(19)
(11)EP 2 468 724 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
18.11.2015 Bulletin 2015/47

(21)Application number: 12159851.0

(22)Date of filing:  20.12.2007
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C07D 207/16  (2006.01)
A61K 31/40  (2006.01)

(54)

Synthesis of pyrrolidine compounds

Synthese von Pyrrolidinverbindungen

Synthèse de composés de pyrrolidine


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 21.12.2006 US 876290 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
27.06.2012 Bulletin 2012/26

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
07867854.7 / 2074087

(73)Proprietor: Zealand Pharma A/S
2600 Glostrup (DK)

(72)Inventors:
  • Alimardanov, Asaf Ragim
    Nanuet, NY New York 10954 (US)
  • Sutherland, Karen Wiggins
    New City, NY New York 10956 (US)
  • Mirmehrabi, Mahmoud
    Laval, Québec H7R 6B7 (CA)
  • Deshmukh, Subodh S.
    White Plains, NY New York 10603 (US)
  • Krishnan, Lalitha
    Suffern, NY New York 10901 (US)
  • Zhou, Maotang
    Cedar Knolls, NJ New Jersey 07927 (US)
  • Wang, Ting-Zhong
    Pomona, NY New York 10970 (US)
  • Ren, Jianxin
    Nanuet, NY New York 10954 (US)
  • Considine, John Leo
    Bridgewater, NJ New Jersey 08807 (US)
  • Wu, Charles C.
    Denville, NJ New Jersey 07834 (US)
  • Brazzillo, Jason
    Cortlandt Manor, NJ New Jersey 10567-7406 (US)
  • Raveendranath, Panolil
    Monroe, NY New York 10950 (US)

(74)Representative: Kiddle, Simon John 
Mewburn Ellis LLP
City Tower 40 Basinghall Street London EC2V 5DE
City Tower 40 Basinghall Street London EC2V 5DE (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2004/012731
WO-A2-2007/078990
WO-A1-2004/101515
  
  • LI X ET AL: "Design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel galloyl pyrrolidine derivatives as potential anti-tumor agents", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, PERGAMON, GB, vol. 14, no. 5, 1 March 2006 (2006-03-01), pages 1287-1293, XP025133015, ISSN: 0968-0896, DOI: 10.1016/J.BMC.2005.09.031 [retrieved on 2006-03-01]
  • John A. Butera ET AL: "Discovery of (2 S ,4 R )-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine -2-carboxylic Acid Hydrochloride (GAP-134) 13 , an Orally Active Small Molecule Gap-Junction Modifier for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation", Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 4, 26 February 2009 (2009-02-26), pages 908-911, XP055073107, ISSN: 0022-2623, DOI: 10.1021/jm801558d
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] Described herein are certain pyrrolidine compounds, compositions thereof, and methods for their preparation and use.

[0002] Generally, gap junctions are specialized regions of the cell membrane that contain clusters of hundreds to thousands of densely packed channels that directly connect the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells. The gap junction channels are composed of two hemichannels, or connexons, provided by each of two neighboring cells. Each connexon, in turn, is made up of six proteins called connexins.

[0003] There is increasing recognition that intercellular communication facilitated by gap junctions is essential for cellular homeostasis, proliferation and differentiation. Those structures are thought to be a route for coupling cells and permitting "cross-talk." The cross-talk between gap junctions is referred to as "gap junctional intercellular communication" (GJIC).

[0004] In the heart, conduction of electrical impulses takes place through gap junctions. Abnormal GJIC has been linked to a variety of disease states, including heart disease. For example, it has been shown that mice heterozygous for the Cx43 gene, which codes for a specific ventricular connexin, develop spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias and suffer from sudden cardiac death. Reduced expression of Cx43 in heterozygous mice is directly linked to an increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmias during ischemia. Several other studies have shown reduced expression or altered distribution of Cx43 in chronically ischemic, hibernating, or hypertrophied hearts.

[0005] Several peptides that influence GJIC have been identified, including antiarrhythmic peptides AAP, AAP10; and HP5. However, those peptides exhibit undesirable characteristics, including low stability, short half-life, and a lack of oral bioavailability.

[0006] WO2004/012731 A1 describes tryptase inhibitors of formula:

and describes their potential usefulness in the treatment of disorder including airway disorders, dermatoses and inflammatory bowel disorders.

[0007] WO2004/101515 A1 describes a process for the preparation of compounds of formula:

having an ACE inhibitory action, wherein the carboxy group of the stereospecific amino acid is activated with an uronium salt in in the presence of an aprotic solvent and an activated amino acid is further transformed with an appropriate amine into an ACE inhibitor or its precursor.

[0008] Li et al. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 14, pp. 1287-1293, 2006) describes the synthesis of a series of galloyl pyrrolidine derivatives and their usefulness as potential antitumor agents.

[0009] WO2007/078990 A2 describes modified lysine mimetic compounds having useful pharmacological activity such as antiarrhythmic activity and desirable bioavailability properties.

Summary of the Invention



[0010] In a first aspect, the present invention provides a compound that is (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

[0011] In some embodiments, the compound has a desolvation onset temperature of about 104°C.

[0012] In some embodiments, the compound has two endothermic transitions with onset temperatures of about 104°C and 168°C.

[0013] In some embodiments, the compound has powder x-ray diffraction peaks at 12.5°2θ and 19.0°2θ, optionally further having powder x-ray diffraction peaks at 17.1°2θ, 19.7°2θ, 20.5°2θ, 21.8°2θ, 23.3°2θ and 23.4°2θ, optionally further having powder x-ray diffraction peaks at 5.4°2θ, 20.7°2θ, 21.2°2θ, 23.1°2θ, 26.4°2θ, and 27.4°2θ.

[0014] In a second aspect, the present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to the first aspect and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0015] In a third aspect, the present invention provides a compound according to the first aspect for use in therapy.

[0016] In a fourth aspect, the present invention provides a compound according to the first aspect for use in a method of treating cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation of airway epithelium, disorders of alveolar tissue, bladder incontinence, impaired hearing, endothelial lesions, Type I or Type II diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, atherosclerosis, CNS related conditions, seizures, ischemia, dental tissue disorders, kidney diseases, anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, superficial wounds, deep wounds resulting from trauma, bone fractures, erectile dysfunction, urinary bladder incontinence, neuropathic pain, subchronic and chronic inflammation, cancer, failure of bone marrow, stem cell transplantation, conditions arising during transplantation of cells and tissues, conditions arising during medical procedures, conditions caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species, free radicals or nitric oxide, diseases or disorders of pregnancy, female infertility or stroke, preferably for use in a method of treating cardiovascular disease or in a method of treating ischemia.

[0017] In a fifth aspect, the present invention provides a compound according to the first aspect for use in a method of preventing or treating ischemic injury in one or more organs of a mammal, wherein the organ is optionally selected from the heart, the central nervous system, the kidney, the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, the lungs and limbs.

[0018] In a sixth aspect, the present invention provides use of a compound of the first aspect in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation of airway epithelium, disorders of alveolar tissue, bladder incontinence, impaired hearing, endothelial lesions, Type I or Type II diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, atherosclerosis, CNS related conditions, seizures, ischemia, dental tissue disorders, kidney diseases, anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, superficial wounds, deep wounds resulting from trauma, bone fractures, erectile dysfunction, urinary bladder incontinence, neuropathic pain, subchronic and chronic inflammation, cancer, failure of bone marrow, stem cell transplantation, conditions arising during transplantation of cells and tissues, conditions arising during medical procedures, conditions caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species, free radicals or nitric oxide, diseases or disorders of pregnancy, female infertility and stroke, preferably for use in a method of treating cardiovascular disease or in a method of treating ischemia.

[0019] In a seventh aspect, the present invention provides use of a compound of the first aspect in the manufacture of a medicament for the prevention or treatment of ischemic injury in one or more organs of a mammal, wherein the organ is optionally selected from the heart, the central nervous system, the kidney, the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, the lungs and limbs.

[0020] In an eighth aspect, the present invention provides a method for preparing a compound according to the first aspect, the method comprising comprising providing a solution of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride in a crystallization medium, wherein the crystallization medium comprises at least one water-miscible organic solvent and water, and maintaining the solution for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

[0021] In some embodiments, the at least one water-miscible organic solvent comprises at least one solvent selected from water-miscible alcohols, water-miscible ketones and water-miscible ethers, preferably selected from water-miscible C1-C4 alcohols, water-miscible C1-C6 ketones and C1-C6 water-miscible ethers.

[0022] In some embodiments, the at least one water-miscible organic solvent comprises a mixture of isopropanol, acetone and t-butyl methyl ether.

[0023] In some embodiments, the conditions suitable for forming the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate comprise maintaining the solution at room temperature.

[0024] In some embodiments, the crystallisation medium comprises up to 5% by volume of water.

[0025] The compound (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid:

restores and maintains the gap junction integrity between cell membranes and is useful for the treatment of diseases associated with abnormal gap junction intercellular communications.

[0026] Described herein is a method for preparing a compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof:

wherein:

one of R1 and R2 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl, and the other is -C(O)R5;
wherein R5 is chosen from:

optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;

optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;

optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;

optionally substituted C1-C20 haloalkyl;

optionally substituted C7-C12 aralkyl;

optionally substituted heteroaralkyl including 6-12 atoms;

optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and

optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkenyl;

W is C1-6 alkylene; and

R3 and R4 may be the same or different and are each independently chosen from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl, -C(O)OR6, and -C(O)R9;
wherein R6 is optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl; and
wherein R9 is chosen from
hydrogen;
optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;
optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;
optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;
optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and
optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl including 5-10 atoms;

the method comprising:

converting a compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof:

wherein:

R7 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl; to a compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof:

and, where R7 in formula (III) is optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl,

reacting the compound of formula (III) with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base to provide a compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof. The conversion of the a compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof to a compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof may be performed by acylation in known manner. In particular the conversion may be carried out by reacting the compound of formula (II) with a compound having the formula (IV)

wherein W, R3 and R4 are as defined herein or a reactive derivative thereof, for instance, a mixed anhydride thereof.



[0027] Also described herein is a composition comprising
  1. (1) a compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof

    and/or
    a compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof

    wherein
    one of R1 and R2 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl, and the other is -C(O)R5;
    wherein R5 is chosen from:

    optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;

    optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;

    optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;

    optionally substituted C1-C20 haloalkyl;

    optionally substituted C7-C12 aralkyl;

    optionally substituted heteroaralkyl including 6-12 atoms;

    optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and

    optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkenyl;

    W is C1-6 alkylene;
    R3 and R4 may be the same or different and are each independently chosen from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl, -C(O)OR6, and -C(O)R9;
    wherein R6 is optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl; and
    wherein R9 is chosen from
    hydrogen;
    optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;
    optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms; optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;
    optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and
    optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl including 5-10 atoms; and
    R7 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl;
    and
  2. (2) a detectable amount of one or more compounds selected from:

    N-((7R,8aS)-1,4-dioxooctahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-7-yl)benzamide or a salt thereof, i.e., a compound of formula

    or a salt thereof;

    triphenylphosphine;

    triphenylphosphine oxide;

    a hydrazine dicarboxylate;

    triethylamine;

    benzotriazole;

    (2S,4R)-4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid or a salt thereof, i.e., a compound of formula:

    or a salt thereof;
    and a compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof:



[0028] Also described herein is a compound that is (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride.

[0029] Also described herein is a compound that is (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

[0030] Also described herein is a method for preparing (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate, comprising providing a solution of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride in a crystallization medium, wherein the crystallization medium comprises at least one water-miscible organic solvent and water, and maintaining the solution for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

[0031] Also described herein is a pharmaceutical formulation comprising one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and a compound described herein.

[0032] Also described herein is a method for treating a condition selected from cardiovascular disease; osteoporosis; inflammation of airway epithelium; disorders of alveolar tissue; bladder incontinence; impaired hearing; endothelial lesions; Type I or Type II diabetes; diabetic retinopathy; diabetic neuropathy; atherosclerosis; CNS related conditions; seizures; ischemia; dental tissue disorders; kidney diseases; anaemia; leukopenia; thrombocytopenia; pancytopenia; superficial wounds; deep wounds resulting from trauma; bone fractures; erectile dysfunction; urinary bladder incontinence; neuropathic pain; subchronic and chronic inflammation; cancer; failure of bone marrow; stem cell transplantation; conditions arising during transplantation of cells and tissues; conditions arising during medical procedures; conditions caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species, free radicals or nitric oxide, diseases or disorders of pregnancy; female infertility; and stroke, comprising administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of the compound described herein or a pharmaceutical formulation described herein.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0033] 

FIG. 1 shows the X-ray powder diffraction patterns of preparations of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride as an amorphous solid and as a crystalline monohydrate.

