(19)
(11)EP 2 318 788 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
06.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/19

(21)Application number: 09774428.8

(22)Date of filing:  01.07.2009
(51)Int. Cl.: 
F25B 49/02  (2006.01)
F25D 29/00  (2006.01)
B60H 1/00  (2006.01)
B60P 3/20  (2006.01)
B60H 1/32  (2006.01)
F25B 27/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2009/049385
(87)International publication number:
WO 2010/002978 (07.01.2010 Gazette  2010/01)

(54)

START-UP CONTROL FOR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

STARTSTEUERUNG FÜR KÜHLSYSTEM

COMMANDE DE DÉMARRAGE POUR SYSTÈME DE RÉFRIGÉRATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 01.07.2008 US 77417 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
11.05.2011 Bulletin 2011/19

(73)Proprietor: Carrier Corporation
Farmington, CT 06034-4015 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • STEELE, John, T.
    Marcellus NY 13108 (US)
  • FULMER, Scott, D.
    Liverpool NY 13090 (US)
  • GUZMAN, Peter, P.
    Marcellus NY 13108 (US)
  • HOTALING, Donald, B.
    Jamesville NY 13078 (US)
  • REASON, John, R.
    Liverpool NY 13090 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehns 
St. Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 046 873
WO-A1-03/093737
DE-A1-102006 048 821
JP-A- 2004 316 934
US-B1- 6 330 909
EP-A2- 1 628 105
WO-A1-2007/046330
JP-A- 5 238 306
JP-A- 2005 349 891
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND



    [0001] The disclosure relates to refrigeration. More particularly, the disclosure relates to electrically powered refrigerated transport systems.

    [0002] A transport refrigeration system used to control enclosed areas, such as the box used on trucks, trailers, containers, or similar intermodal units, functions by absorbing heat from the enclosed area and releasing heat outside of the box into the environment. A number of transport refrigeration units, including units currently sold by assignee, employ a reciprocating compressor to pressurize refrigerant to enable the removal of heat from the box. Reciprocal compressors used in such applications commonly include a suction inlet and a discharge which are connected, respectively, to the evaporator and condenser of the transport refrigeration system. It is axiomatic that in order to ensure the reliability of the reciprocating compressor, the compressor should operate within the limits of the suction and discharge pressures for which it was designed. The ranges and ratios of suction and discharge pressures designed to be handled by a reciprocating compressor at various stages of operation is known as an operating envelope. The failure to operate within the compressor operating envelope will result in unnecessary wear and tear, and ultimately will bring about the premature failure of the compressor, thus creating unacceptable costs of money and time to the operator.

    [0003] Exemplary refrigerated transport systems use generators powered by internal combustion engines to power the compressors and any fans associated with the evaporator and condenser. US Pat. No. 6,321,550, assigned to the assignee of the present application, discloses such a generator and associated control methods.

    [0004] Transport refrigeration systems currently employ a variety of controls to manipulate the operating envelope of a reciprocating compressor. As can be shown by U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,626,027 and 5,577,390, both assigned to the assignee of the present application, compressors can be operated in a multi-stage mode or in single stage modes depending upon operating temperature. Such disclosures further discuss generally the use of suction modulation for capacity control.

    [0005] U.S. Pat. No. 6,301,911 discloses use of a controller within the transport refrigeration system which closes the suction modulation valve (the "SMV") and/or unloads compressor cylinder banks in response to discharge pressures in excess of a preselected limit calculated or compared to a set value by the controller. An unloader, when energized has the effect of removing one or more cylinders from operation within compressor, thus effectively reducing the displaced volume within the compressor. Maintaining the reciprocating compressor within its design operating envelope may be achieved by selectively unloading compressor cylinder banks in the event that suction pressure is below the minimum suction pressure allowed, as determined the controller.

    [0006] There are many operational considerations for the units. Several considerations involve the temperature at which the enclosed area is to be kept. A given unit configuration may be made manufactured for multiple operators with different needs. Broadly, the temperature may be separated into two fields: frozen goods; and non-frozen perishables. An exemplary frozen goods temperature is about -10°F or less an exemplary non- frozen perishable temperature is 34-38°F. Many operators will have the need to, at different times, use a given unit for transport of frozen goods and non-frozen perishables. The operator will predetermine appropriate temperature for each of the two modes, prior to a trip or series, the driver will enter the appropriate one of the two temperatures.

