Field of invention
The present invention relates to umbilicals comprising a center tube. More specifically it relates to transitions from center tubes in umbilicals to bend stiffeners adapted for improving fatigue life of large center tubes in dynamic umbilicals.
Background of the invention
Umbilicals are widely used in offshore oil production. In a dynamic umbilical, a large diameter Super Duplex center tube is a preferred part. At sea, there is often a harsh environment with waves making oil platforms and the like move dynamically.
An umbilical, connecting the sea bottom with an oil platform, will get forces applied resulting in induced geometrical deformation. This deformation will in turn lead to metal fatigue resulting in reduced lifetime for the umbilical. This is particularly the case for the center tube or center tubes. The degree of deformation is proportional to the diameter of a tube. One way of overcoming this problem is to replace said large center tube by several smaller tubes. For instance, one 50 mm tube can be replaced by 7 smaller tubes, each having a diameter of 25 mm. The smaller tubes have to have greater total net cross section due to the fact that flow resistance increases with the smaller tubes. Such designs are significantly more expensive than a solution with just one larger center tube.
The area where umbilicals are subject to fatigue problems is primarily near the end part of the umbilical where it is terminated in the top side of a platform structure or vessel. Below the platform, an umbilical will pass through a bend stiffener. This is a common way of reducing the strain on an umbilical. A bend stiffener is normally conically tapered with a wide end on the upside where the umbilical is terminated and a thin end on the other side where the umbilical extends downwards.
The task of the bend stiffener is to spread the movement of the umbilical over some limited distance so that the bending radius of the umbilical is increased. In this way, forces on critical components like central tubes are not concentrated just at the point of entrance of the umbilical to the platform but spread along the bend stiffener. One problem with bend stiffeners is that central tubes with an inner diameter of 35 mm to 80 mm and even more, and with a wall thickness of 2 mm to 7 mm or more are rather stiff. This size tolerates only quite large bending diameters in order not to fail due to fatigue stress during its required lifetime. Bend stiffeners are made in lengths up to and even more than 7,5 meters. Bend stiffeners this long are difficult and expensive to produce and this is therefore a problem.
Super Duplex is a well-known material in the umbilical business and production of the tubes is well documented. The business has a long track record of production of such tubes, cables and termination. Extensive testing and field experience in the area adds to that.
A large Super Duplex center tube instead of several smaller Super Duplex tubes in an umbilical, results in a much cheaper umbilical.
discloses an umbilical for use in the offshore production of hydrocarbons comprising an assembly of functional elements wherein at least one functional element is a flexible hose which comprises an inner corrugated metallic tube covered by a thermoplastic sheath.
Summary of the invention
The present invention seeks to provide an improved connection between an oil platform and an umbilical that addresses one or more of the aforementioned problems associated with known ways of designing such connections. These problems concern cost as well as problems related to expected hash environments of such installations.
An object of the invention is a system according to claim 1.
Possible characteristics of the invention are defined in claims 2-5.
Another object of the invention is a platform comprising a hang-off topside and a system according to the invention.
Description of the diagrams
The present invention will now be described, by way of example, with reference to the following diagrams wherein:
- Fig. 1
- is a schematic illustration of an embodiment of a platform with an installed umbilical;
- Fig. 2
- is a schematic illustration of a cross section of an umbilical with one large diameter Super Duplex center tube;
- Fig. 3
- is a schematic illustration of a cross section of an umbilical with seven smaller diameter Super Duplex center tubes; and
- Fig. 4
- is a longitudinal section view of a partly corrugated large diameter Super Duplex center tube.
Detailed description of the invention
Referring to Fig. 1, a schematic platform 3
installation according to the present installation is shown. The actual invention is to be found inside a part of an umbilical 2
starting from the platform 3
through an umbilical bend stiffener 1
and further down some limited distance. An umbilical 2
may be quite long, typically ranging from a few kilometers to 40 kilometers or more. It is expensive, not only due to its length, but also because of its complex construction. Referring to Fig.2, an umbilical 2a
is designed to convey different matter like produced oil and gas, usually in a center tube 4
surrounded by a polyethylene sheath 7,
electric power in electrical cables 9,
hydraulic power and other liquids in diverse supplementary tubes 6,
optical signals (not shown), electrical signals (not shown), etc., possibly in different directions, all integrated in the umbilical 2.
One important component when terminating an umbilical 2
to a platform 3
is a bend stiffener 1.
A bend stiffener 1
is typically designed comprising a plurality of parts not to be covered here. It surrounds the upper end of an umbilical 2
and is fixed to the platform 3
while in the other end it is designed to be flexible to some degree. The purpose of the bend stiffener 1
is to spread the dynamic movement of the umbilical 2
on its inside so that it gets evenly distributed along the length of the bend stiffener 1.
The stiffer an umbilical 2
gets, the longer and bigger the bend stiffener 1
has to be. The same relates to dynamic movement, more dynamic movement also requires longer bend stiffeners 1.
If it is desirable to use a large Super Duplex center tube 4
of say 50 mm in an umbilical 2a,
there are also two available options in the art: referring to Fig.3 umbilical 2b
may comprise seven smaller tubes 5
of 25 mm, each being surrounded by a polyethylene sheath 7,
said smaller tubes 5
replacing the larger center tube 4.
