(19)
(11)EP 2 343 737 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
25.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/13

(21)Application number: 11002100.3

(22)Date of filing:  18.07.2001
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 25/075(2006.01)
H01L 33/24(2010.01)
H01L 21/683(2006.01)
H01L 23/485(2006.01)
H01L 33/00(2010.01)
G02F 1/136(2006.01)
H01L 27/15(2006.01)
H01L 21/20(2006.01)
H01L 21/60(2006.01)
H01L 27/12(2006.01)
H01L 21/56(2006.01)

(54)

Image display unit and production method for image display unit

Bildanzeigeeinheit und Herstellungsverfahren für Bildanzeigeeinheit

Unité d'affichage d'images et procédé de production pour unité d'affichage d'images


(84)Designated Contracting States:
DE FR GB

(30)Priority: 18.07.2000 JP 2000217953
18.07.2000 JP 2000217988
26.12.2000 JP 2000396225
29.06.2001 JP 2001200113

(43)Date of publication of application:
13.07.2011 Bulletin 2011/28

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
01951901.6 / 1310934

(73)Proprietor: Sony Corporation
Tokyo 108-0075 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • Iwafuchi, Toshiaki
    Tokyo 108-0075 (JP)
  • Oohata, Toyoharu
    Tokyo 108-0075 (JP)
  • Doi, Masato
    Tokyo 108-0075 (JP)

(74)Representative: Müller Hoffmann & Partner 
Patentanwälte mbB St.-Martin-Strasse 58
81541 München
81541 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 0 785 580
JP-A- 11 312 840
US-A- 5 339 180
WO-A1-90/01803
JP-A- H10 163 536
US-A- 6 030 849
  
  • YANG W ET AL: "Single-crystal GaN pyramids grown on (111)Si substrates by selective lateral overgrowth", JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 204, no. 3, 1 July 1999 (1999-07-01), pages 270-274, XP004179745, ISSN: 0022-0248, DOI: DOI:10.1016/S0022-0248(99)00205-5
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present disclosure relates to an image display unit including light emitting devices arrayed in a matrix for performing image display in response to an image signal, a method of producing the image display unit, and a method of producing light emitting devices suitable for the image display unit. The present disclosure also relates to a method of arraying devices such as semiconductor light emitting devices or liquid crystal control devices on a board and a method of producing an image display unit in accordance with the device arraying method, and particularly to a method of arraying light emitting devices characterized by transferring micro-devices to a wide region in a transfer step and a method of producing an image display unit in accordance with the device arraying method. The present disclosure further relates to an image display unit improved in the mounting direction of light emitting devices, a device mounting board on which devices are mounted, and a method of producing the image display unit.

BACKGROUND ART



[0002] Various display units have been developed as those of a lightweight and thin image type. As a main category of such image display units, there have been known LED (Light Emitting Diode) displays, liquid crystal displays, and plasma displays. The application of these image display units has been extended along with progress of computer techniques. For example, display units having a diagonal size of about 30 to 150 cm have been used for television receivers, video reproducing devices, and output units for game devices, and further, display units having a diagonal size smaller than about 30 cm have been used for vehicle-mounted navigation systems, picture recording systems, and monitors.

[0003] Either of the above-described image display units, however, has a problem in terms of characteristics such as resolution, luminance, light output/power efficiency, and image quality, and further, in terms of screen size and production cost. For example, in display units of a type using light emitting diodes arrayed in a matrix, individual light emitting diodes are collectively mounted to form an array of the light emitting devices. However, since each light emitting diode is packaged and thereby it has a size being as large as several mm, the size of one pixel becomes large, to degrade the resolution. At the same time, in an image display unit using an array of light emitting diodes, since the cost per each pixel is raised, the product cost becomes high, in particular, for an image display unit having a large screen.

[0004] In liquid crystal display units, a substrate forming part of the display unit is put in a film formation apparatus kept in vacuum, and devices such as transistors and wiring are formed by using a photolithography. In such display units, particularly, in the case of increasing the resolution of the liquid crystal display, a process control must be performed in the order of µm. Accordingly, to improve the production yield, the process control must be strictly performed, and therefore, the production cost is raised in the case of producing a liquid crystal display unit having a large screen. Further, liquid crystal display has a viewing angle dependence in which the contrast or tint varies depending on a viewing angle, and also has a problem that a response speed becomes late when one color is changed to another color.

[0005] Plasma display units are driven by making use of a mechanism that discharge is generated in a narrow space of the order of a pixel size and visual light is generated by exciting phosphors with the aid of ultraviolet rays derived from an ionized gas generated from the discharge. Accordingly, in the plasma display units, the luminous efficiency is not high and a power consumption becomes large. Further, there occurs problems that external light is reflected from phosphors, to degrade the contrast, and that a color reproduction range is narrow.

[0006] Accordingly, either of the above-described image display units makes it difficult to form a large-sized screen and is high in production cost, and has problems in terms of resolution, process control, image quality, and luminous efficiency.

[0007] In view of the foregoing, the present disclosure has been made, and an object of the present disclosure is to provide an image display unit capable of enhancing characteristics such as resolution, image quality, and luminous efficiency, facilitating formation of a large-sized screen, and reducing the production cost. Another object of the present disclosure is to provide a method of producing such a high performance image display unit. A further object of the present disclosure is to provide a method of producing light emitting devices of an image display unit. An additional object of the present disclosure is to provide a method of arraying devices, which is capable of transferring micro-devices to a wider region without degrading a positional accuracy after transfer and without occurrence of a wiring failure.

[0008] In EP 0 785 580 A2 an LED display packaging with substrate removal and a respective method of fabrication are disclosed. An LED display package and method of fabricating including an LED array display chip having connection pads positioned about the perimeter of the LED chip, a separate driver chip having connection pads routed to an uppermost surface, positioned to cooperatively engage those of the LED chip when properly registered and interconnected using wafer level processing technology. The LED chip being flip chip mounted to the driver chip and having a layer of interchip bonding dielectric positioned between the space defined by the LED chip and the driver chip.

[0009] Further, JP 11 312840 A shows an LED structure formed by masking and selective growth. The LED has a crystal growth layer having an inclined crystal plane inclined with respect to a growth substrate principle plane with first and second conductive layers and an active layer formed thereon.

[0010] Finally, JP 11 312840 A and also US 6 030 849 A disclose LED structures formed by selective growth. The LED structures include electrodes at different heights. With further reference to JP H10 163536 A which concerns the mounting of an LED having electrodes at different heights to a display wiring board, the heights of the electrodes are formed in such a manner that a height of a first electrode from a substrate for growth is substantially equal to the height of a second electrode from the substrate for growth.

[0011] The above objects are solved by the present disclosure.

DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION



[0012] The present invention provides an image display unit as defined in claim 1 and a method of making the same as defined in claim 3. Preferred embodiments are defined in the dependent claims.

[0013] In the following description, figures 35 and 36 and the associated text describe an embodiment of the invention. References to embodiments which do not fall under the scope of the claims are to be understood as examples useful for understanding the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



[0014] FIG. 1 is a layout diagram showing an essential portion of an image display unit according to a first exemplary embodiment; FIG. 2 is a layout diagram showing an essential portion of an image display unit according to a second embodiment; FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram showing the image display unit according to the second embodiment; FIG. 4 is a view showing a step of forming a crystal layer in a method of producing an image display unit according to a third embodiment; FIG. 5 is a view showing a step of forming separation grooves in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 6 is a view showing a step of pressing light emitting devices to a temporarily holding board in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 7 is a view showing a step of irradiating the light emitting devices with an energy beam in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 8 is a view showing a step of peeling the light emitting devices from a substrate for growth in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 9 is a view showing a step of attracting light emitting devices in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 10 is a view showing a step of separating a selected light emitting device in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 11 is a view showing a state immediately before the light emitting device is mounted in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 12 is a view showing a state after the light emitting device is mounted in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIGS. 13A to 13D are schematic diagrams showing a method of arraying devices according an embodiment; FIGS. 14A to 14D are schematic diagrams showing another method of arraying devices according to the embodiment; FIGS. 15A to 15D are schematic diagrams showing discrete transfer in the method of arraying devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 16 is a schematic perspective view showing a resin molded chip in the method of arraying devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 17 is a schematic plan view showing the resin molded chip in the method of arraying devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 18A and 18B are views showing a light emitting device used for the method of arraying devices according to the embodiment, wherein FIG. 18A is a sectional view and FIG. 18B is a plan view; FIG. 19 is a sectional view showing a first transfer step in the method of arraying light emitting devices according to an embodiment; FIG. 20 is a sectional view showing a step of forming an electrode pad in the method of arraying light emitting devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 21 is a sectional view showing another step of forming an electrode pad in the method of arraying light emitting devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 22 is a sectional view showing a step of attracting a selected light emitting device in the method of arraying light emitting devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 23 is a sectional view showing a second transfer step in the method of arraying light emitting devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 24 is a sectional view showing a step of forming an insulating layer in the method of arraying light emitting devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 25 is a sectional view showing a step of forming wiring in the method of arraying light emitting devices according to the embodiment; FIG. 26 is a sectional view showing a step of forming thin film transistors in a method of arraying liquid crystal control devices according an embodiment; FIG. 27 is a sectional view showing a first transfer step in the method of arraying liquid crystal control devices according the embodiment; FIG. 28 is a sectional view showing a step of holding a selected device on a temporarily holding member in the method of arraying liquid crystal control devices according the embodiment; FIG. 29 is a sectional view showing a step of transferring the device from the temporarily holding member to a second temporarily holding member in the method of arraying liquid crystal control devices according the embodiment; FIG. 30 is a sectional view showing a step of holding the device on the second temporarily holding member in the method of arraying liquid crystal control devices according the embodiment; FIG. 31 is a sectional view showing a step of forming a counter board of a liquid crystal panel and sealing liquid crystal in a gap in the method of arraying liquid crystal control devices according the embodiment; FIG. 32 is a sectional view showing one example of a light emitting device; FIG. 33 is a sectional view showing another example of a light emitting device; FIG. 34 is a sectional view showing a further example of a light emitting device; FIG. 35 is a sectional view showing an essential portion of a first example of an image display unit on which crystal growth layers of light emitting devices are inversely mounted; FIGS. 36A and 36B are views showing a light emitting diode as a component of the image display unit according to the first example, wherein FIG. 35A is a sectional view of the device and FIG. 35B is a plan view of the device; FIG. 37 is a sectional view showing an essential portion of an image display unit according to a second example; FIG. 38 is a sectional view showing a step of forming crystal growth layers and electrodes in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third example; FIG. 39 is a sectional view showing a step of forming a resist layer in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third example; FIG. 40 is a sectional view showing a step of forming bumps in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 41 is a sectional view showing a step of irradiating the devices with an energy beam in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 42 is a sectional view showing a step of transferring the devices to a temporarily holding board in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 43 is a sectional view showing a step of attracting a selected light emitting device in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 44 is a sectional view showing a step of mounting the light emitting device in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 45 is a sectional view showing a state after the light emitting devices are mounted in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 46 is a sectional view showing a step of pressing the light emitting devices in the method of producing an image display unit according to the third embodiment; FIG. 47 is a sectional view showing a step of irradiating light emitting devices with an energy beam in a method of producing an image display unit according to a fourth embodiment; FIG. 48 is a sectional view showing a step of mounting the light emitting devices in the method of producing an image display unit according to the fourth embodiment; FIG. 49 is a sectional view showing a step of irradiating selected light emitting devices with an energy beam in a method of producing an image display unit according to a fifth embodiment; FIG. 50 is a sectional view showing a step of irradiating selected light emitting devices with an energy beam in a method of producing an image display unit according to a sixth embodiment; FIG. 51 is a view showing a transfer step in the method of producing an image display unit according to the sixth embodiment; FIG. 52 is a sectional view showing a second transfer step in the method of producing an image display unit according to the sixth embodiment; FIG. 53 is a sectional view showing a state after the second transfer in the method of producing an image display unit according to the sixth embodiment; FIG. 54 is a sectional view showing a step of mounting the light emitting devices in the method of producing an image display unit according to the sixth embodiment; FIG. 55 is a sectional view showing a step of forming light emitting devices in a method of producing an image display unit according to a seventh embodiment; FIG. 56 is a sectional view showing a mounting step accompanied by energy irradiation in the method of producing an image display unit according to the seventh embodiment; and FIG. 57 is a sectional view of an image display unit according to an eighth embodiment.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION



[0015] Hereinafter, an image display unit, a method of producing an image display unit, a method of producing a light emitting device, a method of arraying devices, and a device mounting board, will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

[0016] FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a layout of an essential portion of an image display unit according to a first embodiment, which essential portion is equivalent to four pixel regions: two pixel regions in each of the vertical and horizontal directions. In the image display unit according to this embodiment, a plurality of address lines ADD0 and ADD1 extending in the horizontal direction are formed on a principal plane of a wiring board 1, and further a plurality of data lines DLRO to DLB1 extending in the vertical direction are formed on the principal plane of the wiring board 1 via an interlayer insulating film (not shown). As the wiring board 1, a general-purpose board for fabricating a semiconductor device, such as a glass board, a metal board covered with a synthetic resin or an insulating film, or a silicon board is typically used; however, any other board may be also used insofar as address lines and data lines can be formed on the board at a necessary accuracy.

[0017] The address lines ADD0 and ADD1 are formed by a metal material layer excellent in conductivity, or a combination of a semiconductor material layer and a metal material layer. A line width of each address line can be, as shown in FIG. 1, made wider than a size M of a light emitting diode. Such a relationship can be realized due to the fact that, as will be described later, micro-sized light emitting diodes, each having an occupied area of 25 µm2 or more and 10,000 µm2 or less, are mounted on the wiring board 1. With this relationship, a delay due to a resistance of each address line in the case of outputting a desired image by sequentially scanning pixels is made as low as possible. The address lines ADD0 and ADD1 extend in the horizontal direction such that one address line passes through each pixel. Accordingly, a common address line is selected for pixels adjacent to each other in the horizontal direction.

[0018] Like the address lines, the data lines DLRO to DLB1 are formed by a metal material layer excellent in conductivity, or a combination of a semiconductor material layer and a metal material layer. As shown in FIG. 1, line widths of the data lines DLRO to DLB1 can be set to take up about a half of an occupied area of the wiring board 1. Such a wider line width of the data line can be realized due to the fact that, as described above with respect to the address line, micro-sized light emitting diodes, each having an occupied area of 25 µm2 or more and 10,000 µm2 or less, are mounted on the wiring board 1. These data lines DLRO to DLB1 extend in the vertical direction, and data lines of the number corresponding to that of the light emitting diodes, that is, three data lines are used for each pixel. To be more specific, a red light emitting diode DR00, a green light emitting diode DG00, and a blue light emitting diode DB00 are provided in the pixel positioned on the upper left side of the figure, and the data lines DLRO to DLB0 pass through the pixel so as to correspond to the colors, that is, red, green and blue of the light emitting diodes DR00, DG00 and DB00, respectively. With respect to these data lines DLRO to DLB1, a common data line is used for the diodes of the same luminous color, which diodes are disposed in the pixels adjacent to each other in the vertical direction.

[0019] The image display unit according to this embodiment has light emitting diodes arrayed in a matrix, and performs light emission in response to a specific image signal (including a video signal, that is, a dynamic image, the same applying correspondingly to the following). The image display unit in this embodiment is driven by a point-sequence manner or a line-sequence manner, like an active matrix type liquid crystal display unit. As materials of light emitting diodes, for example, a multi-layer structure having a gallium nitride based double-hetero structure grown on a sapphire substrate can be used for a blue or green light emitting diode, and a multi-layer crystal having an aluminum gallium arsenide or indium aluminum gallium phosphide based double-hetero structure grown on a gallium arsenide substrate can be used for a red light emitting diode. A set of three kinds of light emitting diodes as three light emitting devices, which are different from each other in emission wavelength, constitute one pixel. The set of three kinds of light emitting diodes different from each other in emission wavelength are not necessarily limited to a set of light emitting diodes for emitting light rays of red, green, and blue, but may be a set of light emitting diodes for emitting light rays of other colors.

