(19)
(11)EP 2 428 528 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.08.2014 Bulletin 2014/33

(21)Application number: 11183440.4

(22)Date of filing:  26.06.2006
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C08G 64/06(2006.01)
B32B 17/10(2006.01)
F21S 8/00(2006.01)
B32B 27/36(2006.01)
E06B 3/00(2006.01)
H01R 13/00(2006.01)

(54)

Electrical fixture made from DMBPC polycarbonate homopolymer and copolymer

Gehäuse für elektrische Vorrichtungen aus DMBPC-Polycarbonat-Homopolymer und -Copolymer

Fixation électrique faite en homopolymère de polycarbonate DMBPC et copolymère


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 07.07.2005 US 177134

(43)Date of publication of application:
14.03.2012 Bulletin 2012/11

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
06785575.9 / 1937749

(73)Proprietor: SABIC Innovative Plastics IP B.V.
4612 PX Bergen op Zoom (NL)

(72)Inventors:
  • Boven, Geert
    4651 GN Steenbergen (NL)
  • Karlik, Dennis
    4611 JV Bergen op Zoom (NL)
  • Kung, Edward
    4611 JV Bergen Op Zoom (NL)
  • Lens, Jan Pleun
    4815 ED Breda (NL)

(74)Representative: Modiano, Micaela Nadia 
Modiano & Partners (DE) Thierschstrasse 11
80538 München
80538 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2005 020 802
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:



    [0001] Polycarbonate is known as being an excellent molding material since products made therefrom exhibit such properties as high impact strength, toughness, high transparency, wide temperature limits for thermal endurance, good dimensional stability, good creep resistance, and the like.

    [0002] However, traditional types of polycarbonates have been known to degrade when exposed to environments containing ammonia or other basic substances. Further polycarbonates have been found to scratch easily when exposed to abrasive materials such as steel wool or other cleaning tools. Thus it would be beneficial to produce a polycarbonate that can withstand exposure to a basic environment and resist scratches.

    [0003] US 2005/020802A1 discloses a thermoplastic molding composition comprising a linear (co)polyformals that exhibits reduced water absorption. Also disclosed are processes for the preparation of the composition.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0004] The present invention provides an enclosed electrical fixture comprising:

    an electrical fixture, a base, and a cover, wherein the cover is supported by the base and

    the electrical fixture is enclosed between the cover and the base, wherein the cover comprises a first layer, and wherein the first layer comprises a polycarbonate comprising repeat units derived from a monomer of structure I:


    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0005] 

    Fig. 7 shows an enclosed electrical fixture of the present invention.

    Fig. 9 shows a building with an enclosed electrical fixture of the present invention.

    Fig. 11 is a graph showing the molecular weight degradation after exposure to vapors from a 2.5% ammonia solution for 3 days (Comparative Examples 1 - 3 and Examples 1-6).

    Fig. 12 is a graph showing the molecular weight degradation after exposure to vapors from a 10% ammonia solution for 1 day (Comparative Examples 1 - 3 and Examples 1- 6).

    Fig. 13 is a graph showing the scratch depth caused by dragging a stylus across the samples at a constant vertical scratch force of 6 N (Comparative Examples 1 - 3 and Examples 1 - 6).

    Fig. 14 is a graph showing the haze after 100 cycles of Taber abrasion (Comparative Examples 1 - 3 and Examples 1 - 6),

    Fig. 15 is a graph showing the molecular weight degradation during exposure to vapors from a 2.3% ammonia solution over 3 days (Comparative Example 4 and Examples 7 & 8).

    Fig. 16 is a graph showing the scratch depth at 6 N of 4 different polycarbonate configurations with various hard coat configurations. (Comparative examples 6 - 7 and Examples 9 -14).

    Fig. 17 is a graph showing the pencil hardness of 4 different polycarbonate configurations with various hard coat configurations (Comparative examples 6 - 7 and Examples 9 - 14).


