(19)
(11)EP 2 433 378 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
19.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/25

(21)Application number: 10778047.0

(22)Date of filing:  20.05.2010
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H04B 10/516  (2013.01)
H04B 10/40  (2013.01)
H04J 14/02  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2010/001483
(87)International publication number:
WO 2010/134986 (25.11.2010 Gazette  2010/47)

(54)

40,50 AND 100 GB/S OPTICAL TRANSCEIVERS/TRANSPONDERS IN 300PIN AND CFP MSA MODULES

OPTISCHE SENDE-/EMPFANGSGERÄTE/TRANSPONDER MIT 40, 50 UND 100 GB/S IN 300PIN- UND CFP-MSA-MODULEN

EMETTEURS-RÉCEPTEURS/TRANSPONDEURS OPTIQUES À 40, 50 ET 100 GB/S DANS DES MODULES 300 PIN ET CFP MSA


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 16.09.2009 US 242807 P
11.06.2009 US 186325 P
20.05.2009 US 179956 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
28.03.2012 Bulletin 2012/13

(73)Proprietor: NeoPhotonics Corporation
San Jose, CA 95134 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • WAY, Winston, I.
    Irvine CA 92603 (US)

(74)Representative: AWA Sweden AB 
P.O. Box 11394
404 28 Göteborg
404 28 Göteborg (SE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 1 408 632
WO-A2-2009/105281
US-A1- 2004 096 225
US-A1- 2007 196 111
US-A1- 2008 175 594
EP-A2- 1 424 795
US-A1- 2004 071 473
US-A1- 2005 135 816
US-A1- 2008 063 396
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    RELATED APPLICATIONS



    [0001] This application claims benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/242,807 entitled "40, 50, and 100 Gb/s Optical Transceivers/Transponders in 300pin and CFP MSA Modules," filed on September 16, 2009, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/179,956, entitled "Optical Network Architecture and Apparatus for High Capacity Upgrade" filed on May 20, 2009 and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/186,325, entitled "Part Two of 'Optical Network Architecture and Apparatus for High Capacity Upgrade,'" filed June 11, 2009.

    DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART



    [0002] The present disclosure relates to optical communications based on optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0003] Current commercially available 40Gb/s 300 pin modules such as described in 300pin MSA Group, Reference Document for "300pin 40Gb Transponder," Public Document Edition 3, July 19, 2002, found on the world wide web at 300pinmsa.org, use direct detection methods. These transponders are mostly based on four modulation formats: (a) 40Gb/s NRZ (non-return-to-zero), (b) 40Gb/s duobinary, (c) 40Gb/s differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK), and (d) 2x20Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift-keying (DQPSK). 40Gb/s NRZ has a severe dispersion-limited transmission distance of around 2∼10 km and is usually for short-distance "client-side" applications. 40Gb/s duobinary modulation was used in the first-generation long-haul transmission systems, but has a severe limitation in terms of both poor chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) tolerance, 40Gb/s DPSK and 2x20Gb/s DQPSK both exhibit good optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) performance. DPSK has limited CD and PMD tolerance, while DQPSK improves both CD and PMD tolerance by halving the symbol rate. However, DQPSK requires much more complicated structure than DPSK, duobinary, and NRZ, and therefore has a higher cost. 40Gb/s DPSK and 2x20Gb/s DQPSK require thermally-tuned phase demodulator. 40Gb/s duobinary, 40Gb/s DPSK, and 2x20Gb/s DQPSK require thermally-tuned optical dispersion compensator. These thermally-tuned devices are all very slow, with a tuning time in the range of tens of seconds. As a result, none of these modulation formats are suitable for a ROADM (reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexing)-based optical network, which needs to re-configure wavelengths dynamically and a fast traffic recovery time.

    [0004] Another modulation technique is 2x20Gb/s bandlimited-optical duobinary (BL-ODB). 2x20Gb/s BL-ODB was proposed in J. Yu, et al., "Optical subchannels from a single lightwave source," U.S. Patent Publication No. US2008/0063396 A1, published March 13, 2008, and in L. Xu et al., "Spectral Efficient Transmission of 40Gbps per Channel over 50GHz Spaced DWDM Systems Using Optical Carrier Suppression, Separation and Optical Duobinary Modulation," paper NTuC2, Optical Fiber Communications Conference, 2006. In these systems, both the optical modulator and photo-detector use complex 40Gb/s components.

    [0005] The concept of using structurally simpler and more common 10Gb/s opto-electronic components for 40Gb/s duobinary data was apparently first proposed in H. L. Lee et al., "Duobinary Optical Transmitter", as disclosed in related U.S. Patent No. 7,215,892 B2, issued May 8, 2007 and U.S. Patent No. 7,224,907 B2, issued May 29, 2007.

    [0006] From packaging perspective, although it is challenging to fit multiple opto-electronic components into a 40Gb/s 300pin MSA module, it is even more challenging to fit those opto-electronic components in a much smaller space offered by CFP MSA module as specified in CFP Draft 1.0, March 23, 2009.

    [0007] The C (Latin letter C for 100 or centum) form-factor pluggable (CFP) is from a multi-source agreement (MSA) for a standard common form-factor for high-speed transmission digital signals. The CFP supports 100Gb/s and 40Gb/s using 10 and 4 lanes in each direction (Rx and Tx), respectively, with 10Gb/s in each lane.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0008] Disclosed herein is a modulation technique and an apparatus embodying the same that offers even lower cost than currently commercially available duobinary and DPSK 300 pin transponders, and yet with comparable system performance as DQPSK 300 pin transponders. This modulation technique, 2x20Gb/s bandlimited-optical duobinary (Dual BL-ODB) modulation, uses only a pair of 10Gb/s optical modulators in the optical modulators to achieve 40, 50 Gb/s transmission rates, and two pairs of 10Gb/s optical modulators to achieve 100 Gb/s transmission rates. It offers the smallest possible form factor for 40, 50, and 100Gb/s transmission rates. The modulation technique also allows fast traffic recovery in an optical network with dynamic wavelength switching and routing.

    [0009] The presently disclosed exemplary transceiver combines the 20∼28 Gb/s BL-ODB modulation technique and 10Gb/s opto-electronic modulation components to achieve the best balance between cost and performance for 40/50/100Gb/s transmission. Further, the presently disclosed transceivers/transponders can use existing IC chips with appropriate hardware interfaces to accommodate this modulation technique. Prior attempts of improving the performance of optical communication or transmission systems are disclosed in e.g. WO 2009/105281, EP 1 408 632 and US 2008/175594. However, there is still a need for new solutions that are more cost effective but without compromising system performance.

    [0010] By using the recently developed 10Gb/s tunable Transmitter Optical SubAssemblies (TOSAs) (which require a much smaller volume than conventional Integrated Tunable Laser Assemblies (ITLAs)) based on semiconductor Mach-Zehnder modulators, it is possible to fit all opto-electronic components in a line-side and in some applications client-side CFP transceiver module carrying 40Gb/s and 100Gb/s capacity.