    [0007] A refrigeration system having the features of the preamble of claim 1 is disclosed in EP 1046873 A1.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0008] One aspect of the invention provides a refrigeration system as set forth in claim 1.

    [0009] In various implementations, the system may further comprise a compartment positioned to be cooled by the heat absorption heat exchanger. The controller may be configured to disengage a starter (of the engine) before starting the compressor. There may be a plurality of the first fans and a plurality of the second fans and the controller may be configured/programmed to perform the start of all the first fans together and perform the start of all the second fans together. The controller may be configured to load one or more cylinders of the compressor after starting the compressor but before starting the second fans.

    [0010] The compressor may have six cylinders. The controller may be configured to load the first and second cylinders from starting the compressor. The one or more cylinders loaded after starting the compressor and before starting the second fans may be the third and fourth cylinders. The compressor or controller may be configured to load the fifth and sixth cylinders responsive to determined demand after the second fans are started. The controller may be configured to perform a pre-start initialization comprising: controller self-diagnostics; checking of sensors to verify presence and operation; checking battery condition; checking pressures and temperatures outputted by said sensors; and re-zeroing and pre-staging one or more valves, including the expansion device. The controller may be configured to engage the generator and first fans before starting the engine.

    [0011] The system may be formed by reconfiguring the controller from a baseline condition wherein the baseline controller is, contrary to the invention, configured to engage the compressor before engaging the fans (i.e., as a retrofitting of an existing system including reprogramming or other reconfiguration).

    [0012] In another characterization of the description above, the controller may be configured to use the generator and at least one of the first fans to stabilize engine load swings associated with compressor start-up. Such a controller may be configured to start the second fans after starting the compressor and/or start all the first fans before starting the compressor.

    [0013] From a further aspect, the invention provides a method as set forth in claim 10.

    [0014] The details of one or more embodiments are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0015] 

    FIG. 1 is a view of a refrigerated transport system.

    FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a refrigeration system of the transport system of FIG. 1.

    FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a compressor of the refrigeration system of FIG. 2.



    [0016] Like reference numbers and designations in the various drawings indicate like elements.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0017] FIG. 1 shows a refrigerated transport unit (system) 20 in the form of a refrigerated trailer. The trailer may be pulled by a tractor 22. The exemplary trailer includes a container/box 24 defining an interior/compartment 26. An equipment housing 28 mounted to a front of the box 24 may contain an electric generator system including an internal combustion engine 30 (e.g., compression ignition/diesel) and an electric generator 32 mechanically coupled to the engine to be driven thereby. A refrigeration system 34 may be electrically coupled to the generator 32 to receive electrical power.

    [0018] FIG. 2 shows further details of the exemplary refrigeration system 34. The system 34 includes a control system 100. The control system 100 may include: one or more user interface (e.g., input/output) devices 102; processors 104; memory 106; and hardware interface devices 108 (e.g., ports). An exemplary system 34 is illustrated based upon the system of PCT/US07/60220. Further details of such a system are shown in US Pat. No. 6,321,550.

    [0019] The system 34 further includes a compressor 120 having a suction (inlet) port 122 and a discharge (outlet) port 124. An exemplary compressor 120 is an electrically-powered reciprocating compressor having an integral electric motor 121. The compressor 120 may be coupled to the control system 100 to regulate its operation and to the generator 32 to receive power. A discharge line section/segment 126 extends from the discharge port 124 downstream along a refrigerant primary flowpath to an inlet of a heat rejection heat exchanger (condenser) 128. A hot liquid refrigerant line section/segment 130 extends downstream from an outlet of the condenser 128 to an inlet of an exemplary receiver 132. A hot liquid line section/segment 134 extends from an outlet of the receiver 132 to an inlet of a subcooler 136. The subcooler 136 and condenser 128 may be positioned to receive an external airflow 500 (e.g., driven by one or more fans 129). A liquid line section/segment segment 138 extends downstream from an outlet of the subcooler 136 to an inlet of a suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) 140. A further liquid line section/segment 142 of the refrigerant line extends downstream from an outlet of the SLHX 140 to an inlet of an expansion device (e.g., an electronic expansion valve (EEV)) 144. A final liquid line section/segment 146 extends from an outlet of the electronic expansion valve 144 to an inlet of a heat absorption heat exchanger (evaporator) 148. The evaporator 148 may be positioned to receive an external airflow 502 (e.g., driven by one or more fans 149). A first section/segment 150 of a suction line extends downstream from the outlet of the evaporator 148 to the suction line heat exchanger 140. A second section/segment 152 of the suction line extends within the suction line heat exchanger 140 to form a downstream leg in heat exchange relation with fluid in the upstream leg of the heat exchanger 140. A final section/segment 154 of the suction line returns to the suction port 122. A compressor suction modulation valve (CSMV) 156 may be located in the line 154

    [0020] The physical configuration of the system is merely illustrative and may schematically represent any of a number of existing or yet-developed constructions. The inventive methods described below may also be applicable to other constructions.

