalkyl ring; R15 is H; or R14, R15, and the atoms to which they are attached form an oxazolidine ring that is optionally substituted with C1-C6 alkyl; and R16 is H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl, provided that the compound is not: 5-propyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4,4-diethyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 3-oxa-1-azaspiro[4.4]nonane, 3-oxa-1-azaspiro[4.5]decane, or 3-oxa-1-azaspiro[4.7]dodecane.

[0062] Preferred compounds according to formula IV-I include those wherein R13 is C2-C20 alkyl. Also preferred are those wherein R13 is linear C4-C20 alkyl, C4-C20 alkyl, C6-C20 alkyl, C12-C20 alkyl, C14-C20 alkyl, C16-C20 alkyl, C18-C20 alkyl, C2-C18 alkyl, C2-C16 alkyl, C2-C14 alkyl, C2-C12 alkyl, C2-C10 alkyl, C2-C8 alkyl, C2-C6 alkyl, or C2-C4 alkyl.

[0063] Preferred compounds of formula IV-I also include those wherein R14 is H. Further preferred are those wherein R14 is linear C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 alkyl, C5-C12 alkyl, C7-C12 alkyl, C9-C12 alkyl, C1-C10 alkyl, C1-C8 alkyl, C1-C6 alkyl, C1-C4 alkyl, or C1-C2 alkyl.

[0064] Also preferred are compounds wherein R16 is H.

[0065] Particularly preferred compounds of formula IV-I are: 4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-butyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-propyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-pentyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-butyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-hexyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-methyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4,4-dipropyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-ethyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-heptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-heptyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-hexyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-octyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-heptyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-pentyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4,4-dibutyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-nonyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-methyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-heptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-hexyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-decyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-decyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-methyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-heptyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4,4-dipentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-undecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-decyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-octyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-heptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-hexyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-dodecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-dodecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-methyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-decyl-4-ethyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-nonyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-heptyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4,4-dihexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-tridecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-dodecyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-decyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-octyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-heptyl-4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-tetradecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-tetradecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-methyl-4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-dodecyl-4-ethyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-propyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-decyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-nonyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-hexyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4,4-diheptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-pentadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-pentadecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-methyl-4-tetradecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-dodecyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-decyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-hexyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-heptyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-hexadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-hexadecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-methyl-4-pentadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-tetradecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-propyl-4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-dodecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-pentyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-decyl-4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-heptyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4,4-dioctyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-heptadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 5-heptadecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane, 4-hexadecyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-ethyl-4-pentadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-propyl-4-tetradecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-butyl-4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-dodecyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-hexyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, 4-decyl-4-heptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane, and 4-octyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane.

[0066] In a fifth embodiment of its third aspect, the invention provides the following hydroxylamines: 2-(hydroxylamino)hexane, 3-(hydroxylamino)hexane, 2-(hydroxylamino)octane, and 3-(hydroxylamino)octane.

[0067] "Alkyl," as used in this specification, encompasses straight and branched chain aliphatic groups having the indicated number of carbon atoms. If no number is indicated (e.g., aryl-alkyl-), then 1-6 alkyl carbons are contemplated. Preferred alkyl groups include, without limitation, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl. Unless otherwise indicated, the alkyl group is optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3, preferably 1 or 2, more preferably 1, substituents that are compatible with the syntheses described herein. Such substituents include, but are not limited to, nitro, halogen, carboxylic acids (e.g., C0-C6-COOH), and C2-C6 alkene. Unless otherwise indicated, the foregoing substituent groups are not themselves further substituted.

[0068] An "aryl" group is a C6-C12 aromatic moiety comprising one to three aromatic rings. Preferably, the aryl group is a C6-C10 aryl group. Preferred aryl include, without limitation, phenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl, and fluorenyl. More preferred are phenyl and naphthyl. Unless otherwise indicated, the aryl group is optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3, preferably 1 or 2, more preferably 1, substituents that are compatible with the syntheses described herein. Such substituents include, but are not limited to, C1-C6 alkyl, nitro, halogen, carboxylic acids (e.g., C0-C6-COOH), and C2-C6 alkene. Unless otherwise indicated, the foregoing substituent groups are not themselves further substituted.

[0069] The term "cycloalkyl" refers to saturated and partially unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbon groups having the indicated number of ring carbon atoms. If no number is specified, then 3 to 12 carbons, preferably 3 to 8 carbons, and more preferably 3 to 7 carbons, are contemplated. Preferred cycloalkyl groups include, without limitation, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexenyl, cycloheptyl, and cyclooctyl. Unless otherwise indicated, the cycloalkyl group is optionally substituted with 1, 2, or 3, preferably 1 or 2, more preferably 1, substituents that are compatible with the syntheses described herein. Such substituents include, but are not limited to, C1-C6 alkyl, nitro, halogen, carboxylic acids (e.g., C0-C6-COOH), and C2-C6 alkene. A preferred substituent is C1-C6 alkyl.

[0070] The following examples are illustrative of the invention but are not intended to limit its scope.