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0006] Provides polycarbonate articles that exhibit reduced polymer degradation when exposed basic environments such as an ammonia-rich atmosphere, are disclosed herein. The article of the present invention have been found to be more resistant to scratches and abrasion than traditional types of polycarbonate. It has herein been found that polymerizing or copolymerizing a monomer of structure I:

    into polycarbonate results in superior properties including scratch and abrasion resistance as well as reduced degradation when the polycarbonate is exposed to a basic environment such as an ammonia environment.

    [0007] It is here disclosed dimethyl bisphenol cyclohexane (DMBPC):

    when used as a monomer in the production of polycarbonate provides superior properties to the polycarbonate compared to traditional BPA polycarbonate and other types of polycarbonates. These properties include increased scratch resistance and superior resistance to molecular weight degradation when the polymer is exposed to a basic environment such as an ammonia environment.

    [0008] Applications of the DMBPC polycarbonate disclosed herein include and are not limited to its use in basic environments and environments where exposure to abrasive forces are common. In particular the DMBPC polycarbonate disclosed herein has a strong resistance to the polymer degradation forces of Ammonia. Ammonia serves as a useful cleaning agent in all types of industries and within the home. For example, ammonia or a diluted ammonia solution is commonly used as a household and industrial cleaner. Further, high concentrations of ammonia can be found in agricultural environments such as in the livestock stables and especially in pig stables. When exposed to an environment having a basic agent such as ammonia, polycarbonate degrades, changing a once transparent article into a hazy non-transparent and degraded one. It is herein disclosed that DMBPC when used as a monomer in a polycarbonate article provides superior resistance to the degradation forces of ammonia. Also, it is here disclosed that the use of DMBPC as a monomer provides an article of polycarbonate with superior scratch and abrasion resistance as compared to traditional BPA polycarbonate articles.

    [0009] In the description and the claims which follow, reference will be made to a number of terms which shall be defined to have the following meanings:

    The singular forms "a", "an" and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

    "Optional" or "optionally" means that the subsequently described event or circumstance may or may not occur, and that the description includes instances where the event occurs and instances where it does not.

    "Polycarbonate", unless described otherwise, refers to polycarbonates incorporating repeat units derived from at least one dihydroxy aromatic compound and includes copolyestercarbonates, for example a polycarbonate comprising repeat units derived from resorcinol, bisphenol A, and dodecandioic acid. Nothing in the description and claims of this application should be taken as limiting the polycarbonate to only one kind of dihydroxy residue unless the context is expressly limiting. Thus, the application encompasses copolycarbonates with residues of 2, 3, 4, or more types of different dihydroxy compounds.

    "Repeat unit(s)" means the block units or dihydroxy residues that are contained within the polymer chain of the polycarbonate and are derived from the starting dihydroxy compositions described below.

    The article of the present invention may be transparent, translucent, or opaque depending on the application. For example, it may be desirable to have a translucent sheet in showers and light fixtures, while sheets in which portions of, or the entire sheet is opaque, may be helpful in applications such as in roofing materials or in areas of public transportation where scratch resistance and the ability to use strong cleaners is desirable. The articles may also include combinations of transparent, translucent, and opaque regions.

    "Transparent" is understood to mean in one embodiment that the sheet or article has light transmission of 50%, preferably 70%, and most preferably greater than 80% and a haze of less than 7, preferably less than 5, more preferably less than 2. Further, the term "transparent" does not require that all of the sheet or article is transparent and portions of the sheet or article may be opaque or translucent, for example to form a decorative pattern. All light transmission and haze values referred to herein are measured by ASTM D 1003 at a thickness of 4.0 millimeters.

    "Translucent" is herein defined as having a light transmission of about 25 to about 95% and haze less than 104% and greater than 7%.

    "Coating" is a substance placed on the inner and/or outer surfaces of the sheet or an article of the present invention. Typical coatings are anti-static coatings, UV protection coating, Easy Clean (R) coatings, anti-microbial coatings, infra red shielding coatings, and hard coats. Typical hard coats can be silicone hard coats, acrylate hard coats (UV or thermally curable), silicone hard coats with acrylate primers, polyurethane hard coats, and melamine hard coats. Silicone hard coats are often preferred.