    [0021] The system 34 may include various additional components including valves, sensors, and the like. Of these, sufficient sensors for determining a characteristic evaporator superheat and a characteristic suction superheat may be present and particular exemplary implementations are described below. An exemplary characteristic evaporator superheat is an evaporator outlet superheat (EVOSH) and may be determined responsive to measurements of an evaporator outlet temperature (EVOT) and an evaporator outlet pressure (EVOP). Accordingly, the exemplary system 34 includes an EVOP sensor 160 and an EVOT sensor 162 along the segment 150 and in signal communication with the control system 100. The suction superheat (SSH) may similarly be determined responsive to measurements of compressor suction temperature (CST) and compressor suction pressure (CSP). Along the segment 154 downstream of the SLHX 140, a pressure sensor 164 and a temperature sensor 166 are similarly positioned for measuring CSP and CST, respectively.

    [0022] In operation, a user will enter a temperature at which the compartment 26 is to be maintained. In one basic example, immediate entry may be by means of a simple two position switch wherein one position is associated with frozen goods and another position is associated with non-frozen perishable goods. The control system 100 may be pre-programmed (via software and/or hardware inputs) with associated target compartment temperatures. For example, a frozen goods target temperature may typically be a particular temperature in a range of about -10°F or below whereas a non-frozen perishable goods temperature may be a particular temperature in a range of about 34-38°F. The particular values may be pre-set according to the needs of the particular unit operator.

    [0023] Start-up issues may attend operation of the system 20. An exemplary compressor 120 (FIG. 3) is a six cylinder reciprocating compressor having a number one cylinder 200 a number two cylinder 202, a number three cylinder 204, a number four cylinder 206, a number five cylinder 208, and a number six cylinder 210. The compressor includes an unloader 212 positioned to selectively unload/load the number three and four cylinders and an unloader 216 positioned to selectively load/unload the number five and six cylinders. By use of the loaders 212 and 216, the compressor may be operated in two-cylinder, four-cylinder, or six-cylinder modes. Staged loading may be relevant both at start-up and in subsequent operation. In the exemplary system 20, all the electric components of the refrigeration system are coupled directly or indirectly to the electric generator. An indirect coupling may include intervening power management systems including a storage device such as a battery or capacitor. Thus, in the exemplary system 20, the compressor motor 121, fans 129 and 149, unloaders 212 and 216, and other electric equipment are directly or indirectly powered by the generator. These components may also be coupled to the control system 100.

    [0024] Management of the electrical load during a start-up sequence may be desired for one or more of several reasons. These reasons include: ease of starting; controlling system wear; controlling noise and other user-perceived phenomena; and the like. Accordingly, the sequence of engaging/starting various electrical loads may be coordinated with engine start-up to provide a desired balance of these factors. In an exemplary start-up sequence, initially, the engine 30 is off, the compressor 120 is off, the fans 129 and 149 are off and the unloaders are de-energized.

    [0025] An initial staging phase of start-up may occur once the start command is given (e.g., by a user throwing a switch or otherwise providing a start command input to the controller). An exemplary staging includes: controller self-diagnostics for verifying processor function and unit configuration; controller checking of the various sensors to verify their presence and operation; controller checking of system status (e.g., based upon outputs of the sensors such as sufficient battery charge for starting, and various sensed pressures and temperatures); and recalibrating the various valves, including the expansion device, by re-zeroing and pre-staging the valves (e.g., to pre-stage conditions determined based upon the sensed conditions and inputted/commanded target conditions). The staging may be accompanied by or followed by: energizing the unloaders to place the compressor in two-cylinder mode; engaging the generator; and engaging the condenser fans 129. The controller may set the engine control unit for an initial low speed target. Other engine initialization steps may include glow plug energizing for a diesel engine (e.g., according to a temperature-dependent map/schedule). After a first interval (e.g., approximately thirty seconds) from the start command, the controller will engage the engine starter and attempt to start the engine. At some point after firing of the engine, the controller determines the engine to have started and disengages the starter (e.g., upon reaching a first threshold speed (e.g., approximately 1,000rpm)). Then the engine speed will rise further. In the exemplary implementation, the compressor may then be engaged (in two-cylinder mode to minimize initial load). Exemplary compressor engagement occurs at a second threshold speed (e.g., approximately 1,350rpm). This speed will typically be reached within an interval of 5-10 seconds. After a third interval (e.g., also an exemplary 5-10 seconds) the controller will load the number three and four cylinders to switch the compressor to four-cylinder mode. After another interval (e.g., when the engine has restabilized to a running speed of approximately 1,350rpm), the evaporator fans 149 will be engaged/started. In the exemplary implementation, the six-cylinder mode may be later engaged as may be required by demand.

