(19)
(11)EP 2 287 597 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
30.07.2014 Bulletin 2014/31

(21)Application number: 09252002.2

(22)Date of filing:  17.08.2009
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01N 27/333  (2006.01)
G01N 27/414  (2006.01)

(54)

Electrochemical sensor

Elektrochemischer Sensor

Capteur électrochimique


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
23.02.2011 Bulletin 2011/08

(73)Proprietor: NXP B.V.
5656 AG Eindhoven (NL)

(72)Inventors:
  • Merz, Matthias
    Redhill Surrey RH1 1DL (GB)
  • Ponomarev, Youri Victorovitch
    Redhill Surrey RH1 1DL (GB)

(74)Representative: Crawford, Andrew et al
NXP SEMICONDUCTORS UK LTD Intellectual Property & Licensing Red Central 60 High Street
Redhill, Surrey RH1 1SH
Redhill, Surrey RH1 1SH (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A-2006/086423
US-A- 5 342 498
US-A- 4 940 945
US-A1- 2007 003 209
  
  • SIMONIS A ET AL: "New concepts of miniaturised reference electrodes in silicon technology for potentiometric sensor systems" SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B, ELSEVIER SEQUOIA S.A., LAUSANNE, CH, vol. 103, no. 1-2, 29 September 2004 (2004-09-29), pages 429-435, XP004560616 ISSN: 0925-4005
  • A. SIMONIS, M. DAWGUL, H. LÜTH, M. SCHÖNING: "Miniaturised reference electrodes for field-effect sensors compatible to silicon chip technology" ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, vol. 51, 9 August 2005 (2005-08-09), pages 930-937, XP002560336
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The invention relates to a miniature electrochemical sensor such as pH sensor, for example comprised in an RFID tag having a pH sensing capability.

[0002] Over 600 million RFID (radio frequency identification) tags are estimated to have been delivered in 2005. Applications of such devices range from identification and access control to counterfeit prevention and logistics. Such tags may be either active or passive, active RFID tags being powered by a permanent power supply (for example provided by a battery) while passive RFID tags are powered via an RF link and therefore only operate when in communication with a reader. Supply chain monitoring is a large market for active tags equipped with a sensor and a memory for storing measured data. For example, active tags having a temperature sensor can be configured to record the actual temperature of frozen food or other goods that need to be cooled or maintained within a preferred temperature range. Depending on the allowed 'thermal budget', i.e. an indication of the integrated temperature during storage and transport, the shelf-life of an associated product can be calculated on an individual or batch basis. Moreover, such active tags can indicate if certain limits such as a maximum or minimum temperature have been reached and, if so, whether the product must be discarded. Besides temperature, other parameters such as pH and gas composition, which may also be used for determining the lifetime of a product, could usefully be incorporated into such sensors. Problems related to measuring such other parameters, however, include those of integration and miniaturisation.

[0003] Electrochemical sensors, such as pH sensors based on the ISFET (Ion-Selective Field Effect Transistor) principle, require a reference electrode to define the potential of the analyte. The reference electrode maintains the analyte (electrolyte) potential at a fixed value irrespective of the analyte composition. The reference electrode is therefore an essential component of a pH sensor.

[0004] A standard reference electrode is, by definition, based on a hydrogen electrode, composed of a platinized (i.e. platinum black coated) platinum sheet immersed in an acid electrolyte solution through which hydrogen gas is bubbled. This standard electrode is clearly not practical for large scale commercial use or for miniaturisation. More practical types of standard electrodes such as those based on Ag/AgCl reference electrodes are frequently used instead. An Ag/AgCl based reference electrode structure typically comprises a chlorinated silver wire (Ag/AgCl) in contact with a well defined reference electrolyte, such as an aqueous KCI solution (typically 3M KCI). Galvanic contact to the analyte is generally established via a diaphragm, which may be in the form of a porous frit made from an inert material such as a glass or ceramic. During operation, the electrolyte must continuously flow out of the reference electrode into the analyte. Other types of reference electrodes include those based on mercury and mercury chloride (also known as a calomel) or thallium and thallium chloride TI/TICI electrodes may be used for specific applications such as elevated temperatures. The general principle is, however, the same as for an Ag/AgCl electrode, in particular through the use of liquid reference electrolyte and contact via a diaphragm.