    [0011] In one embodiment there is provided an N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator (WDM) transceiver, comprising:

    at least one pair of 10 Gb/s optical transmitters whose wavelengths are within a 50 or 100GHz ITU-T window;

    an opto-electronic control current driving each optical transmitter, wherein said opto-electric circuit includes a multiplexer outputting a control signal, wherein the optical transmitter is driven by the electrical control signal output by the opto-electronic control circuit according to a band-limited optical duo binary modulation technique at 20-28Gb/s.



    [0012] In one embodiment said opto-electronic control current further comprises:

    at least one electronic device to convert a signal from an interface to N lanes of 20-28Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    N driver amplifiers to amplify the N lanes of 20-28Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively, wherein the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 20-28Gb/s NRZ signals; and

    N electronic low-pass filters receiving the amplified signals and serving as duobinary encoders; and

    wherein said at least one pair of 10 Gb/s optical transmitter further comprise:

    N 10Gb/s optical transmitters converting the encoded signals into optical signals having N different wavelengths;

    an optical combiner to combine the two wavelengths generated from the N 10Gb/s optical transmitters;

    the electronic device has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew between the N 20-28Gb/s lanes.



    [0013] In one embodiment the 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a standard or miniaturized integrated tunable laser assembly (ITLA).

    [0014] In one embodiment the 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a tunable or fixed-wavelength transmitter optical subassembly (TOSA).

    [0015] In one embodiment each tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitter contains a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.

    [0016] In one embodiment the optical combiner is a polarization maintaining beam combiner.

    [0017] In one embodiment the optical combiner is an optical coupler.

    [0018] In one embodiment each 20-28 Gb/s receiver contains at least one 20∼28Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDC).

    [0019] In one embodiment the electronic device that converts N lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals to SFI5.1 interface contains N 20∼23Gb/s EDCs.

    [0020] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within one of a 300-pin MSA package or a CFP MSA package

    [0021] In one embodiment there is provided a two-carrier optical wavelength division modulator (WDM) transponder/transceiver, comprising:

    at least one electronic device to convert a signal from an SFI5.1 interface to two lanes of 20-23Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    one pair of driver amplifiers to amplify the two lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively, wherein the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals;

    one pair of electronic low-pass filters receiving the amplified signals and serving as duobinary encoders;

    one pair of tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters converting the encoded signals into optical signals having two different wavelengths;

    an optical combiner to combine the two wavelengths generated from the two tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters;

    an optical wavelength slicer to separate the two wavelengths received from the transmission line;

    one pair of 20-23Gb/s optical receivers; and

    at least one electronic device to convert 2 lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals back to an SFI5.1 interface.



    [0022] In one embodiment the electronic device has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew between the two 20-23Gb/s lanes.

    [0023] In one embodiment the tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a standard or miniaturized integrated tunable laser assembly (ITLA).

    [0024] In one embodiment the tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a tunable or fixed-wavelength transmitter optical subassembly (TOSA).

    [0025] In one embodiment each tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitter contains a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.

    [0026] In one embodiment the optical combiner is a polarization maintaining beam combiner.

    [0027] In one embodiment the optical combiner is an optical coupler.

    [0028] In one embodiment the channel spacing between the two optical wavelengths of the two tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters is between 19 and 25GHz.

    [0029] In one embodiment the wavelength slicer is a 1 input x 2 output cyclic array-waveguide with a cycle of 50 or 100GHz.

    [0030] In one embodiment each 20-23 Gb/s receiver contains at least one 20∼23Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDC).

    [0031] In one embodiment the electronic device that converts two lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals to SFI5.1 interface contains two 20∼23Gb/s EDCs.

    [0032] In one embodiment each 20-23Gb/s optical receiver includes a receiver optical subassembly (ROSA).

    [0033] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a 300-pin MSA package.

    [0034] In one embodiment there is provided a two-carrier optical wavelength division modulator (WDM) transponder/transceiver, comprising:

    at least one electronic device to convert 4x 10Gb/s XFI interface to two lanes of 20-23Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    one pair of driver amplifiers to amplify the two lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively, wherein the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals;

    one pair of electronic low-pass filters receiving the amplified signals and serving as duobinary encoders;

    one pair of tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters converting the encoded signals into optical signals having two different wavelengths;

    an optical combiner to combine the two wavelengths generated from the two tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters;

    an optical wavelength slicer to separate the two wavelengths received from the transmission line;

    one pair of 20-23Gb/s optical receivers; and

    at least one electronic device to convert two lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals back to an SFI5.1 interface.



    [0035] In one embodiment the electronic device has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew between the two 20-23Gb/s lanes.

    [0036] In one embodiment the tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a standard or miniaturized integrated tunable laser assembly (ITLA).

    [0037] In one embodiment the tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a tunable or fixed-wavelength transmitter optical subassembly (TOSA).

    [0038] In one embodiment each tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitter contains a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.

    [0039] In one embodiment the optical combiner is a polarization maintaining beam combiner.

    [0040] In one embodiment the optical combiner is an optical coupler.

    [0041] In one embodiment the channel spacing between the two optical wavelengths of the two tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters is between 19 and 25GHz.

    [0042] In one embodiment the wavelength slicer is a 1 input x 2 output cyclic array-waveguide with a cycle of 50 or 100GHz.

    [0043] In one embodiment each 20-23 Gb/s receivers contains at least one 20∼28Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDC).

    [0044] In one embodiment the electronic device that converts two lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals to four approximately 10Gb/s signals contains a pair of EDCs.

    [0045] In one embodiment each 20-23Gb/s optical receiver includes a receiver optical subassembly (ROSA).

    [0046] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a CFP MSA package.

    [0047] In one embodiment there is provided A two-carrier optical wavelength division modulator (WDM) transponder/transceiver, comprising:

    at least one electronic device to convert 5x 10Gb/s XFI interface to 2 lanes of 27-28Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    one pair of driver amplifiers to amplify the two lanes of 27-28Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively, wherein the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 27-28Gb/s NRZ signals;

    one pair of electronic low-pass filters receiving the amplified signals and serving as duobinary encoders;

    one pair of tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters converting the encoded signals into optical signals having two different wavelengths;

    an optical combiner to combine the two wavelengths generated from the two tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters;

    an optical wavelength slicer to separate the two wavelengths received from the transmission line;

    one pair of 27-28Gb/s optical receivers; and

    at least one electronic device to convert 2 lanes of 27-28Gb/s NRZ signals back to a 5x 10Gb/s XFI interface.



    [0048] In one embodiment the electronic device has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew between the two 20-28Gb/s lanes.

    [0049] In one embodiment the tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a standard or miniaturized integrated tunable laser assembly (ITLA).

    [0050] In one embodiment the tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a tunable or fixed-wavelength transmitter optical subassembly (TOSA).

    [0051] In one embodiment each tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitter contains a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.