    [0026] The foregoing exemplary sequence uses the load of the condenser fans 129 to stabilize engine load swings associated with compressor start-up. Typically, compressor load is the most significant steady-state and start-up load on the engine. Engaging the compressor before other electrical loads may produce undesirably high load-swings. By first starting the condenser fans, the engine is preloaded, thereby reducing the significance of the compressor start-up load.

    [0027] One or more embodiments have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made. For example, implementations may be as simple as reprogramming controllers, which are not in accordance with the present invention, of any of a variety of existing refrigeration systems. Alternatively, alternative implementations, not according to the invention, might involve redesigning components of a baseline system to take advantage of the reduced load fluctuations (e.g., by reducing engine or generator size, flywheel weight or inertia, or the like). Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.


    Claims

    1. A refrigeration system (20) comprising:

    an engine (30);

    an electric generator (32) mechanically coupled to the engine (30) to be driven by the engine;

    a compressor (120), electrically coupled to the generator (32) to be powered by the generator;

    a heat rejection heat exchanger (128) coupled to the compressor (120) to receive compressed refrigerant from the compressor (120);

    an expansion device (144) coupled to the heat rejection heat exchanger (128) to expand refrigerant received from the heat rejection heat exchanger (128);

    a heat absorption heat exchanger (148) coupled to the expansion device (144) to receive refrigerant expanded by the expansion device (144) and, in turn, coupled to the compressor (120) to return refrigerant to the compressor (120);

    at least one first electric fan (129) positioned to drive an airflow (500) across the heat rejection heat exchanger (128) and coupled to the generator (32) to receive electric power from the generator (32);

    at least one second electric fan (149) positioned to drive an airflow (502) across the heat absorption heat exchanger (148) and coupled to the generator (32) to receive electric power from the generator (32); and

    a controller (100) coupled to the compressor (120) and the at least one first and second fans (129,149) and configured to:

    start the engine (30); and characterised in that the controller is further configured to engage the generator (32) and at least one of the at least one first fans (129) to be powered by the generator before the engine (30) has reached running speed;

    after the engine (30) has reached running speed, start the compressor (120); and

    after starting the compressor (120), start at least one of the at least one second fans (149).


     
    2. The system of claim 1 being a transport refrigeration system further comprising a refrigerated compartment (26) positioned to be cooled by the heat absorption heat exchanger (148).
     
    3. The system of claim 2 wherein the compartment (26) is formed by at least one of a trailer body or a cargo container.
     
    4. The system of any preceding claim, further comprising a starter of the engine, wherein the controller (100) is configured to:
    disengage the starter before starting the compressor (120).
     
    5. The system of any preceding claim wherein:

    there are a plurality of said at least one first fans (129);

    there are a plurality of said at least one second fans (149); and

    the controller (100) is configured to:

    perform said start of all the first fans (129) together; and

    perform said start of all the second fans (149) together.


     
    6. The system of any preceding claim wherein the controller is configured to:
    load one or more cylinders of the compressor (120) after starting the compressor (120) but before starting the at least one second fans (149).
     
    7. The system of claim 6 wherein:

    the compressor (120) has six cylinders (200...210);

    the controller (100) is configured to load the first and second said cylinders from starting the compressor (120);

    said one or more cylinders loaded after starting the compressor (120) and before starting the at least one second fans (149) are third and fourth cylinders (204,206); and

    the controller (100) is configured to load the fifth and sixth said cylinders (208,210) responsive to determined demand after the at least one second fans (149) are started.


