(19)
(11)EP 2 421 519 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
02.11.2016 Bulletin 2016/44

(21)Application number: 10713975.0

(22)Date of filing:  18.04.2010
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61K 31/00  (2006.01)
A61K 31/4468  (2006.01)
A61P 7/06  (2006.01)
A61K 31/13  (2006.01)
A61P 7/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2010/055077
(87)International publication number:
WO 2010/121973 (28.10.2010 Gazette  2010/43)

(54)

BLOCKERS OF NMDA RECEPTOR FOR THE TREATMENT OF SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

NMDA-REZEPTOR-BLOCKER ZUR BEHANDLUNG VON SICHELZELLANÄMIE

BLOQUEURS DE RÉCEPTEUR NMDA POUR LE TRAITEMENT D'UNE DRÉPANOCYTOSE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 23.04.2009 EP 09005683

(43)Date of publication of application:
29.02.2012 Bulletin 2012/09

(73)Proprietor: Universität Zürich
8006 Zürich (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • BOGDANOVA, Anna, Yulienva
    CH-8051 Zürich (CH)
  • GASSMANN, Max
    CH-8047 Zürich (CH)
  • GOEDE, Jeroen
    CH-8620 Wetzikon (CH)

(74)Representative: Schmauder, Klaus Dieter 
Schmauder & Partner AG Patentanwälte Zwängiweg 7
8038 Zürich
8038 Zürich (CH)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2004 204 430
  
  • ZEMPSKY W ET AL: "(399) Low-dose ketamine for vasoocclusive pain in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease: A case series" JOURNAL OF PAIN, SAUNDERS, PHILADELPHIA, PA, US LNKD- DOI:10.1016/J.JPAIN.2008.01.323, vol. 9, no. 4, 1 April 2008 (2008-04-01), page 75, XP025871572 ISSN: 1526-5900 [retrieved on 2008-04-01]
  • WONG E H F ET AL: "THE ANTICONVULSANT MK-801 IS A POTENT N METHYL-D-ASPARTATE ANTAGONIST" PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, vol. 83, no. 18, 1986, pages 7104-7108, XP002585977 ISSN: 0027-8424
  • MOSCA ET AL: "17th International Symposium of the European Association for Red Cell Research, EARCR 2009, Triuggio, Milano, Italy, April 23-27, 2009" CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY, ELSEVIER INC, US, CA LNKD- DOI:10.1016/J.CLINBIOCHEM.2009.09.001, vol. 42, no. 18, 1 December 2009 (2009-12-01), pages 1851-1863, XP026782104 ISSN: 0009-9120 [retrieved on 2009-09-15]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Field of the invention



[0001] This invention relates to the treatment of sickle cell anemia, using blockers of NMDA.

Background of the invention



[0002] The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate. Blockers of NMDAR have been used as anesthesia and for treatment of traumatic brain injury, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's.

[0003] This invention focuses on the treatment of sickle cell anemia, a genetic disease characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Acute complications of Sickle cell anemia are treated symptomatically with analgesics and transfusions. A prophylactic treatment of sickle cell crisis is long term application of hydroxyurea. Further treatment options are very desirable.

[0004] Ketamine, which is a known NMDAR antagonist, has been proposed as a low-dose addition to opiates for the treatment of vasoocclusive pain in pediatric patients suffering from sickle cell disease (Zempsky W. et al., Journal of Pain, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1 April 2008, p. 75).

[0005] Wong EHF et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 83, No. 18, 1986, pp. 7104 - 7108, discloses a method for identifying an NMDA antagonist, as shown for the example of the anticonvulsant compound MK-801.

Summary of the invention



[0006] The present invention relates to blockers of the NMDAR for use in preventing irreversible shrinkage of erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia.

Brief description of the drawings



[0007] Ketamine, which is a known NMDAR antagonist, has been proposed as a low-dose addition to opiates for the treatment of vasoocclusive pain in pediatric patients suffering from sickle cell disease (Zempsky W. et al., Journal of Pain, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1 April 2008, p. 75).