[0005] When considering the use of reference electrodes for miniature pH sensors, there are several disadvantages of the above standard types of reference electrodes, including a large form factor, requiring at least several cubic mm to provide sufficient volume for the reference electrode structure, relatively high cost, and the need for the electrolyte to be refilled at regular intervals. These disadvantages make the use of standard reference electrodes for miniaturized chemical sensors, for example for integration into RFID tags, difficult or impossible. Depletion of the reference electrolyte is, however, a relatively minor issue for sensors with RFID applications due to their limited service life.

[0006] A. Simonis et al., in Electrochimica Acta 51 (2005) 930-937 disclose a planar reference electrode structure having a gel-based reference electrolyte formed on a silicon substrate attached to a PCB (printed circuit board). An Ag/AgCl layer is formed on an oxidised surface of the silicon substrate, and a gel electrolyte of either agar or pHEMA (poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) with KCI provides a defined ion concentration at the interface to the Ag/AgCl electrode, in a similar way to a 3M KCI solution used in conventional reference electrodes. A diffusion barrier layer of PVC and nafion or of cellulose nitrate is provided on the gel electrolyte to limit out-diffusion of KCI from the electrolyte, in order to increase the lifetime of the device. If too much KCI is removed from the gel the KCI concentration at the Ag/AgCl electrode interface changes, causing the reference potential to change. The maximum service life is then reached, as pH measurements are then inaccurate. The diffusion barrier also mechanically protects the underlying gel electrolyte.

[0007] The type of reference electrode structure described by A. Simonis et al. is intended to be integrated with an ISFET type sensor together with other electronic components such as amplifiers, microcontrollers, memory, RF units etc. A disadvantage of this approach, however, is that the reference electrode structure needs to have a minimum area of at least several mm2, in order to form a low ohmic contact and to maintain a minimum ion reservoir volume for proper operation. If the volume of the gel reservoir is too small, the ions become depleted too quickly and the device will have only a very short service life. Any practical solution, where a service life of the order of hundreds or thousands of hours is required, would typically require far too much chip area to be commercially viable, particularly for use as part of an RFID device, in which the silicon area is generally less than 1mm2 and the cost of such devices needs to be minimal.

[0008] It is consequently an object of the invention to address one or more of the above problems in providing a miniature electrochemical sensor device.

[0009] In accordance with a first aspect of the invention there is provided an electrochemical sensor device comprising:

a sensor chip having an integrated electrochemical sensor element; and

a substrate having a first surface on which the sensor chip is mounted, the substrate comprising a reference electrode structure for the integrated electrochemical sensor element, the reference electrode structure connected to the sensor chip via an electrical connection on the first surface of the substrate.



[0010] The integrated electrochemical sensor element is preferably a pH sensor element, for example in the form of an ISFET sensor.

[0011] The reference electrode structure optionally extends through the substrate between the first surface and a second opposing surface of the substrate, thereby exposing the pH sensor to an environment extending over the second surface of the substrate. This has the advantage of minimising the volume taken up by the reference electrode structure, and also allow the substrate to provide a degree of protection for the reference electrode structure. A portion of the reference electrode structure may also extend beyond the second surface, protruding out of the interposer.

[0012] The reference electrode structure preferably comprises a gel-based electrolyte adjacent a reference electrode connected to the electrical connection on the first surface of the substrate. The use of a gel-based electrolyte has the advantage of simplifying manufacture of the sensor device, as a containment chamber for a liquid electrolyte is not required.

[0013] The gel-based electrolyte may comprise a conductive gel selected from agar and poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and the reference electrode may be in the form of a Ag/AgCl layer.

[0014] The gel-based electrolyte is optionally covered by a diffusion barrier layer. The diffusion barrier acts to reduce out-diffusion of ions from the electrolyte as well as to provide a degree of mechanical protection of the fragile gel electrolyte layer.

[0015] The electrochemical sensor element is optionally disposed over a hole in the substrate for exposing the electrochemical sensor element to an environment extending over the second surface of the substrate. This configuration allows the substrate to provide protection for the electrochemical sensor element on the chip.

[0016] The electrolyte of the reference electrode structure may also be exposed to the environment extending over the second surface of the substrate. This arrangement ensures that the reference electrode structure is exposed in close proximity to the same environment to which the electrochemical sensor element is exposed, ensuring an accurate measurement.