EXAMPLES



[0071] General. Various aspects of the invention are demonstrated using a lab scale reactor. The reactor is a single tube shell-and-tube heat exchanger with a thermowell located axially down the center of the reactor in order to determine the temperature profile along the reactor's length. The reactor is 46" long and has a shell which is 1.25" OD 304 stainless steel with a ½" OD (0.37" ID) type 2 titanium process tubing and a 1/8" OD (0.093" ID) type 2 titanium thermowell. A very fine, movable thermocouple is inserted into the thermowell for the temperature profile measurement. The thermowell can be removed and the reactor filled with packing. The reactor is mounted vertically. The nitric acid and hydrocarbon reactant streams are mixed in a Swagelok "T" at room temperature prior to entering the reactor. Hot oil used is fed to the reactor shell countercurrent to the reactants. The reactor effluent is cooled in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger using city water as the coolant. The effluent is then depressurized with the gases and liquids collected, measured, and analyzed.

[0072] In the examples below, the mass balance of the nitration reaction is determined by GC/MS for gases, aqueous, nitrated hydrocarbons, and scrubber liquids, Karl Fisher titration for water content, potentiometric titration for strong/weak acid quantification, and HPLC for weak acid identification and quantification. Reactant residence times are calculated based on the volume of the reactor divided by the flowrates of the feeds at room temperature and the indicated reaction pressure.

[0073] In the Examples, the hydrocarbon compound is nitrated using nitric acid as the nitrating agent. Process conditions as well as key performance measurements are provided in Table 1.

[0074] Reference Example 2 (cyclohexane nitration at 41 atm (600 psi) and 210 °C) shows that lower operating pressure tends to reduce raw material conversion and yields. The lower conversion is partially offset by the presence of significantly more nitric oxide which may be recovered as nitric acid. Lower conversion can also be compensated for by increasing the residence time in the reactor.

[0075] Reference Example 3 demonstrates the use of packing material in the reactor. Packing increases mixing and heat transfer in the reactor, but also increases the amount of liquid holdup in the reactor which favors increased formation of oxidation byproducts.

[0076] Introducing packing significantly increased nitric acid conversion (compared to example 2). However, the low nitric acid and cyclohexane yields show that the increased conversion primarily goes to oxidation byproducts.

[0077] The process conditions of Reference Example 8 provide relatively low nitric acid conversion (for n-butane). Example 9 and Reference Example 10 demonstrate how the process conditions can be changed to improve the conversion levels.

[0078] Example 9 shows that nitric acid conversion is significantly increased (compared to Reference Example 8) by using a higher temperature. The Example also demonstrates that the increase in nitric acid conversion occurs despite the use of less excess n-butane.

[0079] Reference Example 10 demonstrates that nitric acid conversion is significantly increased (compared to Reference Example 8) by increasing the pressure. This occurs despite the use of less excess n-butane.

[0080] Example 11 shows that nitric acid conversion is significantly increased (compared to Reference Example 8) by increasing the oil temperature and pressure. In this case the same mole ratio of reactants is used as in Reference Example 8.
Table 1. Process Conditions and Key Performance Measurements for Exemplary Hydrocarbons Nitrated According to the Invention.
ExFeedPressure (psi)Temp. (°C)Feed:HNO3 (mol)[HNO3] (wt. %)Time (s)NAa conversionHCb conversionNA yieldcHC yieldd
1* cyclohexane 1200 210 2.5:1 30 120 99.9 34.8 1.01 1.28
2* cyclohexane 600 210 2.0:1 30 120 78.0 25.9 1.67 1.29
3* cyclohexane (packed) 600 230 2.0:1 30 75 100.0 32.7 2.74 2.58
                     
4* isobutane 1200 210 1.65:1 30 120 95.9 23.0 1.64 0.83
5* isobutane 1000 220 1.3:1 30 120 95.6 29.0 1.76 0.94
6* isobutane 1400 200 1.3:1 30 120 95.5 29.7 1.89 0.82
                     
7 n-butane 1250 220 1.6:1 30 120 95.2 42.8 1.24 0.92
8* n-butane 1000 200 2.0:1 30 120 57.5 28.7 2.81 1.69
9 n-butane 1000 240 1.2:1 30 120 95.2 43.7 1.54 0.92
10* n-butane 1500 200 1.2:1 30 120 95.1 52.9 1.39 0.87
11 n-butane 1500 240 2.0:1 30 120 97.9 36.4 0.94 0.87
                     