     
    8. The system of any preceding claim, further comprising sensors, a battery, and one or more valves, wherein the controller (100) is configured to perform a pre-start initialization comprising:

    controller self-diagnostics;

    checking of the sensors to verify presence and operation;

    checking the battery condition;

    checking pressures and temperatures outputted by said sensors; and

    re-zeroing and pre-staging the one or more valves, including the expansion device (144).


     
    9. The system of any preceding claim wherein the controller (100) is configured to engage the generator (32) and the at least one first fans (129) before starting the engine (30).
     
    10. A method for operating a refrigeration system, the system comprising:

    an engine (30);

    an electric generator (32) mechanically coupled to the engine (30) to be driven by the engine (30);

    a compressor (120), electrically coupled to the generator (32) to be powered by the generator (32);

    a heat rejection heat exchanger (128) coupled to the compressor (120) to receive compressed refrigerant from the compressor (120);

    an expansion device (144) coupled to the heat rejection heat exchanger (128) to expand refrigerant received from the heat rejection heat exchanger (128);

    a heat absorption heat exchanger (148) coupled to the expansion device (144) to receive refrigerant expanded by the expansion device (144) and, in turn, coupled to the compressor (120) to return refrigerant to the compressor (120);

    at least one first electric fan (129) positioned to drive an airflow across the heat rejection heat exchanger (128) and coupled to the generator (32) to receive electric power from the generator (32);

    at least one second electric fan (149) positioned to drive an airfoil across the heat absorption heat exchanger (148) and coupled to the generator (32) to receive electric power from the generator (32); and characterized in that the method comprises:

    starting the engine (30);

    before the engine (30) has reached a running speed, engaging the generator (32) and at least one of the at least one first fans (129) to be powered by the generator;

    after the engine has reached the running speed, starting the compressor (120); and

    after starting the compressor (120), starting at least one of the at least one second fans (149).


     
    11. The method of claim 10 further comprising:
    loading one or more cylinders after starting the compressor (120) but before starting the at least one second fans (149).
     
    12. The method of claim 11 wherein:

    the compressor (120) has six cylinders (200...120);

    from starting the compressor (120), the first and second said cylinders (200,202) are loaded;

    said one or more cylinders loaded after starting the compressor (120) and before starting the at least one
    second fans (149) are third and fourth cylinders (204,206); and

    the controller (100) is configured to load the fifth and sixth said cylinders (208,210) responsive to determined demand after the at least one second fans (149) are started.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Kühlsystem (20), umfassend:

    einen Motor (30);

    einen elektrischen Generator (32), der mechanisch an den Motor (30) gekoppelt ist, um von dem Motor angetrieben zu werden;

    einen Verdichter (120), der elektrisch an den Generator (32) gekoppelt ist, um von dem Generator mit Energie versorgt zu werden;

    einen Wärmeabgabewärmetauscher (128), der an den Verdichter (120) gekoppelt ist, um verdichtetes Kühlmittel von dem Verdichter (120) aufzunehmen;

    eine Expansionsvorrichtung (144), die an den Wärmeabgabewärmetauscher (128) gekoppelt ist, zum Expandieren von Kühlmittel, das von dem Wärmeabgabewärmetauscher (128) aufgenommen wird;

    einen Wärmeabsorptionswärmetauscher (148), der an die Expansionsvorrichtung (144) gekoppelt ist, um Kühlmittel aufzunehmen, das durch die Expansionsvorrichtung (144) expandiert ist und wiederum an den Verdichter (120) gekoppelt ist, um Kühlmittel zu dem Verdichter (120) zurückzuschicken;

    mindestens einen ersten elektrischen Lüfter (129), der positioniert ist, um einen Luftstrom (500) durch den Wärmeabgabewärmetauscher (128) zu lenken und an den Generator (32) gekoppelt ist, um elektrische Leistung von dem Generator (32) aufzunehmen;

    mindestens einen zweiten elektrischen Lüfter (149), der positioniert ist, um einen Luftstrom (502) durch den Wärmeabsorptionswärmetauscher (148) zu lenken und an den Generator (32) gekoppelt ist, um elektrische Leistung von dem Generator (32) aufzunehmen; und

    eine Steuerung (100), die an den Verdichter (120) und den mindestens einen ersten und zweiten Lüfter (129, 149) gekoppelt und zu Folgendem konfiguriert ist:

    Starten des Motors (30); und

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Steuerung ferner konfiguriert ist, um den Generator (32) und mindestens einen des mindestens einen ersten Lüfters (129) zu aktivieren, um von dem Generator mit Energie versorgt zu werden, bevor der Motor (30) seine Drehzahl erreicht hat;

    nachdem der Motor (30) seine Drehzahl erreicht hat, Starten des Verdichters (120); und

    nach dem Starten des Verdichters (120), Starten von mindestens einem des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149).