[0020] In the image display unit according to this embodiment, the red light emitting diodes DR00 and DR01 are provided in the two pixels horizontally arranged on one row and the red light emitting diodes DR10 and DR11 are provided in the two pixels horizontally arranged on the next row; the green light emitting diodes DG00 and DG01 are provided in the two pixels horizontally arranged on one row and the green light emitting diodes DG10 and DG11 are provided in the two pixels horizontally arranged on the next row; and the blue light emitting diodes DB00 and DB01 are provided in the two pixels horizontally arranged on one row and the blue light emitting diodes DB10 and DB11 are provided in the two pixels horizontally arranged on the next row. For example, the red light emitting diode DR00, the green light emitting diode DG00, and the blue light emitting diode DB00 are arrayed in the pixel located at the upper left side of the figure in this order. That is to say, the set of these three light emitting diodes constitute one pixel.

[0021] Each light emitting diode has an approximately square shape, and has a chip structure being mounted in a non-package state or in a micro-package state (size of package: for example, about 1 mm or less). While a detailed layer structure of the light emitting diode is not shown in the layout of FIG. 1, each light emitting diode is formed into an approximately square shape in a plan view. Such approximately square shaped chips of the light emitting diodes are mounted in a matrix. The light emitting diodes are located at positions corresponding to positions at which the address lines ADD0 and ADD1 cross the data lines DLRO to DLB1. Each light emitting diode is electrically connected to the address line via an electrode pad portion 11 connected to the address line, and similarly, electrically connected to the data line via an electrode pad portion 12 connected to the data line. The electrode pad portion 11 is a small strip-like region extending in the vertical direction, and the electrode pad portion 12 is a small strip-like region extending in the horizontal direction. The light emitting diodes are electrically connected to the address lines and the data lines via the electrode pad portions 11 and 12, and are driven in the point-sequence manner or line-sequence manner.

[0022] Since the device occupied area of each light emitting diode is in a range of 25 µm2 or more and 10,000 µm2 or less, the size of one side of the light emitting diode having an approximately square shape becomes a value of about 5 µm to 100 µm. The light emitting diode having such a micro-size is mounted on the wiring board 1 in a micro-package state or a non-package state. The light emitting diode can be preferably produced in accordance with a method of producing a light emitting diode to be described later. On the other hand, in the image display unit according to this embodiment, the pixels are arrayed with a pitch of V in the vertical direction and are arrayed with a pitch of H in the horizontal direction. The array pitches V and H are each set to a value in a range of 0.1 mm to 1 mm. The reason for this is as follows: Namely, in the case of image display units for displaying dynamic images (for example, television receivers, video equipment, or game devices) or for displaying information images (for example, used for computers), a suitable diagonal size thereof is in a range of 30 cm to 150 cm, and the number of pixels, each including a set of diodes of R, G, and B, may be desirable to be in a range of about 300,000 to 2,000,000 pieces from the practical viewpoint; and further, in the case of direct-viewing image display units, the array pitch of pixels may be desirable to be in a range of 0.1 mm (display of high definition images for one viewer) to 1 mm (display of dynamic images for several viewers) from the viewpoint of a human visible characteristic. As a result, when one side of each light emitting diode is set to a value ranging from about 5 µm to 100 µm, a ratio of an occupied area of each light emitting diode to an occupied area of one pixel on the image display unit is preferably in a range of 10 to 40,000, more preferably, 10 to 10,000.

[0023] A light emitting device of an ordinary image display unit typically has, in the state before resin package, a chip size of 0.3 mm square and has, in the state after resin package, a chip size of 1mm or more square. Accordingly, assuming that the array pitch of pixels is set to 5 mm, a ratio of an occupied area of each light emitting diode to an occupied area of one pixel on the image display unit becomes in a range of 1 to 2. This ratio, that is, about 1 to 2 is out of the ratio of an occupied area of each light emitting diode to an occupied area of one pixel on the image display unit according to the embodiment, which is preferably in the range of 10 to 40,000, more preferably, 10 to 10,000 as described above.

[0024] Although the image display unit according to this embodiment is characterized by using light emitting diodes of such micro-chip sizes, it can obtain a sufficient luminance as described below. A necessary luminance of a display unit of an indoor type is about 500 cd/m2. Such a luminance is converted into a light output of 5 W/m2 for each of red, green, and blue. In order for an image display unit to realize the light output of 5 W/m2 for each of red, green, and blue, an average light output of each light emitting diode may be in a range of 0.017 µW to 1.7 µW as a result of calculation. Here, assuming that a reliability of the light emitting diodes, each of which has an average light output of 0.017 µW to 1.7 µW, is equal to that of ordinary light emitting diodes, if a drive current density of the above light emitting diodes is equal to that of the ordinary light emitting diodes, then each of the light emitting diodes may have a size of about 1 µm2 to 100 µm2 even in the case of adding a slight margin. As a result, by setting an occupied area of each of light emitting diodes to be mounted on a wiring board to a value of 25 µm2 or more and 10,000 µm2 or less, the image display unit can realize a sufficient luminance as well as a sufficient reliability.

[0025] Each light emitting diode to be mounted as being in a micro-size state has the above-described size, and according to a production method to be described later, these light emitting diodes are formed on a device forming board, being separated into chips, and mounted on a mounting board in a non-package state or a micro-package state. The non-package state means a state in which each diode chip is not covered with resin molding, and the micro-package state means a state in which the diode chip is covered with a thin resin layer and has a package size (for example, about 1mm or less) smaller than that of an ordinary package size. As will be described later with respect to the production method, each light emitting diode used for the image display unit according to this embodiment is mounted on a wiring board as being in a state of a micro-size reduced due to no-package or micro-package.

[0026] An image display unit according to a second embodiment will be described below with reference to FIGS. 2 and 3. This embodiment is a modification of the image display unit according to the first embodiment, and is particularly characterized in that a current retention circuit electrically connected to each light emitting diode is mounted in a chip state.

[0027] FIG. 2 is a layout diagram showing a structure of one pixel region (V1×H1) within the image display unit according to this embodiment. One address line ADD and two power source lines PW1 and PW2 extending in the horizontal direction are formed on a wiring board 21 being similar to that used in the first embodiment in such a manner as to be spaced from each other with a specific pitch. The address line ADD and two power source lines PW1 and PW2 are formed by a metal material layer excellent in conductivity or a combination of a semiconductor material layer and a metal material layer, and a line width of each of these lines is wider than a size of a light emitting diode and a chip of a current retention current. Signal lines DLR, DLG, and DLB for the light emitting diodes of R, G, and B extending in the horizontal direction are formed within the same pixel, and each of these signal lines DLR, DLG, and DLB has the same structure and dimension as those of the address line ADD.

[0028] In the image display unit according to this embodiment, light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB are arrayed in a matrix, and are used for light emission in response to a specific image signal. In this pixel, the red light emitting diode DR, the green light emitting diode DG, and the blue light emitting diode DB are arrayed in this order. A set of the three light emitting diodes constitute one pixel. Like the above-described embodiment, each of the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB in a mounted state has a chip structure formed into an approximately square shape having a micro-size. The light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB are mounted in a region between the power supply lines PW1 and PW2.

[0029] In the image display unit according to this embodiment, current retention circuits PT, which are electrically connected to the light emitting diodes DR. DG, and DB for retaining currents flowing in the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB are formed for the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB, respectively. The current retention circuit PT has a circuit configuration including transistors and a capacitance (which will be described later). In particular, the current retention circuits PT are formed into individual chips and are mounted on the wiring board 21. In this embodiment, the chip size of each of the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB is substantially the same as the chip size of each of the current retention circuits PT, and an occupied area of each light emitting diode is set in a range of 25 µm2 or more and 10,000 µm2 or less, and an occupied area of the chip of each current retention circuit PT is similarly set in a range of 25 µm2 or more and 10,000 µm2 or less. By making the chip size of each current retention circuit nearly equal to that of each light emitting diode, the chips of the current retention circuits and the chips of the light emitting diodes can be mounted in the same mounting step, to thereby simplify the production steps. These current retention circuits PT are formed in a region between the power source line PW1 and the address line ADD.

[0030] Wiring portions 22 to 26 are formed, from the need of wiring, between the power source line PW2 and the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB, between the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB and the current retention circuits PT, between the power source line PW1 and the current retention circuits PT, between the current retention circuits PT and the address line ADD, and between the current retention circuits PT and the signal lines DLR, DLG, and DLB. The wiring portions 22 are strip-like small regions extending in the vertical direction and connect the light emitting diodes to the power source line PW2. The wiring portions 23 are strip-like regions extending in the vertical direction and connect the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB to the current retention circuits PT for retaining currents for driving the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB, respectively. The wiring portions 24 are strip-like regions horizontally extending from the light emitting diodes and vertically extending to be connected to the power source line PW1 and connect the current retention circuits PT to the power source line PW1. The wiring portions 25 are strip-like small regions extending in the vertical direction and connect the current retention circuits PT to the address line ADD. The wiring portions 26 are strip-like small regions extending in the horizontal direction and connect the current retention circuits PT to the signal lines DLR, DLG, and DLB. When the light emitting diodes DR, DG, and DB are mounted on a wiring board as being in micro-size states, the corresponding ones of the wiring portions 22 to 26 can be joined to conductive material joining portions (to be described later) formed on the wiring board, and similarly, when the current retention circuits PT are mounted on the wiring board as being in micro-size states, the corresponding ones of the wiring portions 22 to 26 can be joined to conductive material joining portions (to be described later) formed on the wiring board.

[0031] FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram showing the image display unit in this embodiment shown in FIG. 2. In the figure, reference numeral 31 designates a light emitting diode for light emission of a specific color in response to an image signal. It is to be noted that, in the circuit diagram shown in FIG. 3, three pieces of the diodes 31 of red, green, and blue arrayed in the horizontal direction constitute one pixel; however, these diodes 31 are shown without discrimination of colors for simplicity. Transistors 32 and 33 and a capacitance 34 connected to the diode 31 constitute the current retention circuit. The transistor 32 is connected in series between the power source lines PW1 and PW2, and only when the transistor 32 is in an ON state, the diode 31 performs light emission. One of the power source lines PW1 and PW2 supplies a ground voltage to the transistor 32 and the other supplies a source voltage to the transistor 32. One terminal of the capacitance 34 and one of source and drain regions of a transistor 33 functioning as a switching transistor are connected to a gate of the transistor 32. The other of the source and drain regions of the transistor 33 is connected to the signal line DL to which an image signal is supplied, and a gate of the transistor 33 is connected to the address line ADD extending in the horizontal direction.

[0032] The address line ADD has a structure in which a level thereof is selectively switched by a shift register circuit 36. For example, by shifting one of a plurality of address lines to a high level, a horizontal address corresponding to the selected address line is selected. The signal line DL is a wiring for transmitting an image (video) signal to each light emitting diode 31. One signal line Dl is provided for each light emitting diode 31. While the level of the address line ADD is selectively shifted by the shift register circuit 36, the signal line DL is scanned by a shift register/transfer gate circuit 35, and an image signal is supplied to the selected signal line DL via the shift register/transfer gate circuit 35.

[0033] The capacitance 34, which is connected to the gate of the transistor 32 and is connected to one of the source and drain regions of the transistor 33, has a function of holding a potential of the transistor 32 when the transistor 33 becomes an off state. Since the gate voltage can be held even if the transistor 33 is turned off, the light emitting diode 31 can be continuously driven.

[0034] The operation of the image display unit will be briefly described below. A voltage is applied from the shift register circuit 36 to a specific one of the horizontal address lines ADD, to select an address corresponding to the selected address line ADD, whereby the switching transistors 33 of the current retention circuits in the selected line are turned on. In such a state, an image signal is applied as a voltage to a specific one of the signal lines DL extending in the vertical direction. At this time, the voltage reaches the gate of the transistor 32 of each of the current retention circuits along the selected signal line DL via the switching transistor 33 of the current retention circuit, and simultaneously the gate voltage is stored in the capacitance 34 of the current retention circuit. The capacitance 34 holds the gate voltage of the transistor 32. Even after the selecting operation of the address line ADD in the horizontal direction is stopped and thereby the potential of the selected address line is shifted again to the low level, that is, even after the transistor 33 is turned off, the capacitance 34 continuously holds the gate voltage. In principle, the capacitance 34 can continuously hold the gate voltage applied at the time of address selection until the next address selection occurs. During a period in which the capacitance 34 continuously holds the gate voltage, the transistor 32 can perform the operation associated with the voltage thus held, to thereby continuously apply a drive current to the corresponding light emitting diode 31. By holding a light emission time of the light emitting diode 31 longer as described above, a luminance of the entire image can be enhanced even if a drive current applied to each emitting diode is reduced.

[0035] A method of producing the image display unit will be described in detail as a third embodiment with reference to FIGS. 4 to 12. In addition, the method of producing the image display unit can be applied to a method of producing light emitting devices. To be more specific, description of front steps of the method of producing the image display unit until light emitting devices are mounted on a wiring board is equivalent to description of the method of producing light emitting devices.

[0036] As shown in FIG. 4, a sapphire substrate 51 is first prepared, and low temperature and high temperature buffer layers (not shown) are formed thereon. A second conductive type cladding layer 52, an active layer 53, and a first conductive type cladding layer 54 are sequentially stacked on the buffer layers. The sapphire substrate 51 is configured as a device formation substrate. Here, for example, in the case of producing blue and green light emitting diodes, each of the second conductive type cladding layer 52, the active layer 53, and the first conductive type cladding layer 54 may be configured as a gallium nitride based crystal growth layer. With the growth of such layers, light emitting diodes of a double-hetero structure having a pn-junction are formed on the sapphire substrate 51.

[0037] As shown in FIG. 5, n-type electrodes 55 are formed in such a manner as to be connected to the second conductive type cladding layer 52 and p-type electrodes 56 are formed in such a manner as to be connected to the first conductive type cladding layer 54, by making use of a photolithography technique and further use of vapor-deposition and reactive ion etching. After formation of the electrodes 55 and 56 in respective device forming areas, separation grooves 57 are formed in such a manner as to separate peripheries of respective devices from each other. An arrangement pattern of the separation grooves 57 is generally set to a grid pattern for forming remaining light emitting diodes into square shapes; however, it is not limited thereto but may be set to any other pattern. A depth of the separation grooves 57 is set to a value allowing a principal plane of the sapphire substrate 51 to be exposed from the stacked layers to the outside. Accordingly, even the second conductive type cladding layer 52 is separated into parts by the separation grooves 57. In addition, an occupied area of each light emitting diode is set in a range of about 25 µ m2 or more and about 10,000 µm2 or less, and accordingly, one side of the light emitting diode becomes about 5 µm to 100 µm.

[0038] As shown in FIG. 6, a temporarily holding board 60 for holding respective light emitting diodes in the case of transferring the light emitting diodes is prepared. A front surface of the temporarily holding board 60 is coated with an adhesive material layer. A front surface 62 of the adhesive material layer 61 is brought into press-contact with a light emitting diode side, on which the separation grooves 57 have been already formed, of the sapphire board 51. Accordingly, front surfaces of respective light emitting diodes are adhesively bonded to the front surface of the adhesive material layer 61.

[0039] Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 7, a back surface side of the sapphire substrate 51 is irradiated with an energy beam, typically, a high output pulse ultraviolet laser beam such as an excimer laser beam in such a manner that the energy beam passes through the sapphire substrate 51 from the back surface side to the front surface side. With this irradiation of the high output pulse ultraviolet laser beam, at a boundary between the sapphire substrate 51 and the second conductive type cladding layer 52 as the crystal layer and its neighborhood, a material forming the second conductive type cladding layer 52, for example, gallium nitride is decomposed into nitrogen gas and metal gallium, whereby a bonding force between the second conductive type cladding layer 52 and the sapphire substrate 51 becomes weak. As a result, as shown in FIG. 8, the sapphire substrate 51 can be easily peeled from the second conductive type cladding layer 52 as the crystal layer.

[0040] After being peeled from the sapphire substrate 51, each light emitting diode is held, in the device separated state, on the adhesive material layer 61 of the temporarily holding board 60. In such a state, as shown in FIG. 9, a portion, located at a position of one light emitting diode to be attracted, of the front surface of the second conductive type cladding layer 52 is attracted by an attracting jig 70. To be more specific, an attracting portion 72 of the attracting jig 70 is brought into contact with the portion, corresponding the light emitting diode to be attracted, of the back surface of the second conductive type cladding layer 52, and an inner pressure in an attracting hole 71 provided in the attracting jig 70 is reduced. The attracting operation necessary for attracting the light emitting diode to be attracted is thus performed.

[0041] After the portion, corresponding to the light emitting diode to be attracted, of the back surface of the second conductive type cladding layer 52 is sufficiently attracted, the attracting jig 70 is separated from the temporarily holding board 60, to remove the light emitting diode to be attracted from the temporarily holding board 60 as shown in FIG. 10.