FIG. 2 is the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

FIG. 3 is a differential scanning calorimetry ("DSC") analysis of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

FIG. 4 is a DSC analysis of amorphous (2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride.

FIG. 5 is a thermal gravimetric analysis ("TGA") of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

FIG. 6 is a dynamic vapor sorption analysis of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

FIG. 7 is dynamic vapor sorption analysis of amorphous (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride.



[0034] As used herein, when any variable occurs more than one time in a chemical formula, its definition on each occurrence is independent of its definition at every other occurrence.

[0035] The following abbreviations and terms have the indicated meanings throughout:
Boc
= t-butyloxy carbonyl
eq
= equivalent
Et
= ethyl
EtOAc
= ethyl acetate
g
= gram
HPLC
= high performance liquid chromatography
h, hr, hrs
= hour or hours
in
= inch or inches
kg
= kilogram
L
= liter
LC
= liquid chromatography
M
= molar
Me
= methyl
min
= minute
ml or mL
= milliliter
mmol
= millimole
mol
= mole
Ph
= phenyl
ppm
= parts per million
Pr
= propyl
TEA
= triethylamine


[0036] As used in the present specification, the following words and phrases are generally intended to have the meanings as set forth below, except to the extent that the context in which they are used indicates otherwise.

[0037] As used herein, the term "alkyl" refers to a saturated hydrocarbon chain that may be a straight chain or branched chain, containing the indicated number of carbon atoms. For example, the term "C1-C20 alkyl" indicates that the group may be branched or unbranched, and may contain from 1 to 20 (inclusive) carbon atoms. Similarly, the term "C1-C6 alkyl" indicates that the group may be branched or unbranched, and may contain from 1 to 6 (inclusive) carbon atoms. Any atom may optionally be substituted. Non-limiting examples of alkyl groups include, for example, methyl, ethyl, and tert-butyl.

[0038] As used herein, the term "alkylene" refers to a bivalent alkyl radical, i.e., an alkyl radical having two points of attachment. For example, a methylene group is a -CH2- group and an ethylene group is a -CH2CH2- group.

[0039] As used herein, the term "aralkyl" refers to an alkyl moiety wherein an alkyl hydrogen atom is replaced by an aryl group. One of the carbons of the alkyl moiety serves as the point of attachment of the aralkyl group to another moiety. The term "aralkyl" also includes groups wherein more than one hydrogen atom on an alkyl moiety has been replaced by an aryl group. Any ring or chain atom may optionally be substituted by one or more substituents. Non-limiting examples of "aralkyl" groups include benzyl, 2-phenylethyl (sometimes referred to as "phenethyl"), 3-phenylpropyl, benzhydryl (diphenylmethyl), and trityl (triphenylmethyl) groups.

[0040] As used herein, the term "aryl" refers to a C6-C14 (e.g., C6-C10, C6) aromatic monocyclic (C6), bicyclic (C10), or tricyclic (C14) hydrocarbon ring system. Any ring atom may optionally be substituted by one or more substituents. Aryl groups may also contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Non-limiting examples of aryl moieties include phenyl, naphthyl, and anthracenyl.

[0041] As used herein, the term "converting" refers to one or more chemical transformations, which can be performed in situ, or with isolation of intermediate compounds. The transformations can include reacting the starting compounds or intermediates with additional reagents using techniques and protocols known in the art, including those described herein. Intermediates can be used with or without purification (e.g., filtration, distillation, sublimation, crystallization, trituration, solid phase extraction, chromatography).

[0042] As used herein, the term "cycloalkyl" refers to saturated monocyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, or other polycyclic hydrocarbon groups. Any atom may optionally be substituted by one or more substituents. A ring carbon serves as the point of attachment of a cycloalkyl group to another moiety. Cycloalkyl groups may contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Non-limiting examples of cycloalkyl moieties include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, adamantyl, and norbornyl (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptyl).

[0043] As used herein, the term "cycloalkenyl" refers to partially unsaturated monocyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, or other polycyclic hydrocarbon groups. A ring carbon (e.g., saturated or unsaturated) is the point of attachment of the cycloalkenyl substituent. Any atom may optionally be substituted by one or more substituents. Cycloalkenyl groups may contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Non-limiting examples of cycloalkenyl moieties include cyclohexenyl, cyclohexadienyl, or norbornenyl.

[0044] As used herein, a "detectable amount" of a compound is intended to mean a sufficient amount to give positive identification but not necessarily quantitation of the compound by any suitable analytical technique, for example HPLC.

[0045] As used herein, the term "halo" or "halogen" refers to any radical of fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine.

[0046] As used herein, the term "haloalkyl" refers to an alkyl group wherein at least one hydrogen atom is replaced by halo. In some embodiments, more than one hydrogen atom (for example, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, etc. hydrogen atoms) on an alkyl group may be replaced by more than one halogen (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, etc. halogen atoms). In these embodiments, the hydrogen atoms may each be replaced by the same halogen (e.g., fluoro) or the hydrogen atoms may be replaced by a combination of different halogens (e.g., fluoro and chloro). The term "haloalkyl" also include alkyl moieties wherein all hydrogens have been replaced by halo (e.g., perhaloalkyl, such as trifluoromethyl).

[0047] As used herein, the term "heteroaralkyl" refers to an alkyl moiety wherein an alkyl hydrogen atom is replaced by a heteroaryl group. One of the carbons of the alkyl moiety serves as the point of attachment of the aralkyl group to another moiety. The term "heteroaralkyl" also includes groups wherein more than one hydrogen atom on an alkyl moiety has been replaced by a heteroaryl group. Any ring or chain atom may optionally be substituted by one or more substituents. Non-limiting examples of heteroaralkyl groups include 2-pyridylmethyl and 2-pyridylethyl.

[0048] As used herein, the term "heteroaryl" refers to an aromatic monocyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, or other polycyclic hydrocarbon groups having 1-4 heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-8 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-10 heteroatoms if tricyclic, wherein said heteroatoms are independently selected from O, N, or S (and mono and dioxides thereof, e.g., N→O-, S(O), SO2). Any atom may optionally be substituted by one or more substituents. Heteroaryl groups may contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Non-limiting examples of heteroaryl groups include pyridyl, thienyl, furyl (furanyl), imidazolyl, indolyl, isoquinolyl, quinolyl and pyrrolyl.

[0049] As used herein, the term "hetercycloalkyl" refers to a saturated or partially unsaturated monocyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, or other polycyclic hydrocarbon groups having 1-4 heteroatoms if monocyclic, 1-8 heteroatoms if bicyclic, or 1-10 heteroatoms if tricyclic, wherein said heteroatoms are independently selected from O, N, or S (and mono and dioxides thereof, e.g., N→O-, S(O), SO2). Any atom may optionally be substituted by one or more substituents. Heteroaryl groups may contain fused rings. Fused rings are rings that share a common carbon atom. Non-limiting examples of heteroaryl groups include morpholinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl and pyrrolidinyl.

[0050] As used herein, the term "nitrogen protecting group" refers to a moiety which, when attached to a nitrogen atom of an acyclic or cyclic amino group (e.g., a pyrrolidine ring nitrogen atom), temporarily blocks that amino group so as to render it chemically inert. A nitrogen protecting group may also be introduced and removed (i.e., "deprotected") without complete destruction of the starting material and subsequent reaction product, respectively. Non-limiting examples of suitable protecting groups include those delineated herein. Other non-limiting examples of suitable protecting groups may be found in, e.g., T.W. Greene et al., Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons (1991).

[0051] As used herein, the expression "optionally substituted" when used in conjunction with any substituent described herein (e.g., C1-C20 alkyl or C1-C20 haloalkyl) means that any 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 hydrogen atoms (and/or halo atoms in the case of a haloalkyl) may be replaced by a substituent independently chosen from NH2, NH(C1-C6 alkyl), N(C1-C6 alkyl)2, nitro; azido; hydroxy; oxo; thioxo; =NR; C1-C20 alkyl, C1-C20 haloalkyl, C2-C20 alkenyl; C2-C20 alkynyl; C3-C20 cycloalkyl; C3-C20 cycloalkenyl. heterocyclyl including 3-20 atoms; heterocycloalkenyl including 3-20 atoms; C7-C20 aralkyl; heteroaralkyl including 6-20 atoms; C1-C20 alkoxy; C1-C20 haloalkoxy; C6-C18 aryloxy; heteroaryloxy including 5-16 atoms; C7-C20 aralkoxy; heteroaralkoxy including 6-20 atoms; C3-C16 cycloalkoxy; C3-C20 cycloalkenyloxy; heterocyclyloxy including 3-20 atoms; heterocycloalkenyloxy including 3-20 atoms; mercapto; C1-C20 thioalkoxy; C1-C20 thiohaloalkoxy; C6-C18 thioaryloxy; thioheteroaryloxy; C7-C20 thioaralkoxy, thioheteroaralkoxy including 6-20 atoms; C3-C16 thiocycloalkoxy; C3-C20 thiocycloalkenyloxy; thioheterocyclyloxy including 3-20 atoms; or thioheterocycloalkenyloxy including 3-20 atoms; cyano; -C(O)Rn, -C(O)ORn; -OC(O)Rn; -C(O)NRoRp; -NRqC(O)Rn; -OC(O)NRoRp; -NRqC(O)NRoRp; -NRqC(O)ORn; -S(O)nRh, wherein n is 1 or 2; -NRqS(O)nRh, wherein n is 1 or 2; or -P(O)(ORo)(ORp). Rh, Rn, Ro, Rp, Rq are each independently hydrogen, C1-C20 alkyl, C6-C10 aryl, or C7-C20 aralkyl.

[0052] As used herein, the term "polymorphism" is defined as in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Guideline Q6A Guideline: Specifications for New Drug Substances and Products: Chemical Substances, October 1999, and refers to the occurrence of different solid forms of the same drug substance. Polymorphism includes solvation products and amorphous forms. Amorphous forms consist of disordered arrangements of molecules and do not possess a distinguishable crystal lattice. Solvation products are crystalline solid adducts containing either stoichiometric or nonstoichiometric amounts of a solvent incorporated within the crystal structure. If the incorporated solvent is water, the solvates are also commonly known as hydrates.

[0053] As used herein, the term "reacting" or "contacting" refers to the bringing together of designated chemical reactants such that a chemical transformation takes place generating a compound different from any initially introduced into the system. Reacting or contacting can take place in the presence or absence of solvent.

[0054] As used herein, the term "salts" is derived from the combination of a compound and an organic or inorganic acid or base. The compounds described herein are useful in both free and salt form. The phrase "pharmaceutically acceptable salt" means those salts which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of humans and lower animals without undue toxicity, irritation, allergic response and the like and are commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are well-known in the art. For example, S. M. Berge et al. describe pharmaceutically acceptable salts in detail in J. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1977, Vol. 66, p. 1-19. The salts can be prepared in situ during the final isolation and purification of the compounds described herein or separately by reacting a free base function with a suitable organic acid.

[0055] Pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds of the present teachings having an acidic moiety can be formed using organic and inorganic bases. Suitable salts formed with bases include metal salts, such as alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salts, for example sodium, potassium, or magnesium salts; ammonia salts and organic amine salts, such as those formed with morpholine, thiomorpholine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, a mono-, di- or tri-lower alkylamine (e.g., ethyl-tert-butyl-, diethyl-, diisopropyl-, triethyl-, tributyl- or dimethylpropylamine), or a mono-, di- or trihydroxy lower alkylamine (e.g., mono-, di- or triethanolamine). Internal salts also can be formed. Similarly, when a compound of the present teachings contains a basic moiety, salts can be formed using organic and inorganic acids. For example, salts can be formed from the following acids: acetic, propionic, lactic, citric, tartaric, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malonic, mandelic, malic, phthalic, hydrochloric, hydrobromic, phosphoric, nitric, sulfuric, methanesulfonic, napthalenesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, toluenesulfonic, and camphorsulfonic as well as other known pharmaceutically acceptable acids. Amino acid addition salts can also be formed with amino acids such as lysine, glycine, or phenylalanine. Representative acid addition salts include hydrochloride salts. Other acceptable salts may be found through compendia listing compounds previously approved by the Food & Drug Administration.

[0056] As used herein, the term "solution" means a mixture of one or more solutes in one or more solvents. Solution is intended to encompass homogeneous mixtures as well as heterogeneous mixtures, such as slurries or other mixtures having a suspension of insoluble (not dissolved) material.

