(19)
(11)EP 2 349 664 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
10.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/24

(21)Application number: 09748501.5

(22)Date of filing:  04.11.2009
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
B28B 1/16(2006.01)
B28B 1/52(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/NL2009/000210
(87)International publication number:
WO 2010/053353 (14.05.2010 Gazette  2010/19)

(54)

A METHOD FOR PRODUCING A WOOD WOOL CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT, A CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT OBTAINED THEREWITH AND A PRODUCTION FACILITY THEREFORE

VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG EINES BAUELEMENTS AUS HOLZWOLLE, DAMIT ERHALTENES BAUELEMENT UND FERTIGUNGSANLAGE DAFÜR

PROCÉDÉ DE FABRICATION D UN ÉLÉMENT DE CONSTRUCTION EN LAINE DE BOIS, ÉLÉMENT DE CONSTRUCTION OBTENU AVEC CELUI-CI ET SON INSTALLATION DE FABRICATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 04.11.2008 NL 2002167

(43)Date of publication of application:
03.08.2011 Bulletin 2011/31

(73)Proprietor: Thermoform Nederland B.V.
3773 CX Barneveld (NL)

(72)Inventors:
  • VAN ELTEN, Gerrit, Jan
    NL-3781 TC Voorthuizen (NL)
  • VAN ELTEN, Paulus, Elbertus
    NL-3773 BL Barneveld (NL)
  • VAN ELTEN, Elbertus, Johannes
    NL- 3771 VM Barneveld (NL)

(74)Representative: Plaggenborg, Menko Bernard 
Octrooibureau Novopatent Transistorstraat 31, Office 02.18 - Box 23
1322 CK Almere
1322 CK Almere (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
DE-A1- 4 300 428
FR-A- 1 075 894
GB-A- 146 581
FR-A- 1 075 894
FR-A- 2 483 492
GB-A- 146 581
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to a method for producing a wood wool construction element according to the preamble of claim 1 and a production facility therefore.

    [0002] Such a method is known in the art, for example from the international patent application WO2006/016844.

    [0003] GB-A 146581 describes a method according to the preamble of claim 1 and a facility for producing a wood wool construction element.

    [0004] A disadvantage of this known method consists among others of the fact that the elements obtained do not have a constant density throughout their thickness. More specifically, the elements obtained according to the known method have a high density due to the compression of the fresh material under its own weight.

    [0005] The invention aims at alleviating or preventing these problems.

    [0006] More in particular, the invention aims at providing an improved method.

    [0007] The invention especially aims at providing an improved method wherein the product obtained has a more constant and lower density through its entire thickness.

    [0008] The invention furthermore aims at providing a method wherein the elements can be easily provided with inlays without interrupting the internal structure of the construction element and without interrupting the production, for example the production capacity or production speed.

    [0009] Finally, the invention aims at providing a production facility to enable the method according to the invention.

    [0010] To obtain at least one of the above mentioned goals, the present invention relates to a method that comprises the steps mentioned in the independent claim 1, a construction element as identified in the independent claim 16 and a production facility as identified in the independent claim 18, which are hereby incorporated in the description by reference.

    [0011] Preferred embodiments are identified in the dependent claims, which are hereby incorporated in the description by reference.

    [0012] Wood wool that can be used advantageously in the present invention has a length of approximately 25 cm, or double these dimensions, depending on the machine producing the wood wool.

    [0013] The width of the wood wool is preferably at least 1.0 mm and maximally 5.0 mm. Wood wool having a width of between 2 and 4 mm is especially preferred.

    [0014] The thickness of the wood wool is at least 0.2 mm, preferably at least 0.3 mm and maximally 0.5 mm, preferably maximally 0.4 mm.

    [0015] Generally, wood particles with dimensions of less than approximately 2 cm long are removed from the mixture preceeding adding the hydraulic binder to the wood wool mixture, since these do pollute the machinery and moulds and do not provide any substantial thermal insulating performance.

    [0016] It is preferred to use wood wool that is curved or even curled in a spiral form. This means that the length of the wood wool fibres used may be approximately 25 cm when stretching same in a straight line, as outlined above. However, when they are curved or curled the distance from one end to the other end is less than 25 cm, preferably substantially less than 25 cm, for example less than 20 cm, more preferably less than 10 cm, like less than 5 cm. When dispersing such wood wool in a mould, an open structure is obtained showing good thermal insulating properties and a low density, for example less than 400 kg/m3, preferably less than 350 kg/m3, more preferably less than 300 kg/m3.

