(19)
(11)EP 2 394 702 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
31.12.2014 Bulletin 2015/01

(21)Application number: 11180330.0

(22)Date of filing:  28.07.2006
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61P 35/00(2006.01)

(54)

Compounds and methods for the treatment of cancer

Verbindungen und Verfahren zur Behandlung von Krebs

Composes et méthodes destines au traitement du cancer


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 29.07.2005 US 704163 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
14.12.2011 Bulletin 2011/50

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
06824793.1 / 1919564

(73)Proprietor: ZIOPHARM ONCOLOGY, INC.
Boston, MA 02129 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • Gutsch, Paul
    Gilbert, AZ 58234-2150 (US)
  • Renzelmann, Brian
    Waukesha, WI 53188 (US)

(74)Representative: Dehmel, Albrecht 
Dehmel & Bettenhausen Patentanwälte Herzogspitalstrasse 11
80331 München
80331 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-03/057012
WO-A2-2006/020048
  
  • CULLEN W R ET AL: "THE REACTION OF METHYLARSENICALS WITH THIOLS: SOME BIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS", JOURNAL OF INORGANIC BIOCHEMISTRY, ELSEVIER INC, US, vol. 21, no. 3, 1 January 1984 (1984-01-01), pages 179-194, XP008061046, ISSN: 0162-0134, DOI: 10.1016/0162-0134(84)83002-0
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Field of the Invention



[0001] The present invention relates generally to the field of anti-cancer therapy. More particularly, it provides organic arsenic compounds and methods for their use in treating cancers such as leukemia and solid tumors.

Background of the Invention



[0002] Despite progress in leukemia therapy, most adult patients with leukemia still die from disease progression. Arsenic trioxide, an inorganic compound, has been approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and is being evaluated as therapy for other leukemia types. Preliminary data from China and the recent experience in the U.S., however, suggest a role for arsenic trioxide in the other hematologic cancers as well. Consequently, the activity of arsenic trioxide as an anti-leukemic agent is currently being investigated in many types of leukemia. Although the results look favorable in terms of the response rate of some of the leukemia types that are being investigated, systemic toxicity of arsenic trioxide is a problem (Soignet et al., 1999; Wierniket al., 1999; Geissler et al., 1999; Rousselot et al., 1999).

[0003] WO 03/057012 A2 discloses arsenical compounds with anti-cancer properties and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds. However, these compounds are not crystalline form and at a high purity level.

[0004] The only organic arsenical (OA) manufactured for human use, melarsoprol, has been evaluated for antileukemic activity (WO9924029, EP1002537). Unfortunately, this compound is excessively toxic to patients with leukemia at concentrations used for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. Therefore, there is a need to identify arsenic derivatives that can be used for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and cancer in general, that have similar or greater activity and lower toxicity than arsenic trioxide.

Summary of the Invention



[0005] The present invention provides organic arsenical compounds with anti-cancer properties. In certain embodiments, the present invention provides compounds having a structure of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is greater than 160 °C.

Detailed Description of the Invention



[0006] The present invention provides a number of organic arsenic compounds.

[0007] In certain embodiments, the organic arsenicals of the present invention are a crystalline form of a compound having a structure of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is greater than 160 °C, preferably greater than 170 °C, more preferably greater than 180 °C. According to the present invention, the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is in the range of about 160-220 °C, preferably in the range of about 180-220 °C, more preferably in the range of about 185-195 °C. In certain embodiments, a compound of formula (I) is substantially free of pyridine hydrochloride.

[0008] If a chiral center is present, all isomeric forms are within the scope of the invention. Regarding the stereochemistry, the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules for determining absolute stereochemistry are followed. These rules are described, for example, in Organic Chemistry, Fox and Whitesell; Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, MA (1994); Section 5-6, pp 177-178.

[0009] The invention is also suitable for a method for the synthesis of a compound of formula (II)

wherein

X is S or Se, preferably S;

W is O, S, or (R)(R), where each occurrence of R is independently H or a C1-2alkyl, preferably O or (R)(R);

n is 0 or 1, preferably 1;

R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl, preferably R1 and R2 are independently selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl, and isopropyl;

R3 is -H or C0-6alkyl-COOR6;

R3' is H, amino, cyano, halogen, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, carboxyl, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkenyl, or C1-10alkynyl, preferably H;

R4 is -OH, -H, -CH3, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glutamine;

R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent; and

R6 is H or C1-10alkyl, preferably H,

wherein a compound having a structure of formula

        (R1)(R2)AsCl

is reacted with a compound having a structure of formula (III)

wherein

R3 is -H or C0-6alkyl-COOR6;

R3' is H, amino, cyano, halogen, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, carboxyl, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkenyl, or C1-10alkynyl, preferably H;

R4 is -OH, -H, -CH3, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glutamine substituent;

R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent; and

R6 is H or C1-10alkyl, preferably H;

in an aqueous or alcoholic solvent to provide a compound of formula (I).
An example of such a transformation is shown in Example 2.

[0010] The invention is also suitable that in certain preferred embodiments, a compound of formula

        (R1)(R2)AsCl

wherein R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl, preferably R1 and R2 are independently selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl, and isopropyl;
is reacted with a compound having a structure of formula

in an aqueous or alcoholic solvent system to provide a compound of formula (I). In certain preferred such embodiments, the solvent system comprises water and ethanol. In certain embodiments, the ratio of water to ethanol (v/v) is between about 4:1 and 1:4, preferably between about 2:1 and about 1:2. In certain preferred such embodiments, the ratio of water to ethanol (v/v) is about 1:1. Preferably, the compounds are reacted in the presence of pyridine.

[0011] The invention is also suitable for a method for purifying a compound of formula (II) admixed with pyridine hydrochloride, comprising
  1. (a) combining the compound of formula (II) with enough ethanol to form a slurry,
  2. (b) agitating the slurry for a period of time, and
  3. (c) filtering the slurry.


[0012] In certain embodiments, a compound of formula (II) admixed with pyridine hydrochloride is slurried in ethanol, 200 pf., preferably under a nitrogen atmosphere.

[0013] In certain embodiments, the slurry is agitated for about 1 to about 24 hours. In certain preferred embodiments, the slurry is agitated for about 5 to about 15 hours, more preferably about 8 to about 12 hours.

[0014] In certain embodiments, the filtering further comprises washing. In certain embodiments, the washing is performed with ethanol. In certain preferred such embodiments, the washing is performed with ethanol and another polar organic solvent, preferably acetone.

[0015] In certain embodiments, the compound of formula (II) is



[0016] The invention is a method for a method for the synthesis of a compound of formula

        (CH3)2AsCl

in a manner analogous to that shown in Example 1, wherein a compound having a structure of formula

        (CH3)2As(O)OH

is dissolved in a water/hydrochloric acid acid solution and hypophosphorus acid is slowly added to the solution.

[0017] The invention further provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier for use as a medicament. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition for use as a medicament is an aqueous solution that has a pH greater than about 4 or even greater than about 5, preferably in the range from about 4 to about 8 or even from about 5 to about 8, more preferably in the range from about 4 to about 7, or even about 5 to about 7.

[0018] In certain embodiments, the invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of formula (I), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein the moisture content is less than about 10%, less than about 7%, less than about 5%, less than about 3%, ore even less than about 2%. In certain such embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition is a lyophilisate.

[0019] In certain such embodiments, the lyophilisate is prepared by lyophilization of an aqueous solution comprising a compound of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In certain embodiments, the lyophilization is performed in less than about 72 hours, less than about 60 hours, less than about 48 hours, or even less than about 36 hours.