12* toluene 900 180 2.375:1 30 120 71.1 28.9 1.15 1.45
13* toluene 1200 160 1.75:1 30 120 73.7 32.3 1.10 1.14
14* toluene 1200 200 3:1 30 120 91.6 23.9 0.84 1.20
aNitric Acid Conversion = 100 x (grams nitric acid in - grams nitric acid out)/grams nitric acid in.
bHC (hydrocarbon) Conversion = 100 x (grams HC in - grams HC out)/grams HC in.
cNitric Acid Yield = grams nitric acid consumed/grams nitro-HC produced. Grams nitric acid consumed = (moles nitric acid fed - moles NO produced) x 63. This calculation treats unreacted nitric acid as a yield loss. (Note: 63 g/mole is the molecular weight of nitric acid) dHC yield = grams HC consumed/g nitro-HC produced. Grams HC consumed = grams HC in - grams HC out. This calculation treats unreacted HC as being recoverable.
* reference example (not within the scope of the claims)


[0081] Additional data for the n-butane nitration examples (Examples/Reference Examples 7-11) are provided in Table 2, including selectivity data. 2-Nitrobutane selectivity is calculated as 100 x (grams 2-nitrobutane made/(grams 2-nitrobutane made + grams 1-nitrobutane made). The 2-nitrobutane: carboxylic acid weight ratio is calculated as grams 2-nitrobutane/(grams of acetic acid + grams of propionic acid + grams of butyric acid).
Table 2
Ex.2-nitrobutane selectivity2-nitrobutane: carboxylic acid weight ratio
7 95.2 4.0
8* 94.8 2.3
9 93.9 2.7
10* 94.5 3.7
11 94.2 5.2
* reference example (not within the scope of the claims)


[0082] Table 2 shows the selectivity to 2-nitrobutane is consistent over a wide range of process conditions demonstrating the robustness of the process of the invention.

[0083] Further reference examples of nitrated compounds and process conditions are provided in Table 3.
Table 3
hydrocarbonresidence time, secondsmole ratio, hydrocarbon: nitric acidnitric acid strength, wt.%hot oil temp., Cpressure, psig1-nitro2-nitro3-nitro4-nitro
n-pentane 120 2.5 30 205 1400 4.7 24.3 71.1 NA
n-hexane 120 2.5 30 200 1000 3.2 49.7 47.1 NA
n-octane 120 2 30 215 1000 2.1 34.2 32.1 31.6
Isopentane 120 3 30 180 1400 Mixture of Isomers
3-methyl pentane 120 3 30 170 1400 Mixture of Isomers
2,3 dimethyl butane 120 3 30 170 1400 Mixture of Isomers
cyclopentane 120 2 30 220 900 100%      
Methylcyclopentane 120 4 20 190 1400 Mixture of Isomers
Methylcyclohexane 120 2 30 200 1200 Mixture of Isomers
Ethylcyclohexane 120 3 30 185 1400 Mixture of Isomers
Isopropylcyclohexane 120 3 30 185 1400 Mixture of Isomers
Tert-butylcyclohexane 120 3 30 190 1400 Mixture of Isomers
cyclooctane 120 2 30 215 1200 100%      
Isooctane 120 2 30 210 1000 Mixture of Isomers
n-hexadecane 120 2 30 220 600 Mixture of Isomers
Tetralin 120 3 30 155 1000 Mixture of Isomers
Decalin 120 3 25 185 1400 Mixture of Isomers
ethylbenzene 120 3 30 155 1500 *
n-Propylbenzene 120 3 30 175 1000 *
Cumene 90 2 30 140 1500 *
Isobutylbenzene 120 2 30 145 1500 *
The amounts of 1-nitro, 2-nitro, etc. are the relative amounts of the nitro isomers. The calculation involves summing all of the isomers then determining the distribution using gc area %.
* - For aromatic compounds, the nitration occurs exclusively at the carbon next to the ring.

Reference Example 12 (not within the scope of the claims): Preparation of 1-Nitrooctane



[0084] This example is illustrative of an alternative procedure for the preparation of 1-nitroalkanes.

[0085] In a 3-neck flask fitted with a stirrer, dropping funnel and reflux condenser protected by a drying tube, are placed 100 g (0.6 5mol) of silver nitrite and 150 mL anhydrous ether. The mixture is cooled to 0 °C and then, with continuous stirring (in the absence of light), 120 g (0.5 mol) of n-octyl iodide are added over a period of 2 hours. After the addition is complete, the mixture is stirred at 0 °C for 24 hours, followed by stirring at room temperature for an additional 36 hours. The silver salts are removed by filtration and washed with ether. The combined ether solutions is concentrated to an oil which is rectified under reduced pressure. The product boiling between 71.5 - 72 °C / 3 torr is collected (64.9g, 83% yield).