    "Coplanar" as used in the present invention is not meant to indicate that the windows, sheets, or articles of present invention are necessarily flat or defmed solely in single plane. The term as used herein means that the identified "coplanar" layer has the same relative shape as the underlying or overlying layer that it is referenced to. For example, the sheets and articles of the present invention may be curved. Notwithstanding this definition it is an embodiment of the present invention that some of the windows, sheets, and other articles described herein are flat.



    [0010] Figures 7 and 9 are not drawn to scale and are only meant to be illustrative of the invention.

    [0011] The method of making the DMBPC polycarbonate of the articles disclosed herein is not particularly limited. It may be produced by any known method of producing polycarbonate including the well-known interfacial process using phosgene and/or the melt process using a diaryl carbonate, such as diphenyl carbonate or bismethyl salicyl carbonate, as the carbonate source. In the case in which an additional monomer, such as bisphenol A (BPA), is incorporated into the polycarbonate along with DMBPC to form a copolymer it is often preferred that the melt process is used to promote a more random dispersion of the monomers into the polymer chain.

    [0012] As mentioned above, it is possible to incorporate another monomer into the polymer chain to make a copolymer comprising monomer units other than those derived from structure I. Other monomers are not limited and are suitably derived from a dihydroxy composition other than that of structure I.

    [0013] Additional monomer units may be derived from dihydroxy compounds comprising aliphatic diols and/or acids. The following is a non-limiting list of such compounds:

    Aliphatic Diols:

    Isosorbide:1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbitol, Tricyclodecane-dimethanol (TCDDM), 4,8-Bis(hydroxymethyl)tricyclodecane, Tetramethylcyclobutanediol (TMCBD), 2,2,4,4,-tetramethylcyclobutane-1,3-diol, mixed isomers, cis/trans-1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM), cis/trans-1,4-Bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexane, cyclohex-1,4-ylenedimethanol, trans-1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol (tCHDM), trans-1,4-Bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexane,cis-1,4-Cyclohexanedimethanol (cCHDM), cis-1,4-Bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexane, cis-1,2,-cyclohexanedimethanol, 1,1'-bi(cyclohexyl)-4,4'-diol, dicylcohexyl-4,4'-diol, 4,4'-dihydroxybicyclohexyl, and Poly(ethylene glycol).

    Acids:

    1,10-Dodecanedioic acid (DDDA), Adipic acid, Hexanedioic acid, Isophthalic acid,1,3-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, Teraphthalic acid, 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 2,6-Naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (mHBA), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA).



    [0014] The dihydroxy composition may also be a dihydroxy aromatic compound. A preferred dihydroxy aromatic composition of the present invention is bisphenol A (BPA). BPA has the structure:



    [0015] However, other dihydroxy aromatic compounds of the present invention can be used and are selected from the group consisting of bisphenol having structure II,

    wherein R3 - R10 are independently a hydrogen atom, halogen atom, nitro group, cyano group, C1 - C20 alkyl radical, C4 -C20 cycloalkyl radical, or C6 -C20 C aryl radical; W is a bond, an oxygen atom, a sulfur atom, a SO2 group, a C1 - C20 aliphatic radical, a C6 - C20 aromatic radical, a C6 - C20 cycloaliphatic radical, or the group,

    wherein R11 and R12 are independently a hydrogen atom, C1 - C20 alkyl radical, C4 - C20 cycloalkyl radical, or C4 - C20 aryl radical; or R11 and R12 together form a C4 - C20 cycloaliphatic ring which is optionally substituted by one or more C1 - C20 alkyl, C6 -C20 aryl, C5 - C21, aralkyl, C5 - C20 cycloalkyl groups, or a combination thereof; dihydroxy benzenes having structure III,

    wherein R15 is independently at each occurrence a hydrogen atom, halogen atom, nitro group, cyano group, C1 - C20 alkyl radical, C4 - C20 cycloalkyl radical, or C4 - C20 aryl radical, d is an integer from 0 to 4; and dihydroxy naphthalenes having structures IV and V,



    wherein R16, R17, R18 and R19 are independently at each occurrence a hydrogen atom, halogen atom, nitro group, cyano group, C1 - C20 alkyl radical, C4 - C20 cycloalkyl radical, or C4 - C20 aryl radical; e and f are integers from 0 to 3, g is an integer from 0 to 4, and h is an integer from 0 to 2.