[0042] The above-described steps also pertain to the method of producing individual light emitting devices of small sizes. These steps are followed by steps of mounting each light emitting diode on a wiring board, thereby producing an image display unit. FIG. 11 is a view showing a state immediately before the light emitting diode attracted on the attracting jig 70 is mounted on a wiring board 80. The light emitting diode to be mounted has a micro-size. Specifically, an occupied area of the light emitting diode is set in a range of 25 µm or more and 10,000 µm or less. In this step, the wiring board 80 has been already prepared, on which wiring electrodes 81 such as specific signal lines, address lines, power source lines, and ground lines have been already formed. As the wiring board 80, a general-purpose board for fabricating a semiconductor device, such as a glass board, a metal board covered with a synthetic resin or an insulating film, or a silicon board is typically used; however, any other board may be also used insofar as address lines and data lines can be formed on the board at a necessary accuracy. Conductive material joining portions 82 are formed on the wiring board 80. The conductive material joining portion 82 may be made from a material capable of achieving electric connection while being deformed when the light emitting diode is brought into press-contact therewith.

[0043] As shown in FIG. 12, the attracting jig 70 is moved closer to the wiring board 80, and then the light emitting diode is brought into press-contact with a specific position, to be thus mounted on the wiring board 80. The conductive material joining portions 82 are deformed by press-contact of the light emitting diode in a non-package state, so that the light emitting diode is certainly fixed thereto. The mounting of the light emitting diode on the wiring board 80 is thus ended. The work of mounting the light emitting diode is repeated for all the diodes, to obtain an image display unit in which pixels are arrayed in a matrix. The current retention circuits can be similarly mounted on the wiring board as being in non-package states, so that a circuit configuration having the current retention circuits can be easily produced.

[0044] In the case of carrying out the method of producing an image display unit according to this embodiment, micro-chips of light emitting diodes formed on a gallium nitride substrate or light emitting diodes formed on a silicon substrate, and micro-chips of circuit devices can be formed not by using laser means but by a combination of grinding, polishing and chemical etching from the back surface of the substrate and etching for forming separation grooves.

[0045] In the above-described embodiment, light emitting diodes are attracted one by one to be mounted; however, to improve productivity, a plurality of light emitting diodes can be simultaneously attracted by using a jig having a plurality of attracting portions. Further, in the case of forming devices on a silicon substrate or a compound semiconductor substrate, the use of irradiation of an energy beam adopted in the above-described embodiment may be replaced with the use of grinding, polishing and chemical etching from the back surface of the substrate.

[0046] By the way, since LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) as light emitting devices are expensive, an image display unit using LEDs can be produced at a low cost by producing a number of LEDs from one wafer as described above. To be more specific, the cost of an image display unit can be reduced by separating an LED chip having a size of about 300 µm square into LED chips each having a size of several ten µm square, and mounting the LEDs chips thus separated on a board.

[0047] In this regard, there are known various techniques in which devices formed at a high density are moved to a wide region while being spaced from each other by transfer or the like, to obtain a relatively large display unit such as an image display unit. For example, U.S. Patent No. 5,438,241 discloses a thin film transfer method, and Japanese Patent Laid-open No. Hei 11-142878 discloses a method of forming a transistor array panel for a display unit.. In the transfer method disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,438,241, devices densely formed on a substrate are coarsely re-arrayed on a specific display panel by transferring the devices densely formed on the substrate to an extensible board provided with an adhesive layer, extending the extensible board in the X direction and the Y direction while monitoring an array pitch and positions of respective devices, and transferring the devices on the extended board onto the display panel. In the technique disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-open No. Hei 11-142878, thin film transistors forming a liquid crystal display portion on a first substrate are all transferred on a second board, and the thin film transistors are selectively transferred from the second board to a third board with an array pitch corresponding to an array pitch of pixels.

[0048] The above-described techniques, however, have the following problems. First, the transfer method in which devices closely formed on a substrate are coarsely re-arrayed on a display panel has a basic problem that the device position is deviated by a chip size (≧20 µm) at minimum depending on at which position of an adhesively bonding surface of the device chip a fixed point (supporting point) at the time of extension of the extensible board is located, with a result that it becomes essential to perform accurate positional control for each device chip. Accordingly, in the case of forming a high definition TFT array panel requiring a positioning accuracy of at least about 1 µm, it takes a lot of time to perform positioning of the TFT device chips including positional measurement and control for each TFT device chip. Another problem of the transfer method is that in the case of transferring TFT device chips on a resin film having a large thermal expansion coefficient, a positioning accuracy may be degraded depending on a variation in temperature and stress between before and after the positioning operation. For these reasons, the transfer method has a very large disadvantage from the viewpoint of mass-production.

[0049] The technique disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-open No. Hei 11-142878 has the following problem. In this method, wiring electrodes and the like are formed after final transfer; however, since it has been required to reduce sizes of devices such as thin film transistors or light emitting devices for satisfying a requirement toward high integration of the devices so as to realize high-speed operation and reduce the cost, if a wiring layer and the like are formed after the devices are arrayed with an array pitch corresponding to a specific pixel pitch, then it is required to form wiring in a state that the micro-chips are already arrayed in a wider region. As a result, there arises a new disadvantage associated with a wiring failure due to a problem of positioning accuracy of the devices.

[0050] Accordingly, it has been required to provide a method of arraying devices, which is capable of transferring devices finely formed to a wider region without degrading a positioning accuracy after transfer and also without causing any wiring failure, and a method of producing an image display unit in accordance with the method of arraying devices. The method of arraying devices and the method of producing an image display unit will be hereinafter described.

[Two-step Enlarged Transfer Method]



[0051] In a method of arraying devices and a method of producing an image display unit according to this embodiment, two-step transfer is performed by transferring devices formed on a first substrate at a high density onto a temporarily holding member in such a manner that the devices are spaced from each other with a pitch larger than a pitch of the devices arrayed on the first substrate, and further transferring the devices held on the temporarily holding member onto a second board in such a manner that the devices are spaced from each other with a pitch larger than the pitch of the devices held on the temporarily holding member. It is to be noted that two-step transfer is adopted in this embodiment, multi-step transfer such as three or more-step transfer can be adopted in accordance with a necessary enlargement ratio in array pitch between the devices arrayed on the first substrate and the devices mounted on the second board.

[0052] FIGS. 13A to 13C and FIG. 14 show basic steps of transferring devices by the two-step enlarged transfer method. First, devices 92 such as light emitting devices or liquid crystal control devices are densely formed on a first substrate 90 shown in FIG. 13A. The liquid crystal control devices are devices such as thin film transistors for controlling an alignment state of liquid crystal at the time of forming a liquid crystal panel as a final product. By densely forming devices, the number of devices to be produced for each substrate can be increased, to reduce the cost of final products. As the first substrate 90, various kinds of substrates on which devices can be formed, such as a semiconductor wafer, a glass substrate, a quartz glass substrate, sapphire substrate, and a plastic substrate can be used. The devices 92 may be directly formed on the first substrate 90, or may be formed on another substrate once and arrayed on the first substrate 90.

[0053] As shown in FIG. 13B, the devices are transferred on a temporarily holding member 91 shown by broken lines in the figure and held on the temporarily holding member 91. On the temporarily holding member 91, the adjacent two of the devices are spaced from each other, and the devices are arrayed in a matrix shown in the figure as a whole. To be more specific, the devices 92 are transferred on the temporarily holding member 91 in such a manner as to be spaced from each other not only in the X direction but also in the Y direction perpendicular to the X direction. The enlargement ratio in array pitch between the devices on the first substrate 90 and the devices on the temporarily holding member 91 is not particularly limited but may be determined in consideration of formation of resin portions and formation of electrode pads in the subsequent steps. The devices can be all transferred from the first substrate 90 onto the temporarily holding member 91 in such a manner as to be spaced from each other. In this case, a size of the temporarily holding member 91 along each of the X direction and the Y direction may be equal to or more than a value obtained by multiplying the number of the devices arrayed in each of the X direction and the Y direction by the pitch of the devices arrayed on the temporarily holding member 91. It is to be noted that part of the devices on the first substrate 90 may be transferred onto the temporarily holding member 91 in such a manner as to be spaced from each other.

[0054] The transfer of the devices 92 onto the temporarily holding member 91 may be performed, as will be described later, by adopting specific mechanical means using an attracting jig or an actuator. Alternatively, the devices 92 may be selectively transferred on the temporarily holding member 91 by coating the devices 92 with a resin causing a reaction such as softening, hardening, bridging, or deterioration due to heat or light, and locally irradiating selected ones of the devices 92 with heat or light, to thereby peel or adhesively bond the selected devices. The transfer of the devices 92 may be performed by combination of the thermal or optical means and the mechanical means. In general, the transfer of the devices 92 is performed from the first substrate 90 to the temporarily holding member 91 which faces to the first substrate 90; however, chips of the devices 92 may be individually separated once from the first substrate 90 and then re-arrayed on the temporarily holding member 91.

[0055] After such a first transfer step, as shown in FIG. 13C, resin molding to cover each device and formation of an electrode pad are performed for each of the device 92 spaced from each other on the temporarily holding member 91. The resin molding to cover each device is performed for facilitating both formation of the electrode pad for the device and handling of the device in the subsequent second transfer step. Since as will be described later, each electrode pad is formed after the second transfer step followed by final wiring, the electrode pad is formed into a relatively large size so as not to cause a wiring failure in the final wiring. It is to be noted that the electrode pads are not shown in FIG. 13C. By covering each device 92 with a resin 93, a resin molded chip 94 is formed. The device 92 is located at an approximately central portion of the resin molded chip 94 in a plan view; however, the device 92 may be located at a position offset from the central portion to one side or a corner of the resin molded chip 94.

[0056] Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 13D, the second transfer step is carried out. In this second transfer step, the devices 92, which are arrayed in the matrix on the temporarily holding member 91 in the form of the resin molded chips 94, are transferred on a second board 95 in such a manner as to be spaced from each other with a further enlarged pitch. Like the first transfer step, the transfer of the devices 92 may be performed by adopting specific mechanical means using an attracting jig or an actuator. Alternatively, the devices 92 may be selectively transferred by coating the devices 92 with a resin causing a reaction such as softening, hardening, bridging, or deterioration due to heat or light, and locally irradiating selected ones of the devices 92 with heat or light, to thereby peel or adhesively bond the selected devices 92. The transfer of the devices 92 may be performed by combination of the thermal or optical means and the mechanical means.

[0057] Even in the second transfer step, adjacent two of the devices 92 in the form of the resin molded chips 94 are spaced from each other, and the devices 92 are re-arrayed in a matrix as shown in the figure as a whole. To be more specific, the devices 92 are transferred in such a manner as to be spaced from each other not only in the X direction but also in the Y direction. If the positions of the devices 92 re-arrayed in the second transfer step correspond to positions of pixels of a final product such as an image display unit, then a pitch of the devices 92 re-arrayed in the second transfer step is about integer times an original pitch of the devices 92 arrayed on the first board 90. Assuming that an enlargement ratio in pitch between the devices 92 held on the temporarily holding member 91 and the devices 92 arrayed on the first substrate 90 is taken as "n" and an enlargement ratio in pitch between the devices 92 re-arrayed on the second board 95 and the devices held on the temporarily holding member 91 is taken as "m", a total magnification E (that is, the above-described about integer times) is expressed by E = n×m. Each of the enlargement ratio "n" and "m" may be an integer, or may be not an integer insofar as the enlargement ratio "n" and "m" are combined with each other so that the total magnification E becomes an integer (for example, n = 2.4 and m = 5).

[0058] The devices 92 in the form of the resin molded chips 94, re-arrayed on the second board 95 in such a manner as to be spaced from each other, are then subjected to wiring, which is performed with care taken not to cause a connection failure by making use of the previously formed electrode pads or the like. For light emitting devices such as light emitting diodes, the wiring includes wiring to p-electrodes and n-electrodes, and for light crystal control devices, the wiring includes wiring to selective signal lines, voltage lines, alignment electrode films, and the like.

[0059] FIGS. 14A to 14D are views showing a modification of the two-step enlarged transfer method shown in FIGS. 13A to 13D. This modification is characterized in a transfer manner from a first transfer 90a to a temporarily holding member 91a. As shown in FIG. 14A, devices 92 such as light emitting devices or liquid crystal control devices are densely formed on the first substrate 90a. A plurality of the devices 92 are arrayed on the first substrate 90a in a matrix. Like the first substrate 90 shown in FIGS. 13A to 13D, the first substrate 90a is a substrate on which various kinds of devices can be formed, such as a semiconductor wafer, a glass substrate, a quartz glass substrate, a sapphire substrate, or a plastic substrate. The devices 12 may be directly formed on the first substrate 90, or may be formed on another substrate and arrayed on the first substrate 90.

[0060] After being formed in a matrix on the first substrate 90a, a plurality of the devices 12 are transferred to the temporarily holding member 90a while being spaced from each other. In this case, the temporarily holding member 91a is opposed to the first substrate 90a, and the devices 92 arrayed in a matrix on the first substrate 90a are transferred in a discrete transfer manner. According to the discrete transfer manner, in the case of transferring one of the devices 92 on the first substrate 90a, those adjacent thereto are not transferred. More specifically, of all of the devices 92 arrayed on the first substrate 90a, those located at positions spaced from each other at intervals of a specific value are transferred to the temporarily holding member 91a opposed to the first substrate 90a. In this case, those adjacent to each of the devices 92, which have been transferred, remain on the first substrate 90a; however, by transferring the remaining devices 92 onto another temporarily holding member, all of the devices 92 densely formed on the first substrate 90a can be effectively used.

[0061] The transfer of the devices 92 onto the temporarily holding member 91a may be performed, as will be described later, by adopting specific mechanical means using an attracting jig or an actuator. Alternatively, the devices 92 may be selectively transferred on the temporarily holding member 91a by coating the devices 92 with a resin causing a reaction such as softening, hardening, bridging, or deterioration due to heat or light, and locally irradiating selected ones of the devices 92 with heat or light, to thereby peel or adhesively bond the selected devices. The transfer of the devices 92 may be performed by combination of the thermal or optical means and the mechanical means.

[0062] After the first transfer step, as shown in FIG. 14C, the devices 92 on the temporarily holding member 91a are present in a state being spaced from each other, and each of the devices 92 is covered with resin 93 and an electrode pad is formed for each of the devices 92. Then, as shown in FIG. 14D, a second transfer step is carried out. In the second transfer step, the devices 92 in the form of resin molded chips 94 re-arrayed in a matrix on the temporarily holding member 91a are transferred on a second board 95 while being spaced from each other with a further enlarged pitch. The cover of each device with the resin 93 and the formation of each electrode pad and further the second transfer step are the same as those described with reference to FIGS. 13A to 13D, and also formation of desired wiring performed after the two-step enlarged transfer is the same as that described with reference to FIGS. 13A to 13D.

[0063] In the two-step enlarged transfer shown in FIGS. 13A to 13D and FIGS. 14A to 14D, each electrode pad and resin molding can be performed by making use of the spacing between adjacent two of the devices 92 after first transfer, and after second transfer, wiring can be performed without causing a connection failure by making use of the previously formed electrode pads. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the production yield of the image display unit. Further, the two-step enlarged transfer method according to this embodiment includes the two steps in each of which the devices are spaced from each other. By carrying out such a plurality of enlarged transfer steps, the number of transfer can be actually reduced. For example, assuming that an enlargement ratio in pitch between the devices on the first substrate 90 or 90a and the devices on the temporarily holding member 91 or 91a is taken as 2 (n = 2) and an enlargement ratio in pitch between the devices on the temporarily holding member 91 or 91a and the devices on the second board 95 is taken as 2 (m = 2), the total transfer magnification becomes 2×2 = 4. In order to realize the transfer magnification of 4, according to a one-step transfer method, the number of transfer (alignment) becomes 16 (= 4×4) times. On the contrary, according to the two-step enlarged transfer method, the number of transfer (alignment) is obtained by adding a square of the enlargement ratio (that is, 2) in the first transfer step to a square of the enlargement ratio (that is, 2) in the second transfer step, and therefore, the number of transfer becomes 8 (= 4 + 4). To be more specific, letting the enlargement ratios in the first and second steps be "n" and "m", respectively, according to the two-step enlarged transfer method, in order to achieve the total transfer magnification of n×m, the total number of transfer becomes (n2 + m2) times. Meanwhile, according to one-step transfer method, in order to achieve the transfer magnification of n×m, the number of transfer becomes (n + m)2 = n2 + 2nm + m2. As a result, according to the two-step enlarged transfer method, the number of transfer can be made smaller than that according to the one-step transfer method by 2nm times, thereby correspondingly saving time and cost required for the production step. This becomes more significant as the transfer magnification becomes larger.