[0057] As used herein, the terms "solvent", "organic solvent" or "inert solvent" each mean a solvent inert under the conditions of the reaction being described in conjunction therewith (including, for example, benzene, toluene, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran ("THF"), dimethylformamide ("DMF"), chloroform, methylene chloride (or dichloromethane), diethyl ether, methanol, pyridine and the like). Unless specified to the contrary, the solvents used in the reactions described herein are inert organic solvents. As used herein, the term "anti-solvent" means a substance that reduces the solubility of a solute in a solvent. In some embodiments, an antisolvent is one or more chemical liquids or mixtures thereof in which the compound to be purified exhibits a lower solubility than the solvent in which it is partially or entirely dissolved.

[0058] At various places in the present specification, substituents of compounds described herein are disclosed in groups or in ranges. It is specifically intended that the present teachings include each and every individual subcombination of the members of such groups and ranges. For example, the term "C1-6 alkyl" is specifically intended to individually disclose C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C1-C6, C1-C5, C1-C4, C1-C3, C1-C2, C2-C6, C2-C5, C2-C4, C2-C3, C3-C6, C3-C5, C3-C4, C4-C6, C4-C5, and C5-C6 alkyl. For example, the term "C1-6 alkyl" is also specifically intended to individually disclose methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, isobutyl, etc.

[0059] The starting materials, intermediates, and products of the methods described herein may contain one, two, or more asymmetric centers and thus occur as racemates and racemic mixtures, single enantiomers, individual diastereomers and enantiomeric or diastereomeric mixtures. All such isomeric forms of these compounds are expressly included in the present disclosure. The compounds described herein may also contain linkages (e.g., carbon-carbon bonds, carbon-nitrogen bonds such as amide bonds) wherein bond rotation is restricted about that particular linkage, e.g. restriction resulting from the presence of a ring or double bond. Accordingly, all cis/trans and E/Z isomers and rotational isomers are expressly included in the present disclosure. The compounds described herein may also be represented in multiple tautomeric forms, in such instances, the present disclosure expressly includes all tautomeric forms of the compounds described herein, even though only a single tautomeric form may be represented. All such isomeric forms of such compounds are expressly included in the present disclosure.

[0060] The starting materials, intermediates, and products of the methods described herein each include a pyrrolidine ring that is substituted at the 2- and the 4-positions of the ring. For purposes of clarification, each of the following absolute ring stereochemistries is contemplated for the starting materials, intermediates, and products of the methods described herein: 2S, 4R; 2R, 4S; 2S, 4S, and 2R, 4R.

[0061] Any starting material, intermediate, or product of the methods described herein may occur as a stereoisomer mixture having at least about 60% (e.g., at least about 70%, at least about 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 99%, greater than about 99%) of one of the four possible stereoisomers (e.g., 2S, 4R; 2R, 4S; 2S, 4S, or 2R, 4R). The starting material, intermediate, or product may be substantially free of its enantiomer and the other two possible stereoisomers. The starting material, intermediate, or product may be one of the four possible stereoisomers (e.g., 2S, 4R or 2S, 4S) in substantially pure form and be substantially free of its stereoisomers as well as other non-stereoisomer-related materials, e.g., solvents, reagents, reaction byproducts and the like.

[0062] Any starting material, intermediate, or product of the methods described herein may occur as a stereoisomer mixture having at least about 60% (e.g., at least about 70%, at least about 75%, at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 95%, at least about 99%, greater than about 99%) of two of the four possible stereoisomers (e.g., R,R and S,S; R,S and S,R; R,R and S,R; R,R and R,S; S,S and S,R; or S,S and R,S).

[0063] As used herein, unless otherwise expressly specified, all numbers such as those expressing values, ranges, amounts, or percentages may be read as if prefaced by the word "about", even if the term does not expressly appear.

[0064] Also described herein is a method for preparing a compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof:

wherein:

one of R1 and R2 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl, and the other is -C(O)R5;
wherein R5 is chosen from:

optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;

optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;

optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;

optionally substituted C1-C20 haloalkyl;

optionally substituted C7-C12 aralkyl;

optionally substituted heteroaralkyl including 6-12 atoms;

optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and

optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkenyl;

W is C1-6 alkylene; and

R3 and R4 may be the same or different, and are each independently chosen from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl, -C(O)OR6, and -C(O)R9;
wherein R6 is optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl; and
wherein R9 is chosen from
hydrogen;
optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;
optionally substituted heteroaryl inducing 5-10 atoms;
optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;
optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and
optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl including 5-10 atoms;

the method comprising:

converting a compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof:

wherein:

R7 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl; to a compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof:

and, where R7 in formula (III) is optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl,

reacting the compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base to provide a compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof.



[0065] For example, W in formula (I) may be -CH2-.

[0066] For example, each of R3 and R4 in formula (I) may be hydrogen. Alternatively, one of R3 and R4 is hydrogen, and the other is -C(O)OR6, or one of R3 and R4 in formula (I) is hydrogen, and the other is -C(O)R9.

[0067] For example, W in formula (I) may be -CH2-, while each of R3 and R4 in formula (I) is hydrogen.

[0068] For example, W in formula (I) may be -CH2- while one of R3 and R4 in formula (I) is hydrogen, and the other is -C(O)OR6. R6 in formula (I) may be C1-C6 alkyl, for example, R6 may tert-butyl. Alternatively, R6 may be benzyl.

[0069] For example, W in formula (I) may be -CH2-, while one of R3 and R4 in formula (I) is hydrogen, and the other is -C(O)R9. R9 in formula (I) may be hydrogen. Alternatively, R9 in formula (I) may be C1-C6 alkyl, for example, R9 in formula (I) may be methyl. Alternatively, R9 in formula (I) may be optionally substituted phenyl.

[0070] R5 in formula (I) may be optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl, for example, R5 may be phenyl.

[0071] R7 may be C1-C6 alkyl, for example, CH3.

[0072] The -NR1R2 group and the -COOH group in formula (I) may be trans with respect to one another. For example, the ring carbon attached to the -NR1R2 group may have the R configuration, and the ring carbon attached to the -COOH group may have the S configuration.

[0073] The -NR1R2 group and the -COOR7 group in formula (II) may be trans with respect to one another. For example, the ring carbon attached to the -NR1R2 group may have the R configuration, and the ring carbon attached to the -COOR7 group may have the S configuration.

[0074] The compound of formula (II) can be in the form of a free base or a salt (e.g., an HCl salt). The compound of formula (II) can be free-based separately or in situ by treatment with the appropriate organic or inorganic base, in an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvent and water; for example, by treatment with NaOH in a mixture of THF and water. The solvent may be methylene chloride (CH2Cl2), which can be exchanged with acetone for subsequent isolation. Triethylamine may be used to neutralize the HCl salt of the compound of formula (II), which in some cases can minimize the likelihood of partial hydrolysis of the ester functionality (e.g., methyl ester) and generation of subsequent impurities.

[0075] The metal hydroxide may be a Group IA metal hydroxide, for example, the Group IA metal hydroxide may be chosen from NaOH, KOH, and LiOH. The Group IA metal hydroxide may be NaOH.

[0076] The reaction of the compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base may be conducted in the presence of at least one solvent. The at least one solvent may be a mixture of two or more solvents. The at least one solvent may be a mixture of water and a C1-C3 alcohol. The C1-C3 alcohol may be methanol (CH3OH).

[0077] The reaction of the compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base may be conducted at a temperature of at most about 5°C. The reaction of the compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base may be conducted at a temperature of from about -10°C to about 5°C. The reaction of the compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base may be conducted at a temperature of from about -5°C to about 5°C. The reaction of the compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base may be conducted at a temperature of from about -5°C to about 1°C.

[0078] The reaction of the compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base may further comprise acidifying the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture may, for example, be acidified with dilute hydrochloric acid. The product may be extracted with ethyl acetate, and crystallized from acetone and heptane. The crystallization may remove stereoisomeric impurities (e.g., a small amount of cis-isomer when the trans isomer is desired). The chemical yield for the process may be from about 80-90%.

[0079] Also described herein is a method for preparing a compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof

wherein:

one of R1 and R2 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl, and the other is -C(O)R5;
wherein R5 is chosen from:

optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;

optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;

optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;

optionally substituted C1-C20 haloalkyl;

optionally substituted C7-C12 aralkyl;

optionally substituted heteroaralkyl including 6-12 atoms;

optionally substituted C3-C10cycloalkyl; and

optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkenyl;

W is C1-6 alkylene; and

R3 and R4 may be the same or different, and are each independently chosen from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl, -C(O)OR6, and -C(O)R9;
wherein R6 is optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl; and
wherein R9 is chosen from
hydrogen;
optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;
optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;
optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;
optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and
optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl including 5-10 atoms;
the method comprising:

reacting a compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof

wherein R7 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl; with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base to provide a compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof.



[0080] The method may further comprise converting the compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof to a compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof by contacting the compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof with a compound of formula (IV):



[0081] The compound of formula (IV) may be glycine (e.g., R3 and R4 are H and W is -CH2-). The compound of formula (IV) may be Boc-Gly-OH (e.g., one of R3 and R4 is H and the other is tert-butyloxy carbonyl, and W is -CH2-). The compound of formula (IV) may be CHO-Gly-OH (e.g., one of R3 and R4 is H and the other is CHO (formyl), and W is -CH2-).

[0082] W in formula (IV) may be -CH2-4, while one of R3 and R4 in formula (IV) is hydrogen and the other is -C(O)OR6. R6 in formula (IV) may be C1-C6 alkyl (e.g., tert-butyl).

[0083] The compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof may be contacted with the carboxylic acid of formula (IV) in the presence of a coupling agent. The term "coupling agent" refers to a compound used when coupling together an amine and a carboxylic acid. The coupling agent may be a carbodiimide, for example, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC) or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC).

[0084] The compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof may be contacted with the carboxylic acid of formula (IV) in the presence of a coupling agent and a hydroxylated moiety. For example, the hydroxylated moiety may be N-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt), 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt), or pentafluorophenol.

[0085] The carboxylic acid of formula (IV) may be converted to a mixed anhydride. The compound of formula (IV) may be Boc-Gly-OH and the mixed anhydride may be formed by treatment of the compound of formula (IV) with ethyl chloroformate, optionally in the presence of triethylamine, followed by reaction with a compound of formula (II).

[0086] The compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof may be isolated from acetone as an acetone solvate, which may eliminate the need for concentrating the reaction mixture to dryness.

[0087] The yield may be greater than 70%, such as greater than 80%, for example, greater than 85%, such as about 86%.

[0088] R3 may be chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl when R4 is -C(O)OR6. Thus, the reaction of the compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base may provide a compound of formula (I-A) or a salt thereof:

wherein R3 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl.

[0089] R3 in formula (I-A) may be hydrogen, while R6 in formula (I-A) is tert-butyl. Alternatively, R3 in formula (I-A) may be hydrogen, while R6 in formula (I-A) is benzyl.

[0090] W in formula (I-A) may -CH2-. R5 in formula (I-A) may phenyl.

[0091] The reaction of the compound of formula (III) with a metal hydroxide or other suitable base may provide a compound of formula (I-A-1) or a salt thereof:



[0092] The methods may further include removing the -C(O)OR6 group of the compound of formula (I-A) (i.e., deprotecting the nitrogen atom to which R3 and R4 are attached) to provide a compound of formula (I-B) or a salt thereof:



[0093] The method may further comprise converting the compound of formula (I-A) or a salt thereof to a compound of formula (I-B) or a salt thereof. For example, converting the compound of formula (I-A) or a salt thereof to a compound of formula (I-B) or a salt thereof may comprise contacting the compound of formula (I-A) with at least one acid.

[0094] The at least one acid may be HCl, e.g., anhydrous HCl or concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid.

[0095] A solvent may be used for the conversion. The solvent may be an organic solvent, such as dioxane or acetone. The solvent may be water.

[0096] R3 in formula (I-A) may be hydrogen, while R6 in formula (I-A) is tert-butyl.

[0097] Converting the compound of formula (I-B) or a salt thereof to a compound of formula (I-B) or a salt thereof may comprise subjecting the compound of formula (I-A) to catalytic hydrogenation. R3 in formula (I-A) may be hydrogen, while R6 in formula (I-A) is benzyl.

[0098] Subjecting the compound of formula (I-A) to catalytic hydrogenation may comprise contacting the compound of formula (I-A) with H2 gas and a transition metal catalyst. The transition metal catalyst may be palladium. Subjecting the compound of formula (I-A) to transfer hydrogenation may comprise contacting the compound of formula (I-A) with cyclohexene and a transition metal catalyst. The transition metal catalyst may be palladium.