    [0016] Suitable bisphenols II are illustrated by

    2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (bisphenol A);

    2,2-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-propane;

    2,2-bis(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-isopropylphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-isopropylphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-t-butyl-5-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-bromo-5-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3-chloro-5-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane,

    2,2-bis(3-bromo-5-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3,5-disopropyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(3,5-diphenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetrabomophenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6--tetramethylphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    2,2-bis(2,6-dibromo-3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-isopropylphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-isopropylphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-t-butyl-5-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-5-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-chloro-5-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-5-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-disopropyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-diphenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetrabromophenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetramethylphenyl)cyclohexane,

    1,1-bis(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)cyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(2,6-dibroino-3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphonyl)eyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane

    1,1-bis(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-isopropylphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-isopropylphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-t-butyl-5-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-5-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    bis(3-chloro-5-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3-bromo-5-phenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-disopropyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(3,5-diphenyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetrabromophenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetramethylphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane;

    1,1-bis(2,6-dibromo-3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,3,5-trimethylcylohexane;

    4,4'dihydroxy-1,1-biphenyl; 4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-1,1-biphenyl;

    4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dioctyl-1,1-biphenyl; 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenylether;

    4,4'-dihydroxydiphenylthioether; 1,3-bis(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propyl)benzene;

    1,3-bis(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)-2-propyl)benzene;

    1,4-bis(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propyl)benzene and

    1,4-bis(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)-2-propyl)benzene.



    [0017] Suitable dihydroxy benzenes III are illustrated by hydroquinone, resorcinol, methylhydroquinone, butylhydroquinone, phenylhydroquinone, 4-phenylresorcinol and 4-methylresorcinol.

    [0018] Suitable dihydroxy naphthalenes IV are illustrated by 2,6-dihydroxy naphthalene; 2,6-dihydroxy-3-methyl naphthalene; and 2,6-dihydroxy-3-phenyl naphthalene.

    [0019] Suitable dihydroxy naphthalenes V are illustrated by 1,4-dihydroxy naphthalene; 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methyl naphthalene; 1,4-dihydroxy-2-phenyl naphthalene and 1,3-dihydroxy naphthalene.

    [0020] If an additional monomer is used it is preferred that the DMBPC monomer of structure I be incorporated into the polycarbonate at greater than 25% by weight to the entire weight of the polycarbonate, more preferably in an amount great than 50%, and more preferably in an amount greater than 75% by weight.

    [0021] Blends of polymers are typical in industry. Thus the DMBPC polycarbonate disclosed herein may be blended with other polymeric materials, for example, other polycarbonates, polyestercarbonates, polyesters and olefin polymers such as ABS. Further, the polycarbonates disclosed herein may be blended with conventional additives such as heat stabilizers, mold release agents, and UV stabilizers, flame retardants, infrared shielding agents, whitening agents, thermal stabilizers, antioxidants, light stabilizers, plasticizers, colorants, extenders, antistatic agents, catalyst quenchers, mold releasing agents, additional resin, blowing agents, and processing aids.

