(19)
(11)EP 2 454 524 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 09843752.8

(22)Date of filing:  07.05.2009
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F23C 10/24(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2009/002829
(87)International publication number:
WO 2010/123477 (28.10.2010 Gazette  2010/43)

(54)

CONTINUOUS COARSE ASH DEPRESSURIZATION SYSTEM

SYSTEM ZUR KONTINUIERLICHEN DRUCKERNIEDRIGUNG VON GROBASCHE

SYSTÈME DE DÉPRESSURISATION DE CENDRES GROSSIÈRES CONTINU


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 20.04.2009 US 426700

(43)Date of publication of application:
23.05.2012 Bulletin 2012/21

(73)Proprietor: Southern Company Services, Inc.
Birmingham, AL 35203 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • LIU, Guohai
    Birmingham, AL 35242 (US)
  • PENG, Wanwang
    Birmingham, AL 35242 (US)
  • VIMALCHAND, Pannalal
    Birmingham, AL 35242 (US)

(74)Representative: Griebling, Onno 
Octrooibureau Griebling BV Sportweg 10
5037 AC Tilburg
5037 AC Tilburg (NL)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-01/00313
US-A- 4 709 663
US-A- 4 793 292
US-A- 4 864 969
US-A- 5 167 711
US-A- 4 531 907
US-A- 4 790 251
US-A- 4 860 669
US-A- 5 054 435
US-A1- 2004 100 902
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field of the Invention



    [0001] This invention relates generally to discharge from fluidized bed combustion or gasification systems. Specifically, the invention relates to the cooling and depressurization of coarse solid particles from high pressure and high temperature fluidized bed combustion or gasification systems.

    [0002] US-4.860.699 discloses such a depressurization system.

    Background of the Invention



    [0003] Operating a pressurized reactor such as a fluidized bed coal gasifier or combustor involves discharging coarse solid particles under high pressure and temperatures to storage bins under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (i.e., below 177°C (350°F)). The most commonly used method in such systems is a combination of a lock vessel and a screw cooler system. The screw cooler receives solids under high pressure and temperature and cools the solids by contacting them with the screw and the inner surface of the container.

    [0004] In this system, the lock vessel is a pressure swing vessel and has inlet and outlet valves. The lock vessel receives the cooled solids under pressure from the screw cooler through a normally open inlet valve. When the predetermined amount of solids enters the lock vessel, the inlet valve is closed. Then, the vessel is depressurized to almost atmospheric pressure. The bottom discharge valve is then opened to discharge the solids to an atmospheric vessel. The solids in the atmospheric vessel can be disposed to proper storage vessels.

    [0005] There are disadvantages to this system. One inherent disadvantage of this system is the number of moving parts which need to cycle often and operate in a synchronous manner. A second disadvantage is the difficulty in sealing the two ends of the shaft of the screw when the shaft is rotating under high pressure. Additionally, there are a number of valves around the lock vessel, and the reliability of these valves can be less than desired because during each cycle, the valves must open and close in dusty environment. In normal operating conditions, the valves open and close millions of times under high pressure with a rapid flow of solid particles, thereby eroding the valves. Thus, conventional commercially available systems can have availabilities on average of less than 70%.

    [0006] What is needed then is a system for cooling and continuously depressurizing the coarse solid particles without the inherent issues mentioned above.

    Summary of the Invention



    [0007] A depressurization system according to the invention has the features of claim 1.

    [0008] In one aspect, the pressure letdown device has a housing defining an interior separator cavity and having a housing wall and a filter within the interior separator cavity. In another aspect, the filter has an inner wall and a spaced outer wall, the outer wall being spaced therefrom the housing wall and defining an enclosed annulus between the filter and the housing wall. In this aspect, the inner wall defines a filter conduit in fluid communication with the high pressure, lower temperature solids stream with entrained gas. The filter is configured to allow at least a portion of the cooled coarse solid particles to pass therethrough the filter conduit and exit via a solids outlet positioned adjacent a distal end of the filter conduit, while at least a portion of the entrained gas is directed to the gas outlet, which results in a lower pressure outlet for the cooled coarse solid particles.

    [0009] In one aspect, the depressurization system further comprises a moving packed bed of a solids stream entrained with gas in a horizontal or vertical column in which the gas is flowing faster than the solids to induce pressure reduction. Friction between the coarse particles and an inner wall of the column, and the speed of the gas in the column can substantially reduce the amount of gas to be separated from the solids in the pressure letdown device. In another aspect, the horizontal or vertical column can also be configured as a heat exchanger to provide at least a portion of the cooling to lower the temperature of the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream with entrained gas.

    [0010] In another aspect, no moving parts, such as for example and without limitation, a valve, are in the flow path of the solids stream, thereby improving the reliability of the depressurization system.

    Brief Description of the Drawings



    [0011] These and other features of the preferred embodiments of the invention will become more apparent in the detailed description in which reference is made to the appended drawings wherein:

    FIG. 1 is a schematic view of one embodiment of a depressurization system of the current application.

    FIG. 2 is a schematic view of one aspect of a pressure letdown device of the depressurization system of FIG. 1.

    FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a screen according to one aspect.

    FIG. 4 is a schematic view of another embodiment of a depressurization system.

    FIG. 5 is a side cross-sectional view of the pressure letdown device of FIG. 2, according to one aspect.

    FIG. 6 is a schematic, partially cut-away view of a collector device of the depressurization system of FIG. 4, according to one aspect.

    FIG. 7 is a perspective view of one embodiment of a cooling vessel of the depressurization system of FIG. 1.


    Detailed Description of the Invention



    [0012] The present invention can be understood more readily by reference to the following detailed description, examples, drawing, and claims, and their previous and following description. However, before the present devices, systems, and/or methods are disclosed and described, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the specific devices, systems, and/or methods disclosed unless otherwise specified, as such can, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular aspects only and is not intended to be limiting.

    [0013] The following description of the invention is provided as an enabling teaching of the invention in its best, currently known embodiment. To this end, those skilled in the relevant art will recognize and appreciate that many changes can be made to the various aspects of the invention described herein, while still obtaining the beneficial results of the present invention. It will also be apparent that some of the desired benefits of the present invention can be obtained by selecting some of the features of the present invention without utilizing other features. Accordingly, those who work in the art will recognize that many modifications and adaptations to the present invention are possible and can even be desirable in certain circumstances and are a part of the present invention. Thus, the following description is provided as illustrative of the principles of the present invention and not in limitation thereof.