[0086] Examples of nitrated compounds that are prepared as described in Examples/Reference Examples 1-11 above (using appropriate starting hydrocarbon) are listed in Table 4.
Table 4
Nitrated CompoundTypical Purity (GC)BP or MP
2-nitroisobutane >98% water azeotrope 56C / 185 torr (77% nitro / 23% water)
2-nitrobutane Mixture of 1 and 2 isomers  
2-nitropentane Nearly 1:1 mixture of 2,3 isomers (>98.5% by GC) 58C/10 torr
3-nitrohexane Mixture 2,3-isomers 56 - 58C / 9.5 torr
4-nitrooctane Mixture of 2,3,4 isomers (>99.5% by GC) 66-76 °C/4 torr
1-nitrocyclopentane 95-99% 76°C/19 torr
1-nitrocyclohexane >98 %  
1-nitrocyclooctane 92% nitrocyclooctane, 5% nitrocyclooctene 76C / 1.2 torr
phenylnitromethane 90% + contaminants 83°C/2.3 torr
1,1,3,3-tetramethylnitrobutane Mixture of nitroisomers  
1-methyl-1-nitrocyclopentane 80% + isomers  
1-methyl-1-nitrocyclohexane 60% + isomers 46-59°C/1 torr
1-phenylnitroethane >97% 95/2 torr
2-phenyl-2-nitropropane >70% 90C/0.3 torr


[0087] Following the procedures described above and making non-critical variations, the following additional nitrated compounds are prepared from the appropriate starting hydrocarbon (Table 5).




Example 13: Preparation of 2-Methyl-2-Nitro-1-Butanol



[0088] A 2-liter 3-neck flask is equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a reflux condenser with a nitrogen bubbler, an addition funnel and a temperature controller with heating mantle and thermocouple. The flask is charged with aqueous formaldehyde solution (420 mL, 37 % active, 5.64 mol) and 4 mL triethylamine catalyst. The addition funnel is charged with 2-nitrobutane (554.1 g, 5.37 mol). The 2-nitrobutane is added dropwise, over a period of 7 hours to the formaldehyde solution, which is being stirred under nitrogen. The reaction is maintained at 40 °C during the addition. After all the 2-nitrobutane is added, the turbid mixture is warmed to 45 °C for 30 min, and then heating and stirring are discontinued overnight. If a GC analysis indicates the reaction is not yet complete; an additional 10.9 g aqueous formaldehyde is added and the mixture stirred at 45 °C for 2.5 hours. Upon cooling to room temperature, the reaction mass separates into an oil layer with a smaller, separate water layer. The oil layer is collected (1022.8 g, 97.9 % of theory) and GC indicates 94.8 % purity. The oil is used without further purification.

[0089] Additional examples of nitroalcohols that are prepared as described above (substituting the appropriate starting materials) are listed in Table 6.
Table 6
NitroalcoholTypical Purity (area % GC or LC)BP or MP
2-methyl-2-nitro-1-butanol 95%  
2-ethyl-2-nitro-1-pentanol Mixture with 2-methyl-2-nitro-1-hexanol: 93% by GC  
2-nitro-2-propyl-1-hexanol Mixture of 2,3,4-isomers  
1-hydroxymethyl-1-nitrocyclopentane 93.5%  
1-hydroxymethyl-1-nitrocyclohexane 95%  
1-hydroxymethyl-1-nitrocyclooctane 51%  
(1,1-bis-hydroxymethyl-1-nitromethyl)benzene >99% Mp = 96.4 °C
2-nitro-2-phenyl-1-propanol 86.5% (LC) Mp=52-53C


[0090] Following the procedures described above and making non-critical variations, the following additional nitroalcohols are prepared from the appropriate starting hydrocarbon (Table 7).




Example 14: Preparation of 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Butanol



[0091] A 2-liter Parr autoclave is charged with methanol (300 mL) and Raney Nickel catalyst (R-3111 grade, 26.5 g wet weight). The reactor is sealed, purged with nitrogen followed by purging with hydrogen and then brought up to 65 °C under 625 psi hydrogen pressure. With rapid stirring, a solution of 2-nitro-2-methyl-1-butanol in water (450 g total solution, 71 % actives) is added over 1.5 hours while maintaining 65 °C/610psi hydrogen. When the addition is completed, the reaction is allowed to continue for an additional 10 minutes followed by cooling to room temperature. The autoclave is vented, opened and the crude product isolated via vacuum filtration. The methanol solvent is removed on a rotary evaporator at 50 °C / 29" vacuum, followed by azeotropically removing the last remnants of water with 100 mL toluene under identical conditions. The yield of crude, stripped product is 196.6 g (79 % of theory). The product is vacuum distilled through a fractionating column packed with stainless steel mesh; the product boiling between 85 - 86 °C / 15 torr is collected. GC analysis indicates >97% purity for the water white oil.

[0092] Additional examples of aminoalcohols that are prepared as described above (substituting the appropriate starting materials) are listed in Table 8.
Table 8
AminoalcoholTypical Purity (GC)BP or MP
2-amino-2-methyl-1-butanol 97.8% 85-86°C/15 torr
2-amino-2-methyl-1-hexanol Mixture with 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-pentanol. 96% 103-106C/15mm
2-amino-2-propyl-1-hexanol Mixture of 2,3,4 isomers. 92.2% 99C/2.2 mm
1-hydroxymethyl-1-aminocyclopentane 96.6% 111-112C/15mm
1-hydroxymethyl-1-aminocyclohexane 98.6% 106-108C/7 torr
1-hydroxymethyl-1-aminocycloheptane    
1-hydroxymethyl-1-aminocyclooctane 71.5% 139-141C/9mm (mp=40-50C)
(1,1-bis-hydroxymethyl-1-aminomethyl)benzene >99% Mp = 117.4°C
2-amino-2-phenyl-1-propanol 79% 115-121C/2.2mm


[0093] Following the procedures described above and making non-critical variations, the following additional aminoalcohol compounds are prepared from the appropriate starting materials (Table 9).