    [0022] As depicted in figure 7, the present invention provides an enclosed electrical fixture 62 having: an electrical fixture 40, a base 42, and a cover 44, wherein the cover 44 is supported by the base 42 and the electrical fixture 40 is enclosed between the cover 44 and the base 42. The cover 44 comprises a first layer, wherein the first layer comprises a polycarbonate comprising repeat units derived from the DMBPC monomer of structure I. The electrical fixture 40 can be, for example, a socket capable of receiving an illuminating device such as a light bulb or a fluorescent tube, a surveillance fixture capable of receiving a surveillance camera, a switch fixture, a plug receiver capable of receiving a plug, or any other electrical fixture that can be enclosed by a cover and a base. It is preferred that the cover 44 be detachable from the base 42 such that access to the electrical fixture 40 can be obtained. It is also sometimes preferred that the enclosed electrical fixture 40 of the present invention also comprise a sealing system 46 capable of sealing the cover 44 to the base 42 to prevent harmful gases to reach the electrical fixture 40 enclosed between the cover 44 and the base 42. This sealing system 46 is not limited and can be, for example, an o-ring disposed between the base 42 and the cover 44 wherein a seal 46 between the base 42 and cover 44 is created when the cover 44 is supported by the base 42. The supporting part of the base 42 which supports the cover 44 is not particularly limited and may include, for example, a screw and thread system wherein the cover 44 is screwed into the base 42, a lock and key arrangement, a male-female interaction, or a latch securing system. In a further embodiment the base 42 is also made from polycarbonate comprising repeat units derived from the monomer of structure 1. The present invention also provides a building comprising this type of enclosed electrical fixture 62. Figure 9 depicts an enclosure, here building 60, comprising the enclosed electrical fixture 62 described above.

    Examples:



    [0023] Having described the invention in detail, the following examples are provided. The examples should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention, but merely as illustrative and representative thereof.

    [0024] Molecular weights were determined by GPC analysis of solutions of the polymers dissolved in chloroform. Molecular weight results are given as values relative to PS and PC.

    [0025] Molecular weight degradation resistance was evaluated by exposing parts made from the example plastic resin compositions to ammonia vapor. Exposure was carried out by placing the parts in an enclosed container in an atmosphere saturated with the vapor generated from an aqueous ammonia solution. The molecular weight of the polycarbonate of the part was measured after the ammonia vapor exposure, and the degree degradation due to hydrolysis is thus the change in molecular weight.

    [0026] Ammonia resistance of multi-layer sheets was determined by covering a beaker filled with an aqueous ammonia solution by the part with the side to be evaluated facing the solution.

    [0027] Scratch resistance was evaluated by dragging a stylus pin on the surface of parts made from the example plastic resin compositions at a constant load of 6 N and measuring the depth of the scratches produced. Higher pencil hardness and shallower scratches (lower scratch depths) indicate better scratch resistance. Abrasion resistance was evaluated by subjecting parts made from the example plastic resins to the abrasion protocol of the Taber Abrasion test, according to ASTM D1044 with 4th generation CS10-F wheels and 250 gram load. After 100 cycles of abrasion, the optical haze of the parts were measured. The less haze generated during the abrasion, the better the abrasion resistance.

    [0028] The following Examples are included in the present invention to the extent applicable Examples 1 - 8 and comparative examples 1 - 5 below depict the scratch resistance and ammonia resistance properties of the uncoated DMBPC polycarbonate of the present invention as compared to traditional uncoated BPA polycarbonate of the prior art.

    Examples 1- 8:



    [0029] 

    Example 1. Copolycarbonate resin of 50/50 DMBPC/BPA synthesized via the interfacial phosgene process.

    Example 2. Copolycarbonate resin of 50/50 DMBPC/BPA synthesized via the interfacial phosgene process.

    Example 3. Copolymer polycarbonate resin of 50/50 DMBPC/BPA synthesized via the interfacial phosgene process.

    Example 4. Copolymer polycarbonate resin of 25/75 DMBPC/BPA synthesized via the interfacial phosgene process.

    Example 5. Copolymer polycarbonate resin of 25/75 DMBPC/BPA synthesized via the interfacial phosgene process.

    Example 6. Copolymer polycarbonate resin of 25/75 DMBPC/BPA synthesized via the interfacial phosgene process.

    Example 7. DMBPC homopolymer polycarbonate resin synthesized via the melt DPC process.