[0017] The sensor device may be incorporated into an RFID tag comprising an antenna element electrically connected to an RFID element of the sensor chip via further electrical connections on the first surface of the substrate.

[0018] An advantage of the invention is that, by integrating the reference electrode structure into the substrate rather than with the sensor chip, the area of silicon required for the sensor chip is minimised. When incorporating the sensor device into an RFID tag, the substrate is preferably in the form of an interposer or strap configured to provide electrical connections between the sensor chip and an antenna in the RFID package. Using the interposer for both purposes therefore saves on the number of individual components needed to make up the device.

[0019] In accordance with a second aspect of the invention there is provided a method of manufacturing an electrochemical sensor device, the method comprising the steps of:

providing a substrate having a first surface and a second opposing surface;

applying electrical connections to the first surface of the substrate;

forming a reference electrode structure in the substrate; and

connecting a sensor chip having an integrated electrochemical sensor element to the first surface, electrically connecting the sensor element to the reference electrode structure via the electrical connection.



[0020] A hole may be provided in the substrate through which the reference electrode structure is formed, so that the references electrode structure extends through the substrate between the first and second surfaces of the substrate. The hole may be provided either before or after applying the electrical connections to the first surface.

[0021] The step of forming the reference electrode structure may include the steps of applying a reference electrode layer over the electrical connection and a gel-based electrolyte layer over the reference electrode. An additional barrier layer may also be applied to cover and protect the gel-based electrolyte.

[0022] The sensor chip may be connected such that the electrochemical sensor element in the chip is disposed over a hole in the substrate for exposing the electrochemical sensor element to an environment extending over the second surface of the substrate.

[0023] The method of the second aspect of the invention may further include forming an RFID tag comprising the sensor device by electrically connecting an antenna element to an RFID element of the sensor chip via further electrical connections applied on the first surface of the substrate.

[0024] Embodiments of the invention are described below by way of example and with reference to the appended drawings, in which:

figure 1a is a plan view of an interposer substrate for an RFID tag;

figure 1b is a plan view of an interposer substrate for an RFID tag incorporating a reference electrode structure; and

figure 2a to 2f are schematic cross-sectional views of a manufacturing process for a reference electrode structure on an interposer substrate.



[0025] An interposer or strap is a small thin plastic substrate having metal contacts and connections. A common size for such a substrate is 5mm x 9mm. The interposer acts as connector between a semiconductor chip die and an antenna. Since RFID chip dies are very small, high precision is needed for the alignment of electrical contacts on the die to the antenna contacts. This requires complex alignment procedures together with accurate and small antenna structures, which may not be acceptable for ultra low cost RFID applications. The interposer effectively increases the size of the contacts, thereby allowing connections to larger / coarser (and therefore cheaper) antennas. Besides the electrical contacts and traces, no other structures are generally present on a conventional interposer, which potentially allows for the interposer to fulfil other functions. Some of the 'spare' area on the interposer could therefore be used to integrate a reference electrode structure for an electrochemical sensor provided on the RFID chip, as described in more detail below.

[0026] Figure 1a illustrates in plan view a conventional interposer 10a, having die contacts 11a-d and extension contacts 12a, 12b on a first surface 13 of the interposer. The larger extension contacts 12a, 12b connect to an antenna structure (not shown), which allows the RFID chip connected to the smaller contacts 11a-d to communicate wirelessly with remote devices.

[0027] Figure 1b illustrates in plan view a modified interposer 10b, having an additional contact 12c for an electrical connection to a reference electrode structure 14, described in more detail below. In addition, a hole 15 is provided in the interposer 10b, the function of which is described below.

[0028] Figures 2a to 2f outline a sequence of steps for the manufacture of an integrated reference electrode structure into an interposer. A starting point is a conventional type of interposer substrate 20, on which are provided patterned metal structures for electrical contacts 21a, 21b on a first surface 23, as shown in figure 2a. As shown in figure 2b, two openings 24, 25 extending through the interposer 20 are made, for example by laser drilling from a second opposing face 26 of the substrate. The opening 24 over the electrical contact 21a stops short of extending through the electrical contact 21a, allowing for an electrical connection to a reference electrode material deposited on the contact 21a. As an alternative to laser drilling through the substrate, the holes 24, 25 could instead be provided by first punching the substrate, followed by application of the metal contacts 21a, 21b on the first surface 23, for example by deposition of a pre-patterned foil using a roll-to-roll process. The processes shown in figures 2a and 2b could therefore be carried out in a different order than indicated.