     
    2. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei es sich um ein Transportkühlsystem handelt, ferner umfassend ein Kühlabteil (26), das positioniert ist, um von dem Wärmeabsorptionswärmetauscher (148) gekühlt zu werden.
     
    3. System nach Anspruch 2, wobei das Abteil (26) durch mindestens eines von einem Anhängerkörper oder einem Frachtbehälter gebildet wird.
     
    4. System nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend einen Anlasser des Motors, wobei die Steuerung (100) zu Folgendem konfiguriert ist:
    Ausrücken des Starters vor dem Starten des Verdichters (120) .
     
    5. System nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei:

    es eine Vielzahl des mindestens einen ersten Lüfters (129) gibt;

    es eine Vielzahl des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149) gibt; und

    die Steuerung (100) zu Folgendem konfiguriert ist:

    Durchführen des Starts von allen der ersten Lüfter (129) zusammen; und

    Durchführen des Starts von allen der zweiten Lüfter (149) zusammen.


     
    6. System nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Steuerung zu Folgendem konfiguriert ist:
    Laden von einem oder mehreren Zylindern des Verdichters (120) nach dem Starten des Verdichters (120), jedoch vor dem Starten des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149).
     
    7. System nach Anspruch 6, wobei:

    der Verdichter (120) sechs Zylinder (200...210) aufweist;

    die Steuerung (100) konfiguriert ist, um den ersten und zweiten der Zylinder von dem Start des Verdichters (120) zu laden;

    der eine oder die mehreren Zylinder, die nach dem Start des Verdichters (120) und vor dem Start des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149) geladen werden, dritte und vierte Zylinder (204,206) sind; und

    die Steuerung (100) konfiguriert ist, um den fünften und sechsten der Zylinder (208,210) als Reaktion auf den bestimmten Bedarf nach dem Start des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149) zu laden.


     
    8. System nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend Sensoren, eine Batterie und ein oder mehrere Ventile, wobei die Steuerung (100) konfiguriert ist, um eine Vorstartinitialisierung auszuführen, umfassend:

    Steuerungseigendiagnose;

    Überprüfen der Sensoren zum Bestätigen des Vorhandenseins und Betriebs;

    Überprüfen des Batteriezustands;

    Überprüfen von Drücken und Temperaturen, die von den Sensoren ausgegeben werden; und

    erneutes Nullsetzen und Vorkonfigurieren des einen oder der mehreren Ventile, einschließend die Expansionsvorrichtung (144) .


     
    9. System nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Steuerung (100) konfiguriert ist, um den Generator (32) und den mindestens einen ersten Lüfter (129) vor dem Start des Motors (30) zu aktivieren.
     
    10. Verfahren zum Betreiben eines Kühlsystems, wobei das System Folgendes umfasst:

    einen Motor (30);

    einen elektrischen Generator (32), der mechanisch an den Motor (30) gekoppelt ist, um von dem Motor (30) angetrieben zu werden;

    einen Verdichter (120), der elektrisch an den Generator (32) gekoppelt ist, um von dem Generator (32) mit Energie versorgt zu werden;

    einen Wärmeabgabewärmetauscher (128), der an den Verdichter (120) gekoppelt ist, um verdichtetes Kühlmittel von dem Verdichter (120) aufzunehmen;

    eine Expansionsvorrichtung (144), die an den Wärmeabgabewärmetauscher (128) gekoppelt ist, zum Expandieren von Kühlmittel, das von dem Wärmeabgabewärmetauscher (128) aufgenommen wird;

    einen Wärmeabsorptionswärmetauscher (148), der an die Expansionsvorrichtung (144) gekoppelt ist, um Kühlmittel aufzunehmen, das durch die Expansionsvorrichtung (144) expandiert ist und wiederum an den Verdichter (120) gekoppelt ist, um Kühlmittel zu dem Verdichter (120) zurückzuschicken;

    mindestens einen ersten elektrischen Lüfter (129), der positioniert ist, um einen Luftstrom durch den Wärmeabgabewärmetauscher (128) zu lenken und an den Generator (32) gekoppelt ist, um elektrische Leistung von dem Generator (32) aufzunehmen;

    mindestens einen zweiten elektrischen Lüfter (149), der positioniert ist, um einen Luftstrom durch den Wärmeabsorptionswärmetauscher (148) zu lenken und an den Generator (32) gekoppelt ist, um elektrische Leistung von dem Generator (32) aufzunehmen; und