[0064] In the two-step enlarged transfer method shown in FIGS. 13A to 13D and FIGS, 14A to 14D, each device 92 is configured as a light emitting device or a liquid crystal control device but is not limited thereto but may be selected from a photoelectric transfer device, a piezoelectric device, a thin film transistor, a thin film diode, a resistance device, a switching device, a micro-magnetic device, and a micro-optical device, or part thereof, or a combination thereof.

[Another Example of Discrete Transfer]



[0065] FIGS. 15A to 15D are views showing another example of the discrete transfer shown in FIGS. 14A and 14B. The discrete transfer is performed by selectively transferring devices from a supply side substrate to a reception side board (member). In this case, by making the size of the reception side board (member) sufficiently large, all of the devices on the supply side substrate can be transferred to the reception side board (member).

[0066] FIG. 15A to 15D show an example in which an enlargement ratio in a first transfer step is 3. A temporarily holding member 91c has an area being 9 (= 3× 3) times an area of a first substrate 90c. To transfer all of devices 92 on the first substrate 90c as the supply side substrate to the temporarily holding member 91c, the transfer operation is repeated by 9 times. A matrix pattern of the devices 92 on the first substrate 90c is divided into 3×3 matrix units. Nine pieces of the devices 92, each of which is in one of the 3×3 matrix units, are transferred to the temporarily holding member 91. Such transfer is repeated by 9 times, whereby all of the devices 92 on the first substrate 90c are transferred to the temporarily holding member 91c.

[0067] FIG. 15A schematically shows a state in which of the devices 92 on the first substrate 90c, a first group of the devices 92, which are located at first positions in the 3×3 matrix units, are transferred to the temporarily holding member 91c. FIG. 15B schematically shows a state in which a second group of the devices 92, which are located at second positions in the 3×3 matrix units, are transferred to the temporarily holding member 91c. In the second transfer, the discrete transfer is performed after the alignment position of the first substrate 90c to the temporarily holding member 91c is shifted in the vertical direction in the figure. FIG. 15C schematically shows a state in which an eighth group of the devices 92, which are located at eighth positions in the 3×3 matrix units, are transferred to the temporarily holding member 91c. FIG. 15D schematically shows a state in which a ninth group of the devices 92, which are located at ninth positions in the 3×3 matrix units, are transferred to the temporarily holding member 91c. After the ninth transfer is ended, any device 92 does not remain on the first substrate 90c, and the devices 92 are held in a matrix on the temporarily holding member 91c while being spaced from each other. After that, the two-step enlarged transfer is carried out in accordance with the same steps as those shown in FIGS. 13C and 13D and FIGS. 14C and 14D.

[Resin Molded Chip]



[0068] Resin molded chips formed on the temporarily holding member and transferred to a second board will be described with reference to FIGS. 16 and 17. A resin molded chip 100 is obtained by filling a space around a device 101, which is spaced from another device, with a resin 102. Such a resin molded chip 100 can be used for transferring the device 101 from the temporarily holding member to the second board.

[0069] The device 101 is exemplified as a light emitting device to be described later but may be configured as another kind of device. The resin molded chip is formed into an approximately flat plate shape with an approximately square shaped principal plane, The resin molded chips 100 are produced by coating the surface of the temporarily holding member so as to contain the devices 101 with a non-hardened resin, hardening the resin, and cutting the hardened resin 102 into square chips by dicing. Electrodes 103 and 104 are formed on front and back surface sides of the approximately flat plate like resin 22, respectively. These electrode pads 103 or 104 are produced by forming a conductive layer made from a metal or polysilicon as a material for forming the electrode pads overall on the surface of the resin 102, and patterning the conductive layer into specific electrode shapes by photolithography. These electrode 103 and 104 are formed so as to be connected to a p-electrode and an n-electrode of the device 101, and a via-hole is formed in the resin 102 as needed.

[0070] In the example shown in the figure, the electrode pads 103 and 104 are formed on the front and back surface sides of the resin molded chip 100, respectively; however, they may be formed on either of the front and back surface sides of the resin molded chip 100. For a thin film transistor having three electrodes, that is, source, gate, and drain electrodes, three or more electrode pads may be formed. The reason why the electrode pads 103 and 104 are offset from each other in the horizontal direction is to prevent the electrode pads 103 and 104 from being overlapped to each other in the case of forming a contact hole from above at the time of formation of final wiring. The shape of each of the electrode pads 103 and 104 is not limited to a square shape but may be any other shape.

[0071] In such a resin molded chip 100, a space around the device 101 is covered with the resin 102. The electrode pads 103 and 104 can be accurately formed on the flattened surfaces of the resin 102 of the resin molded chip 100 in such a manner as to extend to a region wider than the chip size of the device 101, so that the handling of the resin molded chip 100 at the time of transfer in the second transfer step, which is carried out by an attracting jig. As will be described later, since final wiring is performed after the second transfer step, a wiring failure can be prevented by performing wiring using the electrode pads 103 and 104 having relatively large sizes.

[Light Emitting Device]



[0072] FIGS. 18A and 18B show a structure of a light emitting device as one example of a device used in this embodiment, wherein FIG. 18A is a sectional view of the device and FIG. 18B is a plan view of the device. The light emitting device shown in the figure is a GaN based light emitting diode formed by crystal growth typically on a sapphire substrate. In such a GaN based light emitting diode, there occurs laser abrasion by irradiation of a laser beam passing through the substrate, to generate a phenomenon in which nitrogen of GaN is evaporated, thereby causing film peeling at a boundary between the sapphire substrate and a GaN based growth layer, with a result that device separation can be easily performed.

[0073] The GaN based light emitting diode has a structure in which a hexagonal pyramid shaped GaN layer 112 is formed by selective growth on a under growth layer 111 composed of a GaN based semiconductor layer. While not shown, an insulating film is formed on the under growth layer 111, and the hexagonal pyramid shaped GaN layer 112 is formed in an opening formed in the insulating film by a MOCVD process or the like. The GaN layer 112 is a growth layer formed into a pyramid shape covered with an S-plane, that is, (1-101) plane with a principal plane of a sapphire substrate used at the time of growth taken as a C-plane. The GaN layer 112 is a region doped with silicon. The inclined S-plane of the GaN layer 112 functions as a cladding portions of a double-hetero structure. An InGaN layer 113 functioning as an active layer is formed in such a manner as to cover the inclined S-plane of the GaN layer 112. A GaN layer 114 doped with magnesium is formed on the InGaN layer 113. The GaN layer 114 doped with magnesium also functions as a cladding portion.

[0074] The light emitting diode is provided with a p-electrode 115 and an n-electrode 116. A combination of metal materials such as Ni/Pt/Au or Ni(Pd)/Pt/Au are formed by vapor-deposition on the GaN layer 114 doped with magnesium, to form the p-electrode 115. A combination of metal materials such as Ti/Al/Pt/Au are formed by vapor-deposition in an opening formed in the above-described insulating film (not shown), to form the n-electrode 116. It is to be noted that, in the case of extracting an n-electrode from a back surface side of the under growth layer 111 as shown in FIG. 20, the formation of the n-electrode 116 on the front surface side of the under growth layer 111 can be omitted.

[0075] The GaN based light emitting diode having such a structure enables light emission of blue. In particular, such a light emitting device can be relatively simply peeled from the sapphire substrate by laser abrasion. In other words, the device can be selectively peeled by selective irradiation of a laser beam. In addition, the GaN based light emitting diode may be of a structure in which an active layer be formed in a planar or strip shape, or may be a pyramid with a C-plane formed on an upper end portion. Further, the GaN light emitting diode may be replaced with any other nitride based light emitting device or a compound semiconductor device.

[Method of Arraying Light Emitting Devices]



[0076] A method of arraying light emitting devices will be described below with reference to FIGS. 19 and 21. As the light emitting device, the GaN based light emitting diode shown in FIGS. 18A and 18B is used.

[0077] First, as shown in FIG. 19, a plurality of light emitting diodes 122 are formed in a matrix on a principal plane of a first substrate 121. A size of the light emitting device 122 is set to about 20 µm. The first substrate 121 is made from a material having a high transmittance against a wavelength of a laser beam used for irradiation of the light emitting diode 122, for example, sapphire. The light emitting diode 122 is already provided with a p-electrode and the like but is not subjected to final wiring. Grooves 122g for device separation are formed to allow the light emitting diodes 122 to be individually separated from the first substrate 121. The grooves 122g are formed, for example, by reactive ion etching. As shown in FIG. 19, such a first substrate 121 is placed opposite to a temporarily holding member 123 for selective transfer therebetween.

[0078] Both a peeling layer 124 and an adhesive layer 125 are formed on a surface, opposed to the first substrate 121, of the temporarily holding member 123. As the temporarily holding member 121, a glass substrate, a quartz glass substrate, or a plastic substrate can be used. The peeling layer 124 on the temporarily holding member 121 can be formed of a fluorine coat, or made from a silicone resin, a water soluble adhesive (for example, PVA), or polyimide. The adhesive layer 125 on the temporarily holding member 123 can be made from an ultraviolet (UV)-curing type adhesive, a thermosetting type adhesive, or a thermoplastic type adhesive. As one example, a quartz glass substrate is used as the temporarily holding member 123, and a polyimide film as the peeling layer 124 is formed thereon to a thickness of 4 µm and an UV-curing type adhesive layer as the adhesive layer 125 is formed on the peeling layer 124 to a thickness of about 20 µm.

[0079] The adhesive layer 125 of the temporarily holding member 123 is adjusted so as to mixedly include a hardened resin 125s and a non-hardened region 125y. The non-hardened region 125y is positioned such that the light emitting diode 122 to be selectively transferred is located at the non-hardened region 125y. The adjustment of the adhesive layer 125 in such a manner that the hardened region 125s and the non-hardened region 125y are mixedly located in the adhesive layer 125, may be performed by selectively exposing portions, spaced from each other with a pitch of 200 µm, of the adhesive layer 125 configured by the UV-curing type adhesive layer by an exposure system, so that portions, to which the light emitting diodes 122 are to be transferred remain non-hardened and the other portions are hardened. After such adjustment of the adhesive layer 125 by exposure, the light emitting diode 122 located at the non-hardened region 125y is irradiated with a laser beam from a back surface of the first substrate 121, to be peeled from the first substrate 121 by laser abrasion. Since the GaN based light emitting diode 122 is decomposed into Ga and nitrogen at a boundary between the GaN layer and sapphire, the light emitting diode 122 can be relatively simply peeled. As the laser beam used for irradiation of the light emitting device, an excimer laser beam or a harmonic YAG laser beam is used.

[0080] The light emitting diode 122, which has been selectively irradiated with a laser beam, is peeled from the first substrate 121 at the boundary between the GaN layer and the first substrate 121 by laser abrasion, and is transferred to the opposed temporarily holding member 123 such that the p-electrode portion of the light emitting diode 122 is pieced in the corresponding non-hardened region 125y of the adhesive layer 125. Since the other light emitting diodes 122 have been not irradiated with laser beams and also located at positions corresponding to the hardened region 125s of the adhesive layer 125, the other light emitting diodes 122 are not transferred to the temporarily holding member 123. It is to be noted that, in the example shown in FIG. 19, only one light emitting diode 122 is selectively irradiated with a laser beam; however, in actual, the light emitting diodes 122 spaced from each other with an n-pitch are irradiated with laser beams. With such selective transfer, the light emitting diodes 122 are re-arrayed on the temporarily holding member 123 in such a manner as that the re-array pitch of the diodes 122 on the temporarily holding member 123 is larger than the array pitch of the diodes 122 on the first substrate 121.

[0081] After the selected light emitting diode 122 is transferred from the first substrate 121 to the temporarily holding member 123, as shown in Fig. 20, the non-hardened region 125y of the adhesive layer 125 is hardened, whereby the light emitting diode 122 is fixed to the adhesive layer 125. The hardening of the non-hardened region 125y can be performed by imparting heat or light thereto. In the state that the light emitting diode 122 is held by the adhesive layer 125 of the temporarily holding member 123, a back surface of the light emitting diode 122, which is taken as an n-electrode side (cathode electrode side), is cleaned for removal of the resin (adhesive) therefrom. Accordingly, if an electrode pad 126 is formed on the back surface of the light emitting diode 122, it can be electrically connected thereto.

[0082] As one example of cleaning of the adhesive layer 125, the resin forming the adhesive is etched with oxygen plasma and cleaned by irradiation of UV ozone. Further, when the GaN based light emitting diode is peeled from the first substrate 121 made from sapphire by laser, Ga is deposited on the peeling plane, and accordingly, such an element Ga must be etched with a NaOH containing water solution or dilute nitric acid. After that, the electrode pad 126 is patterned. At this time, the electrode pad on the cathode side can be formed into a size of about 60 µm square. As the electrode pad 126, there can be used a transparent electrode (ITO or ZnO based electrode) or a Ti/Al/Pt/Au electrode. In the case of using a transparent electrode, even if the electrode largely covers the back surface of the light emitting diode, it does not shield light emission, so that a patterning accuracy of the electrode may be low and further the size of the electrode can be made large, with a result that it is possible to facilitate the patterning process.

[0083] FIG. 21 shows a state in which after the light emitting diode 122 is transferred from the temporarily holding member 123 to a second temporarily holding member 127, and a via-hole 130 on an anode electrode (p-electrode) side is formed in the adhesive layer 125, an anode side electrode pad 129 is formed, and the adhesive layer 125 is subjected to dicing. As a result of dicing, device separation grooves 131 are formed, to separate the light emitting diodes 122 from each other. To separate the light emitting diodes 122 arrayed in a matrix from each other, the device separation grooves have a planar pattern composed of a plurality of parallel lines extending in the vertical and horizontal directions. The bottom of the device separation groove 131 faces to the surface of the second temporarily holding member 127. The second temporarily holding member 127 has on its surface a peeling layer 128 exemplified by a fluorine coat, or a layer of silicon resin, a water-soluble adhesive (for example, PVA), or polyimide. As one example of the second temporarily holding member 127, there can be used a so-called dicing sheet composed of a plastic board coated with an UV adhesive whose adhesive strength becomes weak at the time of irradiation of ultraviolet rays. The back surface side of the temporarily holding member 127 is irradiated with an excimer laser beam. With this irradiation of the laser beam, if the peeling layer 125 is made from polyimide, peeling occurs at a boundary between polyimide and the quartz board by abrasion of polyimide, whereby the light emitting diode 122 is transferred on the second temporarily member 127.

[0084] In one example of such a process, the surface of the second temporarily holding member 127 is etched with oxygen plasma until the surface of the light emitting diode 122 is exposed. The via-hole 130 is formed by using an excimer laser, a harmonic YAG laser beam, or a carbon dioxide laser beam. The diameter of the via-hole is set to about 3 to 7 µm. The anode side electrode pad is made from Ni/Pt/Au. The dicing process may be performed by using a general blade, and if a narrow cut-in width of 20 µm or less is required, the dicing process may be performed by laser cutting. The cut-in width is dependent on the size of the light emitting diode covered with the adhesive layer 125 in a pixel of an image display unit. As one example, grooves each having a width of about 40 µ m are formed by an excimer laser beam, to form the chip shape.

[0085] The light emitting diode 122 is peeled from the second temporarily holding member 127 by using mechanical means. FIG. 22 shows a state in which the light emitting diodes 122 arrayed on the second temporarily holding member 127 are picked up by an attracting system 135. The attracting system 133 has attracting holes 135 opened in a matrix corresponding to a pixel pitch of an image display unit in order to collectively attract a number of the light emitting diodes 122. To be more specific, the attracting holes 135, each having an opening diameter of about 100 µm, are arranged with a pitch of 600 µm, and the attracting system 133 can collectively attract 300 pieces of the light emitting diodes 122. The portion of the attracting hole 135 is produced from Ni by casting, or forming a hole in a metal plate such as a SUS plate 132 by etching. An attracting chamber 134 is formed at the depth of the attracting hole 135 formed in the metal plate 132. The control of the pressure in the attracting chamber 134 into a negative pressure allows the attracting system 133 to attract the light emitting diode 122. Since each light emitting diode 122 is in a state being covered with the adhesive layer 125 whose surface is nearly flatted, the selective attraction of the light emitting device 122 by the attracting system 133 can be facilitated.