[0008] Wong EHF et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 83, No. 18, 1986, pp. 7104 - 7108, discloses a method for identifying an NMDA antagonist, as shown for the example of the anticonvulsant compound MK-801.

Summary of the invention



[0009] The present invention relates to blockers of the NMDAR for use in preventing irreversible shrinkage of erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia.

Brief description of the drawings



[0010] 
Fig. 1:
Samples 1-3 are from three patients with sickle cell anemia. Shown is the specific staining against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NRX) and the loading control (LC) of the light (L), middle (M) and high density (H) sub-populations of erythrocytes.
Fig. 2:
Potassium and calcium fluxes through the NMDA receptor in erythrocytes of healthy donors (C) and patients with sickle cell anemia (H). A: Unidirectional K+ influx measured in chloride-free Na-methane sulfate medium in the presence of 100 µM ouabain, the inhibitor of Na,K-ATPase. Conditions corresponding to the numbers at the X axis: (1) control; (2) 50 µM memantine chloride (Sigma-Aldridge); (3) 100 µM NMDA; (4) NMDA + memantine chloride; (5) 2 µM prostaglandine E2 (PGE2); (6) PGE2 + memantine chloride. * denotes p<0.05 compared to the corresponding values in healthy donor's erythrocytes, # stands for p<0.05 compared to the corresponding non-treated control. Data are means ± SEM for 6-7 individuals. B: Unidirectional Ca2+ influx in erythrocytes of a single HbSS patient measured on 3 different occasions and in three healthy donors. Conditions indicated in numbers at the X axis are: (1) non-treated control; (2) 100 µM NMDA; (3) 100 µM NMDA and 50 µM MK-801. * denotes p<0.05 compared to the corresponding health donors' samples.
Fig. 3:
The examples of morphological changes in erythrocytes caused by agonists and antagonists of the NMDA receptor depending on the receptor availability and HbSS presence. Sample 1 is a sample from a sickle cell patient, sample 2 is from a person with high levels of NMDA receptors and reticulocytosis and sample 3 is from a person with low levels of receptors. Treatment 1 denotes administration of 50 µM memantine (sample 2) or MK-801 (sample 3), treatment 2 stands for 1 mM NMDA addition, treatment 2 shows morphological changes in the cells pre-treated with memantine/MK-801 and then exposed to 1 mM NMDA.

Detailed description of the invention



[0011] The present invention relates to a method of treating sickle cell anemia, comprising administering blockers of the NMDAR, and the use of such blockers in said treatment and in the manufacture of medicaments for treating sickle cell anemia.

[0012] The action of the NMDAR can be blocked by administration of antibodies or antibody fragments directed against the NMDAR, of molecules that affect the protein or mRNA expression of the NMDAR (siRNA; miRNA), as well as of small molecules that interfere with the binding of ligands to the NMDAR (e.g. blocking the binding site of the neurotransmitter glutamate or the glycine site; or inhibiting NMDAR by binding to allosteric sites or blocking the ion channel by binding to a site within it). A further way to prevent binding to the NMDAR is to use soluble NMDAR or fragments thereof.

[0013] Examples of NMDAR blockers according to the invention are disclosed in the following. However, the invention is not restricted to the blockers disclosed therein, but extends to all blockers of NMDAR.