    Example 8. Copolymer polycarbonate resin of 50/50 DMBPC/BPA synthesized via the melt DPC process.


    Comparative Examples 1- 5:



    [0030] 

    Comparative Example 1. Commercially produced BPA polycarbonate homopolymer.

    Comparative Example 2. Commercially produced BPA polycarbonate homopolymer.

    Comparative Example 3. Commercially produced BPA polycarbonate homopolymer.

    Comparative Example 4. Commercially produced BPA polycarbonate homopolymer.

    Comparative Example 5. Commercially produced BPA polycarbonate homopolymer.



    [0031] NOTE: All starting materials, as described above (i.e. Examples 1 - 8 and Comparative Examples 1 - 5), were completely transparent prior to conducting tests. The properties of the examples and comparative examples before and after Mw degradation resistance and scratch/abrasion resistance tests were performed are summarized in Tables 1- 2 and graphically represented in Figures 11 - 15.
    Table 1: Data showing improvements in Mw degradation resistance & scratch/abrasion resistance
    PropertyUnitsEx. 1Ex. 2Ex. 3Ex. 4Ex. 5Ex. 6Comp. Ex. 1Comp. Ex. 2Comp. Ex. 3
    Composition DMBPC/BPA mol % 50/50 50/50 50/50 25/75 25/75 25/75 0/100 0/100 0/100
    Initial Mw (PS) g/mol 41100 53300 63300 51500 61000 75900 41300 51100 61400
    Initial Mw (PC) g/mol 21200 26600 31000 25800 30000 38400 21300 25600 30200
                         
    Molecular Weight Degradation After Exposure to Ammonia        
    2.5% Ammonia Solution, 3 days % Δ Mw -1.7 -2.7 -2.6 -5.5 -8.5 -9.2 -8.6 -11.7 -11.1
    10% Ammonia Solution, 1 day % Δ Mw -2.5 -5.1 -5.5 -8.1 -9.9 -9.4 -11.0 -10.6 -11.8
    10% Ammonia Solution, 1 day Visual no change clear & transp. no change, clear & transp. no change, clear & transp. no change, clear & transp, slightly hazy slightly hazy opaque white, sticky surface opaque white, sticky surface opaque white, sticky surface
                         
    Scratch & Abrasion Resistance        
    Scratch Depth. 6 N microns 13 13 13 17 16 16 24 25 24
    Taber Abrasion, ICO cycles % Haze 25.9 25.5 22.8 26.1 27.0 28.0 31.3 33.7 32.4
    Table 2: Data showing improvements in Mw degradation resistance & scratch/abrasion resistance
    PropertyUnitsEx. 7Ex. 8Comp. Ex. 4Comp. Ex. 5
    Composition DMBPC/BPA mol % 100/0 50/50 0/100 0/100
    Initial Mw (PS) g/mol 44800 47600 62700 NT
    2.3% Ammonia Solution, 1 day % Δ Mw 0.9 -3.2 -7.8 NT
    2.3% Ammonia Solution, 2 days % Δ Mw 1.2 -3.9 -13.8 NT
    2.3% Ammonia Solution 3 days % Δ Mw 1.1 -4.5 -13.9 NT
    25% Ammonia Solution, 1 day visual No change, clear 8 transparent Slightly Hazy NT Complete disintegration of part
    Scratch Depth. 6 N micron 8.5 NT 27 NT
    NT = not tested


    [0032] Results (Examples 1 - 8): Examples 1 - 8 demonstrate that a polycarbonate comprising repeat units derived from DMBPC monomers exhibits superior Mw degradation resistance and scratch resistance properties as compared to a polycarbonate formed from traditional BPA monomers. The results of the above test are graphically displayed in figures 11-15.

    [0033] Figure 11 is a graph showing the molecular weight degradation after exposure to vapors from a 2.5% ammonia solution for 3 days (Comparative Examples 1 - 3 and Examples 1-6).