    [0017] More in particular, it is preferred that at least 50% of the wood wool fibres, preferably at least 70% of the wood wool fibres, has an elongated length (X), for example 25 cm, wherein the distance from a first end to a second end of said part of the wood wool fibres placed in the mould is less than 70% of the elongated length (X) of the wood wool fibres, preferably is less than 50% of the elongated length (X) of the wood wool fibres, more preferably is less than 30% of the elongated length (X) of the wood wool fibres, most preferably is less than 10% of the elongated length (X) of the wood wool fibres.

    [0018] The wood wool that is used in the method according to the present invention is wetted, so as to provide a good binding capacity with the hydraulic binder. The amount of water is sufficient for obtaining a complete setting of the hydraulic binder. The hydraulic binder may be cement, like Portland cement or the like, or another hydraulic binder that is capable of binding to wood. The international patent application WO 2006/016844 mentions on page 3, line 25 - page 4, line 34 and further ("Method of production") among others values of ratios of water to hydraulic binder and matching amounts of wood wool that can be adequately used in the present invention as well. These values, as well as the further details mentioned there regarding filling and emptying the moulds, are herewith incorporated by reference in the present description.

    [0019] The elements according to the present invention can be stuccoed or the like after having been fully hardened, for example after they have been used as wall elements for erecting a building.

    [0020] When incorporating a pillar into the elements, the same must be incorporated such that the pillar is positioned vertically when positioning the construction element in its position of use. Then, the construction element can be advantageously used as a wall element for erecting a building, for the pillar will bear vertical loads that originate from one or more floors and walls above and the roof construction. The pillar can be used for connecting thereto the floor, wall or roof element above it. Then, the wood wool part of the construction element will not have to bear any external loads and hence can be made of a low density so as to have high thermal insulating properties.

    [0021] In this respect, it is to be noted that a construction element according to the present invention is most preferably used as a wall element, with a vertical height, a horizontal width and a horizontal thickness. The construction element is produced in a mould such that its height and width are outlined in a horizontal direction of the mould and that the horizontal thickness of the construction element is outlined in a vertical direction of the mould.

    [0022] When producing construction elements in a preferred embodiment wherein at least two moulds are positioned substantially contiguous, the sidewalls of the moulds provide the upper and lower sides of the construction elements, respectively of the walls produced therewith.

    [0023] A multiplicity of pillars can be incorporated in a construction element, for example at mutual distances of from 0.5 to 3 m, depending on the required load bearing capacity.

    [0024] Along a side of the construction element a girder may be incorporated, for example of wood or concrete. This girder may be connected to the pillars for obtaining a structure with improved strength. Normally, the girder is provided at a topside of the construction element when in use. For example, this girder may be provisionally connected to a sidewall of the mould so as to immediately have the right position thereof. After dispersing and hardening the mixture of wood wool and hydraulic binder the provisional connection of the girder with the side wall of the mould may be removed. Naturally, the girder should have such a surface or surface finish that a good binding with the hydraulic binder is obtained. If in the erect positioned construction elements a ring beam of, optionally reinforced, concrete is preferred, a girder may be provided that is removed after hardening the mixture of wood wool and hydraulic binder. Then, after erecting the construction elements as a wall of a building, a reinforcement may be provided in the slot the girder has been removed from and concrete may be poured therein. This has the advantage that part of the concrete will fill the cavities between the wood wool so as to provide an intense connection of the concrete ring beam and the construction elements. This is also valid if in the vertical ends of the erect elements vertical slots are provided such that two adjacently positioned elements are lined out with those slots positioned against each other. Then, this slot can be filled with, optionally reinforced, concrete and/or a separate reinforcement for producing a pillar that at the same time holds the adjacent elements firmly together. If at the same time a ring beam is provided, the pillar can be connected to the ring beam so as to provide a further increased strength.

    [0025] As mentioned above, a mould may comprise four sidewalls, hence producing a rectangular, or equivalent, construction element. Each mould will then produce a construction element, wherein cutting is not required.

    [0026] According to a further embodiment, when using the embodiment of substantially contiguous moulds, such moulds will have oppositely positioned sidewalls only, which extend in a longitudinal direction.