[0029] As shown in figure 2c, a reference electrode 27 is then deposited onto the back side of the electrical contact 21a, for example by depositing a Ag/AgCl loaded ink through ink jet printing or by screen printing. An optional cleaning step, for example using acids or plasma treatment, may be included prior to deposition of the reference electrode material, in order to remove oxides or other detritus from previous processes such as laser drilling, and to improve contact between the deposited Ag/AgCl and the underlying metal surface.

[0030] As shown in figure 2d, a KCI ion reservoir 28 is then deposited, for example by ink jet or screen printing. Possible compositions for the ion reservoir 28 include agar gel with KCI, pHEMA with KCI, other conductive gels with KCI, or other solid state electrolytes containing KCI.

[0031] As an optional step, illustrated in figure 2e, a barrier layer 29 may be deposited over the ion reservoir 28, in order to reduce out-diffusion of KCI from the reservoir 28, thereby increasing the lifetime of the reference electrode structure. The barrier layer 29 may also serve as mechanical protection for the ion reservoir. Several materials or combinations of materials may be used for the barrier layer 29 to provide a sufficient (but not excessively high) ion conductivity and sufficient mechanical stability. Exemplary materials include PVC, nafion or cellulose nitrate, and combinations thereof. Deposition techniques for the barrier layer 29 may again include ink jet printing or screen printing. Alternatively or additionally, a diffusion barrier foil may be laminated over the ion reservoir 28 (not shown). The diffusion barrier layer 29 may also partially extend over the second surface 26 of the substrate 20, resulting in a portion of the reference electrode structure protruding beyond the second surface 26.

[0032] The final form of the electrochemical sensor device 35 having a complete reference electrode structure 36 is illustrated schematically in figure 2f. Electrical contacts 31a, 31b of a semiconductor die 30 are attached to the electrical contacts 21a, 21b on the first surface 23 of the interposer 20, for example by means of a flip chip process. Special adhesives, known in the art as anisotropic conductive adhesives (also known as anisotropic conductive films or pastes), can be used for this purpose, where the adhesive becomes conductive when squeezed between two opposing surfaces i.e. between the contacts on the die 30 and interposer contacts 21a, 21b. In addition, a sealing compound 32 may be applied to the interface between the die 30 and the inside wall 33 of the liquid access opening 25. The sealing compound 32, which may be provided by the same adhesive used to connect the die 30 to the interposer contacts 21a, 21b, prevents any direct contact between the analyte and the contacts 21a, 21b connecting the die 30 to the interposer 20 which could otherwise cause a short circuit or corrosion. A pH sensor element 34 is provided on the die, facing into the liquid access opening 25 in the interposer substrate for exposing the pH sensor to an environment extending over the second surface of the substrate 20.

[0033] The invention is not necessary limited to Ag/AgCl electrodes and KCI electrolyte. Other reference electrodes such as TI/TICI, calomel etc. can also be integrated in the same or a similar way. Electrolytes containing other ion compositions could also be used, such as NaCl, CaCl. Generally, the electrolyte must contain the same anion (in the case of Ag/AgCl the ion is Cl) as the low solubility salt (in case of the Ag/AgCl this is AgCl) that contacts the metal electrode (in case of Ag/AgCl this is Ag).

[0034] When choosing the type of reference electrode, several aspects must also be taken into account, such as corrosion resistance, and food or biocompatibility. While a Ag/AgCl-based reference electrode structure may be food- and bio-compatible, a Hg-based calomel electrode would certainly not be.

[0035] An electrochemical sensor device in accordance with the invention may be used as a reference electrode for ultra-low cost chemical sensors. The sensor device may be of particular use in RFID tag applications, where control and monitoring of a supply chain is required, such as for perishable goods where a measure of the pH of the environment would be advantageous. In the case of an RFID sensor, the other electrical connections, one of which 21b is shown in figure 2f, are used to connect the chip 30 to an antenna.

[0036] Other embodiments are also intended to be within the scope of the invention, which is to be defined by the appended claims.