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verfahren ferner Folgendes umfasst:

    Starten des Motors (30);

    bevor der Motor (30) eine Drehzahl erreicht hat, Aktivieren des Generators (32) und von mindestens einem des mindestens einen ersten Lüfters (129), um von dem Generator mit Energie versorgt zu werden;

    nachdem der Motor die Drehzahl erreicht hat, Starten des Verdichters (120); und

    nach dem Starten des Verdichters (120), Starten von mindestens einem des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149).


     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, ferner umfassend:
    Laden von einem oder mehreren Zylindern nach dem Starten des Verdichters (120), jedoch vor dem Starten des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149).
     
    12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, wobei:

    der Verdichter (120) sechs Zylinder (200...120) aufweist;

    der erste und zweite der Zylinder (200,202) von dem Start des Verdichters (120) geladen werden;

    der eine oder die mehreren Zylinder, die nach dem Start des Verdichters (120) und vor dem Start des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149) geladen werden, dritte und vierte Zylinder (204,206) sind; und

    die Steuerung (100) konfiguriert ist, um den fünften und sechsten der Zylinder (208,210) als Reaktion auf den bestimmten Bedarf nach dem Start des mindestens einen zweiten Lüfters (149) zu laden.


     


    Revendications

    1. Système de réfrigération (20) comprenant :

    un moteur (30) ;

    un générateur électrique (32) couplé mécaniquement au moteur (30) pour être entraîné par le moteur ;

    un compresseur (120), couplé électriquement au générateur (32) pour être alimenté par le générateur ;

    un échangeur de chaleur à rejet de chaleur (128) couplé au compresseur (120) pour recevoir le réfrigérant comprimé du compresseur (120) ;

    un dispositif de détente (144) couplé à l'échangeur de chaleur à rejet de chaleur (128) pour dilater le réfrigérant reçu de l'échangeur de chaleur à rejet de chaleur (128) ;

    un échangeur de chaleur à absorption de chaleur (148) couplé au dispositif de détente (144) pour recevoir le réfrigérant détendu par le dispositif de détente (144) et, à son tour, couplé au compresseur (120) pour renvoyer le réfrigérant au compresseur (120) ;

    au moins un premier ventilateur électrique (129) positionné pour entraîner un écoulement d'air (500) à travers l'échangeur de chaleur à rejet de chaleur (128) et couplé au générateur (32) pour recevoir l'alimentation électrique du générateur (32) ;

    au moins un second ventilateur électrique (149) positionné pour entraîner un écoulement d'air (502) à travers l'échangeur de chaleur à absorption de chaleur (148) et couplé au générateur (32) pour recevoir l'alimentation électrique du générateur (32) ; et

    un dispositif de commande (100) couplé au compresseur (120) et à l'au moins un des premier et second ventilateurs (129, 149) et configuré pour :

    démarrer le moteur (30) ; et

    caractérisé en ce que le dispositif de commande est en outre configuré pour engager le générateur (32) et au moins l'un de l'au moins un des premiers ventilateurs (129) devant être alimenté par le générateur avant que le moteur (30) n'atteigne la vitesse de fonctionnement ;

    une fois que le moteur (30) a atteint la vitesse de fonctionnement, démarrer le compresseur (120) ; et

    après le démarrage du compresseur (120), démarrer au moins l'un de l'au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149).


     
    2. Système selon la revendication 1, étant un système de réfrigération de transport comprenant en outre un compartiment réfrigéré (26) positionné pour être refroidi par l'échangeur de chaleur à absorption de chaleur (148).
     
    3. Système selon la revendication 2, dans lequel le compartiment (26) est formé par au moins l'un d'un corps de remorque ou d'un conteneur de fret.
     
    4. Système selon une quelconque revendication précédente, comprenant en outre un démarreur du moteur, dans lequel le dispositif de commande (100) est configuré pour :
    désengager le démarreur avant de démarrer le compresseur (120) .
     
    5. Système selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel :

    il existe une pluralité dudit au moins un des premiers ventilateurs (129) ;

    il existe une pluralité dudit au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149) ; et

    le dispositif de commande (100) est configuré pour :

    effectuer ledit démarrage de tous les premiers ventilateurs (129) en même temps ; et

    effectuer ledit démarrage de tous les seconds ventilateurs (149) en même temps.


