(19)
(11)EP 2 461 706 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
26.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/26

(21)Application number: 10849575.5

(22)Date of filing:  21.07.2010
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A23J 1/02(2006.01)
A23L 13/40(2016.01)
A23J 1/04(2006.01)
A23L 17/00(2016.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2010/002041
(87)International publication number:
WO 2011/126469 (13.10.2011 Gazette  2011/41)

(54)

PROTEIN PRODUCT AND PROCESS FOR MAKING INJECTABLE PROTEIN PRODUCT

PROTEINPRODUKT UND VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG EINES INJIZIERBAREN PROTEINPRODUKTS

PRODUIT DE PROTÉINE ET PROCÉDÉ POUR FABRIQUER UN PRODUIT DE PROTÉINE INJECTABLE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 05.04.2010 US 798423

(43)Date of publication of application:
13.06.2012 Bulletin 2012/24

(73)Proprietor: Proteus Industries, Inc.
Gloucester, MA 01930 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • KELLEHER, Stephen, D.
    Ipswich, MA 01938 (US)
  • FIELDING, William R.
    Hilton Head, South Carolina 29926 (US)
  • SAUNDERS, Wayne, S.
    Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (US)
  • WILLIAMSON, Peter, G.
    Gloucester, MA 01930 (US)

(74)Representative: Grünecker Patent- und Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB 
Leopoldstraße 4
80802 München
80802 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 6 005 073
US-A1- 2004 058 035
US-A1- 2004 224 079
US-B1- 6 288 216
US-A- 6 136 959
US-A1- 2004 067 551
US-A1- 2005 233 060
US-B1- 6 451 975
  
     
    Remarks:
    The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
     
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] This invention relates to a novel protein composition derived from animal muscle tissue, a process for making the protein composition and to a process for retaining moisture in food, cooked or uncooked.

    [0002] At the present time, it is desirable to retain moisture in cooked or uncooked food so that drying of the food during the cooking process is minimized. It is also desirable to retain moisture in cooked or uncooked food so that the natural food flavors are retained in the food even after cooking.

    [0003] A common occurrence of moisture loss occurs when a frozen food is thawed such as prior to cooking the food. The thawed food experiences drip loss wherein a liquid aqueous composition such as water is formed and becomes separated from the solid thawed food.

    [0004] A second common occurrence of moisture loss occurs when an uncooked food is cooked. Liquid moisture in the food becomes vaporized during the cooking process and migrates to the food surface where it evaporates or separates as a liquid from the solid food being cooked.

    [0005] At the present time, a variety of additive compositions are added to food, primarily by injection, by vacuum tumbling and/or with syringes. Prior attempts to retain moisture in cooked meat or fish with additives have included the use of sodium tripolyphosphate, starches, vegetable fibers, a coating of fat free flour based batter containing an egg white substitute (U.K. Patent Application 2,097,646), water-in-oil emulsion (U.S. Pat. No. 3,406,081), protein or protein isolate and a fat (U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,031,261 and 4,935,251), milk solids (U.S. Pat. No. 2,282,801) and lecithin (U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,470,281 and 3,451,826).

    [0006] An example of such a composition also is disclosed in U.S. Patent 6,855,364 wherein an acidic protein composition derived from animal muscle tissue is added to a food prior to cooking in order to retain moisture in the food during cooking. The acidic protein composition is one obtained by mixing a food grade acid composition with comminuted animal muscle tissue to obtain an acidic protein composition. Suitable processes for obtaining the acidic protein composition are
    disclosed in U.S. Patents 6,005,073; 6,288,216; 6,136,959; 6,451,975 and/or 7,433,764. US 2004/0058035 relates to a process for retaining liquid in cooked food, in particular, a process which utilizes animal muscle protein to retain moisture in food.

    [0007] Accordingly, it would be desirable to provide a form of fish or meat which can be thawed and/or cooked while retaining its moisture and natural flavors or added flavors. In addition, it would be desirable to provide such a form of fish or meat wherein the majority of moisture or added flavors in the uncooked fish or meat is retained during cooking.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0008] In accordance with this invention, it has been found that a novel animal muscle protein composition comprising sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins derived from animal muscle tissue provide improved moisture retention in food being thawed or cooked.

    [0009] An injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition for use during a food processing injection procedure with at least one injection pathway wherein said salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue comprises sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins derived from animal muscle tissue obtained by the process comprising the steps of: (a) comminuting animal muscle tissue to form comminuted animal muscle tissue, (b) mixing said comminuted animal muscle tissue with a food grade acid composition to solubilize animal muscle protein in an aqueous acidic solution of animal muscle protein having a pH between 2.0 and 3.7, (c) preparing an aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein by mixing said aqueous acidic solution with a food grade alkaline composition to precipitate the animal muscle protein in a solution to form an aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein particulates having a pH between 4.7 and 11.0, (d) then adding salt to said aqueous suspension of step (c) to form a salted aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein, and (e) then comminuting said salted aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein to form the injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition including sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins whereby said comminuted salted aqueous suspension flows through each injection pathway during an injection procedure without blocking an injection pathway.

    [0010] It has been found that when the animal muscle protein composition prepared by the process of this invention is added to a food to be thawed and/or cooked, increased moisture retention in the food is observed as compared to an acidic animal muscle tissue protein composition or an alkaline animal muscle tissue protein composition obtained without the first step of forming an acidic animal muscle composition formed from animal muscle tissue.

    [0011] This result is surprising since the protein compositions are chemically the same. While applicants do not wish to be bound to any theory explaining this surprising result, it is believed that by first mixing the animal muscle tissue with a food grade acid, unfolding of the protein molecules is promoted and the subsequent mixing of the protein with a food grade alkaline compound results in an increase in functionality of the protein. This increase in functionality promotes increased moisture retention in the food being treated with the protein.