[0086] FIG. 23 is a view showing a state in which the light emitting diode 122 is transferred to a second board 140. An adhesive layer 136 is previously formed on the second board 140. By hardening a portion, corresponding to the light emitting diode 122, of the adhesive layer 136, the light emitting diode 122 can be fixedly arrayed on the second board 140. At the time of this mounting, the pressure of the attracting chamber 134 of the attracting system 133 becomes high, to release the attraction of the light emitting diode 122 to the attracting system 133. The adhesive layer 136 is made from an UV-curing type adhesive, a thermosetting adhesive, or a thermoplastic adhesive. In addition, the light emitting diodes 122 thus arrayed on the second board 140 are spaced from each other with a pitch larger than a pitch of the light emitting diodes 122 held on each of the temporarily holding members 123 and 127. An energy for hardening the resin of the adhesive layer 136 is given from the back surface of the second board 140. A portion, corresponding to the light emitting diode 122, of the adhesive layer may be hardened by using ultraviolet rays if the adhesive layer 136 is made from an UV-curing type adhesive, or using a laser beam if the adhesive layer 136 is made from a thermosetting adhesive. If the adhesive layer 136 is made from a thermoplastic adhesive, the adhesive is melted by laser irradiation, to bond the light emitting diode 136 thereto.

[0087] An electrode layer 137, which also functions as a shadow mask, is disposed on the second board 140. In particular, a black chromium layer 138 is formed on a surface, on the screen side, that is, the viewer side, of the electrode layer 137. This makes it possible to improve the contrast of an image. Further, since an energy efficiency is increased by providing the black chromium layer 138, a portion, selectively irradiated with a beam 153, of the adhesive layer 136 can be early hardened. If the adhesive layer is made from an UV-curing type adhesive, it may be irradiated with ultraviolet rays having an energy of about 1,000 mJ/cm2.

[0088] FIG. 24 is a view showing a state in which light emitting diodes 122, 141, 142 of three colors, that is, RGB are arrayed on the second board 140 and are coated with an insulating layer 139. By mounting each of the light emitting diodes 122, 141, and 142 on the second board 140 at a position shifted to a position of a desired color, a pixel composed of the light emitting diodes 122, 141 and 142 of the three colors can be formed with a pixel pitch fixed. The insulating layer 139 may be made from a transparent epoxy adhesive, an UV-curing type adhesive, or polyimide. The shapes of the light emitting diodes 122, 141, and 142 of three colors are not necessarily identical to each other. In the example shown in FIG. 24, the light emitting diode 141 of red, which has a structure having no hexagonal pyramid shaped GaN layer, is different in shape from each of the other light emitting diodes 122 and 142; however, in this stage, each of the light emitting diodes 122, 141, and 142 has been already covered with the adhesive layer 125 to be formed into a resin molded chip, and therefore, the light emitting diodes 122, 141, and 142 can be handled in the same manner irrespective of the difference in device structure.

[0089] FIG. 25 is a view showing a wiring forming step, in which openings 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, and 150 are formed in the insulating layer 139, and wiring portions 143, 144, and 145 for connecting electrode pads of anodes and cathodes of the light emitting diodes 122, 141, and 142 to the electrode layers 137 for wiring on the second board 140 side are formed. Since the areas of the electrode pads 126 and 129 of the light emitting diodes 122, 141, and 142 are large, the shapes of the openings, that is, via-holes can be made large, and the positioning accuracy of each via-hole may be rough as compared with a via-hole directly formed in each light emitting diode. To be more specific, when each of the electrode pads 126 and 129 having a size of about a 60 µm square is provided, the via-hole having a diameter of about 20 µm can be formed. The via-holes are of three kinds connected to the wiring board, the anode electrode, and the cathode electrode. The depth of each via-hole is optimized by controlling the pulse number of a laser beam depending on the kind of the via-hole. A protective layer is then formed on the wiring, to accomplish a panel of an image display unit. The protective layer may be made from the transparent epoxy adhesive used for the insulating layer 139 shown in FIG. 25. The protective layer is heated to be hardened, to perfectly cover the wiring. After that, a driver IC is connected to the wiring at the end portion of the panel, to produce a drive panel.

[0090] In the above-described method of arraying light emitting devices, since the light emitting diodes 122 are already spaced from each other with an enlarged pitch on the temporarily holding member 123, the relatively large electrode pads 126 and 129 can be provided by making use of the large pitch of the devices 122, and since the wiring is performed by making use of the relatively large electrode pads 126 and 129, even if the size of the final unit is significantly large as compared with the device size, the wiring can be easily formed. Also, according to the method of arraying light emitting devices in this embodiment, since spaces around the light emitting devices are covered with the hardened adhesive layer, the electrode pads 126 and 129 can be accurately formed on the flattened surface of the adhesive layer 125 and can extend to a region wider than the device size, so that the handling of the electrode pads 126 and 129 by the attracting jig in the second transfer step can be facilitated. Further, at the time of transfer of each light emitting diode 122 to the temporarily holding member 123, the light emitting diode 122 can be relatively easily peeled by making use of decomposition of the GaN material into metal Ga and nitrogen at the boundary between GaN and sapphire.

[Method of Arraying Liquid Crystal Control Device]



[0091] A method of arraying liquid crystal control devices will be described with reference to FIGS. 26 to 31. In this embodiment, the liquid crystal control device is exemplified by a thin film transistor for controlling an alignment state of liquid crystal of a liquid crystal panel as a final product.

[0092] As shown in FIG. 26, an amorphous silicon film 162 is formed on a first substrate 161 typically configured as a quartz glass substrate. The amorphous silicon film 162 is a peeling film used as a sacrifice film in the subsequent step. A silicon oxide film 163 is formed as an under insulating film on the amorphous film 162, and thin film transistors 164 are densely formed in a matrix on the silicon oxide film 163. The thin film transistor 164 is produced by forming a gate oxide film and a gate electrode on a polysilicon film, and source and drain regions in the polysilicon film. Grooves for device separation are formed to a depth allowing part of the amorphous silicon film 162 to be exposed by reactive ion etching or the like, whereby the thin film transistors 164 are separated from each other.

[0093] As shown in FIG. 27, the first substrate 161 is opposed to a temporarily holding member 165 for selective transfer. A peeling layer 166 and an adhesive layer 167 are stacked on a surface, opposed to the first substrate 161, of the temporarily holding member 165. As an example of the temporarily holding member 165, a glass board, a quartz glass board, or a plastic board can be used. As an example of the peeling layer 166 formed on the temporarily holding member 165, a fluorine coat, or a layer of silicon resin, a water-soluble adhesive (for example, PVA), or polyimide can be used. As an example of the adhesive layer 167 formed on the temporarily holding member 165, a layer of an ultraviolet (UV)-curing type adhesive, a thermosetting adhesive, or a thermoplastic adhesive can be used.

[0094] The adhesive layer 167 of the temporarily holding member 165 has a hardened region 167s and a non-hardened region 167y. The first transistor 161 is opposed to the temporarily holding member 165 such that one of the thin film transistors 164 to be selectively transferred is positioned to the non-hardened region 167y. If the adhesive layer 167 is of an UV-curing type, the adjustment of hardening of the adhesive layer 167 such that the adhesive layer 167 has the hardened region 167s and the non-hardened region 167y may be performed by selectively exposing the adhesive layer 167 so as to make a region, in which the thin film transistor 164 is to be transferred, remain as non-hardened and to harden the other region. After such alignment, the thin film transistor 164 positioned to the non-hardened region 167y is irradiated with a laser beam from the back surface of the first substrate 161, to peel the thin film transistor 164 from the first substrate 161 by making use of laser abrasion. As the laser used for irradiation, an excimer laser or a harmonic YAG laser can be used.

[0095] The thin film transistor 164 to be selectively transferred is transferred to the opposed non-hardened region 167y of the adhesive layer 167 by peeling which makes use of laser abrasion. The other thin film transistors 164 positioned in the region, not irradiated with the laser beam, of the first substrate 161 are not transferred to the temporarily holding member 165 because the corresponding portions of the adhesive layer 167 are located in the hardened region 167s and also the thin film transistors 164 are not irradiated with the laser beam. It is to be noted that only one thin film transistor 164 is selectively irradiated with a laser beam in FIG. 27; however, those of the thin film transistors 164, which are spaced from each other with an n-pitch, may be irradiated with laser beams and transferred. With such selective transfer, the selected thin film transistors 164 are arrayed on the temporarily holding member 165 while being spaced from each other with a pitch larger than an original pitch of the thin film transistors 164 arrayed on the first substrate 161.

[0096] After selective transfer of the thin film transistor 164 from the first substrate 161 to the temporarily holding member 165, as shown in-FIG. 28, the adhesive in the non-hardened region is hardened for fixing the thin film transistor 164 thereto. The hardening of the non-hardened region can be performed by applying an energy such as heat or light to the non-hardened region 167y. The thin film transistor 164 is certainly held by the temporarily holding member 165 in the state being held in the adhesive layer 167.

[0097] As shown in FIG. 29, the thin film transistor 164 is transferred from the temporarily holding member 165 to a second temporarily holding member 168. The second temporarily holding member 168 is used for mounting a thin film transistor layer side of the thin film transistor 164 on a second board. Accordingly, if it does not cause any problem whether the front side or the back side of the thin film transistor 164 is mounted on the second board, it is not required to use the second temporarily holding member 168. In the case of transferring the thin film transistor 164 from the temporarily holding member 165 to the second temporarily holding member 168, separation grooves 167g are formed in the adhesive layer 167 for separating a region of the thin film transistor 164 from the other region. The depth of the separation groove 167g reaches the upper surface of the peeling layer 166, or it may reach the bottom surface of the peeling layer 166.

[0098] The thin film transistor 164 is peeled from the upper surface of the peeling layer 166, and is transferred from the temporarily holding member 165 to the second temporarily holding member 168 (see FIG. 30), and is then transferred to the second board while being spaced from another thin film transistor 164 by means of attracting means (not shown) (second transfer step). This step is the same as that described in the previous method of arraying devices with reference to FIG. 22.

[0099] Finally, as shown in FIG. 31, after the thin film transistors 164 are thus mounted on the second board 176 made from glass or a transparent plastic while being spaced from each other, gate electrode lines, source electrodes, and drain electrodes are formed on the second board 176 and are connected to sources and drains of the thin film transistors 164. A transparent electrode film 172 and an alignment film 173 are formed on the second board 176 side. A counter board 169 having on its surface a transparent electrode film 175 and an alignment film 174 is opposed to the second board 176 with a gap put therebetween, and the gap is filled with liquid crystal to obtain a liquid crystal panel. The thin film transistor 164 on the second board 176 functions as a control device for liquid crystal. The thin film transistors 164 are mounted on the second board 176 while being sufficiently spaced from each other by two-step enlarged transfer which is a combination of enlarged transfer in the first transfer step and enlarged transfer in the second transfer step. In the two-step enlarged transfer method, letting enlargement ratios in the first and second transfer steps be "n" and "m", respectively, the total transfer magnification becomes n×m, and in order to achieve such a total transfer magnification of n ×m, transfer may be repeated by n2 times in the first transfer step and be repeated by m2 times in the second transfer step, and therefore, the total number of transfer becomes (n2 + m2) times. Meanwhile, according to one-step transfer method, in order to achieve the transfer magnification of n×m, the number of transfer becomes (n + m)2 = n2 + 2nm + m2. As a result, according to the two-step enlarged transfer method, the number of transfer can be made smaller than that according to the one-step transfer method by 2nm times, to correspondingly save time and cost required for the production step. This becomes more significant as the transfer magnification becomes larger.

[0100] By the way, there have been known some image display units in which light emitting devices such as light emitting diodes are mounted so as to be arrayed on a wiring board in a matrix.

[0101] FIG. 32 shows a light emitting diode disclosed in the specification and the drawings of Japanese Patent No. 2895566. The light emitting diode of a so-called flip-chip type having a pair of positive and negative electrode portions on the same surface side. As shown in the figure, a lead frame 200 includes lead members 201 and 206 forming a pair of positive and negative electrodes disposed in parallel with a gap put therebetween. Flattened portions 203 and 208 are formed on leading ends 202 and 207 of the lead members 201 and 206, respectively, and a light emitting chip 190 is mounted so as to be bridged between the flattened portions 203 and 208. Reflection portions 204 and 209 are integrally formed on side peripheral surfaces continuous to the flattened portions 203 and 208 in such a manner as to be inclined outward from the flattened portions 203 and 208, respectively. Electrode portions of the light emitting chip 190 as a GaN blue light emitting chip are connected to both the lead member 201 as the negative electrode and the lead member 206 as the positive electrode via bumps 205.

[0102] FIG. 33 shows a chip type LED (Light Emitting Diode) disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-open No. Hei 9-293904. As shown in the figure, an LED 213 is mounted on a conductive layer formed on an insulating ceramic supporting member 211, wherein an electrode 214 of the LED 213 is bonded to an electrode terminal 212 via a wire 215 and a cavity around the LED 213 is filled with a sealing resin 216.

[0103] FIG. 34 shows a chip type LED disclosed in the same document, Japanese Patent Laid-open No. Hei 9-293904. As shown in the figure, a pair of electrode terminals 222 are formed on a ceramic supporting member 221, and a pair of electrodes 224 on the surface of an LED 223 are flip-chip connected to the pair of the electrode terminals 222 via conductive brazing portions 225. To forcibly bond the LED 223 to the ceramic supporting member, a gap between the LED and the supporting member is filled with a sealing resin 226.

[0104] However, in the case of producing an image display unit by arraying such light emitting diodes in a matrix, it is required to contain each light emitting diode in a package and mount an array of a plurality of these light emitting diodes for assembly into a flat type image display unit or the like. In this case, since LEDs formed on a wafer are diced into individual chips and are each sealed in a package, each LED chip in a bare chip state has a size of a sub-mm square and the package of the LED chip has a size of a several mm square. As a result, the size of one pixel becomes large, to degrade the resolution, thereby failing to produce a small-sized high definition image display unit. Further, for a light emitting diode made from a GaN based nitride semiconductor, since the light emitting diode is generally formed on a sapphire substrate, the package of each LED becomes thicker than the thickness of the sapphire substrate.

[0105] Hereinafter, there will be described examples of methods of mounting light emitting devices, which are capable of solving the above-described problems, that is, which are capable of realizing high definition image display, mounting the light emitting devices for a short time, and reducing the cost required for production process.

Example 1



[0106] FIG. 35 is a sectional view of an essential portion of one example of an image display unit on which light emitting devices are mounted in accordance with the mounting method of the present invention. The image display unit according to this example is a full color-ready color image display unit 231 shown in FIG. 35, in which light emitting devices configured as light emitting diodes for emitting light of red, green, and blue are arrayed in a matrix.

[0107] In the image display unit 231 according to this example, wiring layers 247 and 248 are previously formed into specific wiring patterns on a board principal plane 241 of a wiring board 240 made from glass or a plastic material. The wiring layer 248 forms wiring for supplying a signal to a p-electrode of each light emitting diode, and the wiring layer 247 forms wiring for supplying a signal to an n-electrode of each light emitting diode. It is to be noted that one of the wiring layers 247 and 248 can be used commonly to respective light emitting diodes.

[0108] For each light emitting diode, a crystal growth layer 243 is provided on the wiring layer 248 via a p-electrode 244. The crystal growth layer 243 shown in FIG. 35 is disposed in a state vertically inverted from a state at the time of crystal growth. As will be described later, the crystal growth layer 243 is a layer formed by selective growth from an under growth layer 245 located on the upper side of the crystal growth layer 243 via a window portion of a mask layer. The under growth layer 245 shown in FIG. 35 is also disposed in a state vertically inverted from a state at the time of crystal growth of the crystal growth layer 243. The crystal growth layer 243 is made from a nitride semiconductor material having a wurtzite type crystal structure, for example, GaN doped with silicon. The crystal growth layer 243 is formed into a hexagonal pyramid shape having inclined side surfaces covered with an S-plane, that is, (1-101) plane. Since FIG. 35 shows the cross-section of the image display unit, the cross-sectional shape of the crystal growth layer 243 becomes an inverted approximately triangular shape.