[0099] The compound of formula (I-B) may be obtained as the free acid. The compound of formula (I-B) may be obtained as a salt (e.g., as an HCl salt).

[0100] The method may further comprise converting the compound of formula (I-A-1) or a salt thereof to a compound of formula (I-B-1) or a salt thereof:



[0101] Subsequent deprotection of (2S, 4R)-4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid to (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, hydrochloride may be accomplished by treating the former compound with concentrated hydrochloric acid in acetone. The precipitated product is dissolved by addition of water to form a clear solution, which is filtered to remove particulates. The desired product is then crystallized by the addition of acetone. The crystalline hydrochloride may be isolated as a monohydrate. The chemical yield for the process can be about 80-95%.

[0102] An example is outlined in Scheme 1 below. As shown, compound v (i.e., a compound of formula (I)) is obtained by reacting compound iii (i.e., a compound of formula (II)) with a formylated glycine compound to give a compound iv, which is subsequently reacted with a base.



[0103] The base used to convert compound iv into compound v can be a metal hydroxide (e.g., LiOH, NaOH, KOH). Alternatively, the base can be a metal carbonate (e.g., Li2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3) or metal hydrogencarbonate (e.g., NaHC03, KHCO3) in combination with water.

[0104] The compound of formula (II) may be prepared from a compound of formula (V). The compound of formula (V) may be prepared from a compound of formula (VIII) or a compound of formula (X). The method for preparing a compound of formula (I) from a compound of formula (II) can further include one or both of those methods.

[0105] The compound of formula (II) is prepared by a method comprising:

contacting a compound of formula (V):

wherein:

R2 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl;

R7 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl; and

R8 is a nitrogen protecting group;
with an activated carboxylic acid to provide a compound of formula (VII) or a salt thereof:

and
removing the nitrogen protecting group R8 from the compound of formula (VII).



[0106] The foregoing method for preparing a compound of formula (II) from a compound of formula (V) can be practiced separately from, or in conjunction with, the methods described herein for preparing a compound of formula (I) from a compound of formula (II) or a compound of formula (III).

[0107] R2 in formulae (V) and (VII) may be hydrogen.

[0108] R8 in formulae (V) and (VII) may be -C(O)ORa, in which Ra is chosen from:

optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;

optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;

optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;

optionally substituted C1-C20 haloalkyl;

optionally substituted C7-C12 aralkyl;

optionally substituted heteroaralkyl including 6-12 atoms;

optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and

optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkenyl;



[0109] For example, R8 in formulae (V) and (VII) may be -C(O)O(tert-butyl) or-C(O)O(benzyl).

[0110] R5 in formula (VII) may be optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms. R5 may be optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl, for example, R5 is phenyl.

[0111] R8 in formulae (V) and (VII) may be an acid labile nitrogen protecting group and removing the protecting group from the compound of formula (VII) may comprise contacting the compound of formula (VII) with at least one acid. The at least one acid may be HCl or trifluoroacetic acid. The nitrogen protecting group may be -C(O)O(tert-butyl).

[0112] R8 in formulae (V) and (VII) may be a nitrogen protecting group that is susceptible to cleavage by hydrogenolysis and removing the protecting group from the compound of formula (VII) may comprise subjecting the compound of formula (VII) to catalytic hydrogenation. The nitrogen protecting group may be C(O)O(benzyl).

[0113] Subjecting the compound of formula (VII) to catalytic hydrogenation may comprise contacting the compound of formula (VII) with H2 gas and a transition metal catalyst. The transition metal catalyst may be palladium.

[0114] R8 in formulae (V) and (VII) may be a nitrogen protecting group that is susceptible to cleavage by hydrogenolysis and removing the protecting group from the compound of formula (VII) comprises subjecting the compound of formula (VII) to transfer hydrogenation. Subjecting the compound of formula (VII) to transfer hydrogenation may comprise contacting the compound of formula (VII) with cyclohexene and a transition metal catalyst, which may, for example, be palladium.

[0115] The activated carboxylic acid may be a compound of formula (VI):

        R5C(O)Cl     (VI).



[0116] Removing the protecting group from the compound of formula (VII) may provide the compound of formula (II) as an HCl salt.

[0117] Benzoylation of commercially available N-Boc-trans-4-amino-L-proline methyl ester (HCl salt or free base) may be accomplished using conventional amide bond forming methods, including reacting with benzoic acid in the presence of a coupling agent, reacting with corresponding anhydride of benzoic acid (or mixed anhydride), or with benzoyl halide. For example, N-Boc-trans-4-amino-L-proline methyl ester (either as a HCl salt or free base) may be treated with benzoyl chloride under Schotten-Bauman conditions, i.e., in a biphasic mixture of organic solvent (e.g., ethyl acetate (EtOAc), toluene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), etc.) and water in the presence of a base (e.g., NaHCO3). Schotten-Bauman conditions can include EtOAc, water, and NaHCO3 Azeotropic distillation may be used to dry the reaction mixture when toluene is employed as the organic solvent (the use of toluene can also facilitate the isolation of the formula (II) compound as a crystalline solid after deprotection).

[0118] Benzoylation may be performed by treatment with benzoyl halide (e.g., benzoyl chloride) in an organic solvent (e.g., CH2Cl2) in the presence of organic (e.g., pyridine) or inorganic base.

[0119] Deprotection of the formula (VII) compound may be carried out using an acid (e.g., HCl, CF3COOH, etc.) in an ethereal solvent (Et2O, dioxane, etc.). For example, deprotection of the formula (VII) compound is carried out using anhydrous HCl in MeOH. The use of anhydrous HCl in MeOH can minimize the likelihood of unwanted hydrolysis side reactions. The compound of formula (VII) is not necessarily isolated prior to deprotection.

[0120] The compound of formula (II) may be prepared by a method comprising:

contacting a compound of formula (V-1):

with benzoyl chloride to provide a compound of formula (VII-1):

and removing -C(O)O(tert-butyl) from the compound of formula (VII-1).



[0121] For example, a compound of formula (V), in which R2 is hydrogen, may be prepared by a method comprising
contacting a compound of formula (VIII):

wherein R7 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl, with a compound of the formula (Rb)(Rc)NH, wherein Rb and/or Rc are other than hydrogen to provide a compound of formula (IX):

and

(ii) converting the compound of formula (IX) to a compound of formula (V), in which R2 is hydrogen.



[0122] The compound of the formula (Rb)(Rc)NH may be chosen such that when it is incorporated into a substrate it can be transformed in one or more chemical steps into an amino group (i.e., -NH2), for example, the compound of the formula (Rb)(Rc)NH may be chosen from phthalimide, O-tert-butyl carbamate, N-Boc ethyl oxamate, benzhydryl amine, trityl amine, lithium hexamethyldisilazane, triphenylsilyl amine, LiNH2, allylamine, and bis(allyl)amine.

[0123] The methods of preparing compounds of Formula (V) may involve the conversion of a trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (or derivative thereof) to a trans-4-amino-L-proline (or derivative thereof). An example is discussed below and outlined in Scheme 2.





[0124] Commercially available trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline 1 can be converted to 1-benzyl 2-methyl (2S, 4R)-4-Hydroxypyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate 3 based on literature references (Bridges et al. J. Med. Chem. 1991, 34, 717; Gregson et al. J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 1161).

[0125] Compound 3 can be treated with a water soluble organic acid such as chloroacetic acid (Hughes and Reamer, J. Org. Them., 1996, 61, 2967) in presence of triphenylphosphine and an azodicarboxylate such as diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (DIAD) in a solvent such as toluene to afford compound 4. An advantage associated with chloroacetic acid and the like is that the acid can be removed from the reaction product upon washing. The ester 4 can be saponified in situ by addition of an alcohol such as methanol as co-solvent and an aqueous base solution such as aqueous sodium hydroxide. After saponification, the by-products from the Mitsunobu reaction, i.e., triphenylphosphine oxide and the hydrazide byproduct, can be removed by extraction of the basic solution with a solvent such as toluene, thus reducing the likelihood that chromatographic separation would be needed to remove the by-products and thus rendering the new process amenable to scale up. Neutralization and back-extraction with an organic solvent such as dichloromethane affords acid 5.

[0126] The resulting acid 5 can be esterified under conventional acid catalyzed esterification conditions with acid such as sulfuric acid in an alkyl alcohol such as MeOH to furnish cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline methyl ester 6.

[0127] The cis-4-hydroxy-proline derivative 6 can be coupled with N-Boc-ethyl oxamate (7) (see Berree et al. Tetrahedron Lett., 1998, 39, 8275) under conventional Mitsunobu reaction conditions using triphenyl phosphine and DIAD to provide the protected trans-4-aminoproline derivative 8. Oxamate 8 can be selectively hydrolyzed with aqueous lithium hydroxide, and the Boc protecting group can be subsequently cleaved with hydrochloric acid in methanol. At this point, the desired product 10 remains in the acidic aqueous phase. The byproducts from the Mitsunobu reaction can be removed by extraction with an organic solvent such as toluene. The acidic aqueous phase is then neutralized and extracted with another organic solvent such as ethyl acetate to give N-Cbz protected trans-4-amino-L-proline methyl ester 10, therefore, chromatographic separation can again be avoided in this portion of the process.

[0128] In some embodiments, the methods involve the conversion of a cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline (or derivative thereof) to a trans-4-amino-L-proline (or derivative thereof). An example is discussed below and outlined in Scheme 3.



[0129] The alcohol 6 can be reacted with phthalimide in the presence of triphenylphosphine and diisopropyl azodicarboxylate in solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and toluene to give compound 11, which can be isolated as a crude toluene solution. The crude phthalimide 11 can then be converted to amine 10 by the treatment with hydrazine hydrate in methanol. The amine can be isolated in high purity through an extractive work-up under acidic conditions. The extractive workup under acidic conditions in this case allows of the by-products of the Mitsunobu reaction such as triphenylphosphine oxide, to be removed without the use of chromatography. The overall yield for this process can be about 66%.

[0130] In some embodiments, the amine 10 can be used to prepare compounds of formula (II), such as compound 13 via a compound of formula (VII), such as compound 12. See Scheme 4.



[0131] In some embodiments, a stereoisomer or an enriched stereoisomeric mixture of a compound of formula (V) is used, wherein said stereoisomer or enriched stereoisomeric mixture of a compound of formula (V) is prepared by a method comprising:

contacting a compound of formula (X)

wherein
R7 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl; and
R8 is hydrogen or a nitrogen protecting group
with a compound of formula RwCO2H (wherein Rw is lower alkyl or lower haloalkyl), a compound of formula P(Rd)3 (wherein Rd at each occurrence is, independently, optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms), and a di(C1-C6 alkyl)azodicarboxylate to provide a compound of formula (XI):

contacting the compound of formula (XI) with a metal hydroxide to provide a compound of formula (XII) or a salt thereof:

contacting the compound of formula (XII) with a compound of formula (Rb)(Rc)NH (in which Rb and/or Rc are other than hydrogen) to provide a compound of formula (XIII):

and converting the compound of formula (XIII) to a compound of formula (V), in which R2 in formula (V) is hydrogen.



[0132] For purposes of clarification, the stereochemistry depicted in formula (X) and in each of the formulas is intended to show relative stereochemistry. However, it is understood that the aforementioned stereoselective or stereospecific methods described herein can be used to prepare any one of the four possible stereoisomeric products (i.e., 2S, 4R; 2R, 4S; 2S, 4S, and 2R, 4R).

[0133] R8 may be C(O)ORa wherein Ra is chosen from optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl; optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms; optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl; optionally substituted C1-C20 haloalkyl; optionally substituted C7-C12 aralkyl; optionally substituted heteroaralkyl including 6-12 atoms; optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkenyl.

[0134] For example, R8 may be -C(O)O(tert-butyl) or -C(O)O(benzyl).

[0135] The compound of formula P(Rd)3 may be triphenylphosphine.

[0136] The di(C1-C6 alkyl)azodicarboxylate may be diisopropyl azodicarboxylate.

[0137] Other phosphines and di(C1-C6 alkyl)azodicarboxylates that are suitable for use in a Mitsunobu reaction may be employed.

[0138] The method can be carried out and scaled up without the use of purification by chromatography. The post-Mitsunobu reaction products can be purified by non-chromatographic methods, e.g., extraction, and be substantially free of Mitsunobu reaction by-products.

[0139] The foregoing methods for preparing a compound of formula (V) from a compound of formula (VIII) or (X) (as well as variants thereof) can be practiced separately from, or in conjunction with, the methods described herein for preparing a compound of formula (II) from a compound of formula (V), which in turn can be practiced separately from, or in conjunction with, the methods described herein for preparing a compound of formula (I) from a compound of formula (II).