    [0034] Figure 12 is a graph showing the molecular weight degradation after exposure to vapors from a 10% ammonia solution for 1 day (Comparative Examples 1 - 3 and Examples 1 - 6). Figure 13 is a graph showing the scratch depth caused by dragging a stylus across the samples at a constant vertical scratch force of 6 N (Comparative Examples 1 - 3 and Examples 1 - 6).

    [0035] Figure 14 is a graph showing the haze after 100 cycles of Taber abrasion (Comparative Examples 1 - 3 and Examples 1 - 6).

    [0036] Figure 15 is a graph showing the molecular weight degradation during exposure to vapors from a 2.3% ammonia solution over 3 days (Comparative Example 4 and Examples 7 & 8).

    [0037] Examples 9 - 14:

    The resin as described in examples 9 - 11 was applied as a co-extruded layer on top of a sheet of commercial PC. The multi-layer sheets were made by a coextrusion process in which each layer was molten in an extruder, both melts were combined in a heated feedblock and the combined layers were extruded to a sheet in a 'coathanger' die, After extrusion the molten sheet was calandered between heated, polished metal rolls and cooled by air and then tested, In examples 12 - 14, the sheets were coated by taking the respective multi-layer sheet and flowing a primer coating, in this case SHP401 obtained from GE Bayer Silicones, vertically over the sheet and drying the sheet at room temperature for at least 20 minutes. Subsequently a silicon hard coat, in this case AS4000 obtained from GE Bayer Silicones, was flowed vertically over the primed sheet, it was dried for 20 minutes at room temperature and cured for 90 minutes at 130 EC in an oven and then tested.



    [0038] Example 9. Copolycarbonate resin of 50/50 mol % DMBPC/BPA synthesized via the melt process blended with 10 wt. % of UV stabilizer 3030.

    [0039] Example 10. DMBPC homopolymer synthesized via the melt process blended with 20 wt. % of ITR/BPA copolymer.

    [0040] Example 11. DMBPC homopolymer synthesized via the melt process blended with 10 wt. % of UV stabilizer 3030.

    [0041] Example 12. AS4000 coating applied over the blended copolycarbonate resin of example 9.

    [0042] Example 13. AS4000 coating applied over the blended polycarbonate resin of example 10.

    [0043] Example 14. AS4000 coating applied over the blended polycarbonate resin of example 11.

    Comparative Examples 6 - 7:



    [0044] Comparative Example 6. Commercially produced BPA polycarbonate homopolymer.

    [0045] Comparative Example 7. AS4000 coating applied over the commercially produced BPA polycarbonate homopolymer of comparative example 6.

    [0046] Table 3: (Comparative Examples 6 - 7 and Examples 9 - 14) Data showing improvements in scratch resistance (given as scratch depth [micrometers] at 6 N of force and pencil hardness at 1 kgf) of the DMBPC polycarbonate of the present invention as compared to traditional BPA polycarbonate.
    Example #Depth [µm] at 6NPencil Hardness at 1 kgf
    Comp. Ex.6 (BPA-PC) 25.0 28
    Ex. 9 (45% DMBPC) 14.5 F
    Ex. 10 (50%DMBPC) 14.0 H
    Ex. 11 (90%DMBPC) 9.5 2H
         
    Comp. Ex. 7 (PC Sheet w/ AS4000 coat) 28.0 F
    Ex. 12 (45%DMBPC, w/ AS4000 coat) 18.1 2H
    Ex. 13 (50%DMBPC, w/AS4000 coat) 18.1 2H
    Ex. 14 (90%DMBPC, w/ AS4000 coat) 14.5 4H


    [0047] Results (Examples 9 - 14): Examples 9 - 14 demonstrate that a polycarbonate comprising repeat units derived from DMBPC monomers, that further comprises a coating layer, exhibits superior pencil hardness and decreased scratch depth as compared to polycarbonate formed from traditional BPA monomers with the same coating layer (i.e. comparative examples). The results of the above test are graphically displayed in figures 16 - 17.