Reference Example 15: Preparation of 3-Oxa-1-azaspiro[4.5]decane



[0094] To a 500 mL flask containing 1-amino-cyclohexylmethanol (135 g, 1.05 mol) and methanol (50 mL) is added methyl formcel (53mL of 55% formaldehyde in methanol / water, 1.06 mol) dropwise over a 1 hour period. During the addition, the stirred solution is warmed gently from room temperature to 37 °C. After the addition is completed, the mixture is allowed to stir overnight at room temperature. The clear, colorless reaction mixture is stripped on a rotary evaporator (50 °C / 29" vacuum). The resulting oil is distilled under vacuum giving a clear, colorless, mobile liquid with a boiling point of 43 °C/0.8 torr. A total of 123.4 g is collected ( 83 % yield). A GC analysis indicates 95.6% purity.

[0095] Following the procedures described above and making non-critical variations, the following oxazolidine compounds are prepared from the appropriate starting aminoalcohol (Table 10).
Table 10
OxazolidineStarting Aminoalcohol
4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-pentanol
5-propyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-pentanol
4-ethyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-butanol
4-butyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-hexanol
5-butyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-hexanol
4-propyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-pentanol
4,4-diethyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-butanol
4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-heptanol
5-pentyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-heptanol
4-butyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-hexanol
4-ethyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-pentanol
4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-octanol
5-hexyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-octanol
4-methyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-heptanol
4,4-dipropyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-hexanol
4-butyl-4-ethyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-pentanol
4-heptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-nonanol
5-heptyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-nonanol
4-hexyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino2-methyl-1-octanol
4-ethyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-heptanol
4-butyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-hexanol
4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-decanol
5-octyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-decanol
4-heptyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amion-2-methyl-1-nonanol
4-ethyl-4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amion-2-ethyl-1-octanol
4-pentyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-heptanol
4,4-dibutyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-1-hexanol
4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-undecanol
5-nonyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethy-1-undecanol
4-methyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-decanol
4-ethyl-4-heptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-nonanol
4-hexyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-octanol
4-butyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-1-heptanol
4-decyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-dodecanol
5-decyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethy-1-dodecanol
4-methyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-undecanol
4-heptyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-decanol
4-ethyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-nonanol
4-butyl-4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-1-octanol
4,4-dipentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-heptanol
4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-tridecanol
5-undecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-tridecanol
4-decyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-dodecanol
4-ethyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-undecanol
4-octyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-decanol
4-butyl-4-heptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-1-nonanol
4-hexyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-octanol
4-dodecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-tetradecanol
5-dodecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-tetradecanol
4-methyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-tridecanol
4-decyl-4-ethyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-dodecanol
4-nonyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-undecanol
4-butyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-1-decanol
4-heptyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-nonanol
4,4-dihexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-octanol
4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-pentadecanol
5-tridecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-pentadecanol
4-dodecyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-tetradecanol
4-ethyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-tridecanol
4-decyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-dodecanol
4-butyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-1-undecanol
4-octyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-decanol
4-heptyl-4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-nonanol
4-tetradecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-hexadecanol
5-tetradecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-hexadecanol
4-methyl-4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-pentadecanol
4-dodecyl-4-ethyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-tetradecanol
4-propyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-tridecanol
4-butyl-4-decyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-1-dodecanol
4-nonyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-undecanol
4-hexyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-decanol
4,4-diheptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-heptyl-1-nonanol
4-pentadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-heptadecanol
5-pentadecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-heptadecanol
4-methyl-4-tetradecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-hexadecanol
4-ethyl-4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-pentadecanol
4-dodecyl-4-propyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-tetradecanol
4-butyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-1-tridecanol
4-decyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-dodecanol
4-hexyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-undecanol
4-heptyl-4-octyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-heptyl-1-decanol
4-hexadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-octadecanol
5-hexadecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-octadecanol
4-methyl-4-pentadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-heptadecanol
4-ethyl-4-tetradecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-hexadecanol
4-propyl-4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-pentadecanol
4-butyl-4-dodecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-2-tetradecanol
4-pentyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-tridecanol
4-decyl-4-hexyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-dodecanol
4-heptyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-heptyl-1-undecanol
4,4-dioctyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-octyl-1-decanol
4-heptadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-1-nonadecanol
5-heptadecyl-1-aza-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1-nonadecanol
4-hexadecyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-methyl-1-octadecanol
4-ethyl-4-pentadecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-ethyl-1-heptadecanol
4-propyl-4-tetradecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-propyl-1-hexadecanol
4-butyl-4-tridecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-butyl-2-pentadecanol
4-dodecyl-4-pentyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-pentyl-1-tetradecanol
4-hexyl-4-undecyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-hexyl-1-tridecanol
4-decyl-4-heptyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-heptyl-1-dodecanol
4-octyl-4-nonyl-1-oxa-3-azacyclopentane 2-amino-2-octyl-1-undecanol
3-oxa-1-azaspiro[4.4]nonane 1-amino-1-hydroxymethylcyclopentane
3-oxa-1-azaspiro[4.5]decane 1-amino-1-hydroxymethylcyclohexane
3-oxa-1-azaspiro[4.7]dodecane 1-amino-1-hydroxymethylcyclooctane