[0014] Preferred blockers of NMDAR according to the invention are:
  • Soluble NMDAR or fragments thereof
  • Antibodies that bind to NMDAR, antigen binding fragments of an antibody (e.g. Fab fragments) or antibody-like molecules (e.g. repeat proteins) which by binding to NMDAR block its biological activity. Antibodies against NMDAR are known in the art and include the well characterized antibody NMDA NR 1 Pan Antibody, mouse monoclonal, Novus biologicals, NB 300-118.
  • Virus-like particles loaded with NMDAR or fragments thereof and therefore inducing an antibody response directed against NMDAR with the effect to block its biological activity
  • Antisense molecules for downregulation of NMDAR. These antisense molecules are approximately 12-50 nucleotides in length and encode a given sequence found in the exons or introns of NMDAR. Moreover, antisense molecules containing a sequence of the NMDAR promoters and binding within the promoter region may be used. Finally, antisense molecules binding in the 3' UTR -non translated regions of NMDAR are contemplated
  • Small molecules that block the biological activity of NMDAR. Small molecules contemplated are synthetic compounds up to a molecular weight of approximately 1000 which have suitable physiological activity and pharmacological properties making them useful for the application as medicaments. Such small synthetic molecules are, for example, found by the screening method of the present invention described below. Alternatively, such small molecules are designed by molecular modelling taking into account possible binding sites of NMDAR.
  • Proteins and protein analogs which bind NMDAR and thereby inhibit its biological activity, for example, synthetic proteins or protein analogs which mimic the variable region of binding and/or neutralizing antibodies, or antibodies that mimic a binding pocket of the NMDAR. Likewise small molecules could be applied, which mimic the variable region of binding and/or neutralizing antibodies, or that mimic a binding pocket of the NMDAR.


[0015] Particularly preferred blockers are:
  • Amantadine (Novartis, Actavis, Pharmascience)
  • Dextromethorphane, Dextrorphan (e.g. Johnson & Johnson)
  • Ibogaine
  • Ketamine (e.g. Javeline Pharmaceuticals)
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Phencyclidine
  • Riluzole (Sanofi-Aventis)
  • Tiletamine
  • Memantine (Allergan, Daiichi Sankyo, Forest Laboratories, Lundbeck)
  • Dizocilpine (MK-801)
  • Aptiganel (Cerestat, CNS-1102)
  • Remacimide
  • HU-211, an enantiomer of the potent cannabinoid HU-210
  • 7-Chlorokynurenate
  • DCKA (5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid)
  • Kynurenic acid, a naturally occurring antagonist
  • 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACPC)
  • Lacosamide
  • AP7 (2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid)
  • APV (R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate)
  • CPPene (3-[(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-prop-2-enyl-1-phosphonic acid)
  • flupirtine (Adeona Pharmaceuticals, Inc.)
  • orphenadrine (Actavis, Akorn)
  • Neu2000KL (Amkor Pharma, Neurotech)
  • AZD6765 (Astra-Zeneca)
  • AM-101 (Auris Medical)
  • Indantadol (Chiesi Farmaceutici, Vernalis)
  • C-10003 (Concert Pharmaceuticals)
  • EVT101, EVT102, EVT103 (Evotec)
  • Radiprodil (Forrest Laboratories)
  • Gacyclidine (1-[(1R,2S)-2-methyl-1-thiophen-2-yl-cyclohexyl]piperidine; Neureva)
  • CNS 5161 (2-(2-chloro-5-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)-1-methyl-1-(3-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)guanidine; Paion)
  • Dexanabinol and other dextrocannabinoid compounds (Pharmos)
  • CR3394 (Rottapharm)
  • Felbamate ((3-carbamoyloxy-2-phenyl-propyl) carbamate; Schering-Plough)
  • TXT0300 (Traxion Therapeutics)
  • AV101 (7-chloro-4-oxo-1 H-quinoline-2-carboxylic acid; VistaGen Therapeutics)
  • YT1006 (Yaupon Therapeutics)


[0016] Most preferred blockers are:
  • Memantine (Allergan, Daiichi Sankyo, Forest Laboratories, Lundbeck)
  • Dizocilpine (MK-801)