    [0052] In one embodiment the optical combiner is a polarization maintaining beam combiner.

    [0053] In one embodiment the optical combiner is an optical coupler.

    [0054] In one embodiment the channel spacing between the two optical wavelengths of the two tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters is between 19 and 25GHz.

    [0055] In one embodiment the wavelength slicer is a 1 input x 2 output cyclic array-waveguide with a cycle of 50 or 100GHz.

    [0056] In one embodiment each 27∼28Gb/s receivers contains at least one 27∼28Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDC).

    [0057] In one embodiment the electronic device that converts two lanes of 27∼28Gb/s NRZ signals to 5x 10Gb/s XFI interface contains a pair of 27∼28Gb/s EDCs.

    [0058] In one embodiment each 20-23Gb/s optical receiver includes a receiver optical subassembly (ROSA).

    [0059] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a CFP MSA package.

    [0060] In one embodiment there is provided a four-carrier optical wavelength division modulator (WDM) transponder/transceiver, comprising:

    at least one electronic device to convert 5x XFI interface to four lanes of 25Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    four driver amplifiers to amplify the four lanes of 25Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively, wherein the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 25Gb/s NRZ signals;

    four electronic low-pass filters receiving the amplified signals and serving as duobinary encoders;

    four 10Gb/s optical transmitters converting the encoded signals into optical signals having four different wavelengths;

    an optical combiner to combine the four wavelengths generated from the four 10Gb/s optical transmitters;

    an optical wavelength slicer to separate the four wavelengths received from the transmission line;

    four 25Gb/s optical receivers; and

    at least one electronic device to convert four lanes of 25Gb/s NRZ signals back to an 10x XFI interface.



    [0061] In one embodiment the electronic device has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew among the four 25Gb/s lanes.

    [0062] In one embodiment the 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a standard or miniaturized integrated tunable laser assembly (ITLA).

    [0063] In one embodiment the 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a tunable or fixed-wavelength transmitter optical subassembly (TOSA).

    [0064] In one embodiment the 10Gb/s optical transmitters contains a zero-chirped or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.

    [0065] In one embodiment the optical combiner is a polarization maintaining beam combiner.

    [0066] In one embodiment the optical combiner is an optical coupler.

    [0067] In one embodiment the channel spacing between the any two neighbor optical wavelengths of four transmitters can be up to a few nanometers.

    [0068] In one embodiment the device is a 1 input x 4 output cyclic array-waveguide with a cycle of 50 or 100 GHz.

    [0069] In one embodiment each 25Gb/s receiver contains at least one 25Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDC).

    [0070] In one embodiment the electronic device that converts four lanes of 25Gb/s NRZ signals to 10x XFI interface contains four 25Gb/s EDCs.

    [0071] In one embodiment each 20-23Gb/s optical receiver includes a receiver optical subassembly (ROSA).

    [0072] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a CFP MSA package.

    [0073] In one embodiment there is provided an N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator (WDM) transponder/transceiver, comprising:

    at least one electronic device to convert SFI5.1 interface to N lanes of 10 or 20-23Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    N driver amplifiers to amplify the N lanes of 10 or 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively, wherein the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 10 or 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals;

    N electronic low-pass filters receiving the amplified signals and serving as duobinary encoders;

    N 10 or 20-23Gb/s optical transmitters converting the encoded signals into optical signals having N different wavelengths, wherein all N different wavelengths are within one of a 50 GHz window or a 100GHz window;

    N 10 or 20-23Gb/s optical receivers; and

    at least one electronic device to convert N lanes of 10 or 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals back to an SFI5.1 interface, wherein N is an positive integer.



    [0074] In one embodiment the electronic device has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew between the N 10 or 20-23Gb/s lanes.

    [0075] In one embodiment the 10 or 20-23Gb/s optical transmitters contains a standard or miniaturized integrated tunable laser assembly (ITLA).

    [0076] In one embodiment the 10 or 20-23Gb/s optical transmitters contains a tunable or fixed-wavelength transmitter optical subassembly (TOSA).

    [0077] In one embodiment the 10 or 20-23Gb/s optical transmitters contains a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.

    [0078] In one embodiment the channel spacing between the N optical wavelengths of the N transmitters is approximately 12.5 or 25GHz.

    [0079] In one embodiment the optical combiner is an optical coupler.

    [0080] In one embodiment the 20-23 Gb/s receiver contains a 10 or 20∼23Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDC).

    [0081] In one embodiment at least one electronic device to convert N lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals back to an SFI5.1 interface contains N 10 or 20∼23Gb/s EDCs.

    [0082] In one embodiment each 10 or 20-23Gb/s optical receiver includes a receiver optical subassembly (ROSA).

    [0083] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a 300-pin MSA package, and is connected to N input fibers and N output fibers, wherein each input fiber corresponds to the input of a 10 or 20Gb/s optical receiver, while each output fiber corresponds to the output of a tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitter.

    [0084] In one embodiment there is provided a two-carrier optical wavelength division modulator (WDM) transponder/transceiver, comprising:

    at least one electronic device to convert 4x XFI interface to two lanes of 20-23Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    one pair of driver amplifiers to amplify the two lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively, wherein the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals;

    one pair of electronic low-pass filters receiving the amplified signals and serving as duobinary encoders;

    one pair of tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters converting the encoded signals into optical signals having two different wavelengths;

    one pair of 20-23Gb/s optical receivers; and

    at least one electronic device to convert two lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals back to 4x XFI interface.



    [0085] In one embodiment the electronic device has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew between the two 20-23Gb/s lanes.

    [0086] In one embodiment the tunable 20-23Gb/s optical transmitters contains a standard or miniaturized integrated tunable laser assembly (ITLA).

    [0087] In one embodiment the tunable 20-23Gb/s optical transmitters contains a tunable or fixed-wavelength transmitter optical subassembly (TOSA).

    [0088] In one embodiment the tunable 20-23Gb/s optical transmitters contains a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.

    [0089] In one embodiment the channel spacing between the two optical wavelengths of the two transmitters is 25GHz.

    [0090] In one embodiment the 20-23Gb/s receiver contains a 20∼23Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDC).

    [0091] In one embodiment at least one electronic device to convert two lanes of 20-23Gb/s NRZ signals back to an 4x XFI interface contains two 20∼23Gb/s EDCs.

    [0092] In one embodiment each 20-23Gb/s optical receiver includes a receiver optical subassembly (ROSA).

    [0093] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a CFP MSA package, and is connected to two input fibers and two output fibers, wherein each input fiber corresponds to the input of a 20Gb/s optical receiver, while each output fiber corresponds to the output of a tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitter.

    [0094] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a CFP MSA package, and with an MTP/MPO connector which accommodates two input fibers from the two 20Gb/s optical receivers, and two output fibers from the two tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters.