    [0014] As used throughout, the singular forms "a," "an" and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a valve" can include two or more such valves unless the context indicates otherwise.

    [0015] Ranges can be expressed herein as from "about" one particular value, and/or to "about" another particular value. When such a range is expressed, another aspect includes from the one particular value and/or to the other particular value. Similarly, when values are expressed as approximations, by use of the antecedent "about," it will be understood that the particular value forms another aspect. It will be further understood that the endpoints of each of the ranges are significant both in relation to the other endpoint, and independently of the other endpoint.

    [0016] As used herein, the terms "optional" or "optionally" mean that the subsequently described event or circumstance may or may not occur, and that the description includes instances where said event or circumstance occurs and instances where it does not.

    [0017] As used herein, the term "high pressure" means a pressure at about 207 kPa (30 psig) or above.

    [0018] As used herein, the term "high temperature" means a temperature at about 260°C (500 degrees Fahrenheit) or above.

    [0019] The term "fine particles" means particles having a mean diameter less than or equal to 40 microns or below. The term "coarse particles" refers to particles having a mean diameter greater than 40 microns.

    [0020] The invention relates to a depressurization system 10 that is in fluid communication with a high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein by coarser particles. The system is for use, for example, in processes that have particulate matter that needs to be cooled and depressurized prior to further processing or disposal of the particulate matter. In one exemplary embodiment, the system is intended for use in gasification processes, because, for example, the discharge of solids directly from an operating system to an atmospheric storage unit is not desired.

    [0021] In one aspect, as illustrated in Figures 1 and 7, the depressurization system 10 comprises a vessel 100 defining an interior vessel cavity 114. The vessel 100 has a vessel inlet 110 that is in selective fluid communication with the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein 20 and an upper portion 120 of the interior vessel cavity 114. Optionally, in one aspect, the vessel inlet 110 comprises a valve configured to isolate the system from the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein if such actions are desired. It is understood, however, that the system can operate without the need for a valve at the inlet or an outlet of the system.

    [0022] In another aspect, a vessel outlet 160 is defined therein the vessel 100 that is in fluid communication with a lower portion 170 of the vessel. In another aspect, a screen 180 can be positioned in the vessel cavity 114, substantially enveloping the vessel outlet 160. The screen 180 can be configured, according to one aspect, to block larger extraneous materials from passing through the vessel outlet and potentially blocking the passageways downstream. In one aspect, the screen defines a plurality of screen openings 182, as shown in Figure 3, that have a dimension equal to a predetermined size, such that any extraneous materials with a dimension larger than that predetermined dimension are prevented from passing through the screen. In one aspect, the predetermined dimension ranges from about 0.254 cm (0.1 inches) to about 15.24 cm (6 inches). In another aspect, the predetermined dimension ranges from about 1.27 cm (0.5 inches) to about 7.62 cm (3 inches). In still another aspect, the predetermined dimension can be sized depending upon the application.

    [0023] In one aspect, the screen 180 can be shaped to deflect particles having a dimension larger than the predetermined dimension toward the lower portion of the vessel 100. As one can appreciate, the lower portion 170 of the vessel can have appropriate periodic fluidization to sink larger extraneous materials and can be equipped with a particle outlet 190 that is configured to enable an operator to selectively remove the larger particles therefrom the vessel cavity 114 when the system is not in operation. Additionally, in one aspect, a portion of the screen can be spaced therefrom the vessel outlet defining a screen cavity 184 in communication with the vessel outlet 160. In another aspect, a top face 186 of the screen, as illustrated in Fig. 3, can be sloped downwardly away from the wall of the vessel to assist in deflecting the larger particles toward the particle outlet. In still another aspect, at least a portion of the screen cavity 184 can be in fluid communication with a pressurized fluid source 188. For example, a nozzle can be positioned therein the screen cavity that can be activated periodically to inject fluid into the screen cavity, so that larger extraneous material can be urged towards the particle outlet 190 of the vessel. In one exemplary aspect, the pressurized fluid source comprises air. In another exemplary aspect, the pressurized fluid source comprises compressed nitrogen. However, as one skilled in the art can appreciate, other purge gases are also contemplated and the choice of purge gas can be selected based upon, among other things, the gasification application.

    [0024] The depressurization system 10 can also comprise a cooling apparatus 400, as shown in Fig. 1, to cool the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream entrained with gas to form a high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream entrained with gas 30. In one aspect, the cooling apparatus can be coupled to the vessel outlet 160 and the pressure letdown device 200. In one aspect, the cooling apparatus comprises a thermally conductive elongate cooling conduit 410 in fluid communication with the solids stream. In another aspect, the coarse solid particles entering the cooling apparatus in the solids stream have a dimension smaller than the predetermined dimension of the screen openings 182. At least a portion of the cooling conduit 410 can be in thermal communication with a coolant source. In another aspect, the cooling conduit comprises an inner pipe 412 and a spaced outer pipe 414 defining a coolant pathway 416 therebetween. The coolant pathway provides space for coolant to flow and conducts heat away from the inner pipe 412 and, thus, the solids stream within the conduit. In one aspect, the coolant can be a conventional coolant, such as but not limited to water, CO2, ethylene glycol, and the like. In another aspect, the cooling apparatus can be any other type of heat exchange device as known in the arts, such as a moving bed heat exchanger and the like.

    [0025] In one aspect, the cooling apparatus 400 can be installed vertically or horizontally. In another aspect, the elongate cooling conduit 410 can be used as part of the depressurization system 10 to reduce the pressure of the solids stream entrained with gas and to minimize the amount of gas to be vented out through a gas outlet 290 on the pressure letdown device. In this aspect, the elongate cooling conduit can reduce the pressure of the solids stream entrained with gas when positioned vertically, horizontally, or in any other direction, and with or without thermal communication with a coolant source,. In another aspect, a moving packed bed column can be formed in the cooling apparatus (for example, inside the inner pipe 412), wherein depressurization occurs as the gas is flowing faster than the solids due to the gas release from the pressure letdown device 200, described more fully below. In one aspect, the higher the pressure of the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein, the longer the cooling conduit 410 needs to be for a longer moving packed bed column to increase the pressure drop. In one exemplary aspect, the cooling conduit can be 3.048 m (10 feet) long for a 70 micron mean size gasifier ash particle stream at 1897 kPa (275psig) pressure; however, as can be appreciated, the length of the conduit can also depend upon the particle size and/or characteristics.