[0020] In certain embodiments, the lyophilization is performed by decreasing the temperature to about -30, about -35, about -40, about -45, or about -50 °C. In certain such embodiments, the temperature is decreased at a rate of about 1.0, about 0.7, about 0.5, about 0.3, or about 0.1 °C/min. In certain such embodiments, the composition is then held at a certain temperature as described herein for about 100, about 200, about 250, about 300, about 350, or about 400 minutes.

[0021] In certain embodiments, the composition is then subjected to a vacuum such that the pressure is about 200, about 100, about 75, about 50, or about 25 Torr. In certain such embodiments, the temperature is increased to about -10, about -5, about 0, about 5 or about 10 °C. In certain such embodiments, the temperature is increased at a rate of about 0.5, about 0.3, about 0.1, or about 0.05 °C/min. In certain such embodiments, the composition is held at a certain temperature and pressure as described herein for about 500, about 700, about 800, about 1000, about 1200, or about 1400 minutes.

[0022] In certain embodiments, the composition is then subjected to a vacuum such that the pressure is either raised or lowered in relation to the abovementioned vacuum pressure and the pressure is about 200, about 100, about 75, about 50, or about 25 Torr. In certain such embodiments the temperature is increased to about 15, about 20, about 25, about 30 or about 35 °C. In certain such embodiments, the temperature is increased at a rate of about 0.5, about 0.3, about 0.1, or about 0.05 °C/min. In certain such embodiments, the composition is held at a given temperature and pressure for about about 600, about 700, about 720, about 740, about 760, about 780, about 800, or about 900 minutes.

[0023] The invention is also suitable for a method for inhibiting cell proliferation, comprising contacting a cell with a compound of formula (I).

[0024] The invention is also suitable for providing a method for the treatment of cancer comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) as described above.

[0025] The invention also relates to a compound of formula (I) as described above for the use as a medicament for the treatment of cancer.

[0026] In certain embodiments, the cancer is selected from a solid tumor, such as brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, small intestine, pancreas, blood cells, bone, colon, stomach, breast, endometrium, prostate, testicle, ovary, central nervous system, skin, head and neck, esophagus, or bone marrow, or a hematological cancer, such as leukemia, acute promyelocytic leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative disease, or refractory anemia. In certain such embodiments, the cancer is a leukemia selected from acute and chronic leukemia.

[0027] Thus, in another aspect, the invention is suitable for a method of treating a patient with cancer comprising administering to the patient a composition comprising a compound of formula I or a pharmaceutical composition as described above. The therapeutically effective amount of a compound may be 0.1 - 1000 mg/kg, 1 - 500 mg/kg, or 10 - 100 mg/kg. In particular embodiments, the method may comprise administering the composition weekly, twice weekly, or even daily. It is further contemplated that treatment methods may involve multiple administrations daily. The method may comprise administering the compound daily such as by injection. Alternative routes and methods of administration described in the specification may also be used and the mode of administration will mainly depend on the type and location of the cancer. In certain embodiments, the method further comprises administering one or more additional agents to the patient. The additional agent may be all-trans-retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, Am-80, or ascorbic acid. The use of other adjunct cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, gene therapy, hormone therapy, and other cancer therapies known in the art are also contemplated in conjunction with the methods of the present invention.

[0028] Various methods of administration are contemplated, including regional, systemic, direct administration and by perfusion. Such methods include administration by injection, oral routes, intravenous, intraarterial, intratumoral, administration to tumoral vasculature, intraperitoneal, intratracheal, intramuscular, endoscopical, intralesional, percutaneous, subcutaneous, topical, nasal, buccal, mucosal, anogenital, rectal and the like.

Definitions



[0029] The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable" is employed herein to refer to those ligands, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of human beings and animals without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

[0030] The term "preventing" is art-recognized, and when used in relation to a condition, such as a local recurrence (e.g., pain), a disease such as cancer, a syndrome complex such as heart failure or any other medical condition, is well understood in the art, and includes administration of a composition which reduces the frequency of, or delays the onset of, symptoms of a medical condition in a subject relative to a subject which does not receive the composition. Thus, prevention of cancer includes, for example, reducing the number of detectable cancerous growths in a population of patients receiving a prophylactic treatment relative to an untreated control population, and/or delaying the appearance of detectable cancerous growths in a treated population versus an untreated control population, e.g., by a statistically and/or clinically significant amount. Prevention of an infection includes, for example, reducing the number of diagnoses of the infection in a treated population versus an untreated control population, and/or delaying the onset of symptoms of the infection in a treated population versus an untreated control population. Prevention of pain includes, for example, reducing the magnitude of, or alternatively delaying, pain sensations experienced by subjects in a treated population versus an untreated control population.

[0031] The term "prophylactic or therapeutic" treatment is art-recognized and includes administration to the host of one or more of the subject compositions. If it is administered prior to clinical manifestation of the unwanted condition (e.g., disease or other unwanted state of the host animal) then the treatment is prophylactic, (i.e., it protects the host against developing the unwanted condition), whereas if it is administered after manifestation of the unwanted condition, the treatment is therapeutic, (i.e., it is intended to diminish, ameliorate, or stabilize the existing unwanted condition or side effects thereof).

[0032] The term "substantially free", as used herein, refers to less than 5% by weight, preferably less than 2% by weight, more preferably less than 1% by weight.

[0033] A "therapeutically effective amount" of a compound with respect to the subject method of treatment refers to an amount of the compound(s) in a preparation which, when administered as part of a desired dosage regimen (to a mammal, preferably a human) alleviates a symptom, ameliorates a condition, or slows the onset of disease conditions according to clinically acceptable standards for the disorder or condition to be treated or the cosmetic purpose, e.g., at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio applicable to any medical treatment.

[0034] As used herein, the term "treating" or "treatment" includes reversing, reducing, or arresting the symptoms, clinical signs, and underlying pathology of a condition in manner to improve or stabilize a subject's condition.

Cancer Treatment



[0035] The organic arsenicals of the current invention may be used to treat a variety of cancers, including all solid tumors and all hematological cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, or myeloproliferative disorders. The OA can also be used to treat hematological cancers that have become refractory to other forms of treatment.

[0036] Leukemia is a malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues, characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes and is one of the four major types of cancer. Leukemias are classified according to the type of leucocyte most prominently involved. Acute leukemias are predominantly undifferentiated cell populations and chronic leukemias have more mature cell forms (WO9924029).

[0037] The acute leukemias are divided into lymphoblastic (ALL) and non-lymphoblastic (ANLL) types and may be further subdivided by morphologic and cytochemical appearance according to the French-American-British classification or according to their type and degree of differentiation. Specific B- and T-cell, as well as myeloid cell surface markers/antigens are used in the classification too. ALL is predominantly a childhood disease while ANLL, also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a more common acute leukemia among adults.

[0038] Chronic leukemias are divided into lymphocytic (CLL) and myeloid (CML) types. CLL is characterized by the increased number of mature lymphocytes in blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. Most CLL patients have clonal expansion of lymphocytes with B cell characteristics. CLL is a disease of older persons. In CML, the granulocytic cells predominate at all stages of differentiation in blood and bone marrow, but may also affect liver, spleen, and other organs. Other malignant hematological disease that may be treated with the OA of the current invention, include, but are not limited to: myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative diseases, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma.

Pharmaceutical Compositions



[0039] The preparation of a pharmaceutical composition that contains at least one organic arsenical or additional active ingredient will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure, as exemplified by Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed. Mack Printing Company, 1990, incorporated herein by reference. Moreover, for animal (e.g., human) administration, it will be understood that preparations should meet sterility, pyrogenicity, general safety and purity standards as required by FDA Office of Biological Standards.