    [0095] In one embodiment there is provided a two-carrier optical wavelength division modulator (WDM) transponder/transceiver, comprising:

    at least one electronic device to convert 5x XFI interface to two lanes of 27-28Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    one pair of driver amplifiers to amplify the two lanes of 27-28Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively; the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 27-28Gb/s NRZ signals;

    one pair of electronic low-pass filters receiving the amplified signals and serving as duobinary encoders;

    one pair of tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters converting the encoded signals into optical signals having two different wavelengths;

    one pair of 27-28Gb/s optical receivers; and

    at least one electronic device to convert two lanes of 27-28Gb/s NRZ signals back to an 5x XFI interface.



    [0096] In one embodiment the electronic device has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew between the two 27-28Gb/s lanes.

    [0097] In one embodiment the tunable 27-28Gb/s optical transmitters contains a standard or miniaturized integrated tunable laser assembly (ITLA).

    [0098] In one embodiment the tunable 27-28Gb/s optical transmitters contains a tunable or fixed-wavelength transmitter optical subassembly (TOSA).

    [0099] In one embodiment the tunable 27-28Gb/s optical transmitters contains a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.

    [0100] In one embodiment the channel spacing between the two optical wavelengths of the two transmitters is 25GHz.

    [0101] In one embodiment the 27-28Gb/s receiver contains a 27∼28Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDC).

    [0102] In one embodiment the electronic device which converts two lanes of 27-28Gb/s NRZ signals to 5x XFI interface contains two 27∼28Gb/s electronic dispersion compensator (EDCs).

    [0103] In one embodiment each 20-23Gb/s optical receiver includes a receiver optical subassembly (ROSA).

    [0104] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a CFP MSA package, and is connected to two input fibers and two output fibers, wherein each input fiber corresponds to the input of a 20Gb/s optical receiver, while each output fiber corresponds to the output of a tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitter.

    [0105] In one embodiment the entire transponder/transceiver is contained within a CFP MSA package, and with an MTP/MPO connector which accommodates two input fibers from the two 20Gb/s optical receivers, and two output fibers from the two tunable 10Gb/s optical transmitters.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIGURES



    [0106] 

    FIG. 1A illustrates exemplary 300pin 2x(2023) Gb/s modules described herein, and shows that the duobinary encoder(s) can be implemented within or after the 16:2 multiplexer.

    FIG. 1B illustrates the different possibilities of the "Tunable 10G TX" as employed in the various exemplary embodiments.

    FIG. 2 illustrates exemplary optimum channel spacing between the two optical carriers in FIG. 1A when the two carriers are launched with orthogonal polarizations.

    FIGS. 3A, 3B, and 3C illustrate exemplary CFP 2x(20∼23) Gb/s modules.

    FIGS. 4A and 4B illustrates an exemplary 56Gb/s (2x28Gb/s) CFP MSA module with two optical sub-carriers spaced between 19 and 25 GHz.

    FIG. 5 illustrates an exemplary 100GbE CFP module using 4x25Gb/s optical transceivers/transponders, wherein each optical transceiver uses only 10Gb/s optical modulators and the optical sub-carriers are spaced between 100 and 800 GHz.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0107] Various aspects and exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure are now described with reference to the drawings. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of one or more aspects. It may be evident, however, that such aspect(s) may be practiced without these specific details.

    [0108] The term "or" is intended to mean an inclusive "or" rather than an exclusive "or." That is, unless specified otherwise, or clear from the context, the phrase "X employs A or B" is intended to mean any of the natural inclusive permutations. That is, the phrase "X employs A or B" is satisfied by any of the following instances: X employs A; X employs B; or X employs both A and B. In addition, the articles "a" and "an" as used in this application and the appended claims should generally be construed to mean "one or more" unless specified otherwise or clear from the context to be directed to a singular form.

    [0109] Various aspects or features will be presented in terms of systems that may include a number of devices, components, modules, and the like. It is to be understood and appreciated that the various systems may include additional devices, components, modules, etc. and/or may not include all of the devices, components, modules, etc., discussed in connection with the figures. A combination of these approaches may also be used.

    [0110] Disclosed herein, for the first time, is how to combine appropriate hardware chips and interfaces (e.g., SFI5.1, 4x XFI, 10x XFI, etc.) with dual-carrier duobinary optical transceivers/transponders, with each optical carrier carrying 20∼28Gb/s data stream, to achieve a transceiver/transponder capacity of approximately 40Gb/s, 50Gb/s, and 100Gb/s. Each 20∼28Gb/s optical carrier requires only a 10Gb/s optical modulator in the transceiver, with or without a receiver electronic equalizer operating at 20∼28Gb/s for duobinary modulation. Consequently, a 40Gb/s optical transceiver is composed of only two fixed or tunable wavelength 10Gb/s transmitters (TXs) in the transceiver, and a 100Gb/s optical transceiver is composed of only four fixed or tunable wavelength 10Gb/s optical TXs.

    [0111] When the channel spacing between optical carriers is as narrow as 19∼25GHz, the size of the receiver-side 1x2 array-waveguide (AWG), which is used to separate two narrowly spaced optical carriers, may be too costly or sometimes too big to fit into a CFP module. In that case, the AWG device is pushed outside the CFP module and used instead as a de-interleaver located between a transmission link and conventional 40-ch or 80-ch DWDM demultiplexers. A optical architecture using a 1x2 AWG slicer as the de-interleaver are disclosed in U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/179,956, May 20, 2009 and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/186,325, June 11, 2009.

    Exemplary Configurations



    [0112] FIGS. 1A and 1B show exemplary hardware and optical configurations of a 40Gb/s 300pin transceiver module. As illustrated, on a host board 100 are mounted an external 40Gb/s FEC chip 110 electrically connected via a standard SFI5.1 connector to a 300 pin 2x(20∼23) Gb/s module 120. Within the module 120 is a 300 pin connector 122, which connects to the external FEC chip 110 via the SFI5.1 SFI5.1 interface. The FEC chip 110 in turn is connected to a 16:2 multiplexer (MUX) 124, which has a duobinary precoders in this exemplary embodiment, and has sufficient electronic buffer to manage the skew between the two 20-23Gb/s lanes. Note that a duobinary precoder sometimes is termed a "differential encoder". If the MUX 124 does not have a doubinary precoder, then an external precoder is used immediately after the MUX 124. The MUX 124 separates the 40-46 Gb/s signal into two 20∼23 Gb/s differentially encoded NRZ signals, each separately amplified in driver amps 126a and 126b, then passing through low pass filters (LPFs) 125a, 125b (which can be separate filters or different ports of the same LPF). Each LPF serves as a duobinary encoder. Alternatively, the LPF filters 125a, 125b can come first, and the low-pass filtered signals amplified linearly by driver amps 126a and 126b; in the future when extremely low-drive voltage InP MZIs are commonly commercially used instead of LN MZIs, or the driver amps are integrated inside the MUX chip 124, these driver amps may not be required.

    [0113] It should be noted that in the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, driver amplifiers with a small group delay variation (such that a 20∼28Gb/s signal is not distorted) should be used. The low-pass filtered and amplified signals then drive respective tunable10 Gb/s transmitters 127a, 127b.