Another option is to use an extremely long bend stiffener 1.
Both these alternatives make the umbilical 2
significantly more expensive.
Referring to Fig.4 the present invention solves this problem by modifying the upper part I
of the center tube 4
so that it gets less stiff. This is done by corrugating the upper part I
of the center tube 4.
The corrugated upper part I
is still surrounded by a cylindrical polyethylene sheath 7,
and the annular spaces between said corrugated part I
and said polyethylene sheath 7
are filled with soft polymer or elastomer materials 8.
This way, important advantages are obtained:
In the art it is known to corrugate stiff steel tubes to make them less bending rigidity and prone to material fatigue. This makes a steel tube more expensive and the friction on the inside increases.
A corrugated center tube 4
in an umbilical 2,
limited to the upper part I,
results in considerable reduced cost compared to a completely corrugated center tube 4.
A corrugated center tube 4
in an umbilical 2
limited to the upper part will result in reduced friction and therefore increased transmission capacity compared to using a completely corrugated center tube 4.
The center tube 4
in an umbilical 2
is produced by welding together tube parts of for instance 20 to 30 meters. It is therefore not a problem to combine one, or some limited number, of corrugated tube parts while the rest remains smooth.
The corrugated part I
of the center 4
tube can be seen as an extension of the bend stiffener 1.
When the umbilical 2
together with its bend stiffener 1
is exposed to dynamic motion, acceptable strain on the center tube 4
can be accomplished without the added cost of reverting to multiple center tubes 5
or a bend stiffener 1
having an excessive size.
1. System comprising a bend stiffener (1) and an umbilical (2) intended for the production of oil and gas from a platform, said umbilical (2) comprising a center tube (4) and said bend stiffener (1) surrounding an upper part (I) of said center tube (4), said upper part (I) extending downwardly from an upper extremity of said center tube (4), characterized in that the center tube (4) is a steel tube and the longitudinal cross section of said upper part (I) of said center tube (4) is made corrugated, so that said center tube (4) gets less stiff and fatigue strain on non-corrugated parts of said center tube (4) is avoided.
2. System according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper part (I) corresponds to 70% of a total length of the bend stiffener (1).
3. System according to any of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the center tube (4) is made of Super Duplex steel.
4. System according to any of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the center tube (4) is sheathed with a polyethylene sheath (7).
5. System according to claim 4 characterized in that a volume between the corrugated part of the center tube (4) and the polyethylene sheath (7) is filled with elastomer or soft polymer.
6. Platform (3) comprising a hang-off topside (10) and a system according to any of claims 1 to 5.
1. System, umfassend einen Krümmungsversteifer (1) und ein Mittelrohr (2), das für die Produktion von Öl und Gas von einer Plattform ausgelegt ist, wobei das Mittelrohr (2) ein zentrales Rohr (4) umfasst und der Krümmungsversteifer (1) einen oberen Teil (I) des zentralen Rohrs (4) umgibt, wobei sich der obere Teil (I) von einem oberen Ende des zentralen Rohrs (4) nach unten erstreckt, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das zentrale Rohr (4) ein Stahlrohr ist und der längliche Querschnitt des oberen Teils (I) des zentralen Rohrs (4) gewellt ist, so dass das zentrale Rohr (4) weniger steif wird und Ermüdungsbeanspruchung auf nicht gewellte Teile des zentralen Rohrs (4) vermieden wird.
2. System nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der obere Teil (I) 70 % einer gesamten Länge des Krümmungsversteifers (1) entspricht.
3. System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das zentrale Rohr (4) aus Super Duplex-Stahl hergestellt ist.
4. System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das zentrale Rohr (4) mit einem Polyethylenmantel (7) ummantelt ist.
5. System nach Anspruch 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass ein Volumen zwischen dem gewellten Teil des zentralen Rohrs (4) und dem Polyethylenmantel (7) mit Elastomer oder weichem Polymer gefüllt ist.
6. Plattform (3), umfassend eine herabhängende obere Seite (10) und ein System nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5.
1. Système comprenant un raidisseur (1) et un câble ombilical (2) destiné à la production de pétrole et de gaz depuis une plate-forme, ledit câble ombilical (2) comprenant un tube central (4) et ledit raidisseur (1) entourant une partie supérieure (I) dudit tube central (4), ladite partie supérieure (I) s'étendant vers le bas depuis une extrémité supérieure dudit tube central (4), caractérisé en ce que le tube central (4) est un tube en acier et la section transversale longitudinale de ladite partie supérieure (I) dudit tube central (4) est ondulée, de sorte que ledit tube central (4) soit moins raide et que tout effort de fatigue sur les parties non ondulées dudit tube central (4) soit évité.
2. Système selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la partie supérieure (I) correspond à 70% d'une longueur totale du raidisseur (1).
3. Système selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que le tube central (4) est composé d'acier Super Duplex.
4. Système selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisé en ce que le tube central (4) est recouvert d'une gaine en polyéthylène (7).
5. Système selon la revendication 4, caractérisé en ce qu'un volume entre la partie ondulée du tube central (4) et la gaine en polyéthylène (7) est remplie avec un élastomère ou un polymère souple.
6. Plate-forme (3) comprenant une structure de surface en saillie (10) et un système selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5.