[0040] As used herein, "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" includes any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, surfactants, antioxidants, preservatives (e.g., antibacterial agents, antifungal agents), isotonic agents, absorption delaying agents, salts, preservatives, drugs, drug stabilizers, gels, binders, excipients, disintegration agents, lubricants, sweetening agents, flavoring agents, dyes, such like materials and combinations thereof, as would be known to one of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed. Mack Printing Company, 1990, pp. 1289-1329, incorporated herein by reference). Except insofar as any conventional carrier is incompatible with the active ingredient, its use in the therapeutic or pharmaceutical compositions is contemplated.

[0041] The organic arsenical may be combined with different types of carriers depending on whether it is to be administered in solid, liquid or aerosol form, and whether it need to be sterile for such routes of administration as injection. The present invention can be administered intravenously, intradermally, intraarterially, intraperitoneally, intralesionally, intracranially, intraarticularly, intraprostaticaly, intrapleurally, intratracheally, intranasally, intravitreally, intravaginally, intrarectally, topically, intratumorally, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, subcutaneously, subconjunctival, intravesicularlly, mucosally, intrapericardially, intraumbilically, intraocularally, orally, topically, locally, injection, infusion, continuous infusion, localized perfusion bathing target cells directly, via a catheter, via a lavage, in lipid compositions (e.g., liposomes), or by other method or any combination of the forgoing as would be known to one of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed. Mack Printing Company, 1990).

[0042] The actual dosage amount of a composition of the present invention administered to a patient can be determined by physical and physiological factors such as body weight, severity of condition, the type of disease being treated, previous or concurrent therapeutic interventions, idiopathy of the patient and on the route of administration. The practitioner responsible for administration will, in any event, determine the concentration of active ingredient(s) in a composition and appropriate dose(s) for the individual subject.

[0043] In certain embodiments, pharmaceutical compositions may comprise, for example, at least about 0.1% of an organic arsenical compound. In other embodiments, the an active compound may comprise between about 2% to about 75% of the weight of the unit, or between about 25% to about 60%, for example, and any range derivable therein. In other non-limiting examples, a dose may also comprise from about 0.1 mg/kg/body weight, 0.5 mg/kg/ body weight, 1 mg/kg/body weight, about 5 mg/kg/body weight, about 10 mg/kg/body weight, about 20 mg/kg/body weight, about 30 mg/kg/body weight, about 40 mg/kg/body weight, about 50 mg/kg/body weight, about 75 mg/kg/body weight, about 100 mg/kg/body weight, about 200 mg/kg/body weight, about 350 mg/kg/body weight, about 500 mg/kg/body weight, about 750 mg/kg/body weight, to about 1000 mg/kg/body weight or more per administration, and any range derivable therein. In non-limiting examples of a derivable range from the numbers listed herein, a range of about 10 mg/kg/body weight to about 100 mg/kg/body weight, etc., can be administered, based on the numbers described above.

[0044] In any case, the composition may comprise various antioxidants to retard oxidation of one or more component. Additionally, the prevention of the action of microorganisms can be brought about by preservatives such as various antibacterial and antifungal agents, including, but not limited to parabens (e.g., methylparabens, propylparabens), chlorobutanol, phenol, sorbic acid, thimerosal or combinations thereof.

[0045] The organic arsenical may be formulated into a composition in a free base, neutral or salt form. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include the salts formed with the free carboxyl groups derived from inorganic bases such as for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium or ferric hydroxides; or such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, histidine or procaine.

[0046] In embodiments where the composition is in a liquid form, a carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium comprising, but not limited to, water, ethanol, polyol (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol, liquid polyethylene glycol, etc.), lipids (e.g., triglycerides, vegetable oils, liposomes) and combinations thereof. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of a coating, such as lecithin; by the maintenance of the required particle size by dispersion in carriers such as, for example liquid polyol or lipids; by the use of surfactants such as, for example hydroxypropylcellulose; or combinations thereof such methods. In many cases, it will be preferable to include isotonic agents, such as, for example, sugars, sodium chloride or combinations thereof.

[0047] Sterile injectable solutions are prepared by incorporating the active compounds in the required amount of the appropriate solvent with various of the other ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by filtered sterilization. Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the various sterilized active ingredients into a sterile vehicle which contains the basic dispersion medium and/or the other ingredients. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, suspensions or emulsion, the preferred methods of preparation are vacuum-drying or freeze-drying techniques which yield a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered liquid medium thereof. The liquid medium should be suitably buffered if necessary and the liquid diluent first rendered isotonic prior to injection with sufficient saline or glucose. The preparation of highly concentrated compositions for direct injection is also contemplated, where the use of DMSO as solvent is envisioned to result in extremely rapid penetration, delivering high concentrations of the active agents to a small area.

[0048] The composition should be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage, and preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. Thus, preferred compositions have a pH greater than about 5, preferably from about 5 to about 8, more preferably from about 5 to about 7. It will be appreciated that endotoxin contamination should be kept minimally at a safe level, for example, less that 0.5 ng/mg protein.

[0049] In particular embodiments, prolonged absorption of an injectable composition can be brought about by the use in the compositions of agents delaying absorption, such as, for example, aluminum monostearate, gelatin or combinations thereof.

Combination Therapy



[0050] It is an aspect of this invention that the organic arsenical can be used in combination with another agent or therapy method, preferably another cancer treatment. The organic arsenical may precede or follow the other agent treatment by intervals ranging from minutes to weeks. In embodiments where the other agent and expression construct are applied separately to the cell, one would generally ensure that a significant period of time did not elapse between the time of each delivery, such that the agent and expression construct would still be able to exert an advantageously combined effect on the cell. For example, in such instances, it is contemplated that one may contact the cell, tissue or organism with two, three, four or more modalities substantially simultaneously (i.e., within less than about a minute) with the organic arsenical. In other aspects, one or more agents may be administered within about 1 minute, about 5 minutes, about 10 minutes, about 20 minutes about 30 minutes, about 45 minutes, about 60 minutes, about 2 hours, about 3 hours, about 4 hours, about 5 hours, about 6 hours, about 7 hours about 8 hours, about 9 hours, about 10 hours, about 11 hours, about 12 hours, about 13 hours, about 14 hours, about 15 hours, about 16 hours, about 17 hours, about 18 hours, about 19 hours, about 20 hours, about 21 hours, about 22 hours, about 23 hours, about 24 hours, about 25 hours, about 26 hours, about 27 hours, about 28 hours, about 29 hours, about 30 hours, about 31 hours, about 32 hours, about 33 hours, about 34 hours, about 35 hours, about 36 hours, about 37 hours, about 38 hours, about 39 hours, about 40 hours, about 41 hours, about 42 hours, about 43 hours, about 44 hours, about 45 hours, about 46 hours, about 47 hours, to about 48 hours or more prior to and/or after administering the organic arsenical. In certain other embodiments, an agent may be administered within of from about 1 day, about 2 days, about 3 days, about 4 days, about 5 days, about 6 days, about 7 days, about 8 days, about 9 days, about 10 days, about 11 days, about 12 days, about 13 days, about 14 days, about 15 days, about 16 days, about 17 days, about 18 days, about 19 days, about 20, to about 21 days prior to and/or after administering the organic arsenical. In some situations, it may be desirable to extend the time period for treatment significantly, however, where several weeks (e.g., about 1, about 2, about 3, about 4, about 5, about 6, about 7 or about 8 weeks or more) lapse between the respective administrations.