    [0114] As for the tunable 10Gb/s transmitters, it should be noted that FIG. 1A shows two tunable laser assemblies (ITLAs), though one integrated ITLA could be used to produce both carrier wavelengths if a wavelength separator or the like is employed. Further, FIG. 1B shows various implementations of the tunable 10G/s transmistters 127a, 127b. In a first variation, an ITLA 128a can be coupled to a 10 G/s LN MZI 128b. In a second variation, a mini- or micro-ITLA 128a can be coupled to a 10 G/s InP MZI. In a third variation, an integrated InP chip 128 that has both a tunable laser and an MZI is employed. Polymer-based optical modulators can also be used. In all cases of Fig.1B, the modulators can be zero-chirp or pre-chirped.

    [0115] The modulated optical outputs from the 10 Gb/s MZIs 127a, 127b are then coupled in to an optical fiber via a 2x1 optical coupler or polarization-maintaining beam combiner (PMBC)129. On the receive side of the 300 pin 2x(20∼23) Gb/s module is a 1x2 array waveguide (AWG) slicer 130, such as a 1x2 cyclic array waveguide with a cycle of 50 GHz, for example, that receives the optical signal from a optical fiber or the like and split into two signals. Each received and separated signal is feed into a respective 20Gb/s receiver 131a, 131b and then onto an electronic dispersion compensators (EDC) or equalizers 132a, 132b. Note that the 20Gb/s receiver should be broadly understood to have an amplitude and flat group-delay bandwidth higher than that of a 10Gb/s receiver, but whether the bandwidth is 18GHz or 12GHz, for instance, depends on the effectiveness of the EDC. Thereafter, the received signals are input into a 2:16 demultiplexer 134, and the demultiplexed signal is then transmitted (via e.g., a SFI5.1SFI5.1 interface and a 300 pin connector 122) to the external FEC 110. The error corrected and decoded signal can then be taken off the host board 100 for use in the larger communications system.

    [0116] A key component in this particular exemplary implementation is the electronic IC MUX/DEMUX 124, 134, which performs the 16:2 and 2:16 serdes (serialize and de-serialize) function, with an SFI 5.1 interface. As illustrated, it would have a duobinary precoder built therein. But depending on the IC actually used, it may not have a duobinary encoder. If this is the case, the duobinary precoder can be located immediately after the MUX 124.

    [0117] Note also that the two electronic dispersion compensators (EDCs) 132a, 132b operating at 20∼23Gb/s can be either stand-alone chips, or can be integrated into the 2:16 DEMUX IC 124, 134. The purpose of the EDCs is to further improve the CD and PMD tolerance, and optical filtering tolerance of the 2x20Gb/s BL-ODB modulation signals. The EDCs can also be used to improve the OSNR performance, for example, by purposely narrowing the bandwidth of the AWG slicer 130 to reduce the noise, and let the EDC to correct the increased inter-symbol-interference (ISI) caused by the narrower AWG slicer bandwidth. If a system does not require these improved CD, PMD, and OSNR performances, the two EDCs do not have to be used.

    [0118] As can be seen, the optical part of the transceiver module 100 illustrated in FIG. 1A is simply a pair of duobinary optical transceivers/transponders, with a 1x2 AWG (array waveguide) device used to separate the two optical carriers spaced between 1925GHz in this example. The channel spacing between the two optical carriers depends on whether a polarization-maintaining beam combiner (PMBC) is used or not. In the case when the two optical carriers are launched with orthogonal polarization states, an optimum channel spacing can be found in FIG. 2 to be around 19∼20 GHz, as evident from the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) vs. channel spacing (in GHz) graph of FIG. 2. Note that in case there is non-negligible polarization-dependent-loss (PDL) in the optical transmission system which causes the received optical power level of the two polarizations to be different, a feedback signaling can be sent from the receiving end to the transmitting end to increase the power of the lower power wavelength so that the power levels at the receiver can be equalized.

    [0119] FIG. 3A illustrates an embodiment in CFP package, which is different from the 300-pin package in FIG. 1. A chip 321 that converts 4x XFI to SFI5.1 interface is added before the original 16:2 MUX and 2:16 DEMUX in FIG. 1. This chip may or may not contain the forward-error-correction (FEC) function.

    [0120] FIG. 3B illustrates another embodiment in CFP package. In FIG. 3B, the original 16:2 MUX 124 and 2:16 DEMUX 134 in FIG. 1 are replaced with pairs of 2:1 TDM (time domain multiplexing) MUXs 324a, 324b, and 1:2 TDM DEMUXs 334a, 334b. Note too that the electrical input interface has been changed from SFI5.1 in FIG. 1 to 4x XFI in FIG. 3B.

    [0121] In a CFP package, in order to save space, integrated tunable laser assemblies (ITLAs) and 10G lithium-niobate Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) 128 in FIG.1 can be replaced by (a) an integrated single-chip InP laser MZI (3rd variation of FIG. 1B), or (b) a micro- or mini-ITLA 128a in combination with a LN or InP MZI 128b (1st and 2nd variations of FIG. 1B). In addition, owing to the fact that InP MZI should require much less microwave driving power, the power consumption can be reduced further, in the variations shown in FIG. 1B.

    [0122] In the example of FIG. 3A and 3C, the duobinary precoders are incorporated in an IC chip that provides the MUX 124. In the example of FIG. 3B, the duobinary precoders are incorporated in the IC chips 324a and 324b that provides 2:1 MUX function. Otherwise, the two duobinary precoders should be located right after the 2:1 MUX output ports.

    [0123] In FIG. 3A and 3C, MUX 124 separates the 40-46 Gb/s signal into two 20-23 Gb/s signals, each separately passing through driver amps 126a, 126ba, then through low pass filters (LPFs) 125a, 125b. The order of the driver amps and low pass filters can be reversed, and in some embodiments these driver amps may not be required. The low-pass filtered and amplified signals then drive respective tunable 10 Gb/s TX 127a, 127b. Arrangements such as variations (2) and (3) in FIG. 1B are small enough to fit into the CFP MSA module 320 in this exemplary embodiment. Variation (1) could be used if the components are made to fit into this space. The output carrier waves from the tunable 10G TX 127a, 127b are modulated in accordance with the low-pass filtered and amplified signal by the 10 Gb/s MZIs (need to have numbers in FIG. 1B) in this exemplary embodiment.

    [0124] Note that the arrangement in FIG. 1B, variations (2) and (3) implies that the InP-based MZI allows duobinary modulation, i.e., the optical power-to-bias voltage transfer function is symmetrical with respect to the zero bias voltage.