Reference Example 16: Use of Oxazolidine Derivatives as Phenolic Resin Curing Agents DSC ANALYSES:



[0096] DSC analyses are performed using a TA Instruments Model Q100 differential scanning calorimeter. Scans for screening hardeners with novolac resins are run from 25 °C to 250 °C at ΔT = 10°C / minute with a nitrogen flow of 50 cc / minute. High volume (100 µL) aluminum pans are used. A small hole is punched in the top before crimping. After the initial scan, the samples are cooled back to room temperature, then the scans are re-run to obtain Tg data.

[0097] In order to demonstrate the utility of the oxazolidines of the methods of the invention as hardeners, a series of formulations are prepared using commercially available PF novolac resins. In order to facilitate mixing of components, the resins in this study are used as 80 wt. % solutions in ethanol. Any variations observed in the curing behavior of these formulations are attributed to the hardener / catalyst being evaluated. ZOLDINE™ ZE, structure shown below, is used as the baseline for comparison since it is a known curing agent for phenolic novolac resins. The formulations are adjusted to keep the molar ratio of hardener to phenolic resin reactive sites constant.

[0098] The formulations are evaluated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC; TA Instruments Model Q100) to observe curing onset and peak temperatures and heats of curing for the curing events taking place. The DSC scans are run at AT = 10 °C / minute from 25°C to 250°C under a nitrogen flow of 50 cc / minute. The data obtained in this study are summarized in Table 11 below.



Table 11
Example #HardenerPHROnset/Peak 1 (Heat J/g)Onset/Peak 2 (Heat J/g)Observations After Cure
Baseline 1 (comparative) ZE 33.3 166/194 (264) None No exotherm, Tg>200C
Baseline 2 (comparative) ZE 44.2 171/198 (244 None No exotherm, Tg>200C
Example 16-1 Compound A 48 58.1/96.5(28.8) 202/224.1 (161.2) No exotherm, Tg = 110C
Example 16-2 Compound B 72 55/193.5 (129.2) None No exotherm, Tg = 140C
Example 16-3 Compound C 72 161.4/192.3 (47.2) None No exotherm, Tg = 38C
Example 16-4 Compound D 76 62.3/105.5 (11.0) 163.3/184.9 (65.4) No exotherm, Tg = 58C
PHR = parts of hardener per 100 parts resin solution



Claims

1. A process for the selective nitration of n-butane, the process comprising:

providing a down-flow configured reactor;

reacting n-butane with aqueous nitric acid at a pressure of from 68 atm (1000 psi) to 102 atm (1500 psi) and a temperature of between 220 and 325 degrees Celsius; and

recovering the formed nitrated compounds,

wherein the aqueous nitric acid is a 25 to 35 weight percent solution.
 
2. A process according to claim 1, wherein the molar ratio of n-butane to nitric acid is at least 1.2 to 1.
 
3. A process according to any one of claims 1-2 wherein the nitrated compound is of the formula (I):

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl; and R1 is H or C1 alkyl; and Ry is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R1 and Ry are not simultaneously H, and when R is a C3 alkyl, R1 and Ry are simultaneously H.
 
4. A process according to claim 3 further comprising preparing a nitroalcohol of formula II:

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl and R2 is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R2 is not H; and R5 is independently H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl, the process comprising:

(a) preparing a nitrated hydrocarbon of formula (I) wherein Ry is H, according to claim 3; and

(b) condensing the nitrated hydrocarbon with an aldehyde of formula R5-C(=O)-H in the presence of an alkaline catalyst to provide the nitroalcohol of formula (II).


 
5. A process according to claim 4 further comprising preparing an aminoalcohol of formula (III):

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl and R2 is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R2 is not H; and R5 is independently H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl, the process comprising:

(a) preparing a nitroalcohol of formula (II) according to claim 4; and

(b) chemically reducing the nitroalcohol to provide the aminoalcohol of formula (III).


 
6. A process according to claim 5 further comprising preparing an oxazolidine of formula (IV):

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl and R3 is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R3 is not H; and R4 is H; and R5 is H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl, the process comprising:

(a) preparing an aminoalcohol of formula (III) according to claim 5; and

(b) reacting the aminoalcohol of formula (III) with formaldehyde to provide the oxazolidine of formula (IV).