     
    6. Système selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel le dispositif de commande est configuré pour :
    charger un ou plusieurs cylindres du compresseur (120) après le démarrage du compresseur (120) mais avant le démarrage de l'au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149).
     
    7. Système selon la revendication 6, dans lequel :

    le compresseur (120) a six cylindres (200...210) ;

    le dispositif de commande (100) est configuré pour charger les premier et second dits cylindres à partir du démarrage du compresseur (120) ;

    lesdits un ou plusieurs cylindres chargés après le démarrage du compresseur (120) et avant le démarrage de l'au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149) sont des troisième et quatrième cylindres (204, 206) ; et

    le dispositif de commande (100) est configuré pour charger les cinquième et sixième dits cylindres (208, 210) en réponse à une demande déterminée après le démarrage de l'au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149).


     
    8. Système selon une quelconque revendication précédente, comprenant en outre des capteurs, une batterie et une ou plusieurs vannes, dans lequel le dispositif de commande (100) est configuré pour effectuer une initialisation à démarrage préalable comprenant :

    l'autodiagnostic du dispositif de commande ;

    la vérification des capteurs pour vérifier la présence et le fonctionnement ;

    la vérification de l'état de la batterie ;

    la vérification des pressions et des températures générées par lesdits capteurs ; et

    la remise à zéro et la configuration préalable des une ou plusieurs vannes, y compris le dispositif de détente (144).


     
    9. Système selon une quelconque revendication précédente, dans lequel le dispositif de commande (100) est configuré pour engager le générateur (32) et l'au moins un des premiers ventilateurs (129) avant le démarrage du moteur (30).
     
    10. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un système de réfrigération, le système comprenant :

    un moteur (30) ;

    un générateur électrique (32) couplé mécaniquement au moteur (30) pour être entraîné par le moteur (30) ;

    un compresseur (120), couplé électriquement au générateur (32) pour être alimenté par le générateur (32) ;

    un échangeur de chaleur à rejet de chaleur (128) couplé au compresseur (120) pour recevoir le réfrigérant comprimé du compresseur (120) ;

    un dispositif de détente (144) couplé à l'échangeur de chaleur à rejet de chaleur (128) pour dilater le réfrigérant reçu de l'échangeur de chaleur à rejet de chaleur (128) ;

    un échangeur de chaleur à absorption de chaleur (148) couplé au dispositif de détente (144) pour recevoir le réfrigérant détendu par le dispositif de détente (144) et, à son tour, couplé au compresseur (120) pour renvoyer le réfrigérant au compresseur (120) ;

    au moins un premier ventilateur électrique (129) positionné pour entraîner un écoulement d'air à travers l'échangeur de chaleur à rejet de chaleur (128) et couplé au générateur (32) pour recevoir l'alimentation électrique du générateur (32) ;

    au moins un second ventilateur électrique (149) positionné pour entraîner une surface portante à travers l'échangeur de chaleur à absorption de chaleur (148) et couplé au générateur (32) pour recevoir l'alimentation électrique du générateur (32) ; et

    caractérisé en ce que le procédé comprend :

    le démarrage du moteur (30) ;

    avant que le moteur (30) n'atteigne une vitesse de fonctionnement, l'engagement du générateur (32) et au moins l'un de l'au moins un des premiers ventilateurs (129) devant être alimenté par le générateur ;

    une fois que le moteur a atteint la vitesse de fonctionnement, le démarrage du compresseur (120) ; et

    après le démarrage du compresseur (120), le démarrage d'au moins l'un de l'au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149).


     
    11. Procédé selon la revendication 10, comprenant en outre :
    le chargement des un ou plusieurs cylindres après le démarrage du compresseur (120) mais avant le démarrage de l'au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149).
     
    12. Procédé selon la revendication 11, dans lequel :

    le compresseur (120) a six cylindres (200...120) ;

    à partir du démarrage du compresseur (120), les premier et second dits cylindres (200, 202) sont chargés ;

    lesdits un ou plusieurs cylindres chargés après le démarrage du compresseur (120) et avant le démarrage de l'au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149) sont des troisième et quatrième cylindres (204, 206) ; et

    le dispositif de commande (100) est configuré pour charger les cinquième et sixième dits cylindres (208, 210) en réponse à une demande déterminée après le démarrage de l'au moins un des seconds ventilateurs (149).


     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description