    [0125] In FIG. 3C, The modulated optical outputs the tunable 10G TX 127a, 127b are then transmitted via a MPO jumper connector 350 to an external DWDM MUX/DEMUX box 310. The external DWDM MUX/DEMUX box 310 is connected to a 1x2 25/50 GHz interleaver 314, that receives the optical signal from the external DWDM MUX/DEMUX box 310 and combines them into an optical fiber constituting the transmission link. In this configuration, the two wavelengths generated the tunable 10G TX 127a, 127b are called "even" and "odd" channels, respectively. They need to be separated by 25GHz in this exemplary embodiment. Each even wavelength is first combined with other >80 even wavelengths via the even multiplexer 313a, and each odd wavelength is first combined with other >80 odd wavelengths via the odd multiplexer 313b. The two groups of even and odd wavelengths are then combined via the interleaver 314.

    [0126] On the receive side in FIG. 3C, each received optical signal is separated into even and odd wavelengths via the 1x2 de-interleaver 315, and the >80 odd wavelengths are input to the DEMUX 316a and the >80 even wavelengths are input to the DEMUX 316b of the external DWDM box 310. An even and an odd wavelengths within the same 50GHz window are connected to the CFP module 320 via two fibers. Note that for each CFP module 320, there are two input fibers and two output fibers, and to avoid 4 fibers and 8 connectors, a jumper cable containing 4 fibers and two MPO connectors can be used instead (although the 4 fiber connection is still a viable approach). Within the CFP module 320, the respective signals are fed to respective 20Gb/s receivers 131a, 3131b, and then onto an electronic dispersion compensator (EDC) 132a, 132b. Thereafter, the received signals are input into a 2:16 demultiplexer 329, and the demultiplexed signal is then transmitted (via, e.g., a SF15.1 connector) to the external FEC 321 for output to external hardware (not shown) via 11Gb/s XFI connectors. A significant advantage of the configuration in FIG. 3C is that the 2x1 combiner and 1x2 AWG wavelength separator are both moved out of the CFP module 320, therefore further reducing the cost and saving the space and power consumption of the CFP module.

    [0127] As shown in FIG. 3C, the 1x2 AWG device 314 is now located between a conventional 40-ch or 80-ch DWDM MUX/DEMUX box 310 and a transmission link. In essence, this embodiment utilizes the cyclic nature of 1x2 AWGs or a free-space de-interleaver to separate the two optical carriers (25GHz spaced) in every 50GHz ITU window.

    [0128] The same principle in FIG. 3A-3C can be applied to the case of a 56Gb/s CFP module as shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B. In particular, FIG. 4A shows an exemplary hardware and optical configuration of a 56Gb/s CFP MSA transceiver module 400. As illustrated, on a host board 420 are mounted an external 5 of 10 Gb/s FEC chips 421, electrically connected via standard XFI interface to a gear box 422, this gear box is only half of which is used in a standard 100Gb/s gear box (and hence "1/2"), which converts 10x 10Gb/s lines to 4x25Gb/s lines. Within the module 420, multiplexing and demultiplexing between 5x11Gb/s and 2x28Gb/s are performed, similar to the functions performed by MUX/DEMUX 124, 134 as in the embodiment of FIG. 3A. In the example of FIG. 4A, duobinary encoders can be included in the gear box 422, or they can be stand-alone chips immediately after the gear box.

    [0129] The gear box 422 separates the 56Gb/s signal into two ∼28Gb/s signals, each separately passing through drivers 126a, 126b, then through low pass filters (LPFs) 125a, 125b. The order of the amplifier and the LPF can be reversed. The signals can be amplified in this embodiment by drivers 126a, 126b with a small enough group delay that a 20-28 Gb/s signal will not be distorted, though in some embodiments these drivers may not be required. The low-pass filtered and amplified signals then drive respective tunable 10G TX 127a, 127b. Optical signals from respective tunable 10G TX 127a, 127b, which are small enough to fit into the CFP MSA module 420, are passed through a 2x1 optical coupler or PMBC 129 to the transmission line.

    [0130] FIG. 4B shows a variation of FIG. 4A. On the transmitter side, there is no 2x1 combiner129 to combine the two optical wavelengths, and the wavelengths are combined at a 2x1 interleaver 310 outside the CFP module. The operation principle is the same as FIG. 3C.

    [0131] On the receiver side of FIG. 4B, there is no 1x2 AWG slicer 130, as in FIG. 4A, and the wavelength separation is done in an 1x2 de-interleaver 315 within the DWDM transmission infrastructure. After the 1x2 de-interleaver 315, each received optical signal is separated and input to the DEMUX 316a and 316b of the external DWDM box 310, respectively. An output fiber from the odd-channel DEMUX 316a is connected to a first 20Gb/s receiver 427a, and an output fiber from the even-channel DEMUX 316b is connected to a second 20Gb/s receiver 427b. Electronic dispersion compensators (EDCs) 132a, 132b are connected to the 20Gb/s receivers 427a and 427b, respectively. Thereafter, the received signals are input into the 1/2 gear box 422, and the resulting demultiplexed signal is then transmitted (via e.g., XFI interface) to the external FEC device (not shown).

    [0132] A difference between the configurations in FIGS. 3A, 3B, 3C and FIGS. 4A, 4B lies in the first interface chip. In FIGS. 4A and 4B, the first interface chip is now a gear box 422 commonly used to convert 10x10G to 4x25G. As used in the exemplary embodiment of FIGS. 4A and 4B, only half of the gear box is used, thus in effect converting 5x11.3Gb/s electrical signals to 2x28Gb/s electrical signals. Due to the fact that the gear box 422 does not have FEC functions in this exemplary embodiment (though this would be an alternative implementation), those FEC functions could be sitting on a host board 420.

    [0133] It is interesting to note that in FIGS. 3A, 3B and 3C, and FIGS. 4A and 4B, each CFP transceiver provides a 56Gb/s capacity within 50GHz, and thus 112Gb/s within 100GHz can be obtained if two such CFP modules are used. This approach can provide probably the lowest cost of 100Gb/s capacity in 100 GHz via two hot pluggable CFP modules, as opposed to techniques such as coherent detection, which is structurally more complex, is not as small, consumes more electrical power, and is not hot-pluggable.

    [0134] FIG. 5 shows the configuration of a client-side 100Gb/s CFP optical transceiver. It is composed of four T-TOSAs (or fixed wavelength TOSAs) 526a, 526b, 526c, 526d and four ROSAs (receiver optical sub assemblies) 527a, 527b, 527c, 527d. Externally modulated InP MZI are used considering the space constraint if CFP MSA modules are to be used in this exemplary embodiment. Essentially, this embodiment can have four XFP or T-XFP opto-electronic transmitter components placed inside a CFP module 500. Most importantly, this configuration also allows both 4-wavelength MUX and DEMUX be integrated in the same module, which implies that wavelength spacing is at least 100GHz-spaced so that the 4-wavelength mux/demux is small enough to be accommodated. In this case, a 100Gb/s transmission requires a bandwidth of 100GHzx 4 = 400GHz, which is currently very good for client-side applications. Of course, a FEC 521 could be added if the embodiment of FIG. 5 is used on a line-side application.