    [0012] In addition, it has been found that the comminuted animal muscle protein composition of this invention can be injected into food when pumped through a syringe while avoiding protein precipitation within the syringe which blocks the fluid pathway through the syringe. In contrast, it has been found that when the precipitated protein which has been mixed first with an acid and then with a base but is not comminuted blocks the fluid pathway of a syringe within seconds after pumping of the protein composition is initiated. In addition, it has also been found that when the precipitated protein which has been mixed first with an acid and then with a base and additionally mixed with salt, for flavoring, and then comminuted does not block the fluid pathway of the syringe. This is not true for proteins held at the low pH or proteins that go directly to high pH in contrast to proteins that are adjusted to low pH prior to adjustment to a high pH. Also, in contrast to the composition of this invention, animal muscle tissue which has been solubilized with an acid composition to form acidic animal muscle protein which is comminuted or not comminuted blocks the fluid pathway of a syringe within seconds after initiating pumping through the syringe. The fact that these protein compositions block the fluid pathway through the syringe renders them useless for injecting a food with a syringe. In addition, the protein composition mixed first with an acid and then with a base and not comminuted or is mixed only with an acid and comminuted or not comminuted can not be adequately injected into a food by vacuum tumbling since they are retained on the surface of the food and do not satisfactorily penetrate the food surface.

    [0013] The animal muscle protein composition of this invention can be derived from any form of animal muscle tissue including that obtained from fish, poultry such as chicken, shellfish such as shrimp, lamb, beef or pork.

    [0014] When moisture is to be retained in food to be thawed and or food to be cooked, the protein composition of this invention is first added to the food including mixing the protein composition with the food or injecting the protein composition into the food such as by vacuum tumbling and/or with a syringe. The invention is defined by the appended set of claims.

    DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS



    [0015] In accordance with this invention, in a first step, the acidic muscle tissue protein comprising sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins is formed by comminuting animal muscle tissue and then mixing the comminuted animal muscle tissue with a food grade acid composition under conditions to solubilize the animal muscle tissue. Sufficient water also is added to the tissue to fully disperse it. The water and acid composition can be added in sequence or added together with the tissue. The resultant acidic animal muscle tissue protein solution has a pH between 2.0 and 3.7, preferably between 2.5 and 3.5 but not so low as to adversely affect the protein functionality.

    [0016] Any food grade or pharmaceutically acceptable acid that does not undesirably contaminate the acidic protein product can be used to lower the pH of the protein product. For example, organic acids (e.g., citric acid, ascorbic acid, malic acid or tartaric acid) or mineral acids (e.g., hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid) or mixtures thereof Acids that have significant volatility and impart undesirable odors, such as acetic acid or butyric acid, are undesirable. The animal muscle tissue is formed into small tissue particles which are then mixed with sufficient acid to form a solution of the tissue having a pH of 3.5 or less, but not such a low pH as to adversely modify the animal muscle tissue protein. In one process, the solution is centrifuged to form a lowest membrane lipid layer, an intermediate layer of aqueous acidic protein solution and a top layer of neutral lipids (fats and oils). The intermediate layer of aqueous acidic protein solution then is separated from the membrane lipid layer or from both the membrane lipid layer and the neutral lipid layer. In a second process, no centrifugation step is effected since the starting animal muscle tissue contains sufficiently low concentrations of undesired membrane lipids, oils and/or fats as to render a centrifugation step unnecessary. In both processes, the protein composition formed is free of myofibrils and sarcomeres.

    [0017] The acidic animal muscle protein solution then is mixed with a food grade or pharmaceutically acceptable alkaline composition to raise the pH of the acidic solution to a pH of between 4.7 and 11.0, preferably between 5.5 and 9.5 to precipitate the animal muscle protein to form an aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein particulates. Representative suitable alkaline compositions include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate or mixtures thereof. Then salt is added to the aqueous suspension to form a salted aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein. The salted aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein then is comminuted into fine particles such as with apparatus having one or more rotating blades or one or more reciprocating blades thereby to form an injectable salted aqueous suspension of animal muscle proteins.

    [0018] The resulting suspension of animal muscle protein is admixed with comminuted meat or whole fish, fish fillets, whole pieces of meat or injected into meat or fish. Injection can be effected in any manner such as with a syringe or by vacuum tumbling or both. It has been found that when the resultant meat or fish is thawed or the resultant meat or fish is cooked, the thawed or cooked meat or fish retains significantly greater moisture as compared to meat or fish not containing the protein composition of this invention.

    [0019] The protein products utilized in the present invention comprise primarily myofibrillar proteins that also contain significant amounts of sarcoplasmic proteins. The sarcoplasmic proteins in the protein product admixed with or injected into the animal muscle tissue comprises above 8%, preferably above 10%, more preferably above 18%, up to 30% by weight sarcoplasmic proteins, based on the total weight of protein.

    [0020] In one aspect of this invention, particulate meat or fish such as ground meat or fish, e.g., hamburger, is mixed with the protein suspension comprising myofibrillar proteins and sarcoplasmic proteins at a weight ratio usually comprising 0.03 to 18% weight of the protein mixture based on the weight of the uncooked meat or fish, preferably between 0.5 and 10% weight based on the weight of uncooked meat or fish and most preferably comprising between 0.5 to 5% weight based on the weight of the uncooked meat of fish. When utilizing less than 0.3% weight of the protein suspension of this invention, effective moisture retention is not observed.