[0017] One aspect of the invention relates to a method of preventing and treating sickle cell anemia, comprising administering blockers the NMDAR as defined hereinbefore in a quantity effective against sickle cell anemia to a mammal in need thereof, for example to a human requiring such treatment. For the administration, the blocker is preferably in the form of a pharmaceutical preparation comprising the blocker in chemically pure form and optionally a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and optionally adjuvants. The blocker is used in an amount effective against sickle cell anemia. The dosage of the active ingredient depends upon the species, its age, weight, and individual condition, the individual pharmacokinetic data, and the mode of administration. In the case of an individual having a bodyweight of about 70 kg the daily dose administered is from approximately 0.001 mg/kg to approximately 10 mg/kg, preferably from approximately 0.05 mg/kg to approximately 1 mg/kg, of a blocker of NMDAR. If memantine hydrochloride is applied in humans, a maximal daily dose of 20mg is administered in adults. To avoid adverse effects a starting dose of 5mg daily is recommended. The dosage should be increased weekly by 5mg a day till the maximal dosage (20mg daily) has been reached. In case of moderate renal insufficiency (Creatinin-Clearance 40-60 ml/min/1.73m2) the maximal dosage should be reduced to 10mg daily.

[0018] Pharmaceutical compositions for enteral administration, such as nasal, buccal, rectal or, especially, oral administration, and for parenteral administration, such as subcutaneous, intravenous, intrahepatic or intramuscular administration, are especially preferred. The pharmaceutical compositions comprise from approximately 1% to approximately 95% active ingredient, preferably from approximately 20% to approximately 90% active ingredient.

[0019] For parenteral administration preference is given to the use of solutions of the blockers of NMDAR, and also suspensions or dispersions, especially isotonic aqueous solutions, dispersions or suspensions which, for example, can be made up shortly before use. The pharmaceutical compositions may be sterilized and/or may comprise excipients, for example preservatives, stabilizers, wetting agents and/or emulsifiers, solubilizers, viscosity-increasing agents, salts for regulating osmotic pressure and/or buffers and are prepared in a manner known per se, for example by means of conventional dissolving and lyophilizing processes.

[0020] For oral pharmaceutical preparations suitable carriers are especially fillers, such as sugars, for example lactose, saccharose, mannitol or sorbitol, cellulose preparations and/or calcium phosphates, and also binders, such as starches, cellulose derivatives and/or polyvinylpyrrolidone, and/or, if desired, disintegrators, flow conditioners and lubricants, for example stearic acid or salts thereof and/or polyethylene glycol. Tablet cores can be provided with suitable, optionally enteric, coatings. Dyes or pigments may be added to the tablets or tablet coatings, for example for identification purposes or to indicate different doses of active ingredient. Pharmaceutical compositions for oral administration also include hard capsules consisting of gelatin, and also soft, sealed capsules consisting of gelatin and a plasticizer, such as glycerol or sorbitol. The capsules may contain the active ingredient in the form of granules, or dissolved or suspended in suitable liquid excipients, such as in oils.

[0021] Transdermal/intraperitoneal and intravenous applications are also considered, for example using a transdermal patch, which allows administration over an extended period of time, e.g. from one to twenty days.

[0022] Intravenous or subcutaneous application are particularly preferred.

[0023] Another aspect of the invention relates to blockers of NMDAR as described hereinbefore in the treatment of sickle cell anemia, and in the manufacture of medicaments for treating these diseases.

[0024] Medicaments according to the invention are manufactured by methods known in the art, especially by conventional mixing, coating, granulating, dissolving or lyophilizing.

[0025] The blockers of NMDAR can be administered alone or in combination with one or more other therapeutic agents, possible combination therapy taking the form of fixed combinations of a blocker NMDAR and one or more other therapeutic agents known in the treatment of sickle cell anemia, the administration being staggered or given independently of one another, or being in the form of a fixed combination.

[0026] Possible combination partners considered are vitamins B9 and B12 and other medicaments minimizing plasma homocysteine levels. One more group of compounds that could be considered as possible partners are blockers of Gardos channels (such as ICA-17043, see Blood. 2003; 101:2412-2418) and inhibitors of the K+-Cl- cotransporter including magnesium salts.

[0027] A method of screening for a compound effective in the treatment of sickle cell anemia comprises contacting a candidate compound with NMDAR and choosing candidate compounds which selectively reduce the activity of the NMDAR. The invention further relates to compounds selected by these methods of screening.