    [0027] Although there is mention of mixture of wood wool and hydraulic binder in the above description, it should be clear to a person skilled in the art that said mixture comprises an amount of water as well, sufficient to provide an adequate binding capacity and setting of the hydraulic binder fully.

    [0028] Hereafter, a description of the invention with reference to the accompanying figures is given.

    Fig. 1 shows a first embodiment of a mould for producing a construction element according to the invention.

    Fig. 2 shows a second embodiment of a mould for producing a construction element according to the invention.

    Fig. 3 shows a simplified scheme of a production facility according to the invention for transporting moulds in a loop.

    Fig. 4 shows a schematic perspective ghost view of a construction element according to the invention.



    [0029] In the figures, the same or equivalent parts are identified by the same reference numerals. Not all parts necessary for practising the invention are identified in the figures or the description thereof, only the parts that need to be described to provide a sufficient understanding of the invention are specifically identified and described.

    [0030] Fig. 1 shows a cross-section of a mould according to a first embodiment of the invention, wherein a mould 1 is comprised of a bottom 2 and two opposing side walls 3, 4, as well as two opposing end walls 5 (only one is shown). The bottom 2 is made of a construction such that it provides sufficient rigidity and strength to the mould 1. A first layer 6 of a mixture of wood wool and hydraulic binder is positioned in the mould 1. The first layer 6 fills the mould 1 only partially. A pillar 7 is placed on top of this first layer 6. Along one sidewall 4, a beam 8 (optionally more than one beam) is placed, such that it is substantially surrounded at three sides by said mixture. The fourth side of said beam 8 lies against the sidewall 4. The pillar 7 is positioned adjacent a side of said beam 8, preferably over its entire length.

    [0031] Although not shown in Figure 1, a further layer of mixture is positioned on top of said first layer 6, pillar 7 and beam 8, to a height exceeding the top of the sidewalls. Then a second mould 1, generally identical to the mould 1 shown in the figure, or a lid (not shown) can be placed on top of the mould 1 as shown, so as to compress the mixture in this mould 1 to a height identical to the height of the walls 3, 4, 5.

    [0032] After hardening out sufficiently the top mould or lid can be removed after which the construction element can be removed from the mould 1.

    [0033] A further embodiment of the invention is shown in Fig. 2, showing a mould having oppositely positioned longitudinal sidewalls 3, 4 only. One sidewall 4 can be connected hingedly to the bottom 2 of the mould 1. After the construction element is hardened out sufficiently, the sidewall 4 can be hinged away from the construction element, after which the construction element can be removed easily from the mould 1. The distance, over which the sidewall 4 is moved, should preferably be such that the element can be hoisted out of the mould 1. As a further embodiment, the sidewall 4 is hinged over at least 90°, after which the element can be pulled out of the mould (in the Figure, to the right; i.e. in the same direction as the straps in the element).

    [0034] So as to be able to easily pull out the element from the mould, an elongate element 9, for example a beam, which can be a short piece of wood, is positioned in the mould 1 on top of a layer 6 of mixture of wood wool and hydraulic binder (perpendicular in the plane of Figure 2). It can be positioned in the same plane as the pillar 7, shown in Fig. 1, for example between two substantially parallel placed pillars 7. A hoist strap 10 is placed around the beam 9 and is directed to the side of the side wall 4, preferably guided through a girder (top beam) 8 and is then guided out of the mould 1 over the top 11 of the side wall 4. The girder 8 preferably extends over the entire length of the sidewall 4. The girder 8 spreads out forces that are exerted thereon when pulling the strap 10 at an angle, over the entire length of the construction element. The strap 10 can also be used for handling the construction element after is has been taken out of the mould 1, for hoisting and loading and when using same for erecting the walls of a building or the like.

    [0035] Fig. 3 shows a diagrammatical flow chart of a production line according to the invention. It is comprised of a wood wool production facility 12, for example an Eltomatic machine, well known in the art. A mixture of wood wool 19, water 20 (optionally with some additions as commonly known in the art) and hydraulic binder 21 is provided to a distributor 13, for distributing the mixture over a width substantially equal to the width of a mould 14. Here, a row of adjacently positioned moulds 14 is transported through the distributor so as to continuously distribute said mixture in adjacently and successively transported moulds. Thereafter, the moulds 14 are in a continuous fashion transported to a saw 22, cutting the mixture, that was added into the mould by the distributor, at both ends of said mould so as to obtain a series of moulds each comprising a layer of mixture that is separated from the layers of successively positioned moulds. Then the mould 14 is further transported in the loop 15. In this loop 15, a filling station 16 is provided so as to optionally add an inlay 23. This inlay may be as described above. Adding the inlay may be performed by hand or automatically. Then, the moulds are in a continuous fashion returned to the distributor to add a further layer of mixture on top of the previously added layer of mixture and the optionally added inlay.