[0140] The compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof may be:



[0141] The compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof may be:



[0142] The compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof may be:



[0143] The compound of formula (IV) or a salt thereof may be Boc-Gly-OH.

[0144] Also described herein is a composition comprising
  1. (1) a compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof

    and/or
    a compound of formula (III) or a salt thereof

    wherein
    one of R1 and R2 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl, and the other is -C(O)R5;
    wherein R5 is chosen from:

    optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;

    optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;

    optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;

    optionally substituted C1-C20 haloalkyl;

    optionally substituted C7-C12 aralkyl;

    optionally substituted heteroaralkyl including 6-12 atoms;

    optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and

    optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkenyl;
    W is C1-6 alkylene;
    R3 and R4 may be the same or different and are each independently chosen from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl, -C(O)OR6, and -C(O)R9;
    wherein R6 is optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl; and
    wherein R9 is chosen from
    hydrogen;
    optionally substituted C6-C10 aryl;
    optionally substituted heteroaryl including 5-10 atoms;
    optionally substituted C1-C20 alkyl;
    optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl; and
    optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl including 5-10 atoms; and
    R7 is chosen from hydrogen and optionally substituted C1-C6 alkyl; and

  2. (2) a detectable amount of one or more compounds selected from:

    N-((7R,8aS)-1,4-dioxooctahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-7-yl)benzamide or a salt thereof, i.e., a compound of formula

    or a salt thereof;
    triphenylphosphine;
    triphenylphosphine oxide;
    a hydrazine dicarboxylate;
    triethylamine;
    benzotriazole;
    (2S,4R)-4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid or a salt thereof, i.e., a compound of formula:

    or a salt thereof;
    and a compound of formula (II) or a salt thereof:



[0145] The composition may comprise greater than about 95%, such as greater than about 98%, for example, greater than about 99% of a compound of formula (I). For example, the composition may comprise greater than about 99.9% of a compound of formula (I).

[0146] The compound of formula (I) may be (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid or a salt thereof. The compound of formula (I) may be (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride. The compound of formula (I) may be (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate. The compound of formula (I) may be (2S, 4R)-4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid. The compound of formula (III) may be (2S,4R)-methyl 1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate. The compound of formula (III) may be (2S,4R)-methyl 4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate.

[0147] Also provided is (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate. The compound (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid may be prepared according to methods known in the art (e.g., as described in U.S. Patent Application No. 11/643,192) and as described herein.

[0148] Also provided is a method for preparing crystalline (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate. Such preparation method includes the steps of providing a solution of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride in a crystallization medium wherein the crystallization medium comprises water and one or more water-miscible organic solvents. Such preparation method further includes maintaining the solution for a time and under conditions suitable for forming (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

[0149] In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride is added, e.g., portionwise, as a solid to the crystallization medium. In some embodiments, the crystallization medium is heated to an elevated temperature, e.g., at reflux.

[0150] In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride is added, e.g., portionwise, as a solid to one or more water-miscible organic solvents. In some embodiments, the one or more water-miscible organic solvents is heated to an elevated temperature, e.g., at reflux. The solution of the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride in the one or more water-miscible organic solvents is then combined with water and any other water-miscible organic solvents which are found in the crystallization medium.

[0151] In some embodiments, the solution provided is a fully dissolved solution of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride. In some embodiments, the solution provided is a partially dissolved suspension or slurry of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride.

[0152] The solubility of the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride will vary depending on the composition of the medium, as is well-appreciated in the art, but, in some embodiments, is at least about 1 mg/mL, such as from about 1 to about 500 mg/mL, for example, from about 5 to about 100 mg/mL.

[0153] In some embodiments, the water-miscible organic solvent is selected from alcohols, ketones, ethers, or a combination of such solvents. In some embodiments, the water-miscible organic solvent is selected from C1-4 alcohols, C1-6 ketones, and C1-6 ethers. Where more than one water-miscible organic solvent is used, a solvent of the same type or different type may be combined. For example, if an alcohol is selected, another alcohol may also be selected for use in the solvent mixture.

[0154] Suitable alcohols include methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, t-butanol, and the like. Suitable ketones include acetone, diethyl ketone, and the like. Suitable ethers include t-butyl methyl ether, diethyl ether, 1,3-dioxane, 1,4-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, and the like. In some embodiments, the alcohol is isopropanol, the ketone is acetone, and the ether is t-butyl methyl ether.

[0155] The choice of water-miscible organic solvent or combination of water-miscible organic solvents is well within the ability of one skilled in the art, and will depend on factors such the desired scale, yield, operating temperature, time of operation, and the like. For combinations of water-miscible organic solvents, the ratio of the components may be varied. For example, the ratio of alcohol to ketone may range from a ratio of about 1:9 to about 9:1. Ratios outside this range are also contemplated. Ternary combinations of an alcohol, ketone, and ether are also provided. The ratio of three components may vary without limit. In one embodiment, a combination comprising up to about 10% of an alcohol, up to about 5% of an ether, and at least about 85% of a ketone is used.

[0156] Water is included in the crystallization medium. Water may be adventitiously present, but in some embodiments water is combined with the water-miscible organic solvent. The amount of water in the solvent mixture is generally no more than 25% by volume. The solution can comprise less than 10% water by volume, and in some embodiments the water is less than 5% by volume. In some embodiments, the water-miscible organic solvent portion is about 97.5% by volume and water is about 2.5% by volume.

[0157] With respect to conditions suitable for forming (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate, any method known in the art may be used, such as cooling the solution, adding seeding crystals, reducing the volume of the solvent under ambient or reduced pressure, adding an anti-solvent, using diffusion techniques, and/or by combination of these techniques. The solution may left undisturbed, or stirred during the crystallization process. In some embodiments, the solution is maintained at room temperature and stirred until the crystallization is sufficiently complete. In some embodiments, the solution is maintained at room temperature and at least some of the crystallization medium is permitted to evaporate, whereupon crystals form. The evaporation process may be carried out at ambient pressure or under reduced pressure, and may be with or without control of the temperature of the medium.

[0158] In some embodiments, the method further includes the step of recovering the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxcylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate, which may be accomplished by means known by those of skill in the art, such as filtration, centrifugation, decanting, and the like. In some embodiments, the method further comprises washing the recovered (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate with a suitable solvent upon recovery of the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate. In some embodiments, the method further comprises drying the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate. Drying may be performed at ambient or reduced pressure, and at ambient or elevated temperature. For example, a vacuum drying oven may be used. In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is dried at about 45°C under vacuum.

[0159] In some embodiments, the crystalline (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction.

[0160] There are a number of analytical methods one of ordinary skill in the art in solid-state chemistry can use to analyze solid forms. The term "analyze" as used herein means to obtain information about the solid-state structure of solid forms. For example, X-ray powder diffraction is a suitable technique for differentiating amorphous solid forms from crystalline solid forms and for characterizing and identifying crystalline solid forms of a compound. X-ray powder diffraction is also suitable for quantifying the amount of a crystalline solid form (or forms) in a mixture.

[0161] The term "characterize" as used herein means to select an appropriate set of data capable of distinguishing one solid form from another. That set of data in X-ray powder diffraction is the position of one or more peaks. Selecting which X-ray powder diffraction peaks define a particular form is said to characterize that form.

[0162] When characterizing and/or identifying crystalline solid forms of the same chemical compound with X-ray powder diffraction, it is often not necessary to use the entire powder pattern. A smaller subset of the entire powder pattern can often be used to perform the characterization and/or identification. By selecting a collection of peaks that differentiate the crystalline solid form from other crystalline solid forms of the compound, one can rely on those peaks to both characterize the form and to identify the form in, for example, an unknown mixture. Additional data can be added, such as from another analytical technique or additional peaks from the powder pattern, to characterize and/or identify the form should, for instance, polymorphs be identified later.

[0163] Due to differences in instruments, samples, and sample preparation, peak values are reported with the modifier "about" in front of the peak values. This is common practice in the solid-state chemical arts because of the variation inherent in peak values. A typical precision of the 2θ x-axis value of a peak in a powder pattern is on the order of plus or minus 0.3° 2θ. Thus, a powder diffraction peak that appears at "about 19.0° 2θ" means that the peak could be between 18.7° 2θ and 19.3" 2θ when measured on most X-ray diffractometers under most conditions. Variability in peak intensity is a result of how individual crystals are oriented in the sample container with respect to the external X-ray source, the size of the crystallites, instrumental factors, and the temperature during the measurement.

[0164] X-Ray diffraction data presented herein was collected using a Bruker-AXS Model D8 Advance instrument. The powdered sample was prepared and mounted according to the manufacturer's recommendation. A Bruker-axs model D8 advance X-ray powder diffractometer was operated at 40 kV and 40.0 mA, and a VANTEC detector was used with a 1 mm antiscattering slit. The samples were scanned from a scattering angle of 3.7° 2θ to 30° 2θ, at a step size of 0.01° 2θ over a total scan time of 33 minutes.

[0165] FIG. 1 shows the X-ray powder diffraction patterns for three preparations of crystalline forms of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (traces 1-3), and one amorphous preparation of the compound (trace 4). The diffractogram of the amorphous material reveals no diffraction peaks, indicating that material is in fact amorphous and lacks crystallinity. Converting the amorphous material to a crystalline form yielded the material used to obtain the data shown in traces 1-3. The overlaid diffractograms reveal a consistent pattern of peaks and relative intensities for the crystalline hydrochloride monohydrate for a series of batches crystallized from acetone/water.

[0166] FIG. 2 illustrates the diffractogram of the crystalline hydrochloride monohydrate from 5° 2θ to 30° 2θ. In some embodiments, the entire diffractogram and the peaks found therein is used to characterize the crystalline solid forms described herein . Thus, the crystalline solid forms are characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction pattern substantially as depicted in FIG. 2.

[0167] In some embodiments, a subset of the peaks in the pattern is used to characterize the crystalline form. Where another substance is suspected of being present, peaks common to the substances are ordinarily not useful to confirm the presence of either. In some embodiments, the subset of peaks having the greatest relative intensity are of interest. Any subset based on relative peak intensity may of course be modified to exclude certain peaks that overlap with those of other crystalline components suspected to be present.

[0168] The crystalline hydrochloride monohydrate compound is characterized by a pattern having peaks at about the scattering angles, and with about the relative intensities described in Table 1.
TABLE 1
Scattering Angle (° 2θ)Relative Intensity (%)
5.4 28
9.8 12
10.9 12
12.5 60
14.4 6
16.3 8
16.6 8
17.1 36
18.2 9
19.0 100
19.2 14
19.6 12
19.7 35
20.5 44
20.7 22
21.2 26
21.8 37
23.1 17
23.3 44
23.4 51
23.8 5
25.0 10
25.1 7
25.6 3
26.4 17
26.9 6
27.4 29
28.6 12
29.1 5


[0169] The relative intensities of the peaks can vary depending on, for example, the sample preparation method, crystallite size, distribution of sizes, filters, instrument type, X-ray source, temperature, and the like. As mentioned above, these and other factors can also effect the scattering angle value. Furthermore, other peaks may be observed, or certain peaks listed in Table 1 may not be observed, depending on the instrumentation and the parameters used to record a diffractogram.

[0170] In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate has X-ray powder diffraction peaks at about 12.5° 2θ and 19.0° 2θ. In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate has powder x-ray diffraction peaks at about 17.1° 2θ, 19.7° 2θ, 20.5° 2θ, 21.8° 2θ, 23,3° 2θ, and 23.4° 2θ. In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate has powder x-ray diffraction peaks at about 5.4° 2θ, 20.7° 2θ, 21.2° 2θ, 23.1° 2θ, 26.4° 2θ, and 27.4° 2θ.

[0171] X-ray powder diffraction is just one of several analytical techniques available for characterizing and/or identifying crystalline solid forms. Spectroscopic techniques such as Raman (including microscopic Raman), infrared, and solid-state NMR spectroscopies may be used to characterize and/or identify crystalline solid forms. These techniques may also be used to quantify the amount of one or more crystalline solid forms in a mixture. Other methods for characterizing and/or identifying different crystalline solid forms of a compound include thermal techniques such as melting point or differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption.

[0172] In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by differential scanning calorimetry ("DSC"). A DSC trace is shown in FIG. 3. DSC data were collected using a model Q1000 DSC from TA Instruments. Samples were analyzed by scanning the temperature from 40° to 200°C at a scan rate of 10°C/min while under a dinitrogen gas purge of 50 mL/min. The calorimetric events observed in the DSC trace may vary in temperature or magnitude depending on, for example, the sample preparation method, crystallite size, impurities, type of instrument, calibration, heating rate, and the like, with variations in the temperature of about 5°C possible.