[0028] Blockers of NMDAR activity are identified by contacting the NMDAR with a candidate compound. A control assay with the corresponding NMDAR in the absence of the candidate compound is run in parallel. A decrease in activity in the presence of the candidate compound compared to the level in the absence of the compound indicates that the candidate compound is a NMDAR blocker. NPC-16 Patchliner or Syncropatch 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH) is optimal for screening of the candidate NMDAR blockers specifically on human erythrocytes.

[0029] Antibodies against the NMDAR can be generated e.g. by immunization of mice.

Concepts and evidence behind the invention



[0030] In vitro studies showed that erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia contain more NMDA receptor than that of healthy donors and that these receptors are predominantly retained in the cell fraction prone or already undergoing sickling (uncontrolled irreversible shrinkage). This cell population looses cell water and K+ due to the high permeability of the cell membrane to Ca2+ mediated by the NMDA receptor. This leads to the conclusion that blocking the NMDA receptor may prevent irreversible shrinkage of erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia.

Experiments performed



[0031] The following experiments were conducted using fresh-isolated human erythrocytes of HbSS patients and healthy subjects.

Experiment 1



[0032] Localization of the NMDA receptors in erythrocytes of patients and healthy subjects was studied using immunoblotting (Fig 1) and in cells treated with a selective irreversible blocker of the NMDA receptor 3H-MK-801. The number of the MK-801 binding sites per erythrocyte was assessed in sub-populations of cells with different densities (potential age groups). To do so the erythrocyte suspensions in the medium containing (mM) 145 NaCl, 4KCI, 1CaCl2, 0.15 MgCl2, 10 sucrose, 10 glucose, 10 Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) were incubated at room temperature for 30 min in the presence of 3H-MK-801. Thereafter the cells were washed from external radioactivity and separated on the Percoll density gradient (see Lutz et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1992 Mar 5;1116(1):1-10). Cell sub-populations of different densities were then isolated, washed and lysed with distilled water. Membranes were then collected by centrifugation, dissolved in the scintillation fluid (Quicksafe A, Zinsser Analytic) and the amount of 3H-MK-801 assessed by beta counter and normalized to the amount of cells. Receptors were equally distributed between reticulocytes and young cells (8±1 receptors per cell), mature cells (8±3) dense senescent cell population (7±2). In patients with HbSS the number of receptor copies per cell was higher in all cell populations (50±2, 17±5 and 19±10 receptors per cell in young, mature and senescent sub-populations respectively). When blocker-free the young cells were the first to undergo sickling and shrinkage as the receptor is predominantly present in the dense population (cells prone to sickling).

Experiment 2



[0033] Fluxes via the nonselective cation channel of the NMDA receptor were assessed using radioactive tracer kinetics. 86Rb was used as a radioactive tracer for K+ and 45Ca as a tracer for Ca2+. Fluxes through the red cell membrane were measures in the medium containing (mM) 145 Na-methane sulfate, 4 K-gluconate, 1 Ca-gluconate, 10 sucrose, 10 glucose and 10 HEPES-Tris (pH 7.4) in the presence of 100 µM L-arginine and 100 µM ouabain. Details of the flux measurement may be found elsewhere (e.g. Bogdanova et al., J Membr Biol. 2003;195(1):33-42). Erythrocytes of the HbSS patients showed higher passive K+ and Ca2+ fluxes that may be blocked by MK-801 (50 µM) or the reversible inhibitor of the NMDA receptor used in treatment of Alzheimer disease, memantine (50 µM). Fluxes of both cations are further stimulated by NMDA (100 µM) or prostaglandine E2 (2 µM). Both NMDA- and PGE2-sensitive increase in fluxes could be blocked by MK-801 or memantine. Fluxes through the NMDA receptors were significantly higher in patients with sickle cell anemia during the flue incidents which corresponded to the anemic crisis and hospitalization.

Experiment 3



[0034] High levels of the NMDA receptors and sensitization of HbSS patients' erythrocytes to NMDA treatment was shown. There was no direct correlation of the abundance of receptors in red cells and the amount of reticulocytes (routine blood status analysis), but rather with specific hematological disorders such as sickle cell anemia. Functional activity of the receptors was assessed by measuring K+(86Rb) influx through the receptor channels and 3H-MK-801 finding studies. Routine screening of control individuals for the receptor expression in erythrocytes revealed that one of them with abnormally high number of receptor copies had beta-thalassemia minor.