    [0036] As a matter of fact, the diagrammatical flow chart in Fig. 3, may roughly be a good representation of a real production facility.

    [0037] Fig. 4 shows an outline of a construction element obtained according to the invention. The mixture of wood wool and hydraulic binder is omitted for clarity. A girder 8 and pillars 7 are clearly visible, as well as the strap 10 and the beam 9. The girder can be connected to the pillars by means of connecting elements 18 (only one is shown). This connection can be made when positioning the said items in the mould or after the elements have been taken out of the mould. Furthermore, it is clear from the embodiment in this Figure, that the strap is guided through a hole in the girder. The ends 19 of the pillars are flush with the bottom wall of the construction element.

    [0038] In this respect, it is clear that the bottom side of the construction element according to the invention, on which it rests when in use, should be perpendicular with respect to its sides. For, if the edges of the bottom side are not perpendicular, the construction element may fall over. Hence, referring to Fig. 1 and 2, the sidewall 3 of the mould 1 should be at a right angle with respect to the bottom wall 17 of the mould 1.

    [0039] The other sidewall 4 and the optional end wall 5 may be positioned at an obtuse angle with respect to the bottom wall 17 so as to facilitate the removal of the construction element from the mould 1.

    [0040] The wood wool is preferably obtained by using an Eltomatic Rotating Wood Wool Machine, as known in the art. This machine, including the mixer for obtaining the mixture of wood wool, binder and water is known to skilled men in the art throughout the world.

    [0041] The production facility for producing the construction element according to the present invention and for performing the method according to the present invention, comprises: means for providing and dispersing the mixture, at least one mould with four sides or a series of consecutive moulds with only two longitudinal sides each, optionally means for supplying stucco and positioning girders, pillars, barriers, boards, beams or straps and the like. Additionally, it may comprise transporting means for repeatedly transporting said moulds to and from said dispersion means, for at least twice dispersing a mixture of wood wool and cement into said mould. It may also comprise hardening means for hardening said mixture at least partially in between two dispersion steps. These hardening means may comprise a hardening tunnel and/or a storage station or may just be comprised of the transporting means, wherein said at least partial hardening takes place during transporting the moulds.

    [0042] Preferably, hardening of the mixture in between two dispersion steps is sufficient to obtain a hardening such that the layer does not settle more than 50%, preferably not more than 25%, more preferably not more than 10%. The term "settle" means the difference in height of a first layer of mixture before and after dispersing a subsequent layer of mixture thereon.

    [0043] Preferably, if an inlay consisting of a board or another relatively heavy material is placed on a layer of mixture, spacers may be provided for carrying said inlay, so as to prevent an unwanted compression of the layer of mixture.

    [0044] Some overfilling of the mould with mixture may be required to slightly compress the mixture by placing a lid or another mould thereon. The mould should be filled completely, however, compressing the mixture in the mould should be as little as possible. Overfilling may comprise a height of mixture above the mould of maximally 10 cm, preferably maximally 5 cm, more preferably maximally 4 cm, most preferably maximally 2 cm. Hence, if the side walls of the mould have a height of 50 cm, the total height of the layer of mixture in the mould, before placing the lid or another mould thereon, is maximally 60 cm, preferably maximally 55 cm, or more preferably maximally 54 cm, most preferably maximally 52 cm.

    [0045] It may be preferred to compress a firstly added layer in the mould so as to obtain a first layer with an increased density and rigidity.

    [0046] It may be preferred to add an inlay in the mould before adding a first layer of mixture. Such an inlay may be comprised of stucco or a board, for example an Eltoboard™ or the like so as to at least partly, optionally completely or substantially completely, cover the outer wall of a construction element. As a matter of fact, a gap between boards can be provided, if wanted or required. Optionally, both walls or one or the other wall of a construction element may be covered by adding a board at any of the down side and/or top side of the mould.