    [0026] In one aspect, the depressurization system 10 also comprises a pressure letdown device 200 (i.e., a separator), illustrated in Figures 2 and 5, configured for separating the cooled coarse solid particles therefrom the high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream entrained with gas 30. The pressure letdown device comprises a housing 210 defining an interior separator cavity 220. In another aspect, disposed within the separator cavity is a filter 230 having an inner wall 240 and a spaced outer wall 250, the outer wall being spaced therefrom a housing wall and defining an enclosed annulus 260 between the filter 230 and the housing wall. The inner wall 240 of the filter defines a filter conduit 270 in fluid communication with the high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream entrained with gas exiting the cooling conduit 410.

    [0027] In one aspect, the filter 230 comprises a plurality of granular particles with a narrow size distribution to be used as a filter media. In another aspect, the inner wall of the filter comprises a first plurality of pores 242 having a first pore diameter that can be greater than a mean diameter of the coarse solid particles. This first plurality of pores enables the gas, as well as some fine solid particles, to flow therethrough the inner wall 240 of the filter initially to form a cake therein the filter. In another aspect, the outer wall 250 of the filter comprises a second plurality of pores 252 having a second pore diameter that is less than the mean diameter of the plurality of granular particles that are used as filter media in the filter 230. As such, the gas entrained within the dense phase solids stream entrained with gas can pass therethrough, however, any solid particles can be prevented from passing through the granular filter media. In this aspect, the inner wall and the outer wall of the filter define an enclosed filtration cavity 280 within which is disposed the filter media as a bed of granules. In still another aspect, the maximum penetration depth of ash into the granular bed can be predetermined based on the size distribution of the solids stream that is being depressurized. In one aspect, a top portion and a bottom portion of the filter 230 comprise solid plates to enclose the filtration cavity and prevent the escape of gas therethrough.

    [0028] During operation, in one aspect, after exiting the cooling apparatus, the gas from the high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream entrained with gas 30 flows through the first plurality of pores 242, through the bed of granules, through the second plurality of pores, and collects in the annulus 260 between the outer wall of the filter and the housing wall. In another aspect, some dust from the coarse solid particles also flows through the first plurality or pores and form a surface cake layer on the granular bed, which can prevent the coarse solid particles from penetrating deep into the granular bed. Thus, the bed rarely needs to be cleaned by a reverse flow of gas.

    [0029] In one aspect of the pressure letdown device 200, the first pore diameter can be in the range from about 40 to about 150 microns. In another aspect, the second pore diameter can be in the range from about 40 to about 150 microns. The granules in the granular bed, in one aspect, have a mean diameter that can be greater than the first and second pore diameters.

    [0030] Once the gas collected in the annulus 260 of the pressure letdown device reaches a predetermined pressure level, the gas egresses therethrough the gas outlet 290, thereby lowering the pressure in the pressure letdown device. The cooled coarse solid particles continue through the filter conduit 270 and exit the pressure letdown device via a solids outlet 310 positioned adjacent a distal end 300 of the filter conduit 270 at a lower pressure. In one aspect, the gas outlet can comprise a pressure regulating valve 294, although other methods of controlling the release of the gas from the pressure letdown device are contemplated. In one aspect, when the rate of solids discharged from the pressure letdown device is defined and constant, the gas outlet 290 comprises a gas outlet orifice with a diameter that can be varied depending on the particle properties and the total solids flow rate inside the filter conduit 270. In this aspect, the gas outlet 290 can be sized such that a velocity of gas in the outlet can be in the range of 9.14 to 30.48 meters per second (30 to 100 feet per second). In another aspect, where the solids discharge rate and/or the process pressure varies, the pressure within the pressure letdown device can be controlled with the pressure regulating valve.

    [0031] Additionally, in another aspect, the depressurization system 10 can comprise a collector device 320, as illustrated in Figures 4 and 6, comprising a coarse filter 326 in communication with the solids outlet 310 of the pressure letdown device 200. In one aspect, the collector device can prevent oversized solids and/or extraneous materials discharged from the solids outlet from potentially plugging a downstream conveying line. In another aspect, solids exiting the pressure letdown device via the solids outlet 310 can ingress a collector inlet 322. The coarse filter of the collector device can collect oversized solids and/or extraneous materials, removing them from the solids stream for disposal. The remaining solids can exit the collector device 320 via a collector outlet 324 in communication with the conveying line 329.

    [0032] As mentioned herein above, the depressurization system, in one aspect, is part of a larger gasification or other commercial process system and is designed to depressurize and lower the temperature of the coarse solids particles from the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein.

    [0033] In an exemplary aspect, the coarse solid particles have a mean diameter from about 40 microns to about 1500 microns. In another aspect, the coarse solid particles have a mean diameter from about 40 microns to about 100 microns.

    [0034] It is contemplated that the depressurization system can operate over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. In one aspect, high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein 20 can ingress the interior vessel cavity 114 at a pressure in the range from about 207 kPa (30 psig) to about 10342 kPa (1500 psig). In another aspect, the flow rate of the coarse solid particles into the vessel 100 can range up to 6.3 kg/s (50,000 lbs/hr). After the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein travels through the depressurization system 10, the coarse solid particles can egress the solids outlet 310 at a pressure in the range from about 0 kPa (0 psig) to about 345 kPa (50 psig). In another aspect, the pressure of the coarse solids particles as they egress the solids outlet can vary, depending on the desired discharge rate and/or the conveying distance to a solids storage silo or disposal location. In another aspect, the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having gas entrained therein can ingress the vessel 100 at a temperature in the range from about 93 °C (200 degrees Fahrenheit) to about 1093 °C (2000 degrees Fahrenheit). After traveling through the depressurization system, according to one aspect, the coarse solid particles egress the solids outlet at substantially the same temperature as the gas released from the pressure letdown device. In one aspect, this temperature can be in the range of 93 °C (200 degrees Fahrenheit) to 454 °C (850 degrees Fahrenheit). In another aspect, when the egress temperature at the solids outlet of the coarse solids is higher, the pressure letdown device can comprise an expansion joint 280 coupled to a lower portion of the inner wall 240 which is in contact with the high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream entrained with gas 30.