[0173] As shown in FIG. 3, the DSC thermogram of the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by two peaks. The first peak is observed at about 135°C, with an onset temperature of about 104°C, and is believed to correspond to loss of the water of hydration. The second peak is observed at about 180°C, with an onset temperature of about 168°C, and is believed to represent a melting event. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by a DSC trace substantially as depicted in FIG. 3. In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by having two endothermic transitions with onset temperatures of about 104°C and about 168°C.

[0174] As shown in FIG. 4, the DSC thermogram of amorphous (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride is characterized by a broad endothermic transition between about 185°C and 230°C. The response of the material to DSC analysis is representative of the behavior typically observed for amorphous materials.

[0175] In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis ("TGA"). A TGA trace is shown in FIG. 4. TGA data were collected using a model TGA/SDTA 851e from Mettler Toledo. Samples were analyzed by scanning the temperature from 30° to 250°C at a scan rate of 10°C/min while under a dinitrogen gas purge of 40 mL/min. The thermogravimetric events observed in the TGA trace may vary in temperature or magnitude depending on, for example, the sample preparation method, crystallite size, impurities, type of instrument, calibration, heating rate, and the like, with variations in the temperature of about 5°C, or in the magnitude of a few percent possible.

[0176] As shown in FIG. 5, the TGA thermogram of the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized primarily by a weight loss of about 4.7% in one step. The step is roughly complete when the temperature ramp reaches about 90°C. The weight loss is believed to correspond to a loss of the water of the monohydrate crystal form. The theoretical water content of a monohydrate form is 5.2%. It is recognized by those of skill in the art that the amount of water in a hydrate can vary depending on the methods and conditions of crystallization, and the handling of the crystals thereafter. Thus, in some embodiments, the molar ratio of the hydrate present in the crystalline form is about 0.5 to about 1.2, from about 0.7 to about 1.0, or about 1.0. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by a TGA trace substantially as depicted in FIG. 5. In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by having a weight loss of about 5.0% upon an increase in temperature to about 100°C. In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by having a weight loss of about 4.7% upon an increase in temperature to about 90°C.

[0177] In some embodiments, the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by dynamic vapor sorption ("DVS"). A DVS trace in shown in FIG. 6. DVS data were collected using Dynamix Vapor Sorption Apparatus (DVS-1) made by Surface Measurement System Ltd. Samples were analyzed by subjecting them to a series of relative humidity (RH) conditions at 25°C. The relative humidity was scanned from about 0% to about 90%.

[0178] As shown in FIG. 6, the DVS trace of the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate is characterized by reversible change of mass of about 1.5% between 0% RH and 10% RH, followed by a relatively stable mass between 10% RH and about 70% RH, followed by about a 2.5% reversible mass change between about 70% RH and 90% RH. The DVS trace indicates that although the crystalline forms described herein may be prone to gain water at high humidity, the sorbed water is reversibly lost and does not appear to adversely affect the integrity of the crystalline form.

[0179] As shown in FIG. 7, the DVS trace of the amorphous form of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride is characterized by a large increase in weight when first exposed to high humidity and that these changes are not reversible upon cycling of the relative humidity. The amorphous form increased in mass by 21.7% when the relative humidity increased from 0% RH to 90% RH in the first cycle, from 0 to about 1200 min. On return to 0% RH, from about 1200 min to about 1800 min, the sample did not return to its original mass, and on repeating the increase to 90% RH, from about 1800 min to about 2400 min, the gain in mass was not nearly as large as in the first cycle. Inspection of the sample following the experiment revealed that the original free-flowing powder was transformed into a solid mass by the change in humidity. These results indicate that the amorphous form is not stable to environmental changes in humidity.

[0180] The compounds described herein can serve as medicaments in their pure form or as pharmaceutical formulations, which can be administered via any acceptable method known in the art, either singly or in combination. Pharmaceutical formulations generally comprise a compound described herein in admixture with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. Such compositions can be formulated to oral administration (including buccal cavity or sublingually) or by parenteral administration (including intravenous (i.v.), subcutaneous (s.c.), intramuscular (i.m.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) administration. Other administration routes include epidural, rectal, intranasal or dermal administration or by pulmomary inhalation. In some embodiments, sustained release of the compounds described herein are used. In some embodiments, the compositions are in the form of solid or liquid formulations and methods for their preparation are generally described in "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences", 17th Ed., Alfonso R. Gennaro (Ed.), Mark Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., U.S.A., 1985.

[0181] In some embodiments, the carrier is in the form of one or more substances chosen from vehicles, diluents, buffering agents, tonicity adjusting agents, preservatives and stabilizers. The excipients constituting the carrier should be compatible with the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s) and are capable of stabilizing the compounds without being deleterious to the subject being treated.

[0182] A form of repository or sustained-release formulation can be used so that therapeutically effective amounts of the preparation are delivered into the bloodstream over many hours or days following administration of the compound or composition, e.g., by transdermal injection or deposition. Formulations suitable for sustained release include biodegradable polymers, such as L-lactic acid, D-lactic acid, DL-lactic acid, glycolide, glycolic acid, and isomers thereof. Similarly, the carrier can include any sustained release material known in the art, such as glyceryl monostearate or glyceryl distearate, alone or mixed with a wax.

[0183] Other sustained release formulations can include, but are not limited to, formulations that include at least one of the compounds disclosed herein combined with liposomes, microspheres, emulsions or micelles and liquid stabilizers.

[0184] The doses of the compounds and compositions described herein required for the desired therapeutic effects will depend upon on the potency of the compound, the particular composition used and the route of administration selected. "A therapeutically effective amount" refers to an amount that reduces symptoms of a given condition or pathology, and in some embodiments, which normalizes physiological responses in a subject with the condition or pathology. Reduction of symptoms or normalization of physiological responses can be determined using methods routine in the art and can vary with a given condition or pathology.

[0185] In some embodiments, a therapeutically effective amount of one or more compounds or pharmaceutical formulations is an amount which restores a measurable physiological parameter to substantially the same value (preferably to within ±30%, more preferably to within ±20%, and still more preferably, to within ±10% of the value) of the parameter in a subject without the condition or pathology.

[0186] The therapeutically effective amount will be determined by the skilled person taking into account such factors as potency of the drug, age and constitution of the patient, body weight, pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, and in general the drug will be prescribed for each patient or group of patients. However, in some embodiments, the therapeutically effective amount of the compound is at least about 10 µg/kg body weight/day, such as at least about 100 µg/kg body weight/day, at least about 300 µg/kg body weight/day, and at least about 1000 µg/kg body weight/day. In some embodiments, the therapeutically effective amount of the compound is at most about 100 mg/kg body weight/day, such as at most about 50 mg/kg body weight/day and at most about 10 mg/kg body weight/day. In some embodiments the therapeutically effective amount of the compound will be about 100 µg/kg body weight/day, about 300 µg/kg body weight/day or about 1000 µg/kg body weight. In some embodiments, the compounds are administrated in the range of about 0.001 g to 10 g per patient per day. For example, in some embodiments, the compounds are administered in the range from about 1 mg to about 1000 mg per patient per day, from about 10 mg to about 100 mg per patient per day, or about 50 mg per patient per day.

[0187] The most suitable dosing regimen can best be determined by a medical practitioner for each patient individually. The optimal dosing regimen with the compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein depends on factors such as the particular disease or disorder being treated, the desired effect, and the age, weight or body mass index, and general physical conditions of the patient. The administration can be conducted in a single unit dosage form to alleviate acute symptoms or as a continuous therapy in the form of multiple doses over time. Alternatively, continuous infusion systems or slow release depot formulations can be employed. Two or more compounds or pharmaceutical formulations described herein can be co-administered simultaneously or sequentially in any order. In addition, the compounds and compositions can be administered in a similar manner for prophylactic purposes. Ultimately, the best dosing regimen will be decided by the attending physician for each patient individually.

[0188] Also described herein are methods of preventing or treating a condition comprising administering to a subject in need thereof (e.g., a human being) a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical formulation as described herein. Examples of conditions that can be treated or prevented using the compounds or pharmaceutical formulations described herein include, but are not limited to, cardiovascular disease (e.g., atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation); osteoporosis; inflammation of airway epithelium; disorders of alveolar tissue; bladder incontinence; impaired hearing, such as due to diseases of the cochlea; endothelial lesions; diabetes including diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy; CNS related conditions; ischemia (e.g. ischemia of the central nervous system, spinal cord, brain or brain stem); dental tissue disorders including periodontal disease; kidney diseases; haematologic manifestations (e.g., anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia) especially following treatment with cytostatic compounds or irradiation therapy; wounds such as superficial wounds and deep wounds resulting from trauma; erectile dysfunction; urinary bladder incontinence; neuropathic pain; subchronic and chronic inflammation; cancer; failure of bone marrow and stem cell transplantation; conditions which arise during transplantation of cells and tissues or during medical procedures such as surgery; conditions caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species, free radicals or nitric oxide; diseases or disorders of pregnancy (e.g., preeclampsia and preterm labor); and stroke.

[0189] The compounds or pharmaceutical formulations described herein can be used to maintain normal sinus rhythm (NSR) following cardioversion of atrial fibrilation (AF), to prevent post-operative AF following cardiac surgery, and to pharmacologically cause cardioversion of AF.

[0190] The compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can facilitate and/or maintain the intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions. In one aspect, the compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein target the same cells targeted by AAP, AAP10, HP5, and/or functional analogues thereof, i.e. the compounds are able to modulate the function of these cells by agonizing or antagonizing the function of AAP, AAP10, HP5, and/or functional analogues thereof. The compounds are, however, not limited to compounds having specific AAP agonistic or antagonistic properties. Also described herein is the preparation and use of pharmaceutical formulations for the treatment of pathologies which can be associated with impaired intercellular gap junction communication and methods for using these compositions, e.g., as disclosed in WHO 02/077017 "New Medical Uses of Intercellular Communication Facilitating Compounds."

[0191] Also described herein are methods of treating a subject having, or preventing a subject at risk from developing, a condition associated with impaired GJIC (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia or osteoporosis) comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of any of the compounds or pharmaceutical formulations described herein. Individuals who can be treated using compounds described herein include, but are not limited to, animals, preferably mammals, e.g., rodents (including mice, rats, hamsters, and lagomorphs, such as rabbits), dogs, pigs, goats (generally any domestic animal), and primates.

[0192] Examples of conditions which can be treated or prevented using compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein include, but are not limited to, cardiovascular disease; osteoporosis; inflammation of airway epithelium; disorders of alveolar tissue; bladder incontinence; impaired hearing (e.g. due to diseases of the cochlea); endothelial lesions; diabetes (Type I or Type II) and diabetic complications (including diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy); atherosclerosis; CNS related conditions; seizures; ischemia (e.g. ischemia of the central nervous system, spinal cord, brain or brain stem); dental tissue disorders (including periodontal disease); kidney diseases; haematologic manifestations (e.g., anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia, especially following treatment with cytostatic compounds or irradiation therapy); wounds (e.g., superficial wounds and deep wounds resulting trauma); bone fracture; erectile dysfunction; urinary bladder incontinence; neuropathic pain; subchronic and chronic inflammation; cancer; failure of bone marrow and stem cell transplantation; conditions which arise during transplantation of cells and tissues or during medical procedures such as surgery; conditions caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species and/or free radicals and/or nitric oxide; diseases or disorders of pregnancy (e.g., preeclampsia and preterm labor); female infertility; and stroke. Compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can also be used to induce labor (e.g., by facilitating the effect of oxytocin on uterus contraction).

[0193] Also described herein are pharmacologically active antiarrhythmic compounds for treatment or prevention of arrhythmias and thrombotic complications arising during cardiovascular disorders, such as acute ischemic heart disease (e.g., stable angina pectoris, unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction), congestive heart failure (e.g., systolic, diastolic, high-output, low-output, right or left sided heart failure), congenital heart diseases, cor pulmonale, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, during coronary revascularization, and the like.

[0194] Compounds described herein can be used to treat and/or prevent bradyarrhythmias (e.g., due to disease in sinus node, AV node, bundle of His, right or left bundle branch), and tachyarrhythmias associated with reentry (e.g., atrial premature complexes, AV junctional complexes, ventricular premature complexes, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, paroxymal supraventricular tachycardia, sinus node reentrant tachycardia, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia). Furthermore, compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can be useful for alleviating conditions wherein slowing of conduction velocity is an important factor, e.g. ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and atrial fibrillation. Compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can be administered either alone or in combination with other antiarrhythmic compounds, such as class I agents (e.g., lidocaine), class II agents (e.g., metoprolol or propranolol), class III agents (e.g., amiodarone or sotalol) or class IV agents (e.g., verapamil).