    [0021] The animal muscle tissue which is modified to retain moisture in accordance with this invention comprises meat and fish, including shell fish. Representative suitable fish include deboned flounder, sole, haddock, cod, sea bass, salmon, tuna, or trout. Representative suitable shell fish include shrimp, crabmeat, crayfish, lobster, scallops, oysters, or shrimp in the shell. Representative suitable meats include ham, beef, lamb, pork, venison, veal, or buffalo; poultry such as chicken, mechanically deboned poultry meat, turkey, duck, or goose either in fillet form or in ground form such as hamburg. The meats can include the bone of the animal when the bone does not adversely affect the edibility of the meat such as spare ribs, lamb chops or pork chops. In addition, processed meat products which include animal muscle tissue such as a sausage composition, a hot dog composition, or emulsified product can be injected or mixed with the protein suspension of this invention or a combination of these protein addition methods. Sausage and hot dog compositions include ground meat or fish, herbs such as sage, spices, sugar, pepper, salt and fillers such as dairy products as is well known in the art.

    [0022] The fish or meat containing the protein suspension of this invention then can be cooked in a conventional manner such as by baking, broiling, deep fat frying, or in a microwave oven. It has been found that the cooked meat or fish provided in accordance with this invention weighs between 1 and 20%, more usually between 4% and 9% by weight greater than cooked untreated meat or fish starting from the same uncooked weight. In addition, when frozen meat or fish containing the protein suspension is that drip loss from the food is reduced between 4 and 15% as compared with meat or fish not containing the protein suspension of this invention.

    [0023] The following examples are disclosed. Percent (%) in Tables 10 reflects the comparative loss of moisture in the controls verses the moisture loss in the compositions of this invention (moisture content of a composition of this invention moisture content of control X 100).

    Example 1 (Reference)



    [0024] This example illustrates that the protein composition provides an improved increase in moisture retention in fish or shellfish as compared to an acidic protein composition not mixed with an alkaline composition. The acidic protein composition shown in Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 (shown below) were processed by mixing comminuted fish muscle protein with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a protein solution having a pH of 3.0. The protein compositions of this invention were obtained by mixing comminuted fish muscle protein or shrimp muscle protein with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a pH of 3.0 in a first step. In a second step, a food grade alkaline composition comprising sodium hydroxide was added to the acidic protein solution to precipitate the protein having a pH of 5.5 or 7.3 (Tables 1, 2 and 3 shown below) or a pH of 7.5, 7.8, 8.5 or 9.5 (Table 4 shown below). The precipitated protein in each instance was comminuted with a Stephan microcut apparatus having two rotating blades to form a suspension of protein and an aqueous medium having a pH shown in Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4. Each protein composition made from muscle protein as described herein was injected into the animal muscle tissue of the species from which the protein compositions were obtained. The animal muscle tissue was then frozen followed by being thawed. Controls were supplied to which no protein was added. The animal muscle tissue samples were weighed prior to injection, subsequent to injection and subsequently to being frozen and then thawed.

    [0025] As shown in Table 1, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the acidic protein composition by more than 7%.

    [0026] As shown in Table 2, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the acidic protein composition by more than 9%.

    [0027] As shown in Table 3, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the acidic protein composition by more than 4%.

    [0028] As shown in Table 4, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the acidic protein composition by more than 6%.

    Example 2 (Reference)



    [0029] This example illustrates that the protein provides an improved increase in moisture retention in fish or shellfish as compared to an acidic protein composition not mixed with an alkaline composition. The acidic protein composition shown in Table 5 (shown below) was processed by mixing comminuted fish muscle protein with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a protein solution having a pH of 3.0. The protein compositions of this invention were obtained by mixing comminuted fish muscle protein or comminuted shrimp muscle protein with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a pH of 3.0 in a first step. In a second step, a food grade alkaline composition comprising sodium hydroxide was added to the acidic protein solution to precipitate the protein having a pH of 5.5 or 7.3 (Table 5 shown below) or a pH of 8.5 (Table 6 shown below). The precipitated protein in each instance was comminuted with a Stephan microcut apparatus having two rotating blades to form a suspension of protein and an aqueous medium having a pH shown in Tables 5 and 6. Each protein composition made from muscle protein as
    described herein was injected into the animal muscle tissue of the species from which the protein compositions were obtained. The animal muscle tissue was then frozen followed by being cooked. Controls were supplied to which no protein was added. The animal muscle tissue samples were weighed prior to injection, subsequent to injection and subsequently to being cooked.

    [0030] As shown in Table 5, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the acidic protein composition by more than 2%.

    [0031] As shown in Table 6, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved the control by more than 15%.

    Example 3 (Reference)



    [0032] This example illustrates that the protein composition provides an improved increase in moisture retention in pork as compared to an acidic protein composition not mixed with an alkaline composition. The acidic protein composition shown in Tables 7 and 8 (shown below) were processed by mixing comminuted pork protein with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a protein solution having a pH of 2.8. The protein compositions of this invention were obtained by mixing comminuted pork protein with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a pH of 2.8 in a first step. In a second step, a food grade alkaline composition comprising sodium hydroxide was added to the acidic protein solution to precipitate the protein having a pH of 5.5 or 7.3 (Tables 7 and 8 shown below). The precipitated protein in each instance was comminuted with a Stephan microcut apparatus having two blades to form a suspension of protein and an aqueous medium having a pH shown in Tables 7 and 8. Each protein composition made from muscle protein as described herein and 3 wt. % sodium chloride were mixed with comminuted pork. 50ml distilled water then was added. The samples in a Nalgene Centrifuge bottle were shaken and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes to remove excess water. Controls were supplied to which no protein was added. After centrifugation, the bottles were inverted over a wire screen for one minute. The animal muscle tissue samples were weighed prior to mixing, subsequent to mixing and subsequent to centrifugation. The water uptake was calculated by dividing the final sample weight by the initial premix weight X 100.

    [0033] As shown in Table 7, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the acidic protein composition by more that 5%.

    [0034] As shown in Table 8, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the acidic protein composition by more than 15%.