[0051] Various combinations may be employed, the organic arsenical is "A" and the secondary agent, which can be any other therapeutic agent, is "B":

A/B/A B/A/B B/B/A A/A/B A/B/B B/A/A A/B/B/B B/A/B/B

B/B/B/A B/B/A/B A/A/B/B A/B/A/B A/B/B/A B/B/A/A

B/A/B/A B/A/A/B A/A/A/B B/A/A/A A/B/A/A A/A/B/A



[0052] Administration of the therapeutic compositions of the present invention to a patient will follow general protocols for the administration of chemotherapeutics, taking into account the toxicity, if any. It is expected that the treatment cycles would be repeated as necessary. It also is contemplated that various standard therapies or adjunct cancer therapies, as well as surgical intervention, may be applied in combination with the described arsenical agent. These therapies include but are not limited to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy and surgery. The section below describes some adjunct cancer therapies:

Chemotherapy



[0053] Cancer therapies also include a variety of combination therapies with both chemical and radiation based treatments. Combination chemotherapies include, for example, cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin, procarbazine, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulfan, nitrosurea, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, plicomycin, mitomycin, etoposide (VP16), tamoxifen, raloxifene, estrogen receptor binding agents, taxol, gemcitabine, navelbine, farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitors, transplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, vinblastine and methotrexate, or any analog or derivative variant of the foregoing.

Radiotherapy



[0054] Other factors that cause DNA damage and have been used extensively include what are commonly known as γ-rays, X-rays, and/or the directed delivery of radioisotopes to tumor cells. Other forms of DNA damaging factors are also contemplated such as microwaves and UV-irradiation. It is most likely that all of these factors effect a broad range of damage on DNA, on the precursors of DNA, on the replication and repair of DNA, and on the assembly and maintenance of chromosomes. Dosage ranges for X-rays range from daily doses of 50 to 200 roentgens for prolonged periods of time (3 to 4 wk), to single doses of 2000 to 6000 roentgens. Dosage ranges for radioisotopes vary widely, and depend on the half-life of the isotope, the strength and type of radiation emitted, and the uptake by the neoplastic cells. The terms "contacted" and "exposed," when applied to a cell, are used herein to describe the process by which a therapeutic construct and a chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic agent are delivered to a target cell or are placed in direct juxtaposition with the target cell. To achieve cell killing or stasis, both agents are delivered to a cell in a combined amount effective to kill the cell or prevent it from dividing.

Immunotherapy



[0055] Immunotherapeutics, generally, rely on the use of immune effector cells and molecules to target and destroy cancer cells. The immune effector may be, for example, an antibody specific for some marker on the surface of a tumor cell. The antibody alone may serve as an effector of therapy or it may recruit other cells to actually effect cell killing. The antibody also may be conjugated to a drug or toxin (chemotherapeutic, radionucleotide, ricin A chain, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, etc.) and serve merely as a targeting agent. Alternatively, the effector may be a lymphocyte carrying a surface molecule that interacts, either directly or indirectly, with a tumor cell target. Various effector cells include cytotoxic T cells and NK cells.

[0056] Immunotherapy, thus, could be used as part of a combined therapy, in conjunction with gene therapy. The general approach for combined therapy is discussed below. Generally, the tumor cell must bear some marker that is amenable to targeting, i.e., is not present on the majority of other cells. Many tumor markers exist and any of these may be suitable for targeting in the context of the present invention. Common tumor markers include carcinoembryonic antigen, prostate specific antigen, urinary tumor associated antigen, fetal antigen, tyrosinase (p97), gp68, TAG-72, HMFG, Sialyl Lewis Antigen, MucA, MucB, PLAP, estrogen receptor, laminin receptor, erb B and p155.

Gene Therapy



[0057] In yet another embodiment, the secondary treatment is a secondary gene therapy in which a therapeutic polynucleotide is administered before, after, or at the same time a first therapeutic agent. Delivery of the therapeutic agent in conjunction with a vector encoding a gene product will have a combined anti-hyperproliferative effect on target tissues.

Surgery



[0058] Approximately 60% of persons with cancer will undergo surgery of some type, which includes preventative, diagnostic or staging, curative and palliative surgery. Curative surgery is a cancer treatment that may be used in conjunction with other therapies, such as the treatment of the present invention, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy and/or alternative therapies. Curative surgery includes resection in which all or part of cancerous tissue is physically removed, excised, and/or destroyed. Tumor resection refers to physical removal of at least part of a tumor. In addition to tumor resection, treatment by surgery includes laser surgery, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, and microscopically controlled surgery (Mohs' surgery). It is further contemplated that the present invention may be used in conjunction with removal of superficial cancers, precancers, or incidental amounts of normal tissue.

Examples



[0059] The following examples are included to demonstrate preferred embodiments of the invention. It should be appreciated by those of skill in the art that the techniques disclosed in the examples which follow represent techniques discovered by the inventor to function well in the practice of the invention, and thus can be considered to constitute preferred modes for its practice. However, those of skill in the art will, in light of the present disclosure, appreciate that many changes can be made in the specific embodiments which are disclosed and still obtain a like or similar result without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Example 1


Preparation of Dimethylchloroarsine



[0060] A 3 L, 3 necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer assembly, an additional funnel, thermometer, nitrogen inlet, and a drying tube was placed in a bath. The flask was charged with cacodylic acid (250 g) and concentrated HCl (825 mL) and stirred to dissolve. After the cacodylic acid was completely dissolved, the solution was warmed to 40 °C. To the stirring solution, hypophosphorous acid (H3PO2) (50% solution, 250 g) was added dropwise, maintaining the reaction temperature between 40-50 °C. After approximately 50 mL of H3PO2 had been added, the solution became cloudy and the temperature of the reaction rose rapidly at which time an external cooling bath was used to maintain the reaction temperature between 40-50 °C. The addition of the H3PO2 was continued, maintaining the reaction temperature in the desired range. After the addition of H3PO2 was complete, the reaction was held between 40-45 °C for 15 minutes while stirring. The external bath was removed and the stirring was continued. The reaction was allowed to stir and cool to <30°C. After the temperature of the reaction mixture dropped to 30 °C or less, methylene chloride (300 mL) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred to extract the product into the methylene chloride. Stirring was discontinued and the layers were allowed to separate over ½ hour. The layers were separated and the methylene chloride layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate with stirring for a minimum of 1 hour. The mixture may be allowed to sit under a nitrogen atmosphere for a maximum of 72 hours. The organic mixture was filtered to remove the sodium sulfate and the methylene chloride was removed by atmospheric distillation. The crude residual product was distilled under a nitrogen atmosphere, through an 8" Vigreux or packed column. The product fraction with bp 104-106 °C at atmospheric pressure was collected.

Example 2


Preparation of S-Dimethylarsinoglutathione



[0061] A 5 L, three necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer assembly, thermometer, addition funnel, nitrogen inlet, and a drying tube was placed in a cooling bath. A polyethylene crock was charged with glutathione-reduced (200 g) and deionized water (2 L) and stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere to dissolve all solids. The mixture was filtered to remove any insoluble material and the filtrate was transferred to the 5 L flask. While stirring, ethanol, 200 proof (2 L) was added and the clear solution was cooled to 0-5 °C using an ice/methanol bath. Pyridine (120 g) was added followed by a dropwise addition of Me2AsCl (120 g) over a minimum of 1 hour. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 °C for a minimum of 2 hours prior to removal of the cooling bath and allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere with stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight (>15 hrs) at room temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere at which time a white solid may precipitate. The reaction mixture was concentrated to a slurry (liquid and solid) at 35-45 °C using oil pump vacuum to provide a white solid residue. As much water as possible is removed, followed by two coevaporations with ethanol to azeotrope the last traces of water. The white solid residue was slurried in ethanol, 200 pf. (5 L) under a nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature overnight. The white solid was filtered and washed with ethanol, 200 pf. (2 x 500 mL) followed by acetone, ACS (2 x 500 mL). The resulting solid was transferred to drying trays and vacuum oven dried overnight at 25-35 °C using oil pump vacuum to provide pyridinium hydrochloride-free S-dimethylarsinoglutathione as a white solid with a melting point of 189-190 °C.