    [0035] In one aspect, wherein the solids flow rate varies, the rate of egress of solid particles from the solids outlet can be controlled by adjusting the pressure at the gas outlet 290 with the pressure regulating valve 294, as previously discussed. The size of the solids discharge line at the solids outlet can also have an impact on the rate of egress of the coarse solid particles. In another aspect, it is also contemplated that there can be a plurality of solids outlets. In yet another aspect, a conveying gas can be introduced adjacent the solids outlet to assist in the egress of the coarse solid particles. Additionally, the solids outlet 310 can also comprise a large solids filter and/or a collection system to prevent oversized solids or extraneous materials from being discharged from the solids outlet possibly plugging the line.

    [0036] Should a larger drop in pressure be necessary, it is contemplated that a plurality of pressure letdown devices can be cascaded together in series, each having an outlet capable of removing gas. In one aspect, for example, in a process with an operating pressure of 4,482 kPa (650 psig) and a solids removal rate of 6.3 kg/s (50,000 lbs/hr) there can be 4 pressure letdown devices in series, each about 1.5 meters (5 feet) long.

    [0037] In a large pilot facility installation where the depressurization system 10 has been tested, the solids flow rate is in the range 0 to 1.26 kg/s (0 to 10,000 lbs/hr) and the particle diameter is in the range 1 to 6000 microns with mean particle size ranging from 70 to 700 microns. The solids inlet temperature at the vessel inlet 110 is in the range 871 °C (1600 degrees Fahrenheit) to 982 °C (1800 degrees Fahrenheit) and the solids inlet pressure is in the range 1,380 kPa (200 psig) to 1897 kPa (275 psig). The solids discharge pressure has been varied from 34.5 kPa (5 psig) to 276 kPa (40 psig) in order to vary the solids discharge rate from 0 kg/s (0 lbs/hr) to 0.13 kg/s (1000 lbs/hr), as desired. The solids discharge temperature ranges from 37.8 °C (100 degrees Fahrenheit) to 177 °C (350 degrees Fahrenheit).

    [0038] The depressurization system 10 can be used to process coarse solid particles from industrial applications. The system has been tested with process pressures varying up to 3,450 kPa (500 psig) input into the vessel 100 for over 5,000 hours. High temperature coarse ash from the facility's gasifier operating up to 1,897 kPa (275 psig) is withdrawn to a buffer volume. Potential clinkers and any other large pieces of extraneous material are separated from the coarse ash through a screening process. The coarse ash then flows as a moving packed bed through a horizontal column of a cooling apparatus 400 for initial depressurization. This horizontal column also acts as a double pipe heat exchanger. After initial depressurization and cooling in the horizontal column, the ash flows through a pressure letdown device 200 for further depressurization. The depressurized coarse ash is further cooled in the collector device 320 and discharged to an ash silo through a conveying line 329. The system has been fully integrated with the gasification process and the solids level in the gasifier has been maintained within a narrow range by varying the discharge rates of coarse solids through the depressurization system 10. The depressurization system has been successfully operated with coarse materials derived from lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal.

    [0039] In one aspect, multiple trains of depressurization system can be coupled together. In another aspect, each train can have coarse ash handling capacity of 4.5 kg/s (36,000 lbs/hr) ranging up to 6.3 kg/s (50,000 lbs/hr). In this aspect, the depressurization system can be operated at pressures up to 4,485 kPa (650 psig) and inlet temperature up to 1010 °C (1850 degrees Fahrenheit). The coarse ash can be cooled in a solids cooler and then depressurized through a horizontal column and multiple stages of a pressure letdown device before being discharged to an atmospheric ash silo for storage and disposal.

    [0040] Although several embodiments of the invention have been disclosed in the foregoing specification, it is understood by those skilled in the art that many modifications and other embodiments of the invention will come to mind to which the invention pertains, having the benefit of the teaching presented in the foregoing description and associated drawings. It is thus understood that the invention is not limited to the specific embodiments disclosed hereinabove, and that many modifications and other embodiments are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims. Moreover, although specific terms are employed herein, as well as in the claims which follow, they are used only in a generic and descriptive sense, and not for the purposes of limiting the described invention, nor the claims which follow.


    Claims

    1. A depressurization system (10) in fluid communication with a high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein (20), the system comprising:

    - a means for cooling the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein to a lower temperature to form a high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein; and

    - a pressure letdown device (200) configured to at least partially depressurize and separate the coarse solid particles from the high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein;

    - wherein the pressure letdown device (200) comprises:

    -- a housing (210) defining an interior separator cavity (220) and having a housing wall (240);

    -- a plurality of granules configured to form a granular filter bed;

    -- a filter (230) disposed within the interior separator cavity (220) and having an inner wall (240) and a spaced outer wall (250), the outer wall (250) being spaced from the housing wall (240) and defining an enclosed annulus (260) between the filter (230) and the housing wall (240), wherein the inner wall (240) defines a filter conduit (270) in fluid communication with the high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream, the inner wall (240) comprising a first plurality of pores (242) having a first pore diameter that is greater than a mean diameter of the coarse solid particles, in which the term 'coarse particles' refers to particles having a mean diameter greater than 40 microns, wherein the outer wall (250) comprises a second plurality of pores (252) having a second pore diameter that is less than a mean diameter of the granules of the granular filter bed, wherein the inner wall (240) and the outer wall (250) of the filter (230) define an enclosed filtration cavity (280), and wherein the bed of granules is disposed therein the filtration cavity (280); and

    -- a gas outlet (290) in selective fluid communication with the annulus (260) configured for egress of at least partially depressurized gas; wherein a distal end (300) of the filter conduit (270) forms a solids outlet (310) configured for egress of the coarse solid particles.