    Example 4 (Reference)



    [0035] This example illustrates that the protein composition provides an improved increase in moisture retention in chicken as compared to an acidic protein composition not mixed with an alkaline composition. The acidic protein composition shown in Table 9 (shown below) were processed by mixing comminuted chicken muscle protein with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a protein solution having a pH of 2.8. The protein compositions of this invention were obtained by mixing comminuted chicken muscle protein with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a pH of 2.8 in a first step. In a second step, a food grade alkaline composition comprising sodium hydroxide was added to the acidic protein solution to precipitate the protein having a pH of 5.5 or 7.3 (Table 9 shown below). The precipitated protein in each instance was comminuted with a Stephan microcut apparatus having two rotating blades to form a suspension of protein and an aqueous medium having a pH shown in Table 9. The injectable compositions C1, C2, C3, C4, T1, T2 and T3 contain salt, starch and/or sodium tripolyphosphate as shown in Table 9. Each protein composition made from chicken muscle tissue as described herein was injected into the animal muscle tissue of chicken by a syringe (10 wt% added) and by vacuum tumbling ( 5wt. % added) for a total added weight of 15 wt %. The chicken muscle tissue was then cooked. Controls were supplied to which water was added at 3 wt. % but no protein was added. The animal muscle tissue samples were weighed prior to injection, subsequent to injection and subsequent to being cooked.

    [0036] As shown in Table 9, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the acidic protein composition by more than 9%.

    Example 5 (Reference)



    [0037] This example illustrates that the protein composition provides an improved increase in moisture retention in fish as compared to an alkaline protein composition not first mixed with an acid composition. The alkaline protein compositions shown in Table 10 (shown below) were processed by mixing comminuted fish muscle protein with food grade sodium hydroxide composition to obtain a protein solution having a pH of 12.0 then was adjusted first with phosphoric acid to reduce the pH to 10.0 or 5.5 and then with sodium hydroxide to obtain a pH of 8.5, 10 or 11. The protein compositions of this invention were obtained by mixing comminuted fish muscle tissue with a food grade acidic composition comprising phosphoric acid to obtain a pH of 2.8 in a first step. In a second step, a food grade alkaline composition comprising sodium hydroxide was added to the acidic protein solution to precipitate the protein having a pH of 8.5 or 9.5 (Table 10, samples 5 and 6 shown below). The precipitated protein in each instance was comminuted with a Stephan microcut apparatus having two rotating blades to form a suspension of protein and an aqueous medium having a pH shown in Table 10. Each protein composition made from fish muscle tissue as described herein was injected into the animal muscle tissue of fish muscle tissue by a syringe (10 wt% added). The fish muscle tissue was then frozen and then thawed. Controls were supplied to which water was added at 3 wt. % but no protein was added. The animal muscle tissue samples were weighed prior to injection, subsequent to injection and subsequent to being thawed.