Example 3


Preparation of Dosage Form of S-Dimethylarsinoglutathione



[0062] A solution of S-dimethylarsinoglutathione in water for injection (WFI) was adjusted to pH 5.0 to 5.5 with NaOH or HCl. The resulting solution was then filtered through a 0.2 micron Sartopore 2 filter and a Flexicon filling unit was used to deliver 150 mg per Type 1 borosilicate glass vial (Wheaton). The filled vials were then lyophilized in a Hull 48 Lyophilizer unit by first loading the vials on the shelf and ramping the temperature to -40 °C at a cooling rate of 0.5 °C per minute. The shelf temperature was then held at -40 °C for 300 minutes. A vacuum was then applied at 75 micron and the shelf temperature was ramped up to 5 °C at a rate of 0.1 °C per minute. The shelf temperature was then held at 5 °C for 1,000 minutes before applying the vacuum at 50 micron. The shelf temperature was then ramped up to 25 °C at a rate of 0.1 °C per minute and the temperature was held at 25 °C for 720 minutes. The shelf temperature was then reduced to 5 °C and held until the final stoppering step, at which time the chamber was returned to 640,000 mm Torr with nitrogen and the vials were stoppered with gray butyl lyophilization stoppers and finally crimped with aluminum seals to provide S-dimethylarsinoglutathione as a white to off-white cake with a moisture content of 1.8%. The total time for the lyophilization procedure was 47 hours. The lyophilized S-dimethylarsinoglutathione was then reconstituted with 2.0 mL sterile water to provide a clear, colorless solution with a final concentration of 75 ± 7.5 mg S-dimethylarsinoglutathione per mL and a pH of 4.5 to 6.0.

[0063] The invention is also suitable for and described are the following embodiments which illustrate preferred embodiments as described hereinbefore:
  1. 1. A compound having a structure of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

    wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is greater than 160 °C.
  2. 2. A compound of embodiment 1, wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is greater than 170 °C.
  3. 3. A compound of embodiment 2, wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is greater than 180 °C.
  4. 4. A compound of embodiment 3, wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is in the range of 160-220 °C.
  5. 5. A compound of embodiment 4, wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is in the range of 180-200 °C.
  6. 6. A compound of embodiment 5, wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is in the range of 185-195 °C.
  7. 7. A compound of any one of embodiments 1 to 6, wherein the compound is substantially free of pyridine hydrochloride.
  8. 8. A compound having a structure of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

    wherein the compound is substantially free of pyridine hydrochloride.
  9. 9. A compound of embodiment 8, wherein there is less than 5% by weight pyridine hydrochloride.
  10. 10. A compound of embodiment 9, wherein there is less than 2% by weight pyridine hydrochloride.
  11. 11. A compound of embodiment 10, wherein there is less than 1% by weight pyridine hydrochloride.
  12. 12. A method for treating cancer, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of any one of embodiments 1 to 11 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
  13. 13. The method of embodiment 12, wherein said cancer comprises a solid tumor.
  14. 14. The method of embodiment 12, wherein said cancer is brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, small intestine, pancreas, blood cells, bone, colon, stomach, breast, endometrium, prostate, testicle, ovary, central nervous system, skin, head and neck, esophagus, or bone marrow cancer.
  15. 15. The method of embodiment 12, wherein said cancer is a hematological cancer.
  16. 16. The method of embodiment 12, wherein said cancer is leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative disease, or refractory anemia.
  17. 17. The method of embodiment 12, wherein said cancer is acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  18. 18. The method of embodiment 12, wherein said pharmaceutically effective amount is 0.1 - 1000 mg/kg.
  19. 19. The method of embodiment 18, wherein said pharmaceutically effective amount is 1 - 500 mg/kg.
  20. 20. The method of embodiment 19, wherein said pharmaceutically effective amount is 10 - 100 mg/kg.
  21. 21. The method of embodiment 12, wherein said compound is administered daily.
  22. 22. The method of embodiment 12, wherein said compound is administered by injection.
  23. 23. A pharmaceutical composition, comprising a compound of any one of embodiments 1 to 11 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
  24. 24. A pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 23, wherein the composition is an aqueous solution having a pH in the range of 4 to 7.
  25. 25. A pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 23, wherein the moisture content is less than about 5%.
  26. 26. A pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 25, wherein the moisture content is less than about 2%.
  27. 27. A pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 26, wherein the composition is a lyophilisate.
  28. 28. A method for treating cancer, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition of embodiment 23, and one or more other agents or therapies.
  29. 29. A method of embodiment 24, wherein the compound is provided as a formulation further comprising a pharmaceutical carrier, wherein the formulation has a pH of 4 to 7.
  30. 30. A method of embodiment 28, wherein the other agent or therapy is a chemotherapeutic agent or therapy.
  31. 31. A method of embodiment 30, wherein the other agent or therapy is a chemotherapeutic agent selected from cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin, procarbazine, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulfan, nitrosurea, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, plicomycin, mitomycin, etoposide (VP16), tamoxifen, raloxifene, estrogen receptor binding agents, taxol, gemcitabine, navelbine, farnesyl-protein tansferase inhibitors, transplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, vinblastine, and methotrexate, or any analog or derivative variant thereof.
  32. 32. A method of embodiment 30, wherein the other agent or therapy is a radiation therapy selected from γ-rays, X-rays, and radioisotopes.
  33. 33. A method of embodiment 28, wherein the other agent or therapy is an immunotherapeutic agent or therapy.
  34. 34. A method of embodiment 33, wherein the other agent or therapy is an antibody.
  35. 35. A method of embodiment 34, wherein the antibody is conjugated to a drug or toxin.
  36. 36. A method of embodiment 35, wherein the drug or toxin is selected from a chemotherapeutic, radionucleotide, ricin A chain, cholera toxin, and pertussis toxin.
  37. 37. A method of embodiment 36, wherein the drug is a chemotherapeutic selected from cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin, procarbazine, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulfan, nitrosurea, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, plicomycin, mitomycin, etoposide (VP16), tamoxifen, raloxifene, estrogen receptor binding agents, taxol, gemcitabine, navelbine, farnesyl-protein tansferase inhibitors, transplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, vinblastine, and methotrexate, or any analog or derivative variant thereof.
  38. 38. A method of embodiment 34, wherein the antibody targets a tumor marker selected from carcinoembryonic antigen, prostate specific antigen, urinary tumor associated antigen, fetal antigen, tyrosinase (p97), gp68, TAG-72, HMFG, Sialyl Lewis Antigen, MucA, MucB, PLAP, estrogen receptor, laminin receptor, erb B, and p155.
  39. 39. A method of embodiment 28, wherein the other agent or therapy is gene therapy.
  40. 40. A method of embodiment 28, wherein the other agent or therapy is surgery.
  41. 41. A method of embodiment 28, wherein the cancer is selected from brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, small intestine, pancreas, blood cells, bone, colon, stomach, breast, endometrium, prostate, testicle, ovary, central nervous system, skin, head and neck, esophagus, and bone marrow cancer.
  42. 42. A method of embodiment 41, wherein the cancer is a hematological cancer.
  43. 43. A method of embodiment 42, wherein the cancer is selected from leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative disease, and refractory anemia.
  44. 44. A method of embodiment 43, wherein the cancer is acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  45. 45. A method of embodiment 38, wherein the compound and the one or more other agents or therapies are administered simultaneously.
  46. 46. A method of embodiment 28, wherein the one or more other agents or therapies are administered within about 5 minutes to within about 48 hours prior to or after administration of the compound.
  47. 47. A method of embodiment 46, wherein the one or more other agents or therapies are administered within about 5 minutes to within about 1 hour prior to or after administration of the compound.
  48. 48. A process for the synthesis of a compound having a structure of formula (II) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof

    wherein

    X is S or Se;

    W is O, S, or (R)(R), where each occurrence of R is independently H or a C1-2alkyl;

    n is 0 or 1;

    R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl;

    R3 is -H or C0-6alkyl-COOR6;

    R3' is H, amino, cyano, halogen, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, carboxyl, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkenyl, or C1-10alkynyl;

    R4 is -OH, -H, -CH3, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glutamine;

    R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10lkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent; and

    R6 is H or C1-10alkyl;

    wherein the melting point of the compound in its crystalline form is greater than 160 °C; comprising reacting a compound having a structure of formula

            (R1)(R2)AsCl

    R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl;

    with a compound having a structure of formula (III)

    wherein

    R3 is -H or C0-6alkyl-COOR6;

    R3' is H, amino, cyano, halogen, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, carboxyl, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkenyl, or C1-10alkynyl;

    R4 is -OH, -H, -CH3, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glutamine substituent;

    R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent; and

    R6 is H or C1-10alkyl; in an aqueous or alcoholic solvent system.