     
    2. The depressurization system (10) of claim 1, wherein the means for cooling comprises:
    a thermally conductive elongate cooling conduit (410) in fluid communication with the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein, wherein the coarse solid particles have a dimension smaller than a predetermined dimension and the filter conduit (270), and wherein at least a portion of the elongate cooling conduit (410) is in thermal communication with a coolant source.
     
    3. The depressurization system (10) of claim 2, further comprising:

    - a vessel (100) having an upper portion (120) and an opposed lower portion (170) and defining an interior vessel cavity (114), the vessel (100) comprising:

    -- a vessel inlet (114) defined in the upper portion (120) of the vessel (100) that is in selective fluid communication with the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein;

    -- a vessel outlet (160) defined in a lower portion (170) of the vessel (100) in communication with the vessel cavity (114); and

    -- a screen (180) positioned in the vessel cavity (114) and substantially enveloping the vessel outlet (160), wherein the screen (180) defines a plurality of screen openings (182) having a dimension substantially equal to the predetermined distance, the screen (180) configured to prevent passage of particles with a dimension larger than the predetermined dimension of the screen openings (182);
    wherein the vessel outlet (160) is configured for passage of the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein.


     
    4. The depressurization system (10) of claim 3, wherein at least a portion of the screen (180) is configured to deflect particles and extraneous materials having a dimension larger than the predetermined dimension of the screen openings (182) toward the lower portion (170) of the vessel (100).
     
    5. The depressurization system (10) of any of claims 2-4, wherein a moving packed bed column of solids stream can be formed in the elongate cooling conduit (410) configured to at least partially depressurize the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein.
     
    6. The depressurization system (10) of claim 5, wherein in the elongate cooling conduit (410), gas flows faster than solids thereby inducing a pressure reduction.
     
    7. The depressurization system (10) of claim 5, wherein in the moving packed bed column of solids stream, friction between the particles and an inner wall (240) of the elongate cooling conduit (410) reduces the amount of gas to be separated from the solids in the pressure letdown device (200).
     
    8. The depressurization system (10) of claim 5, wherein the moving packed bed column of solids stream is further configured as a heat exchanger to at least partially lower the temperature of the dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein to a desired temperature.
     
    9. The depressurization system (10) of claim 1, wherein the granules of the granular filter bed have a mean diameter such that voids in the bed are smaller than the mean diameter of the coarse solid particles.
     
    10. The depressurization system (10) of claim 1, wherein the pressure letdown device (200) comprises an expansion joint (280) coupled to the inner wall (240) of the filter conduit (270).
     
    11. The depressurization system (10) of claim 10, wherein the pressure letdown device (200) is configured to depressurize the high pressure, lower temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein having a temperature of 454 °C (850 degrees Fahrenheit) and below.
     
    12. The depressurization system (10) of any of claims 1-11, wherein the gas outlet (290) comprises an outlet orifice to regulate the pressure and flow rate of the at least partially depressurized gas.
     
    13. The depressurization system (10) of any of claims 1-[] 9, wherein the gas outlet (290) comprises a pressure regulating valve (294) to regulate the pressure and flow rate of the at least partially depressurized gas.
     
    14. The depressurization system (10) of claim 13, wherein a solids discharge pressure and a solids discharge rate can be varied by varying a pressure setpoint on the pressure regulating valve of the gas outlet (290).
     
    15. The depressurization system (10) of any of claims 1-8, further comprising a collector device (320) in communication with the solids outlet (310) and configured to prevent materials passing through the solids outlet (310) having a dimension greater than a second predetermined dimension from passing through the collector device.
     
    16. The depressurization system (10) of claim 2, wherein the cooling conduit (410) comprises an inner pipe (412) and a spaced outer pipe (414) defining a coolant pathway (416) therebetween, and wherein the coolant pathway (416) is in fluid communication with the coolant source.
     
    17. The depressurization system (10) of claim 3, wherein at least a portion of a heat exchange surface is positioned in the vessel cavity (114), the heat exchanger surface configured for lowering the temperature of the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein.
     
    18. The depressurization system (10) of claim 3, further comprising a secondary outlet (190) in communication with a portion of the lower portion (170) of the vessel (100) for selective removal of the particles with a dimension larger than the predetermined dimension.
     
    19. The depressurization system (10) of claim 3, wherein a portion of the screen (180) is spaced from the vessel outlet (160) defining a screen cavity (184) in communication with the vessel outlet (160).
     
    20. The depressurization system (10) of claim 19, wherein at least a portion of the screen cavity (184) is in fluid communication with a pressurized fluid source (188).
     
    21. The depressurization system (10) of claim 3, wherein the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein ingresses the vessel (100) at a pressure in the range from about 207 kPa (30 psig) to about 10342 kPa (1500 psig);
    and wherein preferably the coarse solid particles egress the solids outlet (310) at a pressure in the range from about 0 kPa (0 psig) to about 345 kPa (50 psig).
     
    22. The depressurization system (10) of claim 3, wherein the high pressure, high temperature dense phase solids stream having coarse solid particles with entrained gas therein ingresses the vessel (100) at a temperature in the range from about 538 °C (1000 degrees Fahrenheit) to about 1093 °C (2000 degrees Fahrenheit);
    and wherein preferably the coarse solid particles egress the solids outlet (310) at a temperature in the range from about 37.8 °C (100 degrees Fahrenheit) to about 177 °C (350 degrees Fahrenheit).
     
    23. The depressurization system (10) of claim 1, wherein the coarse solid particles discharge rate from the solids outlet (310) is in the range from 0 kg/s (0 lbs/hr) to about 6.3 kg/s (50,000 lbs/hr).
     
    24. The depressurization system (10) of claim 1, wherein the coarse solid particles have a mean diameter from about 40 microns to about 1500 microns.
     