    [0038] As shown in Table 10, moisture retention with the protein composition of this invention improved over moisture retention with the alkali protein composition by more than 5%.
    Table 1
    SamplepHSpeciesPre-Injection Weight (g)Post-Injection Weight (g)Pick Up Weight (g)Pick Up %Post Thaw Weight (g)Post Thaw Loss (g)Post Thaw Loss %Net vs. Pre-Injection (green) Wt.%
    1 Control Pollock 202.98 202.98 0.00 0.00 192.38 10.60 5.22% 94.78%
    2 3.00 Pollock 192.97 213.78 20.81 10.78% 192.63 21.15 9.89% 99.82%
    3 5.50 Pollock 206.44 233.76 27.32 13.23% 207.42 26.34 11.27% 100.47%
    4 7.30 Pollock 200.39 235.56 35.17 17.55% 214.76 20.80 8.83% 107.17%
    Table 2
    SamplepHSpeciesPre-Injection Weight (g)Post-Injection Weight (g)Pick Up Weight (g)Pick Up %Post Thaw Weight (g)Post Thaw Loss (g)Post Thaw Loss %Net vs. Pre-Injection (green) Wt.%
    1 Control Cod 188.67 188.67 0.00 0.00 187.33 1.34 0.71% 98.66%
    2 3.00 Cod 192.37 222.01 29.64 15.41% 196.11 25.90 11.67% 103.74%
    3 5.50 Cod 195.62 228.78 33.16 16.95% 205.49 23.29 10.18% 109.87%
    4 7.30 Cod 194.19 236.66 42.47 21.87% 207.64 29.02 12.26% 113.45%
    Table 3
    SamplepHSpeciesPre-Injection Weight (g)Post Injection Weight (g)Pick Up Weight (g)Pick Up %Post Thaw Weight (g)Post Thaw Loss (g)Post Thaw Loss %Net vs. Pre-Injection (green) Wt. %
    1 Control Shrimp 62.04 62.04 0.00 0.00% 59.89 2.15 3.47% 96.53%
    2 3.00 Shrimp 59.73 68.23 8.50 14.23% 64.32 3.91 5.73% 107.68%
    3 5.50 Shrimp 58.13 66.50 8.37 14.40% 65.29 1.21 1.82% 112.32%
    4 7.30 Shrimp 60.11 69.31 9.20 15.31% 66.72 2.59 3.74% 111.00%
    Table 4
    SamplepHSpeciesPre-Injection Weight (g)Post Injection Weight (g)Pick Up Weight (g)Pick Up Weight %Post Thaw Weight (g)Post Thaw Loss (g)Post Thaw Loss (%)Net vs Pre-Injection (Green) Wt. %
    1 Control Pollock 200.34 200.34 0.00 0.00% 197.45 2.89 1.44% 98.56%
    2 7.3 Pollock 202.12 222.11 19.99 9.89% 210.23 11.88 5.35% 104.01%
    3 7.8 Pollock 201.11 234.54 33.43 16.62% 222.65 11.89 5.07% 110.71%
    4 8.5 Pollock 199.89 225.12 25.23 12.62% 213.27 11.85 5.26% 106.69%
    5 9.5 Pollock 200.63 228.01 27.38 13.65% 215.41 12.60 5.53% 107.37%
    Table 5
    SamplepHSpeciesPre-Injection Weight (g)Post Injection Weight (g)Pick Up Weight(g)Pick Up %Post Cook Weight (g)Post Cook Loss (g)Post Cook Loss %Net vs. Pre-Injection (Green) Wt.%
    1 Control Shrimp 26.11 26.11 0.00 0.00% 24.11 2.00 7.66% 92.34%
    2 3.00 Shrimp 28.39 32.67 4.28 15.08% 32.05 0.62 1.90% 112.89%
    3 5.50 Shrimp 30.72 35.86 5.14 16.73% 35.39 0.47 1.31% 115.20%
    4 7.50 Shrimp 27.47 32.02 4.55 16.56% 31.52 0.50 1.56% 114.74%
    Table 6
    SamplepHSpeciesPre-Injection Weight (g)Post Injection Weight (g)Pick Up Weight (g)Pick Up %Post Cook Weight (g)Post Cook Loss(g)Post Cook Loss %Net vs. Pre-Injection (Green) Wt. %
    1 Control Pollock 454.23 454.23 0.00 0.00% 352.76 101.47 22.34% 77.66%
    2 8.50 Pollock 455.65 501.65 46.00 10.10% 425.77 75.88 15.13% 93.44%
    Table 7
    Series 1
      Bottle Weight (g)Premix WeightPost Centrifuge Weight (G) (Bottle and Premix) Water Uptake Net Result %
    1 Ground Pork Loin (GPL) 78.54 24.76 107.60   117.37%
    2 GPL + 2.8 Pork Protein & 3% Salt 78.71 25.19 107.07   112.58%
    3 GPL + 5.5 pH Pork Protein & 3% Salt 78.41 25.66 108.62   117.73%
    4 GPL + 7.3 pH Pork Protein & 3% Salt 78.63 25.04 108.07   117.57%
    Table 8
    Series 2
      Bottle Weight (g)Premix Weight(g)Post Centrifuge Weight (G) (Bottle and Premix) Water Uptake Net Result %
    1 Ground Pork Loin (GPL) 78.44 24.89 107.23   115.67%
    2 GPL + 2.8 Pork Protein & 3% Salt 79.68 25.66 106.99   106.43%
    3 GPL + 5.5 pH Pork Protein & 3% Salt 78.41 25.07 108.83   121.34%
    4 GPL + 7.3 pH Pork Protein & 3% Salt 78.70 24.83 108.23   118.93%
    Table 9
    Variations
    Controls
    C1     95.00% Water 3.00% Salt 0.00% Starch 2.00% Phosphate  
    C2     95.00% Water 3.00% Salt 2.00% Starch 0.00% Phosphate  
    C3     93.00% Water 3.00% Salt 2.00% Starch 2.00% Phosphate  
    C4     97.00% Water 3.00% Salt 0.00% Starch 0.00% Phosphate  
    Protein-Test Samples        
    T1 2.8 pH   63.00% Protein 31.00% Water 3.00% Salt 3.00% Starch  
    T2 5.5 pH   63.00% Protein 31.00% Water 3.00% Salt 3.00% Starch  
    T3 7.3 pH   63.00% Protein 31.00% Water 3.00% Salt 3.00% Starch  
    SamplepHSpeciesPre-Injection Tumble/Weight (g)Post-Injection Tumble/Weight (g)Pick Up WeightPick Up %Post Cook WeightPost Cook Loss(g)Post Cook Loss %Net vs. Pre-Injection (Green) Wt. %
    C1 Control Chicken 334.00 377.00 43.00 12.87% 270.00 107.00 28.38% 80.84%
    C2 Control Chicken 305.00 348.00 43.00 14.10% 259.00 89.00 25.57% 84.92.%
    C3 Control Chicken 331.00 373.00 42.00 12.69% 281.00 92.00 24.66% 84.89%
    C4 Control Chicken 319.00 363.00 44.00 13.79% 255.00 108.00 29.75% 79.94%
    T1 2.80 Chicken 400.00 463.00 63.00 15.75% 340.00 123.00 26.57% 85.00%
    T1 2.80 Chicken 439.00 498.00 59.00 13.44% 372.00 126.00 25.30% 84.74%
    T2 5.50 Chicken 477.00 551.00 74.00 15.51% 436.00 115.00 20.87% 91.40%
    T2 5.50 Chicken 443.00 505.00 62.00 14.00% 392.00 113.00 22.38% 88.49%
    T3 7.30 Chicken 452.00 518.00 66.00 14.60% 425.00 93.00 17.95% 94.03%
    T3 7.30 Chicken 316.00 363.00 47.00 14.87% 272.00 91.00 25.07% 86.08%
    T3 7.30 Chicken 326.00 379.00 53.00 16.26% 280.00 99.00 26.12% 85.89%
    Table 10
    Sample
    1 12 pH to 10 pH
    2 12 pH to 5.5 pH to 8.5 pH
    3 12 pH to 5.5 pH to 10 pH
    4 12 pH to 5.5 pH to 11 Ph
    5 2.8 pH to 8.5 pH
    6 6.2 pH to 9.5 ph
    SamplepHSpeciesPre-Injection Weight (g)Post Injection Weight (g)Pick Up Weight (g)Pick Up %Post Thaw Weight (g)Post Thaw Loss (g)Post Thaw Loss %Net vs. Pre-Injection (Green) Wt. %
    1 10 Pollock 126.59 134.68 8.09 6.39% 121.49 13.19 9.79% 95.97%
    2 8.50 Pollock 105.35 113.20 7.85 7.45% 105.96 7.24 6.40% 100.58%
    3 10.00 Pollock 103.48 115.22 11.74 11.35% 105.59 9.63 8.36% 102.04%
    4 11.00 Pollock 110.56 124.50 13.94 12.61% 113.17 11.33 9.10% 102.36%
    5 8.5 Pollock 199.89 225.12 25.23 12.62% 213.27 11.85 5.26% 106.69%
    6 9.5 Pollock 200.63 228.01 27.38 13.65% 215.41 12.60 5.53% 107.37%