[0109] The crystal growth layer 243 is provided with a light emission region formed by providing an active layer between an n-type semiconductor layer and a p-type semiconductor layer. The active layer is formed near an outermost portion of the inverted hexagonal pyramid shape of the crystal growth layer 243. In this example, band gap energies of the active layers provided in adjacent three of the light emitting devices are different from each other in order to correspond to light emission of red, green and blue, respectively. The light emitting diodes are substantially identical to each other in terms of the other structural and dimensional configurations.

[0110] The hexagonal pyramid shaped crystal growth layer 243 is mounted on the wiring board 240 with its posture inverted from that at the time of crystal growth along the normal line of the principal plane of the wiring board 240. Accordingly, in the mounted state of the crystal growth layer 243, a back surface of the hexagonal pyramid shape thereof at the time of crystal growth becomes a top surface thereof, which surface is taken as a light extraction side. To be more specific, the hexagonal pyramid shaped crystal growth layer 243 is joined to the under growth layer 245 via the above-described window portion of the mask layer (not shown) used for crystal growth, and the window portion of the mask layer is taken as a light extraction opening.

[0111] The under growth layer 245 functions as a seed layer for selective growth. The under growth layer 245 is joined to the crystal growth layer 243 via the window portion of the mask layer, and a flat top surface of the under growth layer 245 serves as a light extraction plane 250. The under growth layer 245 also serves as part of wiring on the n-electrode side, that is, it functions as a current path between an n-electrode 249 made from a metal and the crystal growth layer 243. In the state shown in the figure, the n-electrode 249 is positioned under the under growth layer 245 due to the vertical inversion of the light emitting device. With respect to such an n-electrode 249, since the crystal growth layer 243 is larger than the n-electrode 249, a height of the n-electrode 249 is matched with a height of the crystal growth layer 243 by forming a bump 246 under the n-electrode 249. The bump 246 is a connecting portion by plating or the like. In this example, the bump 246 is formed from Cu, Ni, or the like to a thickness of about 10 µm by electroplating or electroless plating. To prevent oxidation of the bump 246, an Au layer having a thickness of about 0.1 µm is formed on the surface of the bump 246 by plating. At the time of mounting each light emitting device, a bottom portion of the bump 246 is connected to the wiring layer 247 previously disposed on the board principal plane 241.

[0112] In terms of the function of the light emitting device, gaps are formed around the bump 246, the wiring layers 247 and 248, and the crystal growth layer 243. In this image display unit of this example, these gaps are filled with an adhesive layer 242 made from a thermosetting adhesive or an ultraviolet-curing type adhesive.

[0113] FIGS. 36A and 36B are views showing each light emitting diode to be mounted on the image display unit of this example, wherein FIG. 36A is a sectional view of the light emitting device and FIG. 36B is a top view of the light emitting diode. It is to be noted that the posture of each of a plurality of the light emitting diodes mounted on the image display unit shown in FIG. 35 is inverted from that of the light emitting diode shown in FIG. 36A along the normal line of the board principal plane.

[0114] The production of the light emitting diode will be described with reference to FIGS. 36A and 36B. A hexagonal pyramid shaped or a hexagonal trapezoid shaped crystal growth layer 243 is formed by selective growth on a growth substrate different from the wiring board 240, for example, a sapphire substrate, preferably, via an under growth layer 245. The crystal growth layer 243 can be easily formed by selective growth so as to have a structure having a crystal plane inclined to the substrate principal plane, for example, an S plane. In particular, the S-plane is a stable plane formed by selective growth on a (C +) plane, and is relatively easily formed. The S-plane is expressed as a (1, -1, 0, 1) plane by Miller indices of a hexagonal system. For a crystal layer made from a gallium nitride based compound semiconductor, the number of bonds are maximized at the S-plane, with a result that a V/III ratio is effectively increased. This is advantageous in improving the crystallinity of a stacked structure. Further, in this crystal growth layer 243, since crystal is grown in an orientation different from that of a substrate, dislocations extending upward from the substrate may be often bent. This is advantageous in reducing crystal defects.

[0115] Kinds of materials used for forming the crystal growth layer 243 are not particularly limited insofar as the materials can form a light emission region composed of a first conductive layer, an active layer 251, and a second conductive layer 252, but may be desirable to have a wurtzite type crystal structure. Specific examples of these materials may include a group III based compound semiconductor, a BeMgZnCdS based compound semiconductor, and a BeMgZnCdO based compound semiconductor, and further a gallium nitride (GaN) based compound semiconductor, an aluminum nitride (AlN) based compound semiconductor, an indium nitride (InN) based compound semiconductor, an indium gallium nitride (InGaN) based compound semiconductor, and an aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) based compound semiconductor. In particular, a nitride semiconductor such as a gallium nitride based compound semiconductor is preferably used. It is to be noted that according to the present disclosure, InGaN, AlGaN or the like does not necessarily mean a nitride semiconductor having only a ternary mixed crystal structure, and similarly, GaN or the like does not necessarily mean a nitride semiconductor having only a binary mixed crystal structure. For example, even if InGaN contains a trace of Al and inevitable impurities in a range not to change the function of InGaN, such a material can be used for forming the crystal growth layer according to the present disclosure.

[0116] To grow the above-described crystal layer, there can be used various vapor phase growth methods: a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD (MOVPE)) method and a molecular beam expitaxial growth (MBE) method, and further a hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. In particular, the MOCVD method is effective to rapidly grow a crystal layer having a high crystallinity. In the case of adopting the MOCVD method, trialkyl metal compounds are used as sources, for example, TMG (trimethyl gallium) or TEG (triethyl gallium) used as a Ga source, TMA (trimethyl aluminum) or TEA (triethyl aluminum) is used as an Al source, and TMI (trimethyl indium) or TEI (triethyl indium) used as an In source; a gas such as ammonia or hydrazine is used as a nitrogen source; and various gases are used as impurity sources, for example, silane gas for Si, germanium gas for Ge, Cp2Mg (cyclopentadienyl magnesium) for Mg, and DEZ (diethyl zinc) for Zn. According to the MOCVD method, these gases are supplied to a surface of a substrate heated typically at 600°C or more to be decomposed, to form an InAlGaN based compound semiconductor by epitaxial growth.

[0117] Concretely, selective growth may be performed by forming a thin mask layer on the under growth layer 245, and selectively opening the mask layer to form a window region. The mask layer can be made from silicon oxide or silicon nitride. The window region is an opening portion formed in the mask layer. The window region is formed into a hexagonal shape in this example; however, it may be formed into any other shape such as a circular shape, a square shape, a triangular shape, a rectangular shape, a diamond shape, an elliptic shape, or a combination thereof. Since crystal growth proceeds in the transverse direction during the process of selective growth from the window region of the mask layer, it is possible to suppress occurrence of through-dislocations.

[0118] In each of the light emitting diodes used for the image display unit of the present disclosure, the active layer 251 extends within a plane parallel to the inclined crystal plane and is held between the first conductive layer and the second conductive layer 252. The active layer 243 is formed on the crystal growth layer 243 via a semiconductor layer, or formed in the crystal growth layer or on the surface of the crystal growth layer.

[0119] The first conductive layer is a p-type or an n-type cladding layer, and the second conductive layer is an n-type or a p-type cladding layer. For the crystal growth layer formed by a silicon-doped gallium nitride based compound semiconductor layer, a silicon-doped gallium nitride based compound semiconductor is formed by an n-type cladding layer, an InGaN layer is formed as the active layer 251, and a magnesium-doped gallium nitride based semiconductor layer is formed as a p-type cladding layer. Such a structure is known as a double-hetero structure. The InGaN layer formed as the active layer 251 may be held between AlGaN layers. The active layer 251 may be configured as a single bulk active layer; however, it may be configured as that having a quantum well structure, such as a single quantum well (SQW) structure, a double quantum well (DQW) structure, or a multi-quantum well (MQW) structure. The quantum well structure has a barrier layer for separating quantum wells from each other, as needed. The active layer 251 configured as the InGaN layer has an advantageous structure allowing easy production and improvement in luminous characteristic of the device using the same. The InGaN layer has another advantageous structure allowing easy crystallization in the case of growth of InGaN on the S-plane from which nitrogen atoms are hard to be released, to improve the crystallinity, thereby enhancing a luminous efficiency of the device using the same.

[0120] A p-electrode 244 formed on the crystal growth layer 243 is an electrode for injecting a current in the active layer 251. According to this example, the p-electrode 244 is formed on the inclined crystal plane of the crystal growth layer 243, and since the light emitting diode is inversely mounted on the wiring board, the p-electrode 244 functions as a reflection film opened upward, which contributes to improvement of an efficiency of extracting light from the inverted light emitting diode.

[0121] In the image display unit of this example, each light emitting diode is disposed on the wiring board 240 in the posture being inverted from that at the time of crystal growth. At this time, the flat top surface of the under growth layer 245 functions as the light extraction plane 250 through which light is extracted from the active layer 251 of the crystal growth layer 243. The function of the top surface of the under growth layer 245 makes it possible to enhance the light extraction efficiency in combination with the function of the p-electrode 244 as the reflection film. Although the crystal growth layer 243 is formed into a hexagonal pyramid shape by selective growth, since the bump 246 is disposed on the n-electrode 249 side, the top surface of the under growth layer 246 of each device, which functions as the light extraction plane 250, can be kept substantially at the same level, that is, at the same horizontal height. Further, since a space around each device is filled with an adhesive 242, it is possible to eliminate a problem that the crystal growth layer 243 is be tilted.

[0122] Since each light emitting diode is mounted after being accomplished, it is possible to prevent a defective device from being mounted on the wiring board, and hence to improve the production yield of the image display unit as a whole. With the provision of the bump 246, a pair of the positive and negative electrodes are collected on the wiring board 240 side, it is possible to eliminate an inconvenience that the light extraction area is reduced by the presence of the electrodes. With this configuration, the image display unit of this example enables high definition color display. Additionally, the image display unit of this example can be produced in accordance with a production process which effectively takes the advantages of selective growth.

[0123] In the image display unit of this example, the n-electrode 249 and the bump 246 can be each used commonly to adjacent two of the diodes, and the under growth layer 245 of each diode may be formed so as to be continuous to that of the adjacent diode. In this example, the image display unit is configured as that allowing color display; however, it may be configured as that allowing two colors or that allowing a combination of another color with RGB. A selective transistor for driving each diode can be disposed on the wiring board 240.

Example 2



[0124] An image display unit using light emitting diodes according to this example has a structure different from that of the image display unit in Example 1. Referring to FIG. 37, there is shown the image display unit of this example, in which wiring layers 268 and 269 are formed on a board principal plane 261 of a wiring board 260, bumps 266 and 267 are formed on the wiring layers 268 and 269, respectively, and a crystal growth layer 263 is connected to the upper sides of the bumps 266 and 267 via the p-electrode 264 and n-electrode 265. The crystal growth layer 263 is formed into an approximately flat plate shape. An active layer (not shown) extends on the crystal growth layer 263, and the p-electrode 264 and the n-electrode 265 are formed so as to be electrically connected to a first conductive layer and a second conductive layer formed to hold the active layer therebetween. The light emitting diode thus prepared is then inverted, and is placed on the bumps 266 and 267 so that the p-electrode 264 and the n-electrode 265 positioned on the back surface of the crystal growth layer 263 are connected to the upper portions of the bumps 266 and 267, respectively. Like Example 1, spaces around the bumps 266 and 267 are filled with an adhesive layer 262 made from a thermosetting adhesive or an ultraviolet-curing type adhesive.

[0125] In the image display unit of this example, since the p-electrode 264 and the n-electrode 265 are connected to the bumps 266 and 267, respectively, the crystal growth layer allowing light emission can be kept at a specific horizontal height, and since the spaces around the bumps 266 and 267 are filled with the adhesive layer 262, it is possible to eliminate a problem that the crystal growth layer 263 and the like are tilted. Since each light emitting diode is mounted after being accomplished, it is possible to prevent a defective device from being mounted on the wiring board, and hence to improve the production yield of the image display unit as a whole. With the provision of the bumps 266 and 267, a pair of the positive and negative electrodes are collected on the wiring board 260 side, it is possible to eliminate an inconvenience that the light extraction area is reduced by the presence of the electrodes. With this configuration, the image display unit of this example enables high definition color display.

Example 3



[0126] This example relates to a method of producing the image display unit in Example 1. The production method in this example will be described in the order of production steps with reference to FIGS. 38 to 46.

[0127] As shown in FIG. 38, a substrate 270 for growth, which is configured as a sapphire substrate with a C-plane taken as a principal plane is prepared, and an under growth layer 271, which is composed of low temperature and high temperature buffer layers, is formed on the substrate 270 for growth. A mask layer made from silicon oxide or silicon nitride is formed so as to cover the under growth layer 271, and window regions corresponding to crystal growth regions are formed in the mask layer. Subsequently, each hexagonal pyramid shaped crystal growth layer 272 having side surfaces covered with an inclined S-plane is obtained by selective crystal growth from the corresponding window region. A first conductive layer, an active layer, and a second conductive layer (which are not shown) are formed on each crystal growth layer 272. At openings formed in the mask layer, p-electrodes 273 are formed by a multi-layer metal film such as an Ni/Pt/Au film and n-electrodes 274.are formed by a multi-layer metal film such as a Ti/Al/Pt/Au film. The p-electrode 273 is formed, for example, by vapor-deposition, and the n-electrode 274 is formed, for example, by lift-off.

[0128] After the p-electrodes 273 and the n-electrodes 274 are formed, the under growth layer 271 on the substrate 270 for growth is separated into parts corresponding respective devices. The separation of the under growth layer 271 is performed, for example, by reactive ion etching. A chip size of each device is typically set to a value of about 20 µm square, and an array pitch of the chips is typically set to a value of about 25 µm.

[0129] A resist layer 275 is formed overall on the substrate 270 for growth. A height of the resist layer 275 is set to a value being nearly equal to a height of a tip portion of each p-electrode 273. A region corresponding to each n-electrode 274 is opened in the resist layer 275, to form an opening 276 in the resist layer 275 as shown in FIG. 39 so that the n-electrode 274 located on the bottom of the opening 276 is exposed.

[0130] A bump 277 is formed in each opening 276 formed in the resist layer 275, for example, by plating. To be more specific, the bump 277 is a connecting portion formed from Cu or Ni to a height of about 10 µm by electroplating or electroless plating. In order to prevent oxidation, an Au layer having a thickness of about 0.1 µm is formed on the surface of the bump 277 by plating. After formation of each bump 277, the resist layer 275 is removed as shown in FIG. 40.

[0131] After removal of the resist layer 275, as shown in FIG. 41, a board 280 for transfer, which is made from glass or the like and is coated with a transfer material 278, is prepared, and the substrate 270 for growth, on which the bumps 277 have been already formed as described above, is opposed to the board 280 for transfer. The transfer material 278 is an adhesive material, which preferably exhibits low absorption against a wavelength of a laser beam used for irradiation. This is because such a material is low in abrasion caused by a laser beam, to improve a positional accuracy of separated light emitting devices. In the state that the principal plane of the substrate 270 for growth 270 is opposed to the principal plane of the substrate 280 for transfer, the back surface of the substrate 270 for growth, opposed to the side on which the light emitting devices are formed, is irradiated with a KrF excimer laser beam or a triple wave YAG laser beam. With irradiation of the laser beam, nitrogen is generated at a boundary between the under growth layer 271 and the substrate 270 for growth, whereby the light emitting devices are separated from the substrate 270 for growth.

[0132] As shown in FIG. 42, each of the light emitting diodes thus separated from the substrate 270 for growth by irradiation of the laser beam is temporarily held by the board 280 for transfer while being buried in the transfer material 278. At this time, a Ga layer 281 adheres on the upper surface of each under growth layer 271, from which the light emitting diode is separated from the substrate 279 for growth. Since the upper surface of the under growth layer 271 is taken as a light extraction plane, the Ga layer 281 must be removed by etching or the like. An etchant used for such etching may be of an alkali or an acid type, but should be selected so as not to reduce the adhesive strength of the transfer material 278.