 
7. A process according to claim 3 further comprising preparing an N-alkylhydroxylamine of formula (V):

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl; R1 is H or C1 alkyl; and Ry is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R1 and Ry are not simultaneously H, the process comprising:

(a) preparing a nitrated hydrocarbon of formula (I) according to claim 3;

(b) chemically reducing the nitrated hydrocarbon to provide the N-alkylhydroxylamine of formula (V).


 
8. A process according to claim 5 further comprising preparing a compound of formula VI:

wherein R is C2-C3 alkyl and R2 is H or C1 alkyl, provided that when R is an ethyl group, R2 is not H; R5 is independently H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C12 cycloalkyl, or aryl; and R6 is independently H or C1-C6 alkyl, provided that both R6 are not H, the process comprising:

(a) preparing an aminoalcohol of formula (III) according to claim 5; and

(b) reductively alkylating the aminoalcohol in the presence of an aldehyde, hydrogen, and a hydrogenation catalyst to provide the compound of formula VI.


 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren für die selektive Nitrierung von n-Butan, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

Bereitstellen eines abwärtsströmungskonfigurierten Reaktors;

Reagieren von n-Butan mit wässriger Salpetersäure bei einem Druck von 68 atm (1000 psi) bis 102 atm (1500 psi) und einer Temperatur zwischen 220 und 325 Grad Celsius; und

Rückgewinnen der gebildeten nitrierten Verbindungen,

wobei die wässrige Salpetersäure eine Lösung mit 25 bis 35 Gewichtsprozent ist.
 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Molverhältnis von n-Butan zu Salpetersäure mindestens 1,2 zu 1 beträgt.
 
3. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1-2, wobei die nitrierte Verbindung der Formel (I) ist:

wobei R C2-C3-Alkyl ist; und R1 H oder C1-Alkyl ist; und Ry H oder C1-Alkyl ist, unter der Voraussetzung, dass, wenn R eine Ethylgruppe ist, R1 und Ry nicht gleichzeitig H sind, und wenn R ein C3-Alkyl ist, R1 und Ry gleichzeitig H sind.
 
4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, weiter umfassend die Zubereitung eines Nitroalkohols der Formel II:

wobei R C2-C3-Alkyl ist und R2 H oder C1-Alkyl ist, unter der Voraussetzung, dass, wenn R eine Ethylgruppe ist, R2 nicht H ist; und R5 unabhängig H, C1-C12-Alkyl, C3-C12-Cycloalkyl oder Aryl ist, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

(a) Zubereiten eines nitrierten Kohlenwasserstoffs der Formel (I), wobei Ry H ist, nach Anspruch 3; und

(b) Kondensieren des nitrierten Kohlenwasserstoffs mit einem Aldehyd der Formel R5-C(=O)-H in der Gegenwart eines alkalischen Katalysators zum Bereitstellen des Nitroalkohols der Formel (II).


 
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 4, weiter umfassend
die Zubereitung eines Aminoalkohols der Formel (III):

wobei R C2-C3-Alkyl ist und R2 H oder C1-Alkyl ist, unter der Voraussetzung, dass, wenn R eine Ethylgruppe ist, R2 nicht H ist; und R5 unabhängig H, C1-C12-Alkyl, C3-C12-Cycloalkyl oder Aryl ist, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

(a) Zubereiten eines Nitroalkohols der Formel (II) nach Anspruch 4; und

(b) chemisches Reduzieren des Nitroalkohols zum Bereitstellen des Aminoalkohols der Formel (III).


 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, weiter umfassend
die Zubereitung eines Oxazolidins der Formel (IV):

wobei R C2-C3-Alkyl ist und R3 H oder C1-Alkyl ist, unter der Voraussetzung, dass, wenn R eine Ethylgruppe ist, R3 nicht H ist; und R4 H ist; und R5 H, C1-C12-Alkyl, C3-C12-Cycloalkyl oder Aryl ist, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

(a) Zubereiten eines Aminoalkohols der Formel (III) nach Anspruch 5; und

(b) Reagieren des Aminoalkohols der Formel (III) mit Formaldehyd zum Bereitstellen des Oxazolidins der Formel (IV).


 
7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, weiter umfassend
die Zubereitung eines N-Alkylhydroxylamins der Formel (V):

wobei R C2-C3-Alkyl ist; R1 H oder C1-Alkyl ist; und Ry H oder C1-Alkyl ist, unter der Voraussetzung, dass, wenn R eine Ethylgruppe ist, R1 und Ry nicht gleichzeitig H sind, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

(a) Zubereiten eines nitrierten Kohlenwasserstoffs der Formel (I) nach Anspruch 3;

(b) chemisches Reduzieren des nitrierten Kohlenwasserstoffs zum Bereitstellen des N-Alkylhydroxylamins der Formel (V).