    Claims

    1. A method for producing a wood wool construction element, comprising the steps of:

    a) providing a mould (1) having a bottom (2) and at least two side walls (3, 4), preferably two oppositely placed side walls (3, 4);

    b) providing a mixture of wood wool and a hydraulic binder;

    c) dispersing at least a part of said mixture in the mould (1) so as to provide a layer (6) of the mixture, said layer (6) having a height that is less than the height of the side walls (3, 4);

    d) at least partially hardening said mixture dispersed during step c) in the mould (1);

    e) repeating steps c) and d) with the provision that a final layer of mixture is added in step c) when the total height of the mixture in the mould (1) exceeds the height of the side walls (3, 4) of the mould (1),

    characterized in that it comprises a further step of:
    f) positioning a cover on top of the mould (1) so as to compress the mixture in said mould (1) with a bottom side of said cover to a height substantially equal to the height of the side walls (3, 4) of the mould (1), and hardening the mixture.
     
    2. A method according to claim 1, wherein step d) is performed such, that an optional subsequently dispersed layer of said mixture will provide a settlement of less than 50%, preferably less than 25%, more preferably less than 10%.
     
    3. A method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the mixture of wood wool and hydraulic binder comprises an amount of water that is sufficient for binding said hydraulic binder so as to obtain a wood wool construction element of mutually connected wood wool fibres.
     
    4. A method according to any of claims 1 - 3, wherein the height of the sidewalls (3, 4) is between 20 and 60 cm.
     
    5. A method according to any of claims 1 - 4, wherein the distance between side walls (3, 4) is at least 120 cm, preferably at least 240 cm, more preferably at least 270 cm, and maximally 350 cm, more preferably maximally 325 cm, most preferably approximately 300 cm.
     
    6. A method according to any of claims 1 - 5, wherein at least two moulds (1) are positioned substantially contiguous and are provided with mixture in step c) substantially successively, and wherein longitudinal side walls (3, 4) of adjacent moulds (1) are lined out with each other.
     
    7. A method according to claim 6, wherein the layer of mixture added in step c) is cut in between adjacent moulds (1), so as to obtain separate moulds (1) each comprising a layer of said mixture.
     
    8. A method according to claim 7, wherein the mixture is at least partially hardened after cutting same.
     
    9. A method according to claim 1, wherein an inlay (7, 8) is placed on a layer of said mixture after step c) or step d).
     
    10. A method according to claim 1, wherein any of the following combination of steps is performed:

    - an inlay (7, 8) is placed in the mould (1) in between step b) and step c);

    - an inlay (7, 8) is placed in the mould (1) in between step e) and step f);

    - an inlay (7, 8) is placed in the mould (1) in between step b) and step c) and in between step e) and step f).


     
    11. A method according to claim 9 or 10, wherein said inlay (7, 8) is comprised of at least one of a damp proof course, a reinforcing layer, an isolating layer, a girder (8), a pillar (7) and a hoisting means (9, 10), for example a wood strand cement board, an asphalt paper, a foamed polymer, a wooden pole (9); each optionally provided with a layer having cement binding properties.
     
    12. A method according to claim 10 or 11, wherein said hoisting means (9, 10) comprises an elongate element (9) substantially parallel to and at a distance from a side wall (4) and a lifting strap (10) con-nected with said elongate element (9) and extending towards and out of the mould (1) along said side wall (4).
     
    13. A method according to claim 10, wherein said pillar (7) extends between two opposed side walls (3; 4), or between a side wall (3) and a beam (8) positioned against an opposite side wall (4).
     
    14. A method according to claim 10, wherein at least one side wall (4) is hingedly connected to the bottom (2), and said hingedly connected side wall (4) is hinged out after step f) for allowing the construction element to be removed from the mould (1).
     
    15. A production facility for performing the method according to any of claims 1 - 14 comprising at least one mould (1) with a bottom (2) and at least two side walls (3, 4), a means for providing a mixture of wood wool and cement, a means (13) for dispersing said mixture of wood wool and cement into said mould (1), whereby the production facility furthermore comprises: - a transporting means (15) for repeatedly transporting said moulds (1) to and from said dispersion means (13), for at least twice dispersing mixture of wood wool and cement into said mould (1); and - a hardening means for hardening said mixture at least partially in between two dispersion steps; a means for positioning a cover on top of the mould (1) so as to compress the mixture in the mould (1); and a means for hardening the mixture.
     