  49. 49. A process of embodiment 48, wherein the compound of formula (III) has a structure

  50. 50. A method for the synthesis of a compound of formula (II)

    wherein

    X is S or Se;

    W is O, S, or (R)(R), where each occurrence of R is independently H or a C1-2alkyl;

    n is 0 or 1;

    R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl;

    R3 is -H or C0-6alkyl-COOR6;

    R3' is H, amino, cyano, halogen, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, carboxyl, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkenyl, or C1-10alkynyl;

    R4 is -OH, -H, -CH3, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glutamine;

    R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent; and

    R6 is H or C1-10alkyl;

    wherein a compound having a structure of formula

            (R1)(R2)AsCl

    R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl; is reacted with a compound having a structure of formula (III)

    wherein

    R3 is -H or C0-6alkyl-COOR6;

    R3' is H, amino, cyano, halogen, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, carboxyl, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkenyl, or C1-10alkynyl;

    R4 is -OH, -H, -CH3, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glutamine substituent;

    R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent; and

    R6 is H or C1-10alkyl; in an aqueous or alcoholic solvent system.

  51. 51. A method of embodiment 50, wherein the compound of formula (III) has a structure

  52. 52. A method for the synthesis of a compound of formula (IV)

    wherein

    X is S or Se;

    W is O, S, or (R)(R), where each occurrence of R is independently H or a C1-2alkyl;

    R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl;

    R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent;

    R6 is H or C1-10alkyl;

    R7 is selected from halogen, -OH, C0-6alkyl-COOR6, C1-6alkyl, C1-6alkoxy, amino, amido, cyano, and nitro;

    m is an integer from 0 to 4;

    wherein a compound having a structure of formula

            (R1)(R2)AsCl

    R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl;

    is reacted with a compound having a structure of formula (V)

    wherein

    X is S or Se;

    W is O, S, or (R)(R), where each occurrence of R is independently H or a C1-2alkyl;

    R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent;

    R6 is H or C1-10alkyl;

    R7 is selected from halogen, -OH, C0-6alkyl-COOR6, C1-6alkyl, C1-6alkoxy, amino, amido, cyano, and nitro;

    m is an integer from 0 to 4

    in an aqueous or alcoholic solvent system.
  53. 53. A method of embodiment 51 or 52, wherein the solvent system comprises ethanol and water.
  54. 54. A method of embodiment 53, wherein the compounds are reacted in the presence of pyridine.
  55. 55. A method for purifying a compound of formula (II) admixed with pyridine hydrochloride,

    wherein

    X is S or Se;

    W is O, S, or (R)(R), where each occurrence of R is independently H or a C1-2alkyl;

    n is 0 or 1;

    R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl;

    R3 is -H or C0-6alkyl-COOR6;

    R3' is H, amino, cyano, halogen, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, carboxyl, C1-10alkyl, C1-10alkenyl, or C1-10alkynyl;

    R4 is -OH, -H, -CH3, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glutamine;

    R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent; and

    R6 is H or C1-10alkyl; comprising

    1. (a) combining the compound of formula (II) with enough ethanol to form a slurry,
    2. (b) agitating the slurry for a period of time, and
    3. (c) filtering the slurry.

  56. 56. A method of embodiment 55, wherein the compound of formula (II) is

    or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
  57. 57. A method for purifying a compound of formula (IV) admixed with pyridine hydrochloride,

    wherein

    X is S or Se;

    W is O, S, or (R)(R), where each occurrence of R is independently H or a C1-2alkyl;

    R1 and R2 are independently C1-10alkyl;

    R5 is -OH, cyano, C1-10alkoxy, amino, O-aralkyl, O-aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10aralkyl, -OC(O)C1-10alkyl, -OC(O)aryl, or a glycine substituent;

    R6 is H or C1-10alkyl;

    R7 is selected from halogen, -OH, C0-6alkyl-COOR6, C1-6alkyl, C1-6alkoxy, amino, amido, cyano, and nitro;

    m is an integer from 0 to 4; comprising

    1. (a) combining the compound of formula (IV) with enough ethanol to form a slurry,
    2. (b) agitating the slurry for a period of time, and
    3. (c) filtering the slurry.

  58. 58. The use of a compound of any one of embodiments 1 to 11 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of cancer.
  59. 59. The use of a compound of any one of embodiments 1 to 11 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in the manufacture of a medicament for conjoint administration with one or more other agents or therapies for the treatment of cancer.
  60. 60. A use of embodiment 58 or 59, wherein the compound is provided as a formulation further comprising a pharmaceutical carrier, wherein the formulation has a pH of 4 to 7.
  61. 61. A use of embodiment 59, wherein the other agent or therapy is a chemotherapeutic agent or therapy.
  62. 62. A use of embodiment 61, wherein the other agent or therapy is a chemotherapeutic agent selected from cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin, procarbazine, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulfan, nitrosurea, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, plicomycin, mitomycin, etoposide (VP16), tamoxifen, raloxifene, estrogen receptor binding agents, taxol, gemcitabine, navelbine, farnesyl-protein tansferase inhibitors, transplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, vinblastine, and methotrexate, or any analog or derivative variant thereof.
  63. 63. A use of embodiment 61, wherein the other agent or therapy is a radiation therapy selected from γ-rays, X-rays, and radioisotopes.
  64. 64. A use of embodiment 58 or 59, wherein the other agent or therapy is an immunotherapeutic agent or therapy.
  65. 65. A use of embodiment 64, wherein the other agent or therapy is an antibody.
  66. 66. A use of embodiment 65, wherein the antibody is conjugated to a drug or toxin.
  67. 67. A use of embodiment 66, wherein the drug or toxin is selected from a chemotherapeutic, radionucleotide, ricin A chain, cholera toxin, and pertussis toxin.
  68. 68. A use of embodiment 67, wherein the drug is a chemotherapeutic selected from cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin, procarbazine, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulfan, nitrosurea, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, plicomycin, mitomycin, etoposide (VP16), tamoxifen, raloxifene, estrogen receptor binding agents, taxol, gemcitabine, navelbine, farnesyl-protein tansferase inhibitors, transplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, vinblastine, and methotrexate, or any analog or derivative variant thereof.
  69. 69. A use of embodiment 65, wherein the antibody targets a tumor marker selected from carcinoembryonic antigen, prostate specific antigen, urinary tumor associated antigen, fetal antigen, tyrosinase (p97), gp68, TAG-72, HMFG, Sialyl Lewis Antigen, MucA, MucB, PLAP, estrogen receptor, laminin receptor, erb B, and p155.
  70. 70. A use of embodiment 58 or 59, wherein the other agent or therapy is gene therapy.
  71. 71. A use of embodiment 58 or 59, wherein the other agent or therapy is surgery.
  72. 72. The use of embodiment 58 or 59, wherein said cancer comprises a solid tumor.
  73. 73. The use of embodiment 72, wherein said cancer is brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, small intestine, pancreas, blood cells, bone, colon, stomach, breast, endometrium, prostate, testicle, ovary, central nervous system, skin, head and neck, esophagus, or bone marrow cancer.
  74. 74. A use of embodiment 72, wherein said cancer is a hematological cancer.
  75. 75. A use of embodiment 74, wherein said cancer is leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative disease, or refractory anemia.
  76. 76. A use of embodiment 75, wherein said cancer is acute promyelocytic leukemia.