    [0048] Figure 16 is a graph showing the scratch depth at 6 N of an 4 different polycarbonate configurations with various hard coat layers. (Comparative examples 6 - 7 and Examples 9 - 14).

    [0049] Figure 17 is a graph showing the pencil hardness of 4 different polycarbonate configurations with various hard coat configurations (Comparative examples 6 - 7 and Examples 9 - 14).

    Examples 15 - 19 and Comparative Example 8:



    [0050] Examples 15 - 19 as illustrated in Table 4 show improvements in scratch resistance of traditional BPA polycarbonate that has a cap layer comprising DMBPC. Here comparative example 8 has a cap layer of traditional BPA polycarbonate while examples 15 - 19 demonstrate the benefit of a copolymer cap layer comprising repeat units derived from DMBPC (examples 15 - 18) and also of a homopolymer cap layer derived from DMBPC (example 19).
    Table 4: Data showing improvements in scratch resistance (given as scratch depth [micrometers] at 6 N) of molded plaques and multi-layer sheets consisting of a BPA-PC substrate and different cap layers.
    SampleMolded PartMulti-layer sheet
    Comp. Ex. 8: BPA-PC 24.8 25.3
    Ex.15: 25% DMBPC 16.8  
    Ex.16: 45% DMBPC 14.5 14.5
    Ex.17: 50% DMBPC 13.0  
    Ex.18: 90% DMBPC 10.0 9.5
    Ex.19: 100% DMBPC 8.9  



    Claims

    1. An enclosed electrical fixture comprising;
    an electrical fixture, a base, and a cover, wherein the cover is supported by the base and the electrical fixture is enclosed between the cover and the base, wherein the cover comprises a first layer, and wherein the first layer comprises a polycarbonate comprising repeat units derived from a monomer of structure I:


     
    2. The enclosed electrical fixture of claim 1, wherein the electrical fixture is selected from the group consisting of a socket capable of receiving an illuminating device, a surveillance fixture capable of receiving a surveillance camera, a plug receiver capable of receiving a plug, and a switch.
     
    3. The enclosed electrical fixture of claim 1, wherein the cover is transparent.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Eine eingeschlossene elektrische Vorrichtung die folgendes umfasst:

    eine elektrische Vorrichtung, eine Basis und einen Deckel, wobei der Deckel von der Basis getragen wird und die elektrische Vorrichtung zwischen dem Deckel und der Basis eingeschlossen ist, worin der Deckel eine erste Schicht umfasst und worin die erste Schicht ein Polycarbonat umfasst, das Wiederholungseinheiten umfasst, welche von einem Monomer mit der Struktur I abgeleitet sind;


     
    2. Die eingeschlossene elektrische Vorrichtung gemäß Anspruch 1, worin die elektrische Vorrichtung gewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus einem Sockel der in der Lage ist eine Beleuchtungsvorrichtung aufzunehmen, einer Überwachungvorrichtung, die in der Lage ist eine Überwachungskamera aufzunehmen, einer Steckerhülse, die in der Lage ist einen Stecker aufzunehmen und einem Schalter.
     
    3. Die eingeschlossene elektrische Vorrichtung gemäß Anspruch 1, worin der Deckel transparent ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Dispositif électrique confiné comprenant :

    un dispositif électrique, une base, et un couvercle, le couvercle étant soutenu par la base et le dispositif électrique est confiné entre le couvercle et la base, le couvercle comprenant une première couche, et la première couche comprenant un polycarbonate comprenant des motifs de répétition dérivés d'un monomère de structure I :


     
    2. Dispositif électrique confiné de la revendication I, le dispositif électrique étant choisi dans le groupe constitué d'un réceptacle pouvant recevoir un dispositif d'illumination, un dispositif de surveillance pouvant recevoir une caméra de surveillance, un réceptacle de prise pouvant recevoir une prise, et un interrupteur.
     
    3. Dispositif électrique confiné de la revendication 1, dans lequel le couvercle est transparent.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description