    16. A production facility according to claim 15, comprising a series of moulds (1) and transporting means (15) for successively transporting said moulds (1) in a loop (15) along said dispersion means (13) for continuously dispersing said mixture in said successively transported moulds (1).
     
    17. A production facility according to claim 15 or 16, furthermore comprising a station (16) for positioning an inlay (7, 8, 9, 10) in said moulds (1).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Holzwollen-Bauteils, welches die Schritte umfasst:

    a) Bereitstellen einer Form (1) mit einem Boden (2) und mindestens zwei Seitenwänden (3, 4), vorzugsweise zwei gegenüberliegend angeordneten Seitenwänden (3, 4);

    b) Bereitstellen eines Gemisches von Holzwolle und einem hydraulischen Bindemittel;

    c) Streuen mindestens eines Teils des Gemisch in der Form (1) um eine Schicht (6) des Gemischs zu liefern, worin die Schicht (6) eine Höhe aufweist, die kleiner ist als die Höhe der Seitenwände (3, 4);

    d) mindestens teilweise Härten des während Schritt c) in der Form (1) gestreuten Gemisches;

    e) Wiederholen der Schritte c) und d) mit der Maßgabe, dass eine letzte Schicht des Gemisches in Schritt c) zugesetzt wird, wenn die Gesamthöhe des Gemisches in der Form (1) die Höhe der Seitenwände (3, 4) der Form (1) übersteigt,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es den weiteren Schritt umfasst:
    f) Anordnen eines Deckels auf der Form (1), um das Gemisch in der Form (1) mit einer Bodenseite des Deckels auf eine Höhe zu komprimieren, die im Wesentlichen gleich der Höhe der Seitenwände (3, 4) der Form (1) ist, und Härten des Gemisches.
     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei Schritt d) derart durchgeführt wird, dass eine wahlweise nachfolgend gestreute Schicht des Gemisches ein Absetzen von weniger als 50%, vorzugsweise weniger als 25%, mehr bevorzugt weniger als 10% liefert.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das Gemisch der Holzwolle und des hydraulischen Bindemittels eine Menge an Wasser umfasst, die ausreichend ist, das hydraulische Bindemittel abzubinden, um ein Holzwollen-Bauteil mit miteinander verbundenen Holzwollen-Fasern zu erhalten.
     
    4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 - 3, wobei die Höhe der Seitenwände (3, 4) zwischen 20 und 60 cm ist.
     
    5. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 - 4, wobei die Entfernung zwischen den Seitenwänden (3, 4) mindestens 120 cm ist, vorzugsweise mindestens 240 cm, mehr bevorzugt mindestens 270 cm, und maximal 350 cm, mehr bevorzugt maximal 325 cm, am meisten bevorzugt etwa 300 cm.
     
    6. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 - 5, wobei mindestens zwei Formen (1) im Wesentlichen benachbart angeordnet sind und mit dem Gemisch in Schritt c) im Wesentlichen nacheinander versorgt werden, und wobei die Längs-Seitenwände (3, 4) benachbarter Formen (1) miteinander abgefluchtet sind.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 6, wobei die Schicht des in Schritt c) zugesetzten Gemisches zwischen benachbarten Formen (1) geschnitten wird, um separate Formen (1) zu erhalten, von denen jede eine Schicht des Gemisches enthält.
     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei das Gemisch nach dem Schneidevorgang mindestens teilweise gehärtet wird.
     
    9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei nach Schritt c) oder Schritt d) eine Einlage (7, 8) auf einer Schicht des Gemisches angeordnet wird.
     
    10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei jede der folgenden Kombinationen an Schritten durchgeführt wird:

    - eine Einlage (7, 8) wird in der Form (1) zwischen Schritt b) und Schritt c) angeordnet;

    - eine Einlage (7, 8) wird in der Form (1) zwischen Schritt e) und Schritt f) angeordnet;

    - eine Einlage (7, 8) wird in der Form (1) zwischen Schritt b) und Schritt c) und in zwischen Schritt e) und Schritt f) angeordnet.


     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9 oder 10, wobei die Einlage (7, 8) mindestens eines umfasst von einer Feuchtigkeitssperrschicht, einer Verstärkungsschicht, einer Isolierschicht, einem Träger (8), einer Stütze (7) und einem Hebemittel (9, 10), beispielsweise einer Holzfaser-Zementbauplatte, einem Bitumenpapier, einem geschäumten Polymer, einer Holzstange (9); jeweils wahlweise mit einer Schicht mit Zement-Bindungseigenschaften versehen.
     