Experiment 4



[0035] Abnormally high sensitivity of the HbSS erythrocytes to NMDA treatment can be followed microscopically as changes in cell morphology. Shown in Fig 3 are the cells of healthy donors and HbSS patients exposed to 1 mM NMDA with and without pre-treatment with 50 µM of MK-801/memantine.

Clinical Study. Treatment of patients with sickle cell anemia with NMDAR blocker (suggested study)



[0036] A prospective phase II clinical feasibility study in human sickle cell patients with a NMDAR blocker can be performed as follows: It starts with an oral treatment with memantine hydrochloride. The maximal daily dose is analogous to the clinical experiences in Alzheimer disease, i.e. 20mg with a starting dose of 5mg daily and if tolerability is good a weekly increase of 5mg a day till the maximal tolerable dosage has been reached. In case of moderate renal insufficiency (Creatinin-Clearance 40-60 ml/min/1.73m2) the maximal dosage is reduced to 10mg daily. The treatment with memantine hydrochloride will be continued for one year and during this time all adverse events due to sickle cell anemia and possible side effects of the treatment are monitored. These data are compared with the history of the patient under best supportive care during the year before inclusion in the study. Endpoints of the study are severity and frequency of adverse events due to sickle cell anemia and tolerability of the treatment with memantine hydrochloride.


Claims

1. A N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker for use in preventing irreversible shrinkage of erythrocytes of patients with sickle cell anemia, characterized in that it is selected from memantine and MK-801.
 
2. The NMDAR blocker for use according to claim 1, wherein the NMDAR blocker is memantine.
 
3. The NMDAR blocker for use according to claim 1, wherein the NMDAR blocker is MK-801.
 
4. The NMDAR blocker for use according to one of claims 1 to 3, said use being treatment of a human with a quantity of NMDAR blocker in a daily dose of 0.001 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg.
 
5. The NMDAR blocker for use according to claim 4, wherein the daily dose is 0.05 mg/kg to 1 mg/kg.
 


Ansprüche

1. Ein N-Methyl D-Aspartat-Rezeptor (NMDAR) Blocker zur Verwendung für die Prävention einer irreversiblen Erythrozytenschrumpfung bei Patienten mit Sichelzellanämie, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass er ausgewählt ist aus Memantin und MK-801.
 
2. Der NMDAR Blocker zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der NMDAR Blocker Memantin ist.
 
3. Der NMDAR Blocker zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der NMDAR Blocker MK-801 ist.
 
4. Der NMDAR Blocker zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei die besagte Verwendung die Behandlung eines Menschen mit einer Menge an NMDAR Blocker mit einer Tagesdosis von 0.001 mg/kg bis 10 mg/kg ist.
 
5. Der NMDAR Blocker zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Tagesdosis 0.05 mg/kg bis 1 mg/kg beträgt.
 


Revendications

1. Un bloqueur de récepteur N-méthyl D-aspartate (NMDAR) pour l'utilisation dans la prévention d'une déformation irréversible des érythrocytes dans les patients avec drépanocytose, caractérisé en ce que il est sélectionné entre la mémantine et le MK-801.
 
2. Le bloqueur NMDAR pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le bloqueur NMDAR est la mémantine.
 
3. Le bloqueur NMDAR pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le bloqueur NMDAR est le MK-801.
 
4. Le bloqueur NMDAR pour l'utilisation selon une des revendications 1 à 3, ladite utilisation étant le traitement d'un être humain avec une quantité de bloqueur NMDAR avec un dosage journalier de 0.001 mg/kg à 10 mg/kg.
 
5. Le bloqueur NMDAR pour l'utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans laquelle le dosage journalier est de 0.05 mg/kg à 1 mg/kg.
 




Drawing












REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Non-patent literature cited in the description