Claims

1. A crystalline form of a compound having a structure of formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

wherein the melting point of the crystalline form of the compound is in the range of 160 to 220°C.
 
2. A preparation of a crystalline form of a compound of claim 1, wherein the preparation contains less than 5% by weight pyridine hydrochloride.
 
3. A preparation of claim 2, wherein the preparation is substantially free of pyridine hydrochloride.
 
4. A compound or preparation of any of claims 1 to 3 for use as a medicament, wherein the compound is provided as a composition further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
 
5. The compound or preparation for the use of claim 4, wherein the composition is an aqueous solution having a pH in the range of 4 to 7.
 
6. A compound or preparation of any of claims 1 to 3 for use as a medicament in combination with one or more other agents or therapies selected from a chemotherapeutic agent or therapy selected from cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin, procarbazine, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulfan, nitrosourea, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, plicomycin, mitomycin, etoposide (VP16), tamoxifen, raloxifene, estrogen receptor binding agents, taxol, gemcitabine, navelbine, farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitors, transplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, vinblastine, and methotrexate, or any analog or derivative variant thereof, immunotherapeutic agent or therapy such as an antibody which is optionally conjugated to a drug or toxin selected from a chemotherapeutic, radionucleotide, ricin A chain, cholera toxin, and pertussis toxin, or gene therapy.
 
7. A compound or preparation of any one of claims 1 to 3 for use as a medicament for treating cancer.
 
8. The compound or preparation for the use of claim 7, wherein the cancer is a solid tumor or a hematological cancer.
 
9. The compound or preparation for the use of claim 8, wherein said cancer is brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, small intestine, pancreas, blood cells, bone, colon, stomach, breast, endometrium, prostate, testicle, ovary, central nervous system, skin, head and neck, esophagus, bone marrow cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative disease, or refractory leukemia, or acute promyelocytic leukemia.
 
10. The compound or preparation for the use of any one of claims 7 to 9, wherein said compound or preparation is for daily administration.
 
11. The compound or preparation for the use of any one of claims 7 to 9 or 10, wherein said compound or preparation is for administration by injection.
 
12. A compound or preparation of any one of claims 1 to 3 for use as a medicament in the treatment of cancer , wherein the compound or preparation is combined with one or more other agents or therapies selected from a chemotherapeutic agent or therapy selected from cisplatin (CDDP), carboplatin, procarbazine, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, camptothecin, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulfan, nitrosourea, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, plicomycin, mitomycin, etoposide (VP16), tamoxifen, raloxifene, estrogen receptor binding agents, taxol, gemcitabine, navelbine, farnesyl-protein transferase inhibitors, transplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, vinblastine, and methotrexate, or any analog or derivative variant thereof, a radiation therapy selected from γ-rays, X-rays, and radioisotopes, immunotherapeutic agent or therapy such as an antibody which is optionally conjugated to a drug or toxin selected from a chemotherapeutic, radionucleotide, ricin A chain, cholera toxin, and pertussis toxin, gene therapy, or surgery.
 
13. The compound or preparation for the use of claim 12, wherein the cancer is a solid tumor or hematological cancer.
 
14. The compound or preparation for the use of claim 13, wherein the cancer is brain, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, small intestine, pancreas, blood cells, bone, colon, stomach, breast, endometrium, prostate, testicle, ovary, central nervous system, skin, head and neck, esophagus, bone marrow cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative disease, or refractory leukemia, or acute promyelocytic leukemia
 
15. The compound or preparation for the use of any one of claims 12 to 14, wherein the one or more other agents or therapies are for administration within about 1 hour prior to or after administration of the compound or preparation.
 


Ansprüche

1. Eine kristalline Form einer Verbindung mit der Struktur von Formel (I) oder ein pharmazeutisch verträgliches Salz davon:

wobei der Schmelzpunkt der kristallinen Form der Verbindung im Bereich von 160 bis 220°C liegt.
 
2. Eine Zubereitung der kristallinen Form der Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Zubereitung weniger als 5 Gewichtsprozent Pyridinhydrochlorid enthält.
 
3. Eine Zubereitung nach Anspruch 2, wobei die Zubereitung im Wesentlichen frei von Pyridinhydrochlorid ist.
 
4. Eine Verbindung oder Zubereitung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 zur Verwendung als Medikament, wobei die Verbindung als Zusammensetzung bereitgestellt wird, die ferner einen pharmazeutisch verträglichen Träger oder ein pharmazeutisch verträgliches Verdünnungsmittel umfasst.
 
5. Die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Zusammensetzung eine wässrige Lösung mit einem pH im Bereich von 4 bis 7 ist.
 
6. Eine Verbindung oder Zubereitung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 zur Verwendung als Medikament in Kombination mit einem oder mehreren anderen Wirkstoffen oder Therapien, die aus einem chemotherapeutischen Wirkstoff oder einer Therapie ausgewählt aus Cisplatin (CDDP), Carboplatin, Procarbazin, Mechlorethamin, Cyclophosphamid, Camptothecin, Ifosfamid, Melphalan, Chlorambucil, Busulfan, Nitrosoharnstoff, Dactinomycin, Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Plicomycin, Mitomycin, Etoposid (VP16), Tamoxifen, Raloxifen, Östrogenrezeptor bindende Wirkstoffe, Taxol, Gemcitabin, Navelbin, Farnesylproteintransferaseinhibitoren, Transplatin, 5-Fluoruracil, Vincristin, Vinblastin, und Methotrexat, oder jedwedes Analogon oder jedwede Derivatvariante davon, immuntherapeutische Wirkstoffe oder Therapien wie ein Antikörper der gegebenenfalls mit einem Wirkstoff oder einem Toxin konjugiert ist, ausgewählt aus einem Chemotherapeutikum, Radionukleotid; Ricin A Kette, Choleratoxin und Pertussistoxin, oder einer Gentherapie ausgewählt sind.
 
7. Eine Verbindung oder Zubereitung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 zur Verwendung als Medikament zur Behandlung von Krebs.
 
8. Die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 7, wobei der Krebs ein solider Tumor oder ein hämatologischer Krebs ist.
 
9. Die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 9, wobei der Krebs ein Gehirnkrebs, Lungenkrebs, Leberkrebs, Milzkrebs, Nierenkrebs, Lymphknotenkrebs, Dünndarmkrebs, Bauchspeicheldrüsenkrebs, Blutzellkrebs, Knochenkrebs, Dickdarmkrebs, Magenkrebs, Brustkrebs, Endometriumkrebs, Prostatakrebs, Hodenkrebs, Eierstockkrebs, Zentralnervensystemkrebs, Hautkrebs, Kopf-Halskrebs, Ösophaguskrebs, Knochenmarkkrebs, eine Leukämie, ein Lymphom, ein multiples Myelom, eine Myelodysplasie, ein myeloproliferative Erkrankung, oder eine refraktorische Leukämie, oder eine akute promyelocytische Leukämie ist.
 
10. Die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 9, wobei die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur täglichen Verabreichung vorgesehen ist.
 
11. Die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 9 oder 10, wobei die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verabreichung mittels Injektion vorgesehen ist.
 