    12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10 oder 11, wobei das Hebemittel (9, 10) ein längliches Element (9) umfasst, das im Wesentlichen parallel zu und in einer Entfernung von einer Seitenwand (4) verläuft, und einen Krangurt (10), der mit dem länglichen Element (9) verbunden ist und sich und entlang der Seitenwand (4) auf die Form (1) zu und daraus heraus erstreckt.
     
    13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei sich die Stütze (7) zwischen zwei gegenüberliegenden Seitenwände (3; 4) erstreckt, oder zwischen einer Seitenwand (3) und einem Träger (8), der gegen eine gegenüberliegende Seitenwand (4) angeordnet ist.
     
    14. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei mindestens eine Seitenwand (4) klappbar mit dem Boden (2) verbunden ist, und wobei die klappbar verbundene Seitenwand (4) nach Schritt f) ausgehängt wird, um das Bauteil aus der Form (1) entnehmen zu können.
     
    15. Produktionsanlage zur Durchführung des Verfahrens nach einem der Ansprüche 1 - 14, welche umfasst, mindestens eine Form (1) mit einem Boden (2) und mindestens zwei Seitenwänden (3, 4), Mittel zur Bereitstellung eines Gemisches von Holzwolle und Zement, Mittel (13) zum Streuen des Gemisches von Holzwolle und Zement in der Form (1), dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Produktionsanlage weiter umfasst: - ein Transportmittel (15) zum wiederholten Transportieren der Formen (1) zu und von dem Streuungsmittel (13) weg, um das Gemisch von Holzwolle und Zement in der Form (1) mindestens zweimal zu Streuen; und - ein Härtungsmittel zum Härten des Gemisches mindestens teilweise zwischen zwei Dispersionsschritten; Mittel zum Anordnen einer Abdeckung auf der Form (1), um das Gemisch in der Form (1) zu komprimieren; und Mittel zum Härten des Gemisches.
     
    16. Produktionsanlage nach Anspruch 15, welche eine Reihe von Formen (1) und Transportmitteln (15) umfasst, um die Formen (1) nacheinander in einer Schleife (15) entlang des Streuungsmittels (13) zu transportieren, um das Gemisch in den nacheinander transportierten Formen (1) kontinuierlich zu Streuen.
     
    17. Produktionsanlage nach Anspruch 15 oder 16, welche weiter eine Station (16) zum Anordnen einer Einlage (7, 8, 9, 10) in den Formen (1) umfasst.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé de fabrication d'un élément de construction en laine de bois, comprenant les étapes :

    a) fournir un moule (1) ayant un fond (2) et au moins deux parois latérales (3, 4), de préférence deux parois latérales placées de manière opposée (3, 4) ;

    b) fournir un mélange de laine de bois et d'un liant hydraulique ;

    c) disperser au moins une partie dudit mélange dans le moule (1) de façon à obtenir une couche (6) du mélange, ladite couche (6) ayant une hauteur qui est inférieure à la hauteur des parois latérales (3, 4) ;

    d) faire durcir au moins partiellement ledit mélange dispersé pendant l'étape c) dans le moule (1) ;

    e) répéter les étapes c) et d) avec la condition qu'une couche finale de mélange soit ajoutée dans l'étape c) lorsque la hauteur totale du mélange dans le moule (1) dépasse la hauteur des parois latérales (3, 4) du moule (1),

    caractérisé par le fait qu'il comprend une étape supplémentaire :
    f) positionner un couvercle sur le moule (1) de façon à comprimer le mélange dans ledit moule (1) avec un côté inférieur dudit couvercle, jusqu'à une hauteur sensiblement égale à la hauteur des parois latérales (3, 4) du moule (1), et faire durcir le mélange.
     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'étape d) est réalisée de telle sorte qu'une couche, facultative, dispersée ultérieurement, dudit mélange fournira un tassement de moins de 50 %, de préférence de moins 25 %, de façon davantage préférée de moins de 10 %.
     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel le mélange de laine de bois et de liant hydraulique comprend une quantité d'eau qui est suffisante pour lier ledit liant hydraulique de façon à obtenir un élément de construction en laine de bois fait de fibres de laine de bois mutuellement liées.
     