    25. The depressurization system (10) of claim 1, wherein the pressure letdown device (200) comprises a plurality of pressure letdown devices (200) in series with one another.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Druckverringerungssystem (10) in Fluidkommunikation mit einem Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit mitgeführtem Gas darin (20) hat, wobei das System umfasst:

    - ein Mittel zum Kühlen des Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Stroms, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit mitgeführtem Gas darin hat, auf eine niedrigere Temperatur, um einen Hochdruck-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom mit niedrigerer Temperatur zu bilden, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit mitgeführtem Gas darin hat; und

    - eine Druckminderungsvorrichtung (200), die dafür ausgelegt ist, zumindest teilweise die groben Feststoff-Teilchen vom Druck herabzusetzen und von dem Hochdruck-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom mit niedrigerer Temperatur, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit mitgeführtem Gas darin hat, zu trennen;

    - wobei die Druckminderungsvorrichtung (200) umfasst:

    -- ein Gehäuse (210), das eine innere Separatorkavität (220) definiert und eine Gehäusewand (240) hat;

    -- eine Vielzahl von Granulaten, die zum Bilden eines granularen Filterbetts ausgelegt sind;

    -- ein Filter (230), das innerhalb der inneren Separatorkavität (220) angeordnet ist und eine Innenwand (240) hat und eine mit Abstand angeordnete Außenwand (250) hat, wobei die Außenwand (250) mit Abstand von der Gehäusewand (240) angeordnet ist und einen eingeschlossenen Ring (260) zwischen dem Filter (230) und der Gehäusewand (240) definiert, wobei die Innenwand (240) eine Filterleitung (270) in Fluidkommunikation mit dem Hochdruck-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom mit niedrigerer Temperatur definiert, wobei die Innenwand (240) eine erste Vielzahl von Poren (242) umfasst, die einen ersten Porendurchmesser haben, der größer als ein mittlerer Durchmesser der groben Feststoff-Teilchen ist, wobei der Begriff 'grobe Teilchen' sich auf Teilchen bezieht, die einen mittleren Durchmesser von mehr als 40 Mikrometern haben, wobei die Außenwand (250) eine zweite Vielzahl von Poren (252) umfasst, die einen zweiten Porendurchmesser haben, der kleiner als ein mittlerer Durchmesser der Granulate des granularen Filterbetts ist, wobei die Innenwand (240) und die Außenwand (250) des Filters (230) eine eingeschlossene Filtrationskavität (280) definieren, und wobei das Bett der Granulate in der Filtrationskavität (280) angeordnet ist; und

    -- einen Gasauslass (290) in selektiver Fluidkommunikation mit dem Ring (260), der für das Austreten von zumindest teilweise druckgemindertem Gas ausgelegt ist; wobei ein distales Ende (300) der Filterleitung (270) einen Feststoff-Auslass (310) bildet, der für das Austreten der groben Feststoff-Teilchen ausgelegt ist.


     
    2. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Mittel zum Kühlen umfasst:
    eine thermisch leitfähige längliche Kühlleitung (410) in Fluidkommunikation mit dem Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas hat, wobei die groben Feststoff-Teilchen eine Abmessung haben, die kleiner als eine vorgegebene Abmessung und die Filterleitung (270) ist, und wobei mindestens ein Teil der länglichen Kühlleitung (410) in thermischer Kommunikation mit einer Kühlmittelquelle steht.
     
    3. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 2, ferner umfassend:

    - einen Behälter (100), der einen oberen Teil (120) und einen gegenüberliegenden unteren Teil (170) hat und eine innere Behälterkavität (114) definiert, wobei der Behälter (100) umfasst:

    -- einen Behältereinlass (114), der im oberen Teil (120) des Behälters (100) definiert ist, der in selektiver Fluidkommunikation mit dem Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom steht, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas hat;

    -- einen Behälterauslass (160), der in einem unteren Teil (170) des Behälters (100) in Kommunikation mit der Behälterkavität (114) definiert ist; und

    -- ein Sieb (180), das in der Behälterkavität (114) positioniert ist und im Wesentlichen den Behälterauslass (160) umschließt, wobei das Sieb (180) eine Vielzahl von Sieböffnungen (182) definiert, die eine Abmessung haben, welche im Wesentlichen gleich mit dem vorgegebenen Abstand sind, wobei das Sieb (180) dafür ausgelegt ist, einen Durchgang von Teilchen mit einer Abmessung zu verhindern, die größer als die vorgegebene Abmessung der Sieböffnungen (182) ist;
    wobei der Behälterauslass (160) für den Durchgang des Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Stroms ausgelegt ist, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas hat.


     
    4. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 3, wobei zumindest ein Teil des Siebs (180) dafür ausgelegt ist, Teilchen und fremde Materialien zu dem unteren Teil (170) des Behälters (100) hin umzulenken, die eine Abmessung haben, die größer als die vorgegebene Abmessung der Sieböffnungen (182) ist.
     
    5. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach einem der Ansprüche 2-4, wobei eine bewegte Füllkörperkolonne von Feststoff-Strom in der länglichen Kühlleitung (410) gebildet werden kann, die dafür ausgelegt ist, zumindest teilweise den Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas hat, vom Druck herabzusetzen.
     
    6. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 5, wobei in der länglichen Kühlleitung (410) Gas schneller als Feststoffe strömt, wodurch eine Druckminderung induziert wird.
     
    7. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 5, wobei in der bewegten Füllkörperkolonne von Feststoff-Strom Reibung zwischen den Teilchen und einer Innenwand (240) der länglichen Kühlleitung (410) die Menge an Gas reduziert, die von den Feststoffen in der Druckminderungsvorrichtung (200) zu trennen ist.
     
    8. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 5, wobei die bewegte Füllkörperkolonne von Feststoff-Strom ferner als Wärmetauscher ausgelegt ist, um zumindest teilweise die Temperatur des Dichtenphasen-Feststoff-Stroms, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas hat, auf eine gewünschte Temperatur zu senken.
     
    9. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Granulate des granularen Filterbetts einen mittleren Durchmesser derart haben, dass Hohlräume in dem Bett kleiner als der mittlere Durchmesser der groben Feststoff-Teilchen sind.
     
    10. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Druckminderungsvorrichtung (200) eine dehnbare Verbindung (280) umfasst, die mit der Innenwand (240) der Filterleitung (270) verbunden ist.
     
    11. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 10, wobei die Druckminderungsvorrichtung (200) dafür ausgelegt ist, den Druck des Hochdruck-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Stroms mit niedrigerer Temperatur, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas aufweisend eine Temperatur von 454 °C (850 Grad Fahrenheit) und darunter, zu reduzieren.
     