    [0135] In detail, FIG. 5 shows an exemplary hardware and optical configuration of a 100Gb/s CFP MSA transceiver module 500. As illustrated, on a host board 520 are mounted an external 10x10 Gb/s FEC chip(s) 521 (note that the dashed box implies that this FEC box is normally not required for a client-side CFP application), electrically connected via standard XFI interface to a conventional gear box 522. In the example of FIG. 5, the gear box 522 includes duobinary encoders, but it is possible that this function be incorporated in 4 independent chips at the 4 outputs of the gear box.

    [0136] The gear box 522 separates the 100Gb/s signal into four ∼25Gb/s signals, each encoded with a differential encoder (or duobinary precoder), each separately passing through drivers 524a, 524b, 524c, 524d, then through low pass filters (LPFs) 523a, 523b, 523c, 523d (which can be separate filters or different ports of the same LPF). The differential encoder can be included in the gear box, or can be located right at the output port of the gear box as a separate chip. The filtered signals can be amplified in this embodiment by drivers 524a, 524b, 524c, 524d, that have a flat group delay such that 20∼28Gb/s signals will not be distorted, though in some embodiments these drivers may not be required. The low-pass filtered and amplified signals then drive tunable 10G TOSA's 526a, 526b, 526c and 526d.

    [0137] The modulated optical outputs from the tunable 10G TOSA's 526a, 526b, 525c, 525d are then input to a 4x1 DWDM coupler 529a for transmission on a transmission line of for instance a local area network (LAN) DWDM system. Note that the channel spacing between wavelengths in the LAN application does not have to be as dense as 19∼25GHz, rather, it can be as wide as several nanometers.

    [0138] On the receive side, each received optical signal is separated by a 1x4 DWDM 529b, and the respective signals are fed to respective 25Gb/s ROSAs 526a, 526b, 526c, 526d, and then onto an optional electronic dispersion compensators (EDC) 528a, 528b, 528c, 528d. Thereafter, the received signals are input into the gear box 522, and the resulting demultiplexed signals are then transmitted (via, e.g., XFI interface) to the host board. In a LAN application, normally the host board does not have an FEC device. However, if there is a need for longer distance transmission, an optional FEC can be also added. In that case, due to the FEC overhead, the data rate per lane will be increased from 25Gb/s to ∼28Gb/s.

    [0139] While the foregoing disclosure discusses illustrative aspects and/or embodiments, it should be noted that various changes and modifications could be made herein without departing from the scope of the described aspects and/or embodiments as defined by the appended claims. Furthermore, although elements of the described aspects and/or embodiments may be described or claimed in the singular, the plural is contemplated unless limitation to the singular is explicitly stated. Additionally, all or a portion of any aspect and/or embodiment may be utilized with all or a portion of any other aspect and/or embodiment, unless stated otherwise.


    Claims

    1. An N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver (100; 400), comprising:

    at least two 10 Gb/s-class optical transmitters whose wavelengths are within a 50 or 100 GHz ITU-T window;

    an electronic control circuit configured to provide current for driving each 10 Gb/s-class optical transmitter, wherein said electronic control circuit includes a multiplexer (124) configured to output a control signal, wherein each 10 Gb/s-class optical transmitter is driven by the electrical control signal output by the electronic control circuit according to a band-limited optical duo binary modulation technique at 20∼28 Gb/s;

    wherein the electronic control circuit further comprises:

    a forward-error-correction, FEC, device (110; 321; 521);

    at least one electronic input device configured to to convert a 10x10G electrical interface to N transmit lanes of 25-28 Gb/s differentially-encoded NRZ signals;

    N driver amplifiers (126a-b) configured to amplify the N lanes of 25-28 Gb/s NRZ signals, respectively, wherein the group delay variation of each amplifier is low enough so as not to distort the 25-28 Gb/s NRZ signals; N electronic low-pass filters (125a-b; 523a-d) configured to receive the amplified signals and serve as duobinary encoders;

    at least one electronic output device (422;522) configured to convert N receive lanes of 25∼28 Gb/s NRZ signals to a 10x10G electrical interface; wherein said at least two 10 Gb/s-class optical transmitters are further configured to convert the encoded signals into optical signals having N different wavelengths; wherein the WDM transponder or transceiver further comprises optical receivers.


     
    2. An N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 1, wherein each 10 Gb/s-class optical transmitter comprises a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator.
     
    3. An N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 1, wherein the at least one electronic output device that converts N lanes of 25-28 Gb/s NRZ signals to 10x10G interface contains N electronic dispersion compensators (EDCs) (132a-b; 523a-d).
     
    4. An N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 1, wherein the entire transponder or transceiver claimed therein is provided within one of a 300-pin MSA package or a CFP MSA package.
     
    5. An N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 1, further comprising: an optical combiner (129) to combine the N wavelengths generated from the N 10 Gb/s-class optical transmitters; and an optical wavelength slicer (130) to separate the N wavelengths received from the transmission line, and wherein N equals either two or four.
     
    6. An N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 5 wherein each 10 Gb/s-class optical transmitter comprises a zero-chirp or pre-chirped lithium-niobate, or InP, or polymer-based optical modulator (128; 128a-b).
     
    7. An N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 5, wherein the optical combiner is a polarization-maintaining beam combiner.
     
    8. An N-carrier optical wavelength division modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 5, wherein the entire transponder or transceiver claimed therein is provided within one of a 300-pin MSA package or a CFP MSA package.
     
    9. An N-carrier optical wavelength modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 1, wherein N equals four.
     
    10. An N-carrier optical wavelength modulator, WDM, transponder or transceiver in accordance with claim 5, wherein N equals four.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät (100; 400) mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, umfassend:

    wenigstens zwei optische Sender der 10-Gb/s-Klasse, deren Wellenlängen innerhalb eines 50- oder 100-GHz-ITU-T-Fensters liegen;

    eine elektronische Steuerschaltung, die dazu ausgestaltet ist, Strom zum Ansteuern jedes optischen Senders der 10-Gb/s-Klasse bereitzustellen, wobei die elektronische Steuerschaltung einen Multiplexer (124) umfasst, der dazu ausgestaltet ist, ein Steuersignal auszugeben, wobei jeder optische Sender der 10-Gb/s-Klasse durch das elektrische Steuersignal, das durch die elektronische Steuerschaltung ausgegeben wird, gemäß einer bandlimitierten optischen duobinären Modulationstechnik mit 20-28 Gb/s angesteuert wird;

    wobei die elektronische Steuerschaltung ferner umfasst:

    eine Vorwärtsfehlerkorrektur-, forward error correction - FEC, Vorrichtung (110; 321; 521);

    wenigstens eine elektronische Eingabevorrichtung, die dazu ausgestaltet ist, eine elektrische 10x10G-Schnittstelle in N Sendespuren differenzcodierter NRZ--Signalen mit 25-28 Gb/s umzuwandeln;