[0133] The image display unit is configured such that the light emitting devices of one of RGB are regularly arrayed, and consequently, as shown in FIG. 43, those of the light emitting devices, which are located with a pitch corresponding to an electrode pitch of the wiring board, are selectively taken from the board 280 for transfer. This is based on the assumption that the light emitting diodes held on the board 280 for transfer are identical to each other in terms of color, that is, emission wavelength. Accordingly, in order to mount light emitting diodes different in emission wavelength on the wiring board, a plurality of the substrates 280 for transfer must be used. In this example, an attracting head 282 is used for selectively taking the light emitting diodes from the board 280 for transfer. The attracting head 282 has leading ends 284, in each of which an attracting hole 283 is formed. The leading ends 284 are located with a pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board. A portion, around the attracting hole 283, of each leading end 284 of the attracting head 282 is flattened, and the upper surface of the under growth layer 271, which is taken as the light extraction plane of the light emitting device, is attracted to the flatted portion of the leading end 284. The attracting work can be performed for each device. According to this example, however, a plurality of the light emitting devices located with a pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the Wiring board are simultaneously attracted. With this configuration, it is possible to simplify the production process and reduce the production cost.

[0134] As shown in FIG. 44, a plurality of the light emitting devices located with a pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board are carried to the wiring board, which is designated by reference numeral 290. The devices come closer to a principal plane of the wiring board 290 in the direction perpendicular to the principal plane of the wiring board 290, to be adhesively bonded thereto. Wiring layers 291 and 292 are previously formed on the principal plane of the wiring board 290. After bringing the devices into press-contact with the principal plane of the wiring board 290, the attracting head 282 is released, to allow each device to be temporarily bonded to the wiring board 290. The principal plane of the wiring board 290 is coated with an adhesive, which functions to hold the devices on the principal plane of the wiring board 290. In addition, the adhesive 293 may be configured as a thermosetting adhesive or an ultraviolet-curing type adhesive.

[0135] FIG. 45 shows a state obtained by carrying the devices of RGB to the principal plane of the wiring board 290. In the state shown in the figure, the adjacent two of the devices are different in emission wavelength. Each device is certainly mounted on the wiring board 290 while being kept horizontally with respect to the principal plane of the wiring board 290 by using the bump 277.

[0136] A pressurizing head 295 is pressed down onto the upper surface of each under growth layer 271, which is taken as the light extraction side of each device, and in such a state, the adhesive 293 is hardened. If the adhesive 293 is of a thermosetting type, the pressurizing head 295 may be configured as a heating type pressuring head which is heated by a pulse heating manner. If the adhesive 293 is of an ultraviolet-curing type, ultraviolet rays may be emitted upward from the back surface of the wiring board 290 in the state that each device is pressed on the wiring board 290 by the pressurizing head 295, or in the case where the pressurizing head 295 is made from a light transmission material such as glass or quartz, ultraviolet rays may be emitted downward from the upper side of the pressurizing head 295.

[0137] In the method of producing an image display unit according to this example, since a plurality of the light emitting devices located with a pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board 290 are collectively mounted on the principal plane of the wiring board 290, it is possible to produce the image display unit for a short time at a low cost. Each device can be certainly mounted in a horizontal posture and prevented from being tilted by using the bump 277, and further, the devices can be mounted on the wiring board with a reduced margin for alignment. As a result, it is possible to array the light emitting devices on the wiring board at high accuracy. Further, the use of the bump 277 allows certain electrical wiring and maximization of the light extraction efficiency.

[0138] In this example, since the light emitting devices can be inspected in the state being held on the substrate 280 for transfer, it is possible to early remove defective device, and hence to improve the production yield. Further, since the Ga layer can be removed before the devices are mounted on the wiring board 290, it is possible to eliminate an inconvenience that the wiring board 290 is damaged by etching.

Example 4



[0139] This example, in which light emitting devices are formed with a pitch corresponding to an electrode pitch of a wiring board and are directly mounted on the wiring board, will be described with reference to FIGS. 47 and 48.

[0140] As shown in FIG. 47, light emitting devices arrayed with a pitch corresponding to an electrode pitch of a wiring board 301 are formed on a substrate 305 for growth. Like the previous examples, each light emitting device is produced by forming a hexagonal pyramid shaped crystal growth layer 312 on an under growth layer 311, forming a p-electrode 313 on the crystal growth layer 312 and an n-electrode 314 on the under growth layer 311, and forming a bump 315 having a height nearly equal to a height of the p-electrode 313. A plurality of the light emitting devices thus formed on the substrate 305 for growth are arrayed with a pitch corresponding to an arrangement pitch of sets of electrode layers 303 and 302 of the wiring board 301.

[0141] The substrate 305 for growth, on which the light emitting devices have been formed, is opposed to the wiring board 301, and in such a state, the back surface of the substrate 305 for growth is irradiated with a KrF excimer laser beam or a triple wave YAG laser beam; so that nitrogen is generated at a boundary between each under growth layer 311 and the substrate 305 for growth, whereby each light emitting device is separated from the substrate 305 for growth and is held on the wiring board 301.

[0142] FIG. 48 shows a state in which the light emitting devices are held on the wiring board 301. After that, the mounting is repeated for light emitting devices of other emission wavelengths, followed by hardening of an adhesive 307, to accomplish an image display unit. At this time, a Ga layer 316 is formed on an upper surface of the under growth layer 311, and accordingly, if the adhesive 307 is of an ultraviolet-curing type, ultraviolet rays may be emitted from the back surface side of the wiring board 301. If the adhesive 307 is of a thermosetting type, the hardening may be performed in the same manner as that described in Example 3. By removing the Ga layer 316 after hardening the adhesive 307, it is possible to significantly reduce damages of the wiring board 301.

Example 5



[0143] This example, in which light emitting devices located with a pitch corresponding to an electrode pitch of a wiring board are selectively irradiated with laser beams and the separated light emitting devices are directly mounted on the wiring board, will be described with reference to FIG. 49.

[0144] As shown in FIG. 49, a plurality of light emitting devices are formed on a substrate 328 for growth. Like the previous example, each light emitting device is produced by forming a hexagonal pyramid shaped crystal growth layer 324 on an under growth layer 327, forming a p-electrode 326 on the crystal growth layer 324 and an n-electrode on the under growth layer 327, and forming a bump 325 having a height nearly equal to a height of the p-electrode 326.

[0145] On the other hand, sets of electrode layers 312 and 322 are formed with a specific pitch on a principal plane of a wiring board 320. In a state that the substrate 328 for growth is opposed to the wiring board 320, those of the light emitting diodes, located with a pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board 320, are irradiated with laser beams. With the laser irradiation of the back surface of the substrate 328 for growth with a KrF excimer laser beam or a triple wave YAG laser beam, nitrogen is generated at a boundary between each under growth layer 327 and the substrate 328 for growth, whereby each light emitting device is separated from the substrate 328 for growth and is held on the wiring board 320. In this case, since those of the light emitting devices, located with the pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board 320, are selectively irradiated with laser beams, all of the light emitting devices on the substrate 328 for growth are not separated from the substrate 328 for growth but only the devices of one color, located with the pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board 320, can be separated and certainly transferred to the wiring board 320. By repeating such a step for devices of other emission wavelengths, an image display unit is accomplished. The irradiation of a laser beam may be performed by scanning a single beam or moving the substrate for growth and the wiring board relative to each other with a single beam fixed.

Example 6



[0146] This example, in which light emitting devices are mounted by using two boards for transfer, will be described with reference to FIGS. 50 to 54.

[0147] As shown in FIG. 50, each light emitting device is produced on a substrate 336 for growth by forming a hexagonal pyramid shaped crystal growth layer 333 on an under growth layer 332, forming a p-electrode 334 on the crystal growth layer 333 and an n-electrode on the under growth layer 332, and forming a bump 335 having a height nearly equal to a height of the p-electrode 334. The light emitting devices thus formed on the substrate 336 for growth are spaced from each other with a pitch corresponding to an electrode pitch of a wiring board. The substrate 336 for growth is opposed to a board 330 for transfer, and in such a state, each light emitting device is separated from the substrate 336 for growth by irradiating the back surface of the substrate 336 for growth with a laser beam, and is transferred to the board 330 for transfer. The board 330 for transfer has a layer of a transfer material 331 such as a silicone resin, and each light emitting device is held on the board 330 for transfer via the transfer material 331.

[0148] As shown in FIG. 51, a Ga layer is removed, whereby the light emitting device is held by the board 330 for transfer with a light extraction plane exposed to the outside. Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 52, a second board 341 for transfer, whose upper surface is coated with a transfer material 340, is stuck on the board 330 for transfer. In this case, the transfer material 340 is an ultraviolet-curing type adhesive, and the second board 341 for transfer is made from glass or quartz glass.

[0149] The first board 330 for transfer is then peeled, whereby the light emitting devices are transferred to the second board 341 for transfer as shown in FIG. 53.

[0150] As shown in FIG. 54, the second board 341 for transfer is opposed to a wiring board 342 such that the light emitting devices correspond to sets of electrode layers 343 and 344 formed on a principal plane of the wiring board with a specific pitch. In such a state, the back surface of the substrate 328 for growth is irradiated with laser beams at positions spaced with a pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board 342, whereby each light emitting device is separated by abrasion of the transfer material 340 and is held on the wiring board 342. In this transfer method, since irradiation of laser beams is selectively performed at positions spaced with a pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch, all of the light emitting devices on the substrate 328 for growth are not separated but only devices of one color, spaced from each other with the pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board, can be certainly transferred. After that, the above step is repeated for light emitting devices of other emission wavelengths, followed by hardening of an adhesive 345 on the wiring board 342, to accomplish an image display unit. In addition, if the residue of the transfer material 340 after abrasion adheres on the back surface of each light emitting device, it may be removed by cleaning or polishing.

Example 7



[0151] This example, which is a modification of Example 6, will be described with reference to FIG. 55. As shown in FIG. 55, light emitting devices are disposed on a second board 350 for transfer via a transfer material 351. The light emitting device is produced by forming a hexagonal pyramid shaped crystal growth layer 354 on an under growth layer 353, and forming a bump 355 having a height nearly equal to a height of the p-electrode. The light emitting devices are spaced from each other not with a pitch corresponding to an electrode pitch of a wiring board but with a pitch convenient to production. The other steps are the same as those shown in Example 6.

[0152] As shown in FIG. 56, the back surface side of the second board 350 for transfer is selectively irradiated with laser beams, whereby the selected light emitting devices are separated from the second board 350 for transfer by abrasion of the transfer material 351 and are transferred to a wiring board 360 having wiring layers 362 and 363. In this transfer method, since irradiation of laser beams is selectively performed at positions spaced with a pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch, all of the light emitting devices are not separated at once but only devices of one color, spaced from each other with the pitch corresponding to the electrode pitch of the wiring board, can be certainly transferred. After that, the above step is repeated for light emitting devices of other emission wavelengths, followed by hardening of an adhesive 361 on the wiring board 360, to accomplish an image display unit. In addition, if the residue of the transfer material 351 after abrasion adheres on the back surface of each light emitting device, it may be removed by cleaning or polishing.

Example 8



[0153] This example relates to an image display unit in which an n-electrode wiring portion and a p-electrode wiring portion are formed on upper and lower sides of a crystal growth layer. In the image display unit of this example, as shown in FIG. 57, each p-electrode wiring portion 372 is formed on a board principal plane 371 of a wiring board 370, and a hexagonal pyramid shaped crystal growth layer 374 having an inclined crystal plane is connected to and supported by an upper end of the p-electrode wiring portion 372. A space around the crystal growth layer 374 is filled with an adhesive layer 373. While not shown, a first conductive layer, an active layer, and a second conductive layer are formed on the crystal growth layer 374. It is to be noted that the crystal growth layer 374 is supported in the adhesive layer 373 in a posture inverted from that at the time of crystal growth. A p-electrode 375 is formed on a plane parallel to the inclined crystal plane of the crystal growth layer 374. A flat under growth layer 376 used for crystal growth is present on the upper side of the crystal growth layer 374, and an upper surface of the under growth layer 376 is taken as a light extraction plane 377. An n-electrode wiring portion 378 is formed on and electrically connected to a corner portion, on the light extraction plane 377 side, of the under growth layer 376, which corner portion is not overlapped to a light emission region composed of a stack of the first conductive layer, the active layer, and the second conductive layer in the direction along the normal line of the board principal plane 371. Part of the n-electrode wiring portion 378 extends on the adhesive layer 373. To be more specific, an n-electrode wiring layer is formed on the adhesive layer 373 typically made from a resin, and after the adhesive layer 373 is hardened, the n-electrode wiring layer is patterned into respective n-electrode wiring portions 378. Each n-electrode wiring portion 378 is covered with a protective layer 379 made from a resin such as polyimide.

[0154] In the image display unit of this example, unlike the light emitting device in which both the p-electrode and the n-electrode are present on the crystal growth plane side, the light emitting device in this image display unit is configured such that at least the n-electrode wiring portion 378 is position on the light extraction 377 side of the under growth layer 376. As a result, the chip size of each light emitting device can be reduced by a size corresponding to that of the n-electrode wiring portion. Since the n-electrode wiring portion 378 and the p-electrode wiring portion 372 are formed on the upper and lower sides of the crystal growth layer 374, they are three-dimensionally separated from each other. Accordingly, it is possible to eliminate short-circuit between the p-electrode wiring portion 378 and the n-electrode wiring portion 372, and also to widen the width of the n-electrode wiring portion 378 and hence to realize easy wiring.

[0155] In the above-described examples, the surface of the bump made from Cu or Ni is covered with an Au layer; however, the bump may be made from a solder material. A bump can be formed on an electrode of a light emitting device by plating or vapor-deposition of a solder material. In the case of using a solder bump, a wiring board may be previously coated with a flux for soldering in place of an adhesive held on the wiring board. In this case, the light emitting device is held on the wiring board with an adhesive strength of the flux. With respect to connection by soldering, according to one exemplary embodiment, after light emitting devices of three colors are separated and transferred, a wiring board is overall subjected to a reflow treatment, to connect the light emitting devices to the wiring board. In this case, since the wiring board is put in a reflow furnace, a glass board may be used as the wiring board. After connection by soldering, the flux is cleaned, and a sealer put between the chips and the wiring board is hardened. The connection by soldering is advantageous in that the connection resistance is low, and that since the alignment accuracy of the light emitting devices is improved by self-alignment at the time of melting of the solder, the pitch of pixels corresponds to the patterning accuracy of the wiring electrodes, to keep the pitch of pixels constant, thereby enhancing the definition of the image display unit. In the case of repairing light emitting devices, the light emitting devices are visually inspected before injection of a sealer, and if a defective device is found, such a defective device is repaired by locally heating the defective device so as to melt the solder bump of the defective device.

[0156] The image display unit of the present disclosure may be a display unit using light emitting devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs)or semiconductor lasers, and may include an image display unit which has a structure that light emitting devices are arrayed on a wiring board and which is incorporated in separate electronic equipment, for example, a monitor for electronic equipment such as television receivers, video reproducing systems, or computers; an output system for game devices; and a monitor for household electronic appliances, and further include a small-sized image display unit functioning as a monitor screen for vehicle-mounted navigation systems, portable telephones, portable information terminals, picture recording systems, and monitors.

[0157] As described above, according to the image display unit of the present disclosure, it is possible to enhance various characteristics such as resolution, image quality, and luminous efficiency, easily realize a large-sized screen, and reduce a production cost. In particular, according to the image display unit of the present disclosure, since each light emitting device has a micro-size represented by an occupied area which is specified to be in a range of 25 µm2 or more and 10,000 µm2 or less, the light emitting devices can be arrayed at a high density; and since the light emitting devices are mounted on the wiring board after being accomplished, the production yield can be improved and further, if a large-sized screen is required to be formed, it is possible to eliminate the need of a strict process control in the order of µm over the screen.

[0158] According to the method of producing an image display unit in accordance with the present disclosure, it is possible to easily array light emitting devices on a wiring board at a high density, and to mount micro-devices to desired positions of a wiring board while transferring the micro-devices thereto by making use of a temporarily holding board and an energy beam.

[0159] On the other hand, according to the method of arraying devices and the method of producing an image display unit in accordance with the present disclosure, since devices can be held on a temporarily holding member in a state being spaced from each other at large intervals, relatively large electrode pads and the like can be provided by making use of the large intervals, and since wiring is performed by making use of the relatively large electrode pads, even if a size of a final unit is significantly large as compared with the chip size of each device, it is possible to realize easy wiring between the devices.

[0160] According to the method of arraying devices and the method of producing an image display unit in accordance with the present disclosure, since spaces around light emitting devices are covered with a hardened adhesive layer, electrode pads can be each accurately formed on a flattened surface of the adhesive layer in such a manner as to extend to a region wider than the chip size of each device, so that the handling of the electrode pads in the second transfer step carried out by using an attracting jig can be facilitated. Additionally, with respect to transfer of light emitting diodes from a substrate for growth, typically, a sapphire substrate to a temporarily holding member, each device can be relatively easily peeled from the sapphire substrate by making use of decomposition of a GaN based material into metal Ga and nitrogen at a boundary between the sapphire substrate and the same.