    Claims

    1. An injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition for use during a food processing injection procedure with at least one injection pathway wherein said salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue comprises sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins derived from animal muscle tissue obtained by the process comprising the steps of:

    a. comminuting animal muscle tissue to form comminuted animal muscle tissue,

    b. mixing said comminuted animal muscle tissue with a food grade acid composition to solubilize animal muscle protein in an aqueous acidic solution of animal muscle protein having a pH between 2.0 and 3.7,

    c. preparing an aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein by mixing said aqueous acidic solution with a food grade alkaline composition to precipitate the animal muscle protein in a solution to form an aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein particulates having a pH between 4.7 and 11.0,

    d. then adding salt to said aqueous suspension of step c to form a salted aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein, and

    e. then comminuting said salted aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein to form the injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition including sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins whereby said comminuted salted aqueous suspension flows through each injection pathway during an injection procedure without blocking an injection pathway.


     
    2. The composition of Claim 1 wherein the animal muscle tissue is pork tissue, fish tissue, poultry tissue, beef tissue, or lamb tissue; preferably the poultry is chicken.
     
    3. The composition of Claim 2 wherein the fish is shellfish; preferably the shellfish is shrimp.
     
    4. The composition of Claim 1 wherein the pH of the aqueous acidic solution is between 2.5 and 3.5.
     
    5. The composition of Claim 1 wherein the pH of the aqueous suspension is between 5.5 and 9.5.
     
    6. The composition of Claim 1 wherein the salt is sodium chloride.
     
    7. A process for forming an injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition for use during a food processing injection procedure with at least one injection pathway wherein said injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue comprises sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins, said process comprising:

    a. comminuting animal muscle tissue to form comminuted animal muscle tissue,

    b. mixing said comminuted animal muscle tissue with a food grade acid composition to solubilize animal muscle protein in an aqueous acidic solution of animal muscle protein having a pH between 2.0 and 3.7,

    c. preparing an aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein by mixing said aqueous acidic solution with a food grade alkaline composition to form an aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein particulates having a pH between 4.7 and 11.0,

    d. then adding salt to the aqueous suspension of step c to form a salted aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein, and

    e. then comminuting said aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein to form the injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition including sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins whereby said comminuted salted aqueous suspension flows through each injection pathway during an injection procedure without blocking an injection pathway.


     
    8. The process of Claim 7 wherein membrane lipids are separated from said aqueous acidic solutions of animal muscle protein.
     
    9. The process of Claim 7 wherein the salt is sodium chloride.
     
    10. A process for retaining moisture in animal muscle tissue which comprises: the process of claim 7 for forming an injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition comprising sarcoplasmic proteins and myofibrillar proteins, the process further comprising:

    (a) adding the injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition to said animal muscle tissue, and

    (b) cooking or thawing said animal muscle tissue with said injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle protein composition from step (a).


     
    11. The process of Claim 10 wherein the protein composition is mixed with said animal muscle tissue or wherein the protein composition is injected into said animal muscle tissue.
     
    12. The process of Claim 10 wherein the pH of the aqueous acidic solution on is between 2.5 and 3.5.
     
    13. The process of Claim 10 wherein the pH of the aqueous suspension of animal muscle protein is between 5.5 and 9.5.
     
    14. The process of Claim 10 wherein the salt added during the process of Claim 7 is sodium chloride.
     
    15. The process of Claim 10, wherein the adding in step (a) is at a weight ratio between 0.03% and 18% by weight of the injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue composition to said animal muscle tissue, whereby said injectable salted aqueous suspension of functional animal muscle tissue protein composition is injected into said animal muscle tissue.
     
    16. The process of Claim 10, wherein, after cooking, the animal muscle tissue weighs between 1% and 20% greater than an animal muscle tissue not subjected to step (a), and wherein, after thawing, the animal muscle tissue weighs between 4% and 15% greater than an animal muscle tissue not subjected to step (a).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Injizierbare gesalzene wässrige Suspension einer funktionellen Tiermuskelgewebeproteinzusammensetzung zur Verwendung während eines lebensmittelverarbeitenden Injektionsverfahrens mit mindestens einem Injektionsweg, wobei die gesalzene wässrige Suspension von funktionellem Tiermuskelgewebe sarkoplasmatische Proteine und myofibrilläre Proteine umfasst, die aus Tiermuskelgewebe gewonnen werden durch das Verfahren, umfassend die Schritte:

    a. Zerkleinern von Tiermuskelgewebe, um zerkleinertes Tiermuskelgewebe zu bilden,

    b. Mischen des zerkleinerten Tiermuskelgewebes mit einer Säurezusammensetzung von Lebensmittelqualität, um Tiermuskelprotein in einer wässrigen sauren Lösung von Tiermuskelprotein mit einem pH zwischen 2,0 und 3,7 aufzulösen,

    c. Herstellen einer wässrigen Suspension von Tiermuskelprotein durch Mischen der wässrigen sauren Lösung mit einer alkalischen Zusammensetzung von Lebensmittelqualität, um das Tiermuskelprotein in einer Lösung auszufällen, um eine wässrige Suspension von Tiermuskelproteinpartikeln mit einem pH-Wert zwischen 4,7 und 11,0 zu bilden,

    d. dann Zugabe von Salz zu der wässrigen Suspension aus Schritt c., um eine gesalzene wässrige Suspension von Tiermuskelprotein zu bilden, und

    e. dann Zerkleinern der gesalzenen wässrigen Suspension von Tiermuskelprotein, um die injizierbare gesalzene wässrige Suspension der funktionellen Tiermuskelgewebeproteinzusammensetzung, einschließlich sarkoplasmatischer Proteine und myofibrillärer Proteine, zu bilden, wobei die zerkleinerte gesalzene wässrige Suspension während eines Injektionsvorgangs durch jeden Injektionsweg fließt, ohne einen Injektionsweg zu blockieren.