 
8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, weiter umfassend
die Zubereitung einer Verbindung der Formel VI:

wobei R C2-C3-Alkyl ist und R2 H oder C1-Alkyl ist, unter der Voraussetzung, dass, wenn R eine Ethylgruppe ist, R2 nicht H ist; R5 unabhängig H, C1-C12-Alkyl, C3-C12-Cycloalkyl oder Aryl ist; und R6 unabhängig H oder C1-C6-Alkyl ist, unter der Voraussetzung, dass beide R6 nicht H sind, wobei das Verfahren Folgendes umfasst:

(a) Zubereiten eines Aminoalkohols der Formel (III) nach Anspruch 5; und

(b) reduzierendes Alkylieren des Aminoalkohols in der Gegenwart eines Aldehyds, von Wasserstoff und eines Hydrierungskatalysators zum Bereitstellen der Verbindung der Formel VI.


 


Revendications

1. Processus de nitration sélective de n-butane, le processus comprenant :

la fourniture d'un réacteur configuré avec écoulement vers le bas ;

la mise en réaction de n-butane avec l'acide nitrique aqueux à une pression comprise entre 68 atm (1000 psi) et 102 atm (1500 psi)

et une température comprise entre 220 et 325 degrés Celsius ; et

la récupération des composés nitrés formés, où l'acide nitrique aqueux est une solution de 25 à 35 pour cent en poids.


 
2. Processus selon la revendication 1, où le ratio molaire de n-butane à l'acide nitrique est d'au moins 1,2 à 1.
 
3. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 et 2, où le composé nitré est de la formule (I) :

où R est alkyle en C2-C3 ; et R1 est H ou alkyle en C1 ; et Ry est H ou alkyle en C1, sous réserve que si R est un groupe éthyle, R1 et Ry ne sont pas simultanément H, et si R est un alkyle en C3 R1 et Ry sont simultanément H.
 
4. Processus selon la revendication 3 comprenant en outre la préparation d'un nitroalcool de formule II :

où R1 est H ou alkyle en C2-C3 et R2 est H ou alkyle en C1, sous réserve que si R est un groupe éthyle, R2 ne soit pas H ; et R5 soit indépendamment H, alkyle en C1-C12, cycloalkyle en C3-C12 ou aryle, le processus comprenant :

(a) la préparation d'un hydrocarbure nitré de formule (I), dans laquelle Ry est H, selon la revendication 3 ; et

(b) la condensation de l'hydrocarbure nitré avec un aldéhyde de formule R5-C(=O)-H en présence d'un catalyseur alcalin pour fournir le nitroalcool de formule (II).


 
5. Processus selon la revendication 4 comprenant en outre :

la préparation d'un aminoalcool de formule (III) :

où R est alkyle en C2-C3 et R2 est H ou alkyle en C1, sous réserve que si R est un groupe éthyle, R2 ne soit pas H ; et R5 soit indépendamment H, alkyle en C1-C12, cycloalkyle en C3-C12 ou aryle, le processus comprenant :

(a) la préparation d'un nitroalcool de formule (II) selon la revendication 4 ; et

(b) la réduction chimique du nitroalcohol pour fournir l'aminoalcohol de formule (III).


 
6. Processus selon la revendication 5 comprenant en outre :

la préparation d'une oxazolidine de formule (IV) :

où R est alkyle en C2-C3 et R3 est H ou alkyle en C1, sous réserve que si R est un groupe éthyle, R3 ne soit pas H ; et R4 soit H ; et R5 soit H, alkyle en C1-C12, cycloalkyle en C3-C12 ou aryle, le processus comprenant :

(a) la préparation d'un aminoalcool de formule (III) selon la revendication 5 ; et

(b) la mise en réaction de l'aminoalcohol de formule (III) avec le formaldéhyde pour donner l'oxazolidine de formule (IV).


 
7. Processus selon la revendication 3 comprenant en outre :

la préparation d'une N-alkylhydroxylamine de formule (V) :

où R est alkyle C2-C3 ; R1 est H ou alkyle en C1 ; et Ry est H ou alkyle en C1, sous réserve que si R est un groupe éthyle, R1 et Ry ne soient pas simultanément H, le processus comprenant :

(a) la préparation d'un hydrocarbure nitré de formule (I) selon la revendication 3 ;

(b) la réduction chimique de l'hydrocarbure nitré pour fournir la N-alkylhydroxylamine de formule (V).


 
8. Processus selon la revendication 5 comprenant en outre la préparation d'un composé de formule VI :

où R est alkyle en C2-C3 et R2 est H ou alkyle en C1 sous réserve que si R est un groupe éthyle, R2 ne soit pas H ; R5 soit indépendamment H, alkyle en C1-C12, cycloalkyle en C3-C12 ou aryle ; et R6 soit indépendamment H ou alkyle en C1-C6, sous réserve que les deux R6 ne soient pas H, le processus comprenant :

(a) la préparation d'un aminoalcool de formule (III) selon la revendication 5 ; et

(b) l'alkylation réductrice de l'aminoalcool en présence d'un aldéhyde, d'un hydrogène et d'un catalyseur d'hydrogénation pour fournir le composé de formule VI.


 




REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description