    N Treiberverstärker (126a-b), die dazu ausgestaltet sind, entsprechend die N Spuren von NRZ--Signalen mit 25-28 Gb/s zu verstärken, wobei die Gruppenverzögerungsvariation jedes Verstärkers ausreichend gering ist, um die NRZ--Signale mit 25-28 Gb/s nicht zu verzerren;

    N elektronische Tiefpassfilter (125a-b; 523a-d), die dazu ausgestaltet sind, die verstärkten Signale zu empfangen und als duobinäre Codierer zu dienen; wenigstens eine elektronische Ausgabevorrichtung (422; 522), die dazu ausgestaltet ist, N Empfangsspuren von NRZ-Signalen mit 25-28 Gb/s in eine elektrische 10x10G-Schnittstelle umzuwandeln; wobei die wenigstens zwei optischen Sender der 10-Gb/s-Klasse ferner dazu ausgestaltet sind, die codierten Signale in optische Signale mit N unterschiedlichen Wellenlängen umzuwandeln; wobei der/das WDM-Transponder oder Sende-/Empfangsgerät ferner optische Empfänger umfasst.


     
    2. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 1, wobei jeder optische Sender der 10-Gb/s-Klasse einen Null-Chirp- oder vorab gechirpten optischen Modulator auf Lithiumniobat- oder InP- oder Polymerbasis umfasst.
     
    3. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 1, wobei die wenigstens eine elektronische Ausgabevorrichtung, die N Spuren von NRZ-Signalen mit 25-28 Gb/s in eine 10x10G-Schnittstelle umwandelt, N elektronische Dispersionskompensatoren (electronic dispersion compensators - EDCs) (132a-b; 523a-d) enthält.
     
    4. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 1, wobei der/das gesamte Transponder oder Sende-/Empfangsgerät, der/das darin beansprucht wird, innerhalb eines aus einem 300-Pin-MSA-Paket oder einem CFP-MSA-Paket bereitgestellt ist.
     
    5. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend: einen optischen Kombinierer (129), um die N Wellenlängen, die von den N optischen Sendern der 10-Gb/s-Klasse erzeugt werden, zu kombinieren; und einen optischen Wellenlängenteiler (130), um die N Wellenlängen, die von der Übertragungsleitung empfangen werden, zu trennen, und wobei N gleich zwei oder vier ist.
     
    6. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 5, wobei jeder optische Sender der 10-Gb/s-Klasse einen Null-Chirp- oder vorab gechirpten optischen Modulator (128; 128a-b) auf Lithiumniobat- oder InP- oder Polymerbasis umfasst.
     
    7. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 5, wobei der optische Kombinierer ein polarisationserhaltender Strahlkombinierer ist.
     
    8. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 5, wobei der/das gesamte Transponder oder Sende-/Empfangsgerät, der/das darin beansprucht wird, innerhalb eines aus einem 300-Pin-MSA-Paket oder einem CFP-MSA-Paket bereitgestellt ist.
     
    9. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 1, wobei N gleich vier ist.
     
    10. Optischer/s N-Träger-Transponder oder -Sende-/Empfangsgerät mit Wellenlängenmodulator, wavelength division modulator- WDM, nach Anspruch 5, wobei N gleich vier ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, (100;400), comprenant :

    au moins deux émetteurs optique de classe 10 Gb/s dont les longueurs d'onde sont à l'intérieur d'une fenêtre de 50 ou 100 GHz ITU-T;

    un circuit de commande électronique configuré pour fournir un courant pour attaquer chaque émetteur optique de classe 10 Gb/s, dans lequel ledit circuit de commande électronique inclut un multiplexeur (124) configuré pour émettre un signal de commande, dans lequel chaque émetteur optique de classe 10 Gb/s est attaqué par le signal de commande électronique sorti par le circuit de commande électronique selon une technique de modulation optique duobinaire à bande limitée à 20-28 GB/s;

    dans lequel le circuit de commande électronique comprend en outre :

    un dispositif de correction d'erreurs avant FEC (110;321;521);

    au moins un dispositif d'entrée électronique est configuré pour convertir une interface électrique 10x10G en N pistes de transmission de signaux NRZ codés différentiellement à 25-28 Gb/s;

    N amplificateurs d'attaque (126a-b) configurés pour amplifier les N pistes de signaux NRZ à 25-28 Gb/s, respectivement, dans lequel la variation de retard de groupe de chaque amplificateur est suffisamment basse pour ne pas entraîner une distorsion des signaux NRZ à 25-28 Gb/s;

    N filtres passe bas électroniques (125a-b; 523a-b) configurés pour recevoir les signaux amplifiés et servir de codeurs duobinaires;

    au moins un dispositif de sortie électronique (422;522) configuré pour convertir N pistes de réception de signaux NRZ à 25-28 Gb/s en une interface électrique 10x10G; dans lequel lesdits au moins deux émetteurs optique de classe 10 Gb/s sont en outre configurés pour convertir les signaux codés en signaux optique et ayant N longueurs d'ondes différentes ; dans lequel le transpondeur ou l'émetteur récepteur WDM comprend en outre des récepteurs optiques.


     
    2. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, selon la revendication 1, dans lequel chaque émetteur optique de classe 10 Gb/s comprend un modulateur optique basé sur polymère ou niobate de lithium, InP, à chirp nul ou pré-chirpé.
     
    3. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, selon la revendication 1, dans lequel au moins un dispositif de sortie électronique qui convertit N pistes de signaux NRZ à 25-28 Gb/s en interface 10x10G contient N compensateurs de dispersion électronique (EDCs) (132a-b ; 523a-d).
     
    4. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le transpondeur ou l'émetteur-récepteur entier revendiqué est prévu à l'intérieur d'un boîtier MSA à 300 broches ou MSA CFP.
     
    5. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, comprenant en outre : un combinateur optique (129) pour combiner les N longueurs d'onde générées à partir des N émetteurs optiques de classe 10 Gb/s ; et un filtre limiteur de longueur d'onde optique (130) pour séparer les N longueurs d'onde reçues depuis la ligne de transmission, et dans lequel N équivaut soit à deux soit à quatre.
     
    6. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, selon la revendication 5, dans lequel chaque émetteur optique de classe 10 Gb/s comprend un modulateur optique (128 ;128a-b) basé sur polymère ou niobate de lithium, InP, à chirp nul ou pré-chirpé.
     
    7. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, selon la revendication 5, dans lequel le combinateur optique est un combinateur de faisceaux conservant une polarisation.
     
    8. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, selon la revendication 5, dans lequel le transpondeur ou l'émetteur-récepteur entier revendiqué est prévu à l'intérieur d'un boîtier MSA à 300 broches ou MSA CFP.
     
    9. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, selon la revendication 1, dans lequel N équivaut à quatre.
     
    10. Transpondeur ou émetteur-récepteur à modulateur par répartition en longueur d'onde optique à N porteuses, WDM, selon la revendication 5, dans lequel N équivaut à quatre.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description