     
    2. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Tiermuskelgewebe Schweinegewebe, Fischgewebe, Geflügelgewebe, Rindergewebe oder Lammgewebe ist; vorzugsweise ist das Geflügel Hühnchen.
     
    3. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 2, wobei der Fisch Schalentiere sind; vorzugsweise ist das Schalentier Garnele.
     
    4. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der pH der wässrigen sauren Lösung zwischen 2.5 und 3.5 ist.
     
    5. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der pH der wässrigen Suspension zwischen 5.5 und 9.5 ist.
     
    6. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Salz Natriumchlorid ist.
     
    7. Verfahren zum Bilden einer injizierbaren gesalzenen wässrigen Suspension einer funktionellen Tiermuskelgewebeproteinzusammensetzung zur Verwendung während eines lebensmittelverarbeitenden Injektionsverfahrens mit mindestens einem Injektionsweg, wobei die injizierbare gesalzene wässrige Suspension von funktionellem Tiermuskelgewebe sarkoplasmatische Proteine und myofibrilläre Proteine umfasst, das Verfahren umfassend:

    a. Zerkleinern von Tiermuskelgewebe, um zerkleinertes Tiermuskelgewebe zu bilden,

    b. Mischen des zerkleinerten Tiermuskelgewebes mit einer Säurezusammensetzung von Lebensmittelqualität, um Tiermuskelprotein in einer wässrigen sauren Lösung von Tiermuskelprotein mit einem pH zwischen 2,0 und 3,7 aufzulösen,

    c. Herstellen einer wässrigen Suspension von Tiermuskelprotein durch Mischen der wässrigen sauren Lösung mit einer alkalischen Zusammensetzung von Lebensmittelqualität, um eine wässrige Suspension von Tiermuskelproteinpartikeln mit einem pH-Wert zwischen 4,7 und 11,0 zu bilden,

    d. dann Zugabe von Salz zu der wässrigen Suspension aus Schritt c., um eine gesalzene wässrige Suspension von Tiermuskelprotein zu bilden, und

    e. dann Zerkleinern der gesalzenen wässrigen Suspension von Tiermuskelprotein, um die injizierbare gesalzene wässrige Suspension der funktionellen Tiermuskelgewebeproteinzusammensetzung, einschließlich sarkoplasmatischer Proteine und myofibrillärer Proteine, zu bilden, wobei die zerkleinerte gesalzene wässrige Suspension während eines Injektionsvorgangs durch jeden Injektionsweg fließt, ohne einen Injektionsweg zu blockieren.


     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei Membranlipide von der wässrigen sauren Lösung von Tiermuskelprotein abgetrennt werden.
     
    9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei das Salz Natriumchlorid ist.
     
    10. Verfahren zum Beibehalten von Feuchtigkeit in Tiermuskelgewebe, welches umfasst:
    das Verfahren nach Anspruch 7 zum Bilden einer injizierbaren gesalzenen wässrigen Suspension einer funktionellen Tiermuskelproteinzusammensetzung umfassend sarkoplasmatische Proteine und myofibrilläre Proteine, wobei das Verfahren ferner umfasst:

    (a) Zugeben der injizierbaren gesalzenen wässrigen Suspension einer funktionellen Tiermuskelproteinzusammensetzung zu dem Tiermuskelgewebe, und

    (b) Kochen oder Tauen des Tiermuskelgewebes mit der injizierbaren gesalzenen wässrigen Suspension einer funktionellen Tiermuskelproteinzusammensetzung aus Schritt (a).


     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei die Proteinzusammensetzung mit dem Tiermuskelgewebe gemischt wird oder wobei die Proteinzusammensetzung in das Tiermuskelgewebe injiziert wird.
     
    12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei der pH der wässrigen sauren Lösung zwischen 2.5 und 3.5 ist.
     
    13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei der pH der wässrigen Suspension von Tiermuskelprotein zwischen 5.5 und 9.5 ist.
     
    14. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei das während des Verfahrens nach Anspruch 7 zugegebene Salz Natriumchlorid ist.
     
    15. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei das Zugeben in Schritt (a) bei einem Gewichtsverhältnis zwischen 0.03 Gew.-% und 18 Gew.-% der injizierbaren gesalzenen wässrigen Suspension einer funktionellen Tiermuskelproteinzusammensetzung zu dem Tiermuskelgewebe ist, wobei die injizierbare gesalzene wässrige Suspension einer funktionellen Tiermuskelproteinzusammensetzung in das genannte Tiermuskelgewebe injiziert wird.
     
    16. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei nach dem Kochen das Tiermuskelgewebe zwischen 1% und 20% mehr wiegt als ein Tiermuskelgewebe, das nicht Schritt (a) ausgesetzt wurde und wobei nach dem Tauen das Tiermuskelgewebe zwischen 4% und 15% mehr wiegt als ein Tiermuskelgewebe, das nicht Schritt (a) ausgesetzt wurde.
     