    12. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach einem der Ansprüche 1-11, wobei der Gasauslass (290) eine Auslassöffnung umfasst, um den Drucks und die Strömungsrate des zumindest teilweise druckentlasteten Gases zu regulieren.
     
    13. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach einem der Ansprüche 1-9, wobei der Gasauslass (290) ein Druckregelventil (294) umfasst, um den Druck und die Strömungsrate des zumindest teilweise druckentlasteten Gases zu regulieren.
     
    14. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 13, wobei ein Feststoff-Auslassdruck und eine Feststoff-Auslassrate durch Variieren eines Drucksollwerts an dem Druckregelventil des Gasauslasses (290) variiert werden kann.
     
    15. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach einem der Ansprüche 1-8, ferner umfassend eine Sammelvorrichtung (320) in Kommunikation mit dem Feststoff-Auslass (310) und dafür ausgelegt, Passieren von Materialien durch den Feststoff-Auslass (310) zu verhindern, die eine Abmessung haben, welche größer als eine zweite vorgegebene Abmessung vom Passieren durch die SammelVorrichtung ist.
     
    16. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 2, wobei die Kühlleitung (410) ein Innenrohr (412) und ein mit Abstand angeordnetes Außenrohr (414) umfasst, die einen Kühlmittelpfad (416) dazwischen definieren, und wobei der Kühlmittelpfad (416) in Fluidkommunikation mit der Kühlmittelquelle steht.
     
    17. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 3, wobei zumindest ein Teil einer Wärmeaustauschfläche in der Behälterkavität (114) positioniert ist, wobei die Wärmeaustauscherfläche zum Senken der Temperatur des Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Stroms, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas hat, ausgelegt ist.
     
    18. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 3, ferner umfassend einen sekundären Auslass (190) in Kommunikation mit einem Teil des unteren Teils (170) des Behälters (100) zum selektiven Entfernen der Teilchen mit einer Abmessung, die größer als die vorgegebene Abmessung ist.
     
    19. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 3, wobei ein Teil des Siebs (180) mit Abstand vom Behälterauslass (160) angeordnet ist, der eine Siebkavität (184) in Kommunikation mit dem Behälterauslass (160) definiert.
     
    20. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 19, wobei zumindest ein Teil der Siebkavität (184) in Fluidkommunikation mit einer unter Druck stehenden Fluidquelle (188) steht.
     
    21. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 3, wobei der Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas enthält, bei einem Druck im Bereich von etwa 207 kPa (30 psig) bis etwa 10342 kPa (1500 psig) in den Behälter (100) eintritt;
    und wobei vorzugsweise die groben Feststoff-Teilchen bei einem Druck im Bereich von etwa 0 kPa (0 psig) bis etwa 345 kPa (50 psig) den Feststoff-Auslass (310) verlassen.
     
    22. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 3, wobei der Hochdruck-Hochtemperatur-Dichtphasen-Feststoff-Strom, der grobe Feststoff-Teilchen mit darin mitgeführtem Gas hat, bei einer Temperatur im Bereich von etwa 538 °C (1000 Grad Fahrenheit) bis etwa 1093 °C (2000 Grad Fahrenheit) in den Behälter (100) eintritt;
    und wobei vorzugsweise die groben Feststoff-Teilchen bei einer Temperatur im Bereich von etwa 37,8 °C (100 Grad Fahrenheit) bis etwa 177 °C (350 Grad Fahrenheit) den Feststoff-Auslass (310) verlassen.
     
    23. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Austrittsrate der groben Feststoff-Teilchen aus dem Feststoff-Auslass (310) im Bereich von 0 kg/s (0 lbs/hr) bis etwa 6,3 kg/s (50.000 lbs/hr) liegt.
     
    24. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die groben Feststoff-Teilchen einen mittleren Durchmesser von etwa 40 Mikrometer bis etwa 1500 Mikrometer haben.
     
    25. Druckverringerungssystem (10) nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Druckminderungsvorrichtung (200) eine Vielzahl von Druckminderungsvorrichtungen (200) in Reihe zueinander umfasst.
     


    Revendications

    1. Système de dépressurisation (10) en communication fluidique avec un courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température contenant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné (20), le système comprenant:

    - un moyen de refroidissement du courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température contenant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné à une température inférieure pour former un flux de solides en phase dense à haute pression et à basse température, ayant des particules solides grossières avec un gaz entraîné à l'intérieur; et

    - un dispositif (200) d'abaissement de pression configuré pour au moins partiellement dépressuriser et séparer les particules solides grossières du courant de solides en phase dense à température basse et haute pression comportant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné,

    - dans lequel le dispositif (200) d'abaissement de pression comprend :

    - un boîtier (210) définissant une cavité (220) de séparation interne et présentant une paroi de boîtier (240) ;

    - une pluralité de granules configurées pour former un lit filtrant granulaire;

    - un filtre (230) disposé à l'intérieur de la cavité (220) de séparation interne et ayant une paroi interne (240) et une paroi externe (250) espacée, la paroi externe (250) étant espacée de la paroi du boîtier (240) et définissant un espace annulaire fermé (260) entre le filtre (230) et la paroi du boîtier (240), dans lequel la paroi interne (240) définit un conduit de filtre (230) dans la communication fluidique avec le courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température , la paroi interne (240) comprenant une première pluralité de pores (242) ayant un premier diamètre de pore supérieur au diamètre moyen des grosses particules solides, l'expression « grosses particules se référant à des particules ayant un diamètre moyen supérieur à 40 microns, dans lequel la paroi externe (250) comprenant une seconde pluralité de pores (252) ayant un second diamètre de pores inférieur au diamètre moyen des granules du lit filtrant granulaire, la paroi interne (240) et la paroi externe (250) du filtre (230) définissant une cavité de filtration (280) fermée, et dans lequel le lit de granules est disposé dans la cavité de filtration (280); et

    - une sortie de gaz (290) en communication de fluide sélective avec l'espace annulaire (260) configuré pour l'évacuation de gaz au moins partiellement dépressurisé; dans lequel une extrémité distale (300) du conduit de filtre (270) forme une sortie (310) de solides configurée l'évacuation des particules solides grossières.