12. Eine Verbindung oder Zuberietung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 zur Verwendung als ein Medikament bei der Behandlung von Krebs, wobei die Verbindung oder Zuberietung kombiniert wird mit einem oder mehreren anderen Wirkstoffen oder Therapien, ausgewählt aus einem chemotherapeutischen Wirkstoff oder einer Therapie ausgewählt aus Cisplatin (CDDP), Carboplatin, Procarbazin, Mechlorethamin, Cyclophosphamid, Camptothecin, Ifosfamid, Melphalan, Chlorambucil, Busulfan, Nitrosoharnstoff, Dactinomycin, Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Plicomycin, Mitomycin, Etoposid (VP16), Tamoxifen, Raloxifen, Östrogenrezeptor bindende Wirkstoffe, Taxol, Gemcitabin, Navelbin, Famesylproteintransferaseinhibitoren, Transplatin, 5-Fluoruracil, Vincristin, Vinblastin, und Methotrexat, oder jedwedes Analogon oder jedwede Derivatvariante davon, immuntherapeutische Wirkstoffe oder Therapien wie ein Antikörper der gegebenenfalls mit einem Wirkstoff oder einem Toxin konjugiert ist, ausgewählt aus einem Chemotherapeutikum, Radionukleotid; Ricin A Kette, Choleratoxin und Pertussistoxin, oder einer Gentherapie.
 
13. Die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 12, wobei der Krebs ein solider Tumor oder ein hämatologischer Krebs ist.
 
14. Die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 13, wobei der Krebs ein Gehimkrebs, Lungenkrebs, Leberkrebs, Milzkrebs, Nierenkrebs, Lymphknotenkrebs, Dünndarmkrebs, Bauchspeicheldrüsenkrebs, Blutzellkrebs, Knochenkrebs, Dickdarmkrebs, Magenkrebs, Brustkrebs, Endometriumkrebs, Prostatakrebs, Hodenkrebs, Eierstockkrebs, Zentralnervensystemkrebs, Hautkrebs, Kopf-Halskrebs, Ösophaguskrebs, Knochenmarkkrebs, eine Leukämie, ein Lymphom, ein multiples Myelom, eine Myelodysplasie, ein myeloproliferative Erkrankung, oder eine refraktorische Leukämie, oder eine akute promyelocytische Leukämie ist.
 
15. Die Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 12 bis 14, wobei der eine oder die mehreren Wirkstoffe oder die eine oder die mehreren Therapien etwa 1 Stunde vor oder nach der Verabreichung der Verbindung oder Zubereitung zur Verabreichung vorgesehen sind.
 


Revendications

1. Forme cristalline d'un composé ayant une structure de formmle (I) ou de l'un de ses sels pharmaceutiquement acceptables :

où le point de fusion de la forme cristalline du composé se situe dans la plage de 160 à 220 °C.
 
2. Préparation d'une forme cristalline d'un composé selon la revendication 1, où la préparation contient moins de 5 % en poids de chlorhydrate de pyridine.
 
3. Préparation selon la revendication 2, où la préparation est essentiellement dépourvue de chlorhydrate de pyridine.
 
4. Composé ou préparation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 pour une utilisation en tant que médicament, où le composé est fourni sous la forme d'une composition comprenant en outre un support ou un diluant pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
5. Composé ou préparation pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 4, où la composition est une solution aqueuse ayant un pH situé dans la plage de 4 à 7.
 
6. Composé ou préparation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 pour une utilisation en tant que médicament en combinaison avec un ou plusieurs autres agents ou traitements choisis parmi un agent ou un traitement chimiothérapeutique choisi parmi le cisplatine (CDDP), le carboplatine, la procarbazine, la méchloréthamine, le cyclophosphamide, la camptothécine, l'ifosfamide, le melphalan, le chlorambucil, le busulfan, les nitroso-urées, la dactinomycine, la daunorubicine, la doxorubicine, la bléomycine, la plicomycine, la mitomycine, l'étoposide (VP16), le tamoxifène, le raloxifène, les agents de liaison du récepteur des oestrogènes, le taxol, la gemcitabine, la navelbine, les inhibiteurs de la farnésyl-protéine transférase, le transplatine, le 5-fluorouracile, la vincristine, la vinblastine, et le méthotrexate, ou tous leurs variants analogues ou dérivés, un agent ou un traitement immunothérapeutique comme un anticorps qui est éventuellement conjugué à un médicament ou une toxine choisi parmi un agent chimiothérapeutique, un radionucléide, la chaîne A de la ricine, la toxine cholérique et la toxine pertussique, ou la thérapie génique.
 
7. Composé ou préparation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 pour une utilisation en tant que médicament pour le traitement du cancer.
 
8. Composé ou préparation pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 7, où le cancer est une tumeur solide ou un cancer hématologique.
 
9. Composé ou préparation pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 8, où ledit cancer est un cancer du cerveau, du poumon, du foie, de la rate, du rein, des ganglions lymphatiques, de l'intestin grêle, du pancréas, des cellules sanguines, des os, du côlon, de l'estomac, du sein, de l'endomètre, de la prostate, du testicule, de l'ovaire, du système nerveux central, de la peau, de la tête et du cou, de l'oesophage, de la moelle osseuse, une leucémie, un lymphome, un myélome multiple, une myélodysplasie, une maladie myéloproliférative, ou une leucémie réfractaire, ou une leucémie promyélocytaire aiguë.
 
10. Composé ou préparation pour l'utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 9, où ledit composé ou ladite préparation est pour une administration quotidienne.
 
11. Composé ou préparation pour l'utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 9 ou 10, où ledit composé ou ladite préparation est pour une administration par injection.
 
12. Composé ou préparation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 pour une utilisation en tant que médicament dans le traitement du cancer, où le composé ou la préparation est combiné avec un ou plusieurs autres agents ou traitements choisis parmi un agent ou un traitement chimiothérapeutique choisi parmi le cisplatine (CDDP), le carboplatine, la procarbazine, la méchloréthamine, le cyclophosphamide, la camptothécine, l'ifosfamide, le melphalan, le chlorambucil, le busulfan, les nitroso-urées, la dactinomycine, la daunorubicine, la doxorubicine, la bléomycine, la plicomycine, la mitomycine, l'étoposide (VP16), le tamoxifène, le raloxifène, les agents de liaison du récepteur des oestrogènes, le taxol, la gemcitabine, la navelbine, les inhibiteurs de la farnésyl-protéine transférase, le transplatine, le 5-fluorouracile, la vincristine, la vinblastine, et le méthotrexate, ou tous leurs variants analogues ou dérivés, une radiothérapie choisie parmi des rayons γ, des rayons X, et des radio-isotopes, un agent ou un traitement immunothérapeutique comme un anticorps qui est éventuellement conjugué à un médicament ou une toxine choisi parmi un agent chimiothérapeutique, un radionucléide, la chaîne A de la ricine, la toxine cholérique et la toxine pertussique, la thérapie génique, ou la chirurgie.
 
13. Composé ou préparation pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 12, où le cancer est une tumeur solide ou un cancer hématologique.
 
14. Composé ou préparation pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 13, où le cancer est un cancer du cerveau, du poumon, du foie, de la rate, du rein, des ganglions lymphatiques, de l'intestin grêle, du pancréas, des cellules sanguines, des os, du côlon, de l'estomac, du sein, de l'endomètre, de la prostate, du testicule, de l'ovaire, du système nerveux central, de la peau, de la tête et du cou, de l'oesophage, de la moelle osseuse, une leucémie, un lymphome, un myélome multiple, une myélodysplasie, une maladie myéloproliférative, ou une leucémie réfractaire, ou une leucémie promyélocytaire aiguë.
 
15. Composé ou préparation pour l'utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 12 à 14, où les un ou plusieurs autres agents ou traitements sont pour une administration à environ 1 heure avant ou après l'administration du composé ou de la préparation.
 






Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description