    Revendications

    1. Suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de protéines de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel pour l'utilisation durant une procédure d'injection de transformation alimentaire avec au moins une voie d'injection où ladite suspension aqueuse salée de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel comprend des protéines sarcoplasmiques et des protéines myofibrillaires provenant du tissu musculaire animal obtenu par le procédé comprenant les étapes de :

    a. hachage fin du tissu musculaire animal pour former du tissu musculaire animal finement haché,

    b. mélange dudit tissu musculaire animal finement haché avec une composition d'acide de qualité alimentaire pour solubiliser la protéine musculaire animale dans une solution acide aqueuse de protéine musculaire animale ayant un pH compris entre 2,0 et 3,7,

    c. préparation d'une suspension aqueuse de protéine musculaire animale par mélange de ladite solution acide aqueuse avec une composition alcaline de qualité alimentaire pour précipiter la protéine musculaire animale dans une solution pour former une suspension aqueuse de particules de protéine musculaire animale ayant un pH compris entre 4,7 et 11,0,

    d. puis d'addition de sel à ladite suspension aqueuse de l'étape c pour former une suspension aqueuse salée de protéine musculaire animale, et

    e. ensuite de fine trituration de ladite suspension aqueuse salée de protéine musculaire animale pour former la suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de protéine de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel comprenant des protéines sarcoplasmiques et des protéines myofibrillaires moyennant quoi ladite suspension aqueuse salée finement hachée s'écoule à travers chaque voie d'injection durant une procédure d'injection sans obstruction d'une voie d'injection.


     
    2. Composition selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle le tissu musculaire animal est du tissu de porc, du tissu de poisson, du tissu de volaille, du tissu de boeuf, ou du tissu de mouton ; préférablement la volaille est le poulet.
     
    3. Composition selon la revendication 2 dans laquelle le poisson est un mollusque ou un crustacé ; préférablement le mollusque ou le crustacé est une crevette.
     
    4. Composition selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle le pH de la solution acide aqueuse est compris entre 2,5 et 3,5.
     
    5. Composition selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle le pH de la suspension aqueuse est compris entre 5,5 et 9,5.
     
    6. Composition selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle le sel est le chlorure de sodium.
     
    7. Procédé de formation d'une suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de protéine de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel pour l'utilisation durant une procédure d'injection de transformation alimentaire avec au moins une voie d'injection où ladite suspension aqueuse salée injectable de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel comprend des protéines sarcoplasmiques et des protéines myofibrillaires, ledit procédé comprenant :

    a. le hachage fin du tissu musculaire animal pour former du tissu musculaire animal finement haché,

    b. le mélange dudit tissu musculaire animal finement haché avec une composition d'acide de qualité alimentaire pour solubiliser la protéine musculaire animale dans une solution acide aqueuse de protéine musculaire animale ayant un pH compris entre 2,0 et 3,7,

    c. la préparation d'une suspension aqueuse de protéine musculaire animale par mélange de ladite solution acide aqueuse avec une composition alcaline de qualité alimentaire pour former une suspension aqueuse de particules de protéine musculaire animale ayant un pH compris entre 4,7 et 11,0,

    d. puis l'addition de sel à la suspension aqueuse de l'étape c pour former une suspension aqueuse salée de protéine musculaire animale, et

    e. ensuite le hachage fin de ladite suspension aqueuse de protéine musculaire animale pour former la suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de protéine de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel comprenant des protéines sarcoplasmiques et des protéines myofibrillaires moyennant quoi ladite suspension aqueuse salée finement hachée s'écoule à travers chaque voie d'injection durant une procédure d'injection sans obstruction d'une voie d'injection.


     
    8. Procédé selon la revendication 7 dans lequel les lipides membranaires sont séparés desdites solutions acides aqueuses de protéine musculaire animale.
     
    9. Procédé selon la revendication 7 dans lequel le sel est le chlorure de sodium.
     
    10. Procédé de rétention d'humidité dans le tissu musculaire animal qui comprend : le procédé selon la revendication 7 pour former une suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de protéines de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel comprenant des protéines sarcoplasmiques et des protéines myofibrillaires, le procédé comprenant en outre :

    (a) l'addition de la suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de protéine de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel audit tissu musculaire animal, et

    (b) la cuisson ou la décongélation dudit tissu musculaire animal avec ladite suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de protéine musculaire animale fonctionnelle à partir de l'étape (a).


     
    11. Procédé selon la revendication 10 dans lequel la composition de protéine est mélangée avec ledit tissu musculaire animal ou la composition de protéine est injectée dans ledit tissu musculaire animal.
     
    12. Procédé selon la revendication 10 dans lequel le pH de la solution acide aqueuse est compris entre 2,5 et 3,5.
     
    13. Procédé selon la revendication 10 dans lequel le pH de la suspension aqueuse de protéine musculaire animale est compris entre 5,5 et 9,5.
     
    14. Procédé selon la revendication 10 dans lequel le sel ajouté durant le procédé selon la revendication 7 est le chlorure de sodium.
     
    15. Procédé selon la revendication 10, dans lequel l'addition dans l'étape (a) s'effectue sous un rapport en poids compris entre 0,03 % et 18 % en poids de la suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel audit tissu musculaire animal, moyennant quoi ladite suspension aqueuse salée injectable de composition de protéine de tissu musculaire animal fonctionnel est injectée dans ledit tissu musculaire animal.
     
    16. Procédé selon la revendication 10, dans lequel, après la cuisson, le tissu musculaire animal pèse entre 1 % et 20 % de plus qu'un tissu musculaire animal non soumis à l'étape (a), et où, après la décongélation, le tissu musculaire animal pèse entre 4 % et 15 % de plus qu'un tissu musculaire animal non soumis à l'étape (a).
     






    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description