Claims

1. An electrochemical sensor device (35) comprising:

a sensor chip (30) having an integrated electrochemical sensor element (34); and

a substrate (20) having a first surface (23) on which the sensor chip (30) is mounted, the substrate (20) comprising a reference electrode structure (36) for the integrated electrochemical sensor element (34), the reference electrode structure (36) connected to the sensor chip (30) via an electrical connection (21 a) on the first surface (23) of the substrate (20).


 
2. The sensor device (35) of claim 1 wherein the electrochemical sensor element (34) is a pH sensor element.
 
3. The sensor device (35) of claim 1 or claim 2 wherein the reference electrode structure (36) extends through the substrate (20) between the first surface (23) and a second opposing surface (26) of the substrate (20).
 
4. The sensor device (35) of any preceding claim wherein the reference electrode structure (36) comprises a gel-based electrolyte (28) adjacent a reference electrode (27) connected to the electrical connection (21 a) on the first surface (23) of the substrate (20).
 
5. The sensor device (35) of claim 4 wherein the gel-based electrolyte (28) comprises a conductive gel selected from agar and poly-(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate).
 
6. The sensor device (35) of claim 4 or claim 5 wherein the reference electrode (27) is in the form of a Ag/AgCl layer.
 
7. The sensor device (35) of claim 4 wherein the gel-based electrolyte (28) is covered by a diffusion barrier layer (29).
 
8. The sensor device (35) of any one of claims 2 to 7 wherein the electrochemical sensor element (34) is disposed over a hole (25) in the substrate (20) for exposing the electrochemical sensor element (34) to an environment extending over the second surface (26) of the substrate (20).
 
9. An RFID tag comprising the sensor device (35) of any preceding claim, the RFID tag comprising an antenna element electrically connected to an RFID element of the sensor chip (30) via further electrical connections (21 b) on the first surface (23) of the substrate (20).
 
10. A method of manufacturing an electrochemical sensor device (35), the method comprising the steps of:

providing a substrate (20) having a first surface (23) and a second opposing surface (26);

applying electrical connections to the first surface (23) of the substrate (20);

forming a reference electrode structure (36) in the substrate (20); and

connecting a sensor chip (30) having an integrated electrochemical sensor element (34) to the first surface (23), electrically connecting the sensor element (34) to the reference electrode structure (36) via the electrical connection (21 a).


 
11. The method of claim 10 wherein a hole (24) is provided in the substrate (20) within which the reference electrode structure (36) is formed, such that the reference electrode structure (36) extends through the substrate (20) between the first and second surfaces (23, 26) of the substrate (20).
 
12. The method of claim 10 or claim 11 wherein the step of forming the reference electrode structure (36) comprises the steps of:

applying a reference electrode layer (27) over the electrical connection (21 a); and

applying a gel-based electrolyte layer (28) over the reference electrode layer (27).


 
13. The method of claim 12 wherein a diffusion barrier layer (29) is applied to cover and protect the gel-based electrolyte layer (28).
 
14. The method of any one of claims 10 to 13 wherein the sensor chip (30) is connected such that the integrated electrochemical sensor element (34) in the chip (30) is disposed over a hole (25) in the substrate (20) for exposing the electrochemical sensor (34) to an environment extending over the second surface (26) of the substrate (20).
 
15. The method of any one of claims 10 to 14 comprising the step of forming an RFID tag comprising the sensor device (35) by electrically connecting an antenna element to an RFID element of the sensor chip (30) via further electrical connections (21 b) applied on the first surface (23) of the substrate (20).
 


Ansprüche

1. Eine elektrochemische Sensor Vorrichtung (35) aufweisend:

- einen Sensorchip (30), der ein integriertes elektrochemisches Sensorelement hat (34); und

- ein Substrat (20), das eine erste Oberfläche (23) hat, auf welcher der Sensorchip (30) angebracht ist,

wobei das Substrat (20) aufweist eine Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) für das elektrochemische Sensorelement (34), wobei die Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) mit dem Sensorchip (30) mittels einer elektrischen Verbindung (21a) auf der ersten Oberfläche (23) mit dem Substrat (20) verbunden ist.
 
2. Die Sensorvorrichtung (35) gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei das elektrochemische Sensorelement (34) ein pH Sensorelement ist.
 