[0195] Compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can also be used to treat or prevent one or more of reentry arrhythmia, ventricular reentry (e.g., arising during acute myocardial infarction, chronic myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris and unstable angina pectoris), infectious or autonomic cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, repolarization alternans, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, T-wave alternans, bradyarrhythmias, reduced contractility of cardiac tissue, thrombosis, and the like.

[0196] Additional functions in which endothelial gap-junction intercellular communication has been implicated are the migratory behavior of endothelial cells after injury, angiogenesis, endothelial growth and senescence and the coordination of vasomotor responses (Christ et al. Braz. J Med Biol. Res., 33, 423-429 (2000)). Therefore, compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can be used to enhance conducted vascular responses and to improve blood supply during conditions with increased metabolic demand (e.g., physical exercise, tachycardia), and during ischemia.

[0197] Compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can be used to cytoprotect a tissue or organ of a mammal in need of such treatment. Cytoprotecting refers to reducing, preventing or alleviating symptoms associated with unwanted cell swelling. Particular tissues and organs that will benefit from the method include those confined or otherwise impacted by a fiborous capsule such as heart or kidney. Also included are tissues associated with bone such as brain, spinal cord and bone marrow.

[0198] Compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can be used to prevent or treat ischemic injury in the organs of a mammal in need of such treatment, including, for example, the heart, central nervous system, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, liver, lungs, and limbs.

[0199] Also described herein is the use of the compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein to treat or prevent haematologic manifestations following treatment with cytostatic compounds or irradiation therapy. Impaired haematopoiesis recovery is observed in patients after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) cytostatic treatment. This includes absence of recovery of peripheral blood counts, including severe neutropenia, severe anemia with reticulocytopenia and presence of abnormal peripheral erythrocytes and severe thrombocytopenia. In addition, 5-8-fold decreases of bone marrow cellularity and hematopoietic progenitor content (granulomacrophagic colony-forming-units (CFU-GM), erythroid burst forming units (BFU-E), mixed colony forming units (CFU-mix), and overall colony forming units (CFU-C) in bone marrow are observed. Also provided are the treatment or prevention of general clinical situations commonly associated with iatrogenic pancytopenia.

[0200] Compounds and pharmaceutical formulations described herein can be use to treat or prevent osteoporosis. It is known that that GJIC is important in bone formation. The efficacy of the compounds can be assessed, for example, by an increase in osteoblast activity in a standard osteoblast activity assay which measures either calcium wave formation and/or alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast cells in the presence of the compounds. Alkaline phosphatase activity also can be used to provide a measure of osteoblast activity using standard calorimetric assays.

EXAMPLES



[0201] Representative syntheses of representative compounds are shown in Examples 1 through 5.

Example 1: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride



[0202] 


Step 1: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-1-tert-Butyl-2-methyl-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate



[0203] To a solution of NaHCO3 (58.64 g, 0.698 mol) in water (625 mL) N-Boc-trans-4-amino-L-proline methyl ester hydrochloride (50 g, 0.1745 mol, CNH Technologies, 98%) was added in portions, followed by EtOAc (500 mL). The mixture was cooled to 0°C. A solution of benzoyl chloride (20.26 mL, 0.1745 mol) in EtOAc (100 mL) was added over 25 min at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0°C for 1 h. Phases were separated. Aqueous phase was extracted 2 x 200 mL of EtOAc. Combined organic fraction was washed with 200 mL of 1N HCl, 100 mL of saturated NaHCO3 solution, 100 mL of brine, dried over MgSO4, and concentrated to afford 60.67 g of the title product as heavy oil (99.8% yield; 94% yield adjusted to residual EtOAc). 1H NMR (CDCl3, δ, ppm; for two conformers): 7.78-7.7 (m, 2 H), 7.56-7.4 (m, 3 H), 6.25-6.1 (m, 1 H), 4.8-4.67 (m, 1 H), 4.51-4.41 (m, 0.4 H), 4.34 (dd, J = 7, 7 Hz, 0.6 H), 3.97-3.84 (m, 1 H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.52 (dd, J = 11, 4 Hz, 0.6 H), 3.39 (dd, J = 11, 4 Hz, 0.4 H), 2.47-2.21 (m 2 H), 1.46 (s, 3.6 H), 1.43 (s, 5.4 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+Na): 371.

Step 2: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-Methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride



[0204] (2S, 4R)-1-tert-Butyl-2-methyl-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (60.19 g, contains 5.6% EtOAc, 0.1631 mol) was dissolved in Et2O (100 mL), and the solvent was evaporated in vacuum to remove residual EtOAc. The residual oil was dissolved in Et2O (100 mL). 2N HCl solution in Et2O (700 mL) was added (mild exotherm; precipitation commenced after ca. 5 min). The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 21 h. At that point, 200 mL of 2N HCl solution in Et2O were added, and the mixture was stirred for additional 24 h. The precipitate was filtered, washed with 500 mL of diethyl ether, and dried in vacuum at ambient temperature for 24 h to afford 46.03 g of the title product (99% yield). 1H NMR (CD3OD, δ, ppm): 7.91-7.84 (m, 2 H), 7.6-7.44 (m, 3H), 4.78 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 4.69-4.59 (m, 1 H), 3.77 (dd, J = 12, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.52 (dd, J = 12, 5 Hz, 1 H), 2.67-2.5 (m, 2 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+H): 249.

Step 3: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-Methyl 4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate



[0205] To a solution of Boc-Gly-OH (28.13 g, 0.1606 mol) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (0.1686 mol, 25.64 g; contains 11.12 wt% H2O) in THF (1.3 L) was added N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (0.1686 mol, 32.328 g) (Flask A). The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 4 h, then the stirring was stopped, and oily residue was allowed to settle.

[0206] In a separate flask (Flask B), NAOH, (0.1606 mol; 32 mL of 5N solution) was added to a suspension of (2S, 4R)-methyl 4-benxamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride (0.1606 mol, 45.73 g) in THF (0.52 L) over 15 min. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 10 min (the solids mostly dissolved). The solution of HOBt ester prepared above (Flask A) was added to the reaction mixture (Flask B) at ambient temperature over 15 min, leaving the oily residue behind. The residue in Flask A was washed with 250 mL of THF. The THF solution was demayted from the heavy oil, and added to the mixture in Flask B. The reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 40 min. Water (500 mL) was added, and the mixture was concentrated in vacuum to remove THF (∼550 mL residual volume). EtOAc (500 mL) was added, followed by brine (300 mL). Phases were separated. Aqueous phase was extracted with 2 x 300 mL of EtOAc. Combined organic fraction was washed 2 x 250 mL of 1N HCl, 2 x 250 mL of sat. NaHCO3 solution, 150 mL of brine, dried over MgSO4, and concentrated to afford 48.31 g of the title product as a foamy solid (74% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, δ, ppm; for two conformers): 7.81-7.72 (m, 2 H), 7.57-7.39 (m, 3 H), 6.41 (d, J = 6 Hz, 0.8 H), 6.25 (d, J = 6 Hz, 0.2 H), 5.32 (br. s, 1 H), 4.88-4.74 (m, 1 H), 4.65 (t, J = 7 Hz, 1 H), 4.11-3.86 (m, 2 H), 3.83-3.78 (m, 1 H), 3.76 (s, 3 H), 3.69-3.56 (M, 1 H), 2.65-2.3 (m, 2 H), 1.43 (s, 9 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+Na): 428.

Step 4: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-4-Benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid



[0207] To a solution of (2S, 4R)-methyl 4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (23.33 g, 0.0575 mol) in methanol (450 mL) NAOH, (0.2875 mol, 144 mL of 2N aqueous solution) was added at -1 to 1°C over 15 min. The mixture was stirred at -5 to 1°C for 2.5 h. HCl (0.2875 mol, 144 mL of 2N aqueous solution) was added at -3 to 1°C over 25 min. MeOH was distilled off in vacuum. 500 mL of EtOAc were added. Aqueous phase was saturated with NaCl. Phases were separated. Aqueous phase was extracted with 2 x 250 mL of EtOAc. Combined EtOAc solution was dried over MgSO4, and concentrated to afford 22.54 g of the title product as a white foamy solid (contains 6.6 wt % EtOAc; 94% yield adjusted to residual EtOAc). 1H NMR (CD3OD, δ, ppm): 7.87-7.79 (m, 2 H), 7.58-7.42 (m, 3 H), 4.81-4.7 (m 1 H), 4.69-4.56 (m, 1 H), 4.05-3.72 (m, 3 H), 3.67-3.49 (m, 1 H), 2.64-2.28 (m, 2 H), 1.43 (s, 9 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI) for M+H: 392; for M+Na: 414.

Step 5: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride



[0208] (2S, 4R)-4-Benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (21.97 g; contains 6.6 wt % EtOAc; 0.0524 mol, adjusted to residual EtOAc) was dissolved in dioxane (100 mL). The solvent was evaporated in vacuum to remove residual EtOAc. The residue was dissolved in anhydrous dioxane (200 mL). HCl (100 mL of freshly prepared ∼3.6 N solution in dioxane) was added at 10-12°C. The solution was allowed to warm up to ambient temperature (precipitation commenced after about 2 min). The reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 21 h, at which time 30 mL of ∼3.6N HCl solution were added, and the mixture was stirred for additional 5.5 h. Precipitated solids were filtered using N2 pressure, washed with 4 x 25 mL of dioxane, and dried in vacuum at room temperature for 24 h to afford 18.7 g of crude product as white solid.

[0209] The product was dissolved in i-PrOH (104 mL). 210 mL of diethyl ether were added over 1 h (precipitate formed immediately upon ether addition). The mixture was stirred for 1 h, filtered using N2 pressure, washed with 2 x 50 mL of 3:1 Et2O:i-PrOH solution, and dried in vacuum at room temperature for 24 h and at 40°C for 48 h to afford 15.7 g of the title compound.

[0210] The product was combined with 12.77 g of the product from a previous batch, dissolved in 2 L of water, and the solution was lyophilized to obtain 26.85 g of the title compound. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, δ, ppm, for two conformers): 8.77 (d, J = 7 Hz, 0.8 H), 8.71 (d, J = 7 Hz, 0.2 H), 8.68-7.95 (br, 2 H), 7.92-7.83 (m, 2 H), 7.59-7.43 (m, 3 H), 4.87-4.79 (m, 0.2 H), 4.68-4.54 (m, 0.8 H), 4.54-4.44 (m, 1 H), 4.0 - 3.47 (m, 4 H), 2.47-2.12 (m, 2 H). HRMS calc. for C14H18N3O4 (M+H): 292.1297, found: 292.1294.

Example 2: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-1-[2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride



[0211] 


Step 1: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-Methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride



[0212] To a 30-L jacketed reactor, with mechanical stirring, was charged 800g (9.4 moles) of sodium bicarbonate followed by 4.8 kg of water. To this stirred solution was charged N-Boc-trans-4-amino-L-proline methyl ester hydrochloride (0.67 kg) in 3.4 kg of water over 10 minutes. After that, toluene (6.0 kg) (two hazy layers observed) was charged to the 30-L reactor. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0-10°C with a heating/cooling circulator. Benzoyl chloride (0.328 kg 2.41 moles) in 0.67 kg toluene was charged over 6 min while maintaining temperature between 0-10°C. The transfer line was rinsed with 0.34 kg toluene. The mixture was stirred at 0 - 10°C for 3 h and monitored by LC (forms two clear phases). After 3 h, LC showed less than 3% by area of benzoyl chloride. The temperature was adjusted to 20-25°C. The stirring was stopped and the phases were separated. The organic phase was successively extracted with ~1 N HCl (1.3 kg), saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution (3.25 kg), and water (1.3 L mL). The toluene solution was concentrated to 1.5-2.5 L and then chased 2 x 3.0 kg of toluene. The solution was concentrated to a volume of 2 L at 40-50°C and 26 in Hg. The concentrate was transferred to a 30-L jacketed reactor with mechanical stirring, under N2 and diluted with 1.8 kg of additional toluene.

[0213] To a 2-L 3-neck round bottom flask with a gas inlet tube was charged 0.64 kg MeOH and the flask was weighed (2.15 kg). The MeOH was cooled to -5 to -15°C in an ice-bath. Anhydrous HCl gas was bubbled for 25 min through the solution. The flask and contents were weighed (2.357 kg). (Calculation: Final weight of contents - Initial weight of contents/volume= g/mL HCl) (2.357 kg - 2.15 kg = 0.207 kg g/mL HCl).