[0161] In the two-step enlarged transfer method adopted in the method of arraying devices and the method of producing an image display unit according to the present disclosure, letting enlargement ratios in the first and second transfer steps be "n" and "m", respectively, the total transfer magnification becomes n×m, and in order to achieve such a total transfer magnification of n×m, transfer must be repeated by n2 times in the first transfer step and be repeated by m2 times in the second transfer step, and therefore, the total number of transfer becomes (n2 + m2) times. Meanwhile, according to one-step transfer method, in order to achieve the transfer magnification of n×m, the number of transfer becomes (n + m)2 = n2 + 2nm + m2. As a result, according to the two-step enlarged transfer method, the number of transfer can be made smaller than that according to the one-step transfer method by 2nm times, to correspondingly save time and cost required for the production step. This becomes more significant as the transfer magnification becomes larger.

[0162] According to the image display unit of the present disclosure, in which each light emitting diode is arrayed on a wiring board in a posture being inverted from that at the time of crystal growth, since an upper surface of a flat under growth layer functions as a light extraction plane and also a p-electrode functions as a reflection film, it is possible to enhance a light extraction efficiency. In this unit, although a crystal growth layer is typically formed into a hexagonal pyramid shape by selective growth, since a bump is disposed on an n-electrode side, the crystal growth layer can be kept at the same height as that of the under growth layer for each device, and since spaces around devices are filled with an adhesive, it is possible to eliminate an inconvenience that the crystal growth layer and the like of each device are tilted.

[0163] In the above-described image display unit, since each light emitting device is mounted on a wiring board after being accomplished, it is possible to prevent a defective device from being mounted on the wiring board, and hence to improve the production yield of the image display unit as a whole. With the provision of each bump, a pair of the positive and negative electrodes are collected on the wiring board side, it is possible to eliminate an inconvenience that the light extraction area is reduced by the presence of the electrodes. With this configuration, the image display unit of this example enables high definition color display. Additionally, the image display unit of this example can be produced in accordance with a production process which effectively takes the advantages of selective growth.

[0164] In the method of producing an image display unit according to this example, since a plurality of light emitting devices located with a pitch corresponding to an electrode pitch of a wiring board are collectively mounted on the principal plane of the wiring board, it is possible to produce the image display unit for a short time at a low cost. Each device can be certainly mounted in a horizontal posture and prevented from being tilted by using each bump, and the devices can be mounted on the wiring board with a reduced margin for alignment. As a result, it is possible to array the light emitting devices on the wiring board at high accuracy. The use of the bump also allows certain electrical wiring and maximization of the light extraction efficiency.

Explanation of Reference Numerals



[0165] 
1,
21, 80: wiring board
DR00-DB11:
light emitting diode
32, 33:
transistor
34:
capacitance
51:
sapphire substrate
52:
second conductive type cladding layer
53:
active layer
54:
first conductive type cladding layer
55:
n-type electrode
56:
p-type electrode
57:
separation groove
60:
temporarily holding board
70:
attracting jig
81:
wiring electrode
90, 121, 161:
first substrate
91, 123, 165:
temporarily holding member
95, 140, 168:
second board
92, 101:
device
122:
light emitting diode
164:
thin film transistor



Claims

1. An image display unit (231) having a structure in which a plurality of light emitting diodes are mounted on a wiring board (240) in such a manner as to be arrayed on a board principal plane, wherein first and second wiring layers (247, 248) are formed in specific wiring patterns on the board principal plane, wherein
each light emitting diode comprises:

an under growth layer (245),

a crystal growth layer (243) on said under growth layer, said crystal growth layer (243) having a hexagonal pyramid shape with side surfaces inclined with respect to said under growth layer (245),

a first conductive layer, an active layer (251), a second conductive layer (252) and a first electrode (244) formed on said crystal growth layer (243), and

a second electrode (249) formed on said under growth layer (245) adjacent said crystal growth layer (243),

and wherein
each light emitting diode is mounted on said wiring board (240) with the under growth layer (245) uppermost and the crystal growth layer (243) forming an inverted hexagonal pyramid between said under growth layer (245) and the wiring board, the crystal growth layer being provided on said second wiring layer (248) via said first electrode (244), the top surface of the under growth layer (245) functioning as a light extraction plane (250) and a bump (246) connecting the second electrode (249) of the light emitting device to the first wiring layer (247).
 
2. An image display unit (231) according to claim 1, wherein said crystal growth layer (243) is made from a wurtzite type nitride semiconductor.
 
3. A method of producing an image display unit (231) according to claim 1, comprising the following steps:

forming first and second wiring layers (247, 248) in specific wiring patterns on a board principal plane of a wiring board,

producing each of a plurality of light emitting diodes by forming a crystal growth layer (243) having an hexagonal pyramid shape on an under growth layer (245) on a substrate for growth, the hexagonal pyramid shape realized by selective growth in an opening in a mask layer on the under growth layer, and forming a first conductive layer, an active layer (251), a second conductive layer (252) and a first electrode (244) on said crystal growth layer;

forming a second electrode (249) on the under growth layer (245) adjacent the crystal growth layer (243) for each light emitting diode;

separating each of the light emitting diodes from the substrate for growth by separating said crystal growth layers (243) with the under growth layer (245) from said substrate for growth, and mounting the light emitting diodes comprising said crystal growth layer (243) and said under growth layer (245) on the wiring board (240) while inverting the orientation of said crystal growth layer (243) from a posture thereof at the time of crystal growth;

wherein

a bump (246) is formed on the second electrode (249); and

the crystal growth layer (243) is connected to the second wiring layer (248) via the first electrode (244) and the bump (246) connects the second electrode (249) to the first wiring layer (247).


 
4. A method of producing an image display unit (231) according to claim 3, wherein the mounting of each of said light emitting diodes to said wiring board (240) is performed by mounting said light emitting diode on said wiring board (240) in a state that a front surface or a back surface of said light emitting diode is attracted by an attracting jig.
 
5. A method of producing an image display unit (231) according to claim 3, wherein the separation of each of said light emitting diodes from said substrate for growth is performed by making use of irradiation of an energy beam from the back surface of said substrate for growth.
 
6. A method of producing an image display unit (231) according to claim 5, wherein the irradiation of an energy beam for separating each of said light emitting diodes is selectively performed.
 
7. A method of producing an image display unit (231) according to claim 5, wherein before irradiation of an energy beam from the back surface of said substrate for growth, each of said light emitting diodes is held between said substrate for growth and a board for transfer, and after irradiation of the energy beam, said light emitting diode is separated from said substrate for growth (243), to be held on said board for transfer.
 


Ansprüche

1. Bildanzeigeeinheit (231) mit einer Struktur, in der eine Vielzahl von Leuchtdioden auf einer Leiterplatte (240) auf eine solche Weise montiert sind, dass sie auf einer Plattenhauptebene angeordnet sind, wobei erste und zweite Verdrahtungsschichten (247, 248) in spezifischen Verdrahtungsmustern auf der Plattenhauptebene ausgebildet sind, wobei jede Leuchtdiode Folgendes umfasst:

eine Unterwachstumsschicht (245),

eine Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) auf der Unterwachstumsschicht, wobei die Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) eine hexagonale Pyramidenform mit Seitenflächen aufweist, die in Bezug auf die Unterwachstumsschicht (245) geneigt sind,

eine erste leitende Schicht, eine aktive Schicht (251), eine zweite leitende Schicht (252) und eine erste Elektrode (244), die auf der Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) ausgebildet sind, und

eine zweite Elektrode (249), die auf der Unterwachstumsschicht (245) benachbart zur Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) ausgebildet ist,

und wobei

jede Leuchtdiode auf der Leiterplatte (240) mit der Unterwachstumsschicht (245) zuoberst und der Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) eine umgekehrte hexagonale Pyramide zwischen der Unterwachstumsschicht (245) und der Leiterplatte bildend montiert ist, wobei die Kristallwachstumsschicht auf der zweiten Verdrahtungsschicht (248) über die erste Elektrode (244) bereitgestellt ist, wobei die Oberseite der Unterwachstumsschicht (245) als eine Lichtextraktionsebene (250) funktioniert und ein Höcker (246) die zweite Elektrode (249) der lichtemittierenden Vorrichtung mit der ersten Verdrahtungsschicht (247) verbindet.


 
2. Bildanzeigeeinheit (231) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) aus einem Nitridhalbleiter vom Wurtzit-Typ hergestellt ist.
 
3. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer Bildanzeigeeinheit (231) nach Anspruch 1, umfassend die folgenden Schritte:

Bilden von ersten und zweiten Verdrahtungsschichten (247, 248) in spezifischen Verdrahtungsmustern auf einer Plattenhauptebene einer Leiterplatte,

Herstellen von jeder einer Vielzahl von Leuchtdioden durch Bilden einer Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) mit einer hexagonalen Pyramidenform auf einer Unterwachstumsschicht (245) auf einem Substrat für Wachstum, wobei die hexagonale Pyramidenform durch selektives Wachstum in einer Öffnung in einer Maskenschicht auf der Unterwachstumsschicht realisiert wird, und Bilden einer ersten leitenden Schicht, einer aktiven Schicht (251), einer zweiten leitenden Schicht (252) und einer ersten Elektrode (244) auf der Kristallwachstumsschicht;

Bilden einer zweiten Elektrode (249) auf der Unterwachstumsschicht (245) benachbart zur Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) für jede Leuchtdiode;

Trennen jeder der Leuchtdioden vom Substrat für Wachstum durch Trennen der Kristallwachstumsschichten (243) mit der Unterwachstumsschicht (245) vom Substrat für Wachstum, und Montieren der Leuchtdioden umfassend die Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) und die Unterwachstumsschicht (245) auf der Leiterplatte (240), während die Ausrichtung der Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) von einer Lage derselben zur Zeit des Kristallwachstums umgekehrt wird;

wobei

ein Höcker (246) an der zweiten Elektrode (249) ausgebildet wird; und

die Kristallwachstumsschicht (243) über die erste Elektrode (244) mit der zweiten Verdrahtungsschicht (248) verbunden wird und der Höcker (246) die zweite Elektrode (249) mit der ersten Verdrahtungsschicht (247) verbindet.


 
4. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer Bildanzeigeeinheit (231) nach Anspruch 3, wobei das Montieren jeder der Leuchtdioden an der Leiterplatte (240) durch Montieren der Leuchtdiode auf der Leiterplatte (240) in einem Zustand durchgeführt wird, in dem eine Vorderfläche oder eine Rückfläche der Leuchtdiode von einer anziehenden Haltevorrichtung angezogen wird.
 
5. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer Bildanzeigeeinheit (231) nach Anspruch 3, wobei die Trennung von jeder der Leuchtdioden vom Substrat für Wachstum durch Anwendung von Einstrahlung eines Energiestrahls von der Rückfläche des Substrats für Wachstum durchgeführt wird.
 
6. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer Bildanzeigeeinheit (231) nach Anspruch 5, wobei die Einstrahlung eines Energiestrahls zum Trennen jeder der Leuchtdioden selektiv durchgeführt wird.
 
7. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer Bildanzeigeeinheit (231) nach Anspruch 5, wobei vor Einstrahlung eines Energiestrahls von der Rückfläche des Substrats für Wachstum jede der Leuchtdioden zwischen dem Substrat für Wachstum und einer Platte zur Übertragung gehalten wird, und nach Einstrahlung des Energiestrahls die Leuchtdiode vom Substrat für Wachstum (243) getrennt wird, um auf der Platte zur Übertragung gehalten zu werden.
 


Revendications

1. Unité d'affichage d'images (231) ayant une structure dans laquelle une pluralité de diodes électroluminescentes sont montées sur une carte de câblage (240) de manière à être disposées en réseau sur un plan principal de carte, des première et deuxième couches de câblage (247, 248) étant formées selon des motifs de câblage spécifiques sur le plan principal de carte, dans laquelle
chaque diode électroluminescente comprend :

une sous-couche de croissance (245),

une couche de croissance cristalline (243) sur ladite sous-couche de croissance, ladite couche de croissance cristalline (243) ayant une forme de pyramide hexagonale avec des surfaces latérales inclinées par rapport à ladite sous-couche de croissance (245),

une première couche conductrice, une couche active (251), une deuxième couche conductrice (252) et une première électrode (244) formées sur ladite couche de croissance cristalline (243), et

une deuxième électrode (249) formée sur ladite sous-couche de croissance (245) au voisinage de ladite couche de croissance cristalline (243),

et dans laquelle
chaque diode électroluminescente est montée sur ladite carte de câblage (240) avec la sous-couche de croissance (245) en haut et la couche de croissance cristalline (243) formant une pyramide hexagonale inversée entre ladite sous-couche de croissance (245) et la carte de câblage, la couche de croissance cristalline étant disposée sur ladite deuxième couche de câblage (248) par l'intermédiaire de ladite première électrode (244), la surface supérieure de la sous-couche de croissance (245) fonctionnant comme un plan d'extraction de lumière (250), et un plot (246) reliant la deuxième électrode (249) du dispositif électroluminescent à la première couche de câblage (247).
 
2. Unité d'affichage d'images (231) selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle ladite couche de croissance cristalline (243) est constituée d'un semiconducteur au nitrure de type wurtzite.
 
3. Procédé de production d'une unité d'affichage d'images (231) selon la revendication 1, comprenant les étapes suivantes :

formation de première et deuxième couches de câblage (247, 248) selon des motifs de câblage spécifiques sur un plan principal de carte d'une carte de câblage ;

production de chacune d'une pluralité de diodes électroluminescentes par formation d'une couche de croissance cristalline (243) ayant une forme de pyramide hexagonale sur une sous-couche de croissance (245) sur un substrat de croissance, la forme de pyramide hexagonale étant réalisée par croissance sélective dans une ouverture dans une couche de masque sur la sous-couche de croissance, et formation d'une première couche conductrice, d'une couche active (251), d'une deuxième couche conductrice (252) et d'une première électrode (244) sur ladite couche de croissance cristalline ;

formation d'une deuxième électrode (249) sur la sous-couche de croissance (245) au voisinage de la couche de croissance cristalline (243) pour chaque diode électroluminescente ;

séparation de chacune des diodes électroluminescentes du substrat de croissance par séparation desdites couches de croissance cristalline (243) avec la sous-couche de croissance (245) dudit substrat de croissance, et montage des diodes électroluminescentes comprenant ladite couche de croissance cristalline (243) et ladite sous-couche de croissance (245) sur la carte de câblage (240) avec inversion de l'orientation de ladite couche de croissance cristalline (243) par rapport à une posture de celle-ci au moment de la croissance cristalline ;

dans lequel

un plot (246) est formé sur la deuxième électrode (249) ; et

la couche de croissance cristalline (243) est reliée à la deuxième couche de câblage (248) par l'intermédiaire de la première électrode (244) et le plot (246) relie la deuxième électrode (249) à la première couche de câblage (247).


 
4. Procédé de production d'une unité d'affichage d'images (231) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le montage de chacune desdites diodes électroluminescentes sur ladite carte de câblage (240) est effectué par montage de ladite diode électroluminescente sur ladite carte de câblage (240) dans un état dans lequel une surface avant ou une surface arrière de ladite diode électroluminescente est attirée par un montage d'attraction.
 
5. Procédé de production d'une unité d'affichage d'images (231) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel la séparation de chacune desdites diodes électroluminescentes dudit substrat de croissance est effectuée au moyen d'une irradiation avec un faisceau d'énergie depuis la surface arrière dudit substrat de croissance.
 
6. Procédé de production d'une unité d'affichage d'images (231) selon la revendication 5, dans lequel l'irradiation avec un faisceau d'énergie pour séparer chacune desdites diodes électroluminescentes est effectuée sélectivement.
 
7. Procédé de production d'une unité d'affichage d'images (231) selon la revendication 5 dans lequel, avant l'irradiation avec un faisceau d'énergie depuis la surface arrière dudit substrat de croissance, chacune desdites diodes électroluminescentes est maintenue entre ledit substrat de croissance et une carte de transfert, et après l'irradiation avec le faisceau d'énergie, ladite diode électroluminescente est séparée dudit substrat de croissance (243), pour être maintenue sur ladite carte de transfert.
 




Drawing
































































































































Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description