3. Die Sensorvorrichtung (35) gemäß Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2, wobei sich die Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) durch das Substrat (20) zwischen der ersten Oberfläche (23) und einer zweiten gegenüberliegenden Oberfläche (26) von dem Substrat (20) erstreckt.
 
4. Die Sensorvorrichtung (35) gemäß einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) aufweist
einen Gel-basierten Elektrolyten (28), angrenzend an eine Referenzelektrode (27), welche mit der elektrischen Verbindung (21a) auf der ersten Oberfläche (23) von dem Substrat (20) verbunden ist.
 
5. Die Sensorvorrichtung (35) gemäß Anspruch 4, wobei der Gel-basierte Elektrolyt (28) aufweist
ein leitfähiges Gel, ausgewählt aus Agar und Poly-(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylat).
 
6. Die Sensorvorrichtung (35) gemäß Anspruch 4 oder Anspruch 5, wobei die Referenzelektrode (27) in Form einer Ag/AgCl Schicht vorliegt.
 
7. Die Sensorvorrichtung (35) gemäß Anspruch 4, wobei der Gel-basierte Elektrolyt (28) mit einer Diffusionsgrenzschicht (29) bedeckt ist.
 
8. Die Sensorvorrichtung (35) gemäß einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 7, wobei das elektrochemische Sensorelement (34) über einer Öffnung (25) in dem Substrat (20) angeordnet ist, um das elektrochemische Sensorelement (34) einer Umgebung auszusetzen, welche sich über die zweite Oberfläche (26) von dem Substrat (20) erstreckt.
 
9. Ein RFID Tag aufweisend
die Sensorvorrichtung (35) gemäß einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche,
wobei der RFID Tag aufweist
ein Antennenelement, das elektrisch mit einem RFID Element von dem Sensorchip (30) verbunden ist, mittels weiterer elektrischer Verbindungen (21b) auf der ersten Oberfläche (23) von dem Substrat (20).
 
10. Ein Verfahren zum Herstellen einer elektrochemischen Sensorvorrichtung (35), das Verfahren aufweisend die Schritte:

Bereitstellen eines Substrats (20), das eine erste Oberfläche (23) und eine zweite gegenüberliegende Oberfläche (26) hat;

Anbringen elektrischer Verbindungen an die erste Oberfläche (23) von dem Substrat (20);

Bilden einer Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) in dem Substrat (20); und

Verbinden eines Sensorchips (30), der ein integriertes elektrochemisches Sensorelement (34) hat, mit der ersten Oberfläche (23), elektrisches Verbinden des Sensorelements (34) mit der Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) mittels der elektrischen Verbindung (21a).


 
11. Das Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 10, wobei eine Öffnung (24) in dem Substrat (20) bereitgestellt wird, in welchem die Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) gebildet wird, so dass die Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) sich erstreckt durch das Substrat (20) zwischen der ersten und zweiten Oberfläche (23, 26) von dem Substrat (20).
 
12. Das Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 10 oder Anspruch 11, wobei der Schritt des Bildens der Referenzelektrodenstruktur (36) die Schritte aufweist:

Anbringen einer Referenzelektrodenschicht (27) über der elektrischen Verbindung (21a); und

Anbringen einer Gel-basierten Elektrolyt Schicht (28) über der Referenzelektrodenschicht (27).


 
13. Das Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 12, wobei eine Diffusionsgrenzschicht (29) angebracht wird, um die Gel-basierte Elektrolyt Schicht (28) zu bedecken und zu schützen.
 
14. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 10 bis 13, wobei
der Sensorchip (30) so verbunden ist, dass das integrierte elektrochemische Sensorelement (34) in dem Chip (30) über einer Öffnung (25) im Substrat (20) angeordnet ist, um den elektrochemischen Sensor (34) einer Umgebung auszusetzen, welche sich über die zweite Oberfläche (26) von dem Substrat (20) erstreckt.
 
15. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 10 bis 14, aufweisend den Schritt des Bildens eines RFID Tags aufweisend
die Sensorvorrichtung (35) durch elektrisches Verbinden eines Antennenelements an ein RFID Element von dem Sensorchip (30) mittels weiterer elektrischer Verbindungen (21b), welche auf die erste Oberfläche (23) von dem Substrat (20) angebracht sind.
 