     
    2. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le moyen de refroidissement comprend:
    un conduit (410) de refroidissement allongé thermoconducteur en communication fluidique avec lecourant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température contenant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné , dans lequel les particules solides grossières ont une dimension inférieure à une dimension prédéterminée et au conduit de filtre (270), et dans laquelle au moins une partie du conduit (410) de refroidissement allongé est en communication thermique avec une source réfrigérante.
     
    3. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 2, comprenant en outre:

    - un récipient (100) ayant une partie supérieure (120) et une partie inférieure (170) opposée et définissant une cavité (114) de récipient intérieure, le récipient (100) comprenant:

    - une entrée (114) de récipient définie dans la partie supérieure (120) du récipient (100) qui est en communication de fluide sélective avec le courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température contenant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné;

    - une sortie (160) de récipient définie la partie inférieure (170) du récipient (100) en communication avec la cavité (114) du récipient; et

    - un écran (180) placé dans la cavité (114) du récipient et enveloppant sensiblement la sortie (160) du récipient, dans lequel l'écran (180) défini une pluralité d'ouvertures (182) d'écran ayant une dimension sensiblement égale à la distance prédéterminée, l'écran (180) étant configuré pour empêcher le passage de particules ayant une dimension supérieure à la dimension prédéterminée des ouvertures (182) de l'écran;
    dans lequel la sortie (160) du récipient est configurée pour le passage du courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température contenant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné.


     
    4. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel au moins une partie de l'écran (180) est configurée pour dévier les particules et les matières étrangères ayant une dimension supérieure à la dimension prédéterminée des ouvertures (182) de l'écran vers la partie inférieure (170) du récipient (100).
     
    5. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 4, dans lequel une colonne à lit tassé mobile de flux de solides peut être formée dans le conduit (410) de refroidissement allongé configuré pour dépressuriser au moins partiellement le courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température contenant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné.
     
    6. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 5, dans lequel, dans le conduit (410) de refroidissement allongé, le gaz s'écoule plus rapidement que les solides, induisant ainsi une réduction de pression.
     
    7. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 5, dans lequel, dans la colonne à lit tassé mobile de flux de solides, un frottement entre les particules et une paroi interne (240) du conduit de refroidissement allongé (410) réduit la quantité de gaz à séparer des solides dans le dispositif (200) d'abaissement de pression.
     
    8. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 5, dans laquelle la colonne à lit tassé mobile de flux de solides est en outre configurée en tant qu'échangeur de chaleur pour abaisser au moins partiellement la température du courant de solides en phase dense comprenant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné à une température souhaitée.
     
    9. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les granulés du lit filtrant granulaire ont un diamètre moyen tel que les vides dans le lit sont inférieurs au diamètre moyen des particules solides grossières.
     
    10. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le dispositif (200) d'abaissement de la pression comprend un joint de dilatation (280) couplé à la paroi interne (240) du conduit de filtre (270).
     
    11. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 10, dans lequel le dispositif (200) d'abaissement de la pression est configuré pour dépressuriser le courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et à température plus basse comportant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné ayant une température de 454°C (850 degrés Fahrenheit) et inférieure.
     
    12. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, dans lequel la sortie de gaz (290) comprend un orifice de sortie pour réguler la pression et le débit du gaz au moins partiellement dépressurisé.
     
    13. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel la sortie de gaz (290) comprend une vanne (294) de régulation de pression pour réguler la pression et le débit du gaz au moins partiellement dépressurisé.
     
    14. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 13, dans lequel une pression de décharge de solides et un taux de décharge de solides peuvent être modifiés en faisant varier un point de consigne de pression sur la vanne de régulation de pression de la sortie de gaz (290).
     
    15. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, comprenant en outre un dispositif collecteur (320) en communication avec la sortie (310) de solides et étant configuré pour empêcher des éléments de passer au travers de la sortie (310) de solides ayant une dimension supérieure à une seconde dimension prédéterminée de passer à travers le dispositif collecteur.
     
    16. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 2, dans lequel le conduit de refroidissement (410) comprend un tuyau interne (412) et un tuyau externe (414) espacé définissant un passage (416) de fluide de refroidissement entre eux, et dans lequel le passage (416) de fluide de refroidissement est en communication fluidique avec la source réfrigérante.
     
    17. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel au moins une partie d'une surface d'échange de chaleur est placée dans la cavité (114) du récipient, la surface de l'échangeur de chaleur étant configurée pour abaisser la température du courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température contenant des particules grossières solides avec du gaz entraîné dans celui-ci.
     
    18. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 3, comprenant en outre une sortie secondaire (190) en communication avec une partie de la partie inférieure (170) du récipient (100) pour l'élimination sélective des particules ayant une dimension supérieure à la dimension prédéterminée.
     
    19. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel une partie de l'écran (180) est espacée de la sortie (160) du récipient définissant une cavité d'écran (184) en communication avec la sortie (160) du récipient.
     
    20. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 19, dans lequel au moins une partie de la cavité d'écran (184) est en communication fluidique avec une source de fluide sous pression (188).
     
    21. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température ayant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné pénètre dans le récipient (100) à une pression dans la plage d'environ 207 kPa (30 psig) à environ 10342 kPa (1500 psig), et dans lequel les particules solides grossières sortent de la sortie des solides à une pression dans la plage d'environ 0 kPa (0 psig) à environ 345 kPa (50 psig).
     
    22. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le courant de solides en phase dense à haute pression et haute température ayant des particules solides grossières avec du gaz entraîné pénètre dans le récipient (100) à une température comprise dans la gamme d'environ 538°C (1000 degrés Fahrenheit) à environ 1093°C (2000 degrés Fahrenheit),
    et dans lequel les particules solides grossières sortent de la sortie (310) des solides à une température dans la plage d'environ 37.8°C (100 degrés Fahrenheit) à environ 177°C (350 degrés Fahrenheit).
     
    23. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le débit de décharge des particules solides grossières de la sortie (310) des solides est compris dans l'intervalle allant de 0kg/s (0 lb/h) à environ 6.3kg/s (50 000 lb/h),
     
    24. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les particules solides grossières ont un diamètre moyen d'environ 40 microns à environ 1500 microns.
     
    25. Système de dépressurisation (10) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le dispositif (200) d'abaissement de la pression comprend une pluralité de dispositifs (200) d'abaissement de la pression en série les uns avec les autres.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description