    4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel la hauteur des parois latérales (3, 4) est comprise entre 20 et 60 cm.
     
    5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel la distance entre des parois latérales (3, 4) est au moins de 120 cm, de préférence au moins de 240 cm, de façon davantage préférée au moins de 270 cm, et au maximum de 350 cm, de façon davantage préférée au maximum de 325 cm, de la façon que l'on préfère le plus approximativement de 300 cm.
     
    6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel au moins deux moules (1) sont positionnés de manière sensiblement contiguë et sont alimentés en mélange dans l'étape c) de manière sensiblement successive, et des parois latérales longitudinales (3, 4) de moules adjacents (1) sont alignées l'une avec l'autre.
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel la couche de mélange ajoutée dans l'étape c) est coupée entre des moules adjacents (1), de façon à obtenir des moules distincts (1) comprenant chacun une couche dudit mélange.
     
    8. Procédé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel le mélange est au moins partiellement durci après la découpe de celui-ci.
     
    9. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel une incrustation (7, 8) est placée sur une couche dudit mélange après l'étape c) ou l'étape d).
     
    10. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'une quelconque des combinaisons d'étapes suivantes est réalisée :

    - une incrustation (7, 8) est placée dans le moule (1) entre l'étape b) et l'étape c) ;

    - une incrustation (7, 8) est placée dans le moule (1) entre l'étape e) et l'étape f) ;

    - une incrustation (7, 8) est placée dans le moule (1) entre l'étape b) et l'étape c) et entre l'étape e) et l'étape f).


     
    11. Procédé selon la revendication 9 ou 10, dans lequel ladite incrustation (7, 8) est composée d'au moins un parmi une couche anticapillaire, une couche de renforcement, une couche d'isolation, une poutre (8), un pilier (7) et un moyen de levage (9, 10), par exemple un panneau de ciment et copeaux longs, un papier asphalté, un polymère expansé, un poteau en bois (9) ; chacun comportant facultativement une couche ayant des propriétés de liaison au ciment.
     
    12. Procédé selon la revendication 10 ou 11, dans lequel ledit moyen de levage (9, 10) comprend un élément allongé (9) sensiblement parallèle à et à distance d'une paroi latérale (4), et une sangle de levage (10) reliée audit élément allongé (9) et s'étendant vers et hors du moule (1) le long de ladite paroi latérale (4).
     
    13. Procédé selon la revendication 10, dans lequel ledit pilier (7) s'étend entre deux parois latérales opposées (3 ; 4), ou entre une paroi latérale (3) et une poutre (8) positionnée contre une paroi latérale opposée (4) .
     
    14. Procédé selon la revendication 10, dans lequel au moins une paroi latérale (4) est reliée de manière articulée au fond (2), et ladite paroi latérale reliée de manière articulée (4) est rabattue vers l'extérieur après l'étape f) pour permettre à l'élément de construction d'être retiré du moule (1).
     
    15. Installation de fabrication pour mettre en Ĺ“uvre le procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 14, comprenant au moins un moule (1) ayant un fond (2) et au moins deux parois latérales (3, 4), un moyen pour fournir un mélange de laine de bois et de ciment, un moyen (13) pour disperser ledit mélange de laine de bois et de ciment dans ledit moule (1), l'installation de fabrication comprenant en outre : - un moyen de transport (15) pour transporter de manière répétée lesdits moules (1) vers et à partir dudit moyen de dispersion (13), pour disperser au moins deux fois du mélange de laine de bois et de ciment dans ledit moule (1) ; et - un moyen de durcissement pour faire durcir ledit mélange au moins partiellement entre deux étapes de dispersion ; un moyen pour positionner un couvercle sur le moule (1) de façon à comprimer le mélange dans le moule (1) ; et un moyen pour faire durcir le mélange.
     
    16. Installation de fabrication selon la revendication 15, comprenant une série de moules (1) et de moyens de transport (15) pour transporter de manière successive lesdits moules (1) dans une boucle (15) le long dudit moyen de dispersion (13) pour disperser ledit mélange de manière continue dans lesdits moules (1) transportés de manière successive.
     
    17. Installation de fabrication selon la revendication 15 ou 16, comprenant en outre une station (16) pour positionner une incrustation (7, 8, 9, 10) dans lesdits moules (1).
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description