Revendications

1. Dispositif de capteur électrochimique (35) comprenant :

une puce de capteur (30) ayant un élément de capteur électrochimique intégré (34) ; et

un substrat (20) ayant une première surface (23) sur laquelle la puce de capteur (30) est montée, le substrat (20) comprenant une structure d'électrode de référence (36) pour l'élément de capteur électrochimique intégré (34), la structure d'électrode de référence (36) étant connectée à la puce de capteur (30) par l'intermédiaire d'une connexion électrique (21a) sur la première surface (23) du substrat (20).


 
2. Dispositif de capteur (35) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'élément de capteur électrochimique (34) est un élément de capteur de pH.
 
3. Dispositif de capteur (35) selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, dans lequel la structure d'électrode de référence (36) s'étend à travers le substrat (20) entre la première surface (23) et une seconde surface opposée (26) du substrat (20).
 
4. Dispositif de capteur (35) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la structure d'électrode de référence (36) comprend un électrolyte à base de gel (28) adjacent à une électrode de référence (27) connectée à la connexion électrique (21a) sur la première surface (23) du substrat (20).
 
5. Dispositif de capteur (35) selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'électrolyte à base de gel (28) comprend un gel conducteur sélectionné parmi l'agar et le poly-(2-hydroxyéthyl-méthacrylate).
 
6. Dispositif de capteur (35) selon la revendication 4 ou la revendication 5, dans lequel l'électrode de référence (27) se présente sous forme de couche Ag/AgCl.
 
7. Dispositif de capteur (35) selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'électrolyte à base de gel (28) est couvert par une couche barrière de diffusion (29).
 
8. Dispositif de capteur (35) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 7, dans lequel l'élément de capteur électrochimique (34) est disposé par-dessus un trou (25) dans le substrat (20) pour exposer l'élément de capteur électrochimique (34) à un environnement s'étendant par-dessus la seconde surface (26) du substrat (20).
 
9. Etiquette RFID comprenant le dispositif de capteur (35) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, l'étiquette RFID comprenant un élément d'antenne connecté électriquement à un élément RFID de la puce de capteur (30) par l'intermédiaire d'autres connexions électriques (21b) sur la première surface (23) du substrat (20).
 
10. Procédé de fabrication d'un dispositif de capteur électrochimique (35), le procédé comprenant les étapes consistant à :

fournir un substrat (20) ayant une première surface (23) et une seconde surface opposée (26) ;

appliquer des connexions électriques sur la première surface (23) du substrat (20) ;

former une structure d'électrode de référence (36) dans le substrat (20) ; et

connecter une puce de capteur (30) ayant un élément de capteur électrochimique intégré (34) à la première surface (23), en connectant électriquement l'élément de capteur (34) à la structure d'électrode de référence (36) par l'intermédiaire de la connexion électrique (21a).


 
11. Procédé selon la revendication 10, dans lequel un trou (24) est aménagé dans le substrat (20) dans lequel la structure d'électrode de référence (36) est formée, de telle sorte que la structure d'électrode de référence (36) s'étende à travers le substrat (20) entre les première et seconde surfaces (23, 26) du substrat (20).
 
12. Procédé selon la revendication 10 ou la revendication 11, dans lequel l'étape de formation de la structure d'électrode de référence (36) comprend les étapes consistant à :

appliquer une couche d'électrode de référence (27) par-dessus la connexion électrique (21a) ; et

appliquer une couche d'électrolyte à base de gel (28) par-dessus la couche d'électrode de référence (27).


 
13. Procédé selon la revendication 12, dans lequel une couche barrière de diffusion (29) est appliquée pour couvrir et protéger la couche d'électrolyte à base de gel (28).
 
14. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 10 à 13, dans lequel la puce de capteur (30) est connectée de telle sorte que l'élément de capteur électrochimique intégré (34) dans la puce (30) soit disposé par-dessus un trou (25) dans le substrat (20) pour exposer le capteur électrochimique (34) à un environnement s'étendant par-dessus la seconde surface (26) du substrat (20).
 
15. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 10 à 14, comprenant l'étape de formation d'une étiquette RFID comprenant le dispositif de capteur (35) en connectant électriquement un élément d'antenne à un élément RFID de la puce de capteur (30) par l'intermédiaire d'autres connexions électriques (21b) appliquées sur la première surface (23) du substrat (20).
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Non-patent literature cited in the description