[0214] The MeOH/HCl solution containing (0.207 kg, 5.2 mol, 2.2 eq) was added dropwise over 5 min with stirring, to the toluene solution of the product of step (1) while maintaining the temperature between 15-25 °C. After 15 min of stirring, a thick white slurry was observed. The slurry was stirred for 2.5 h at 15-25°C. HPLC indicated the starting material at 2.0%. The slurry was filtered and washed with 2X 1.8 L of toluene. The solids were dried at 35-40°C in vacuum to give, 619 g of product (91% yield from N-Boc-trans-4-amino-L-proline methyl ester hydrochloride). HPLC area percent: 96.3%. NMR conforms to structure. 1H NMR (CD3OD, δ, ppm): 7.91-7.84 (m, 2 H), 7.6-7.44 (m, 3H), 4.78 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 4.69-4.59 (m, 1 H), 3.77 (dd, J = 12, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.52 (dd, J = 12, 5 Hz, 1 H), 2.67-2.5 (m, 2 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+H):285

Step 2: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-Methyl 4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl) pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate



[0215] To a 50-L jacketed reactor equipped with stirrer and temperature probe, was charged (2S, 4R)-methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride (670 g) and methylene chloride (6.7 L) to form white slurry. TEA (230 g) was charged dropwise. The mixture was stirred at 15-25°C. for 15 min to form a clear light yellow solution. Boc-Gly-OH (440 g) and 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide HCl (EDAC) (490 g) were then charged successively while maintaining the reaction mixture temperature below 25°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 15 to 25°C for 1 h. HPLC analysis indicated < 3% (by area) starting material. Water (3.4 L) was charged to the reaction mixture. The phases were separated. The upper aqueous phase was extracted with methylene chloride (1.8 L). The combined organic phases were successively extracted with 0.5N HCl (1.8 L), 1% of NaHCO3 aqueous solution (1.8 L), and water (1.8 L). Methylene chloride was distilled off at atmospheric pressure and replaced with 10-15 L of acetone. Acetone was distilled off at atmospheric pressure to a volume of about 6 L. The solution was cooled to -5 to -15°C over 1 h. The product started to crystallize out at ~40°C. The slurry was stirred for 2 h, filtered, washed with heptane (3 kg), and dried to give the product as a white solid, 930 g (85.8% yield, corrected for residual acetone). HPLC area percent: 99.2%. Note: The product is isolated as an acetone solvate. 1H NMR (CDCl3, δ, ppm, two conformers): 7.79-7.61 (m, 2H), 7.53-7.39 (m, 3H), 6.85 and 6.69 (two doublets, J = 6.4 and 6.8, 1H), 5.32 (br, 1H), 4.84-4.79 (m, 1H), 4.66-4.61 (m, 1H), 4.08-3.91 (m, 2H), 3.78-3.62 (m, 2H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 2.58-2.27 (m, 2H), 1.41 (s, 9H); MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+Na): 428.

Step 3: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-4-Benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid



[0216] A suspension of (2S, 4R)-methyl 4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (800 g, 1.97 moles) in MeOH (6.5 L) was heated to 35°C for dissolution. The solution was cooled to 12°C. A solution of NaOH (prepared from 273 g of 50% aq NaOH and 1.7 kg of water) was added dropwise, while keeping reaction mixture temperature at 10-15°C. The reaction was stirred at 10-15°C. for 1 h and was monitored by HPLC. When the reaction was deemed to be complete (<0.5% of starting material) by HPLC, a solution of 2N HCl (1 L) was added slowly while maintaining the reaction mixture temperature below 20°C. MeOH was removed under vacuum and EtOAc (11.5 L) was charged. More 2N HCl was added to adjust the solution to pH 1-2. The organic phase was separated and washed with water (2 x 0.8 L). Ethyl acetate was distilled under vacuum until the batch volume reached about 3.5 L. Acetone (6.5 L) was added. Acetone was distilled at atmospheric pressure until the final volume reached about 3.5 L. The mixture was cooled to 45°C. Heptane (3.3 L) was added over 10 min at 45-50°C. The resulting slurry was cooled to room temperature over 30 min, and stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The white solid was filtered and washed with acetone (2 x 1L). The wet cake was dried under vacuum to give 650 g of product (85%). The HPLC area purity was >99%. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, δ, ppm, two conformers): 12.6 (bs, 1H), 8.63 and 8.56 (two doublets, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.86-7.82 (m, 2H), 7.57-7.45 (m, 3H), 6.88-6.80 and 6.49 (two multiplets, 1H), 4.66-4.59 (m, 1H), 4.43-4.38 (m. 1H), 3.87-3.64 (m, 3H), 3.48-3.42 (m, 1H), 2.39-2.11 (m, 2H), 1.38 (s, 9H); MS (m/z, positive ESI) for M+H: 392; for M+Na: 41. MS (m/z, positive ESI) for M+H: 392; for M+Na: 414.

Step 4: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride



[0217] To a slurry of (2S, 4R)-4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl-amino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (650.2 g) in acetone (4.1 L) was added conc. hydrochloric acid (322 g). The reaction mixture was heated to 50°C over 15 min and stirred at 50°C. The reaction was monitored for completion by HPLC. Water (520 g) was added. The mixture was heated to reflux to dissolve the solid coating. The resulting clear solution was cooled to 40°C. Acetone (7.0 L) was added over 15 min while temperature was maintained at 30-40°C. The mixture was cooled to room temperature over 30 min, and stirred until a white slurry was formed. Additional acetone (7.0 L) was added over 10 min. The mixture was stirred overnight at about 22-24°C. The precipitated solids were filtered through a Buchner funnel lined with polypropylene and washed with acetone (2 x 2 L), was dried on the funnel to give 530 g (93.8%) of product as a monohydrate. LC area purity was 99.7%. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, δ, ppm, for two conformers): 8.77 (d, J = 7 Hz, 0.8 H), 8.71 (d, J = 7 Hz, 0.2 H), 8.68-7.95 (br, 2 H), 7.92-7.83 (m, 2 H), 7.59-7.43 (m, 3 H), 4.87-4.79 (m, 0.2 H), 4.68-4.54 (m, 0.8 H), 4.54-4.44 (m, 1 H), 4.0 - 3.47 (m, 4 H), 2.47-2.12 (m, 2 H). HRMS calc. for C14H18N3O4 (M+H): 292.1297, found: 292.1294.

Example 3: Synthesis of (2S, 4S)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride



[0218] 




Step 1: Synthesis of (2S,4S)-1-tert-Butyl 2-methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate



[0219] To a 250-mL three-necked round bottom flask, with mechanical stirring, was charged 4.8 g (56.8 mmol) of sodium bicarbonate followed by 48 mL water. To this stirred solution was charged (2S, 4S)-1-tert-butyl 2-methyl 4-aminopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate hydrochloride A (4 g, 14.2 mmol; prepared from commercially available methyl 4-aminopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate) and EtOAc (40 mL) (two hazy layers observed). The reaction mixture was cooled to 5-10°C. with an ice-bath. Benzoyl chloride (2.0 g, 14.2 mmol) in 8 mL EtOAc was charged dropwise over 10 min maintaining temperature between 5-10°C. The mixture was stirred at 5-10°C for 1 h and monitored by LC, which showed less than 0.5% by area of benzoyl chloride. The stirring was stopped and the phases were separated. The lower aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined EtOAc layer was washed with 1N HCl (20 mL), saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution (20 mL), brine (20 mL) and dried with Na2SO4. The EtOAc solution was filtered and the filtrate was evaporated to give 4.87 g of (2S, 45)-1-tert-butyl 2-methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate B as a white solid (98.2% yield). NMR conforms to structure. HPLC area percent: 99.3%. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, δ, ppm): 8.46 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.81 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.56-7.44 (m, 3 H), 4.48-4.41 (m, 1 H), 4.27 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.79-3.71 (m, 1 H), 3.69 (d, J = 11.7, 3 H). 3.34-3.25 (m, 1 H), 2.59-2.50 (m, 1 H), 2.08-1.99 (m, 1H), 1.38 (d, J = 18.9 Hz, 9 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+H): 349.

Step 2: Synthesis of (2S,4S)-Methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate



[0220] In a 250-mL three-necked round bottom flask, with mechanical stirring, 4.75 g (13.6 mmol) of B was slurried in 20 mL of ether. 50 mL of 2N of HCl in ether was added and the mixture was stirred over night at room temperature. HPLC showed 50% of conversion. 50 mL of 2N HCl in ether was added and stirred for about 60 h at room temperature. No starting material was observed by HPLC. The mixture was filtered, washed with ether, and dried in a funnel, to give 3.85 g of white solid (2S, 4S)-methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate C (99.4% yield). NMR conforms to structure. HPLC area percent: 97.9%. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, δ, ppm): 8.82 (d, J = 6.3 Hz 1 H), 7.88 (d, J = 8.4 Hz 2 H), 7.58-7.46 (m, 3H), 4.64-4.50 (m, 2 H), 3.78 (s, 3 H), 3.52-3.46 (m, 1 H), 3.36-3.30 (m, 1 H), 2.72 (m, 1 H), 2.26-2.17 (m, 1 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+H): 249.

Step 3: Synthesis of (2S,4S)-Methyl 4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride



[0221] To a 250-mL three-necked round bottom flask, was charged C (2.5 g) and EtOAc (50 mL) to form white slurry. TEA (2.5 mL) was charged dropwise. The mixture was stirred at 15-25°C for 10 min to form a clear light yellow solution. Boc-Gly-OH (1.85 g) and EDAC (2.01 g) were then charged successively while maintaining the reaction mixture temperature below 25°C. (Note: moderate exotherm was observed). The reaction mixture was stirred at 15 to 25°C for 1 h. The reaction was deemed to be complete by HPLC analysis. Water (50 mL) was charged. The phases were separated. The aqueous phase was back extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The combined organic phase was successively washed with 2 N HCl (25 mL), saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution (25 mL) and brine (25 mL). The organic phase was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under vacuum and to give 3.35 g (2S, 4S)-methyl 4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride D as a white solid (94.1% yield). NMR conforms to structure. HPLC area percent: 99.4%. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, δ, ppm): 8.49 (d, J =6 Hz, 0.8 H), 8.32 (d, J =6 Hz, 0.2 H), 7.84-7.76 (m, 2 H), 7.57-7.45 (m, 3 H), 6.90-6.86 (m, 1 H), 4.60-4.54 (q, J = 6 Hz, 1 H), 4.35 (t, J =6 Hz, 1 H), 3.88-3.62 (m, 3 H), 3.62 (s, 3 H), 3.52-3.43 (m, 1 H), 2.55-2.46 (m, 1 H), 2.05-1.96 (m, 1 H), 1.38 (s, 9 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+Na): 428.

Step 4: Synthesis of (2S,4S)-4-Benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid



[0222] A solution of D (3.2 g) in MeOH (50 mL) was cooled to -5 to 0°C. A solution of 2 N NaOH (20 mL) was added dropwise, while keeping reaction mixture temperature below 0°C. The reaction was stirred at about 0°C and was monitored by HPLC. When the reaction was deemed to be complete by HPLC, a solution of 2N HCl (20 mL) was added slowly while maintaining the reaction mixture temperature below 0°C. MeOH was removed under vacuum and EtOAc (50 mL) was charged. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The combined EtOAc phase was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under vacuum and to give 2.9 g (2S,4S)-4-benzamido-1-(2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)acetyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid E as a white solid (94% yield). NMR conforms to structure. HPLC area percent: 98.7%. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, δ, ppm): 8.46 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 0.8 H), 8.35 (d, J=6 Hz, 0.2 H), 7.84-7.78 (m, 2 H), 7.57-7.43 (m, 3 H), 6.88-6.81 (m, 1 H), 4.58-4.52 (q, J = 6 Hz, 1 H), 4.24 (t, J =9 Hz, 1 H), 3.92-3.65 (m, 3 H), 3.49-3.43 (m, 1 H), 2.54-2.45 (m, 1 H), 2.08-1.99 (m, 1 H), 1.38 (s, 9 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI): M+Na: 414.

Step 5: Synthesis of (2S,4S)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride



[0223] A solution of E (2.5 g) in acetone (25 mL) was stirred. Concentrated HCl (1.26 g) was added to the hazy reaction mixture at room temperature. The reaction was stirred at 48-50°C and was monitored by HPLC. After 1h, solids were found adhering to the walls of the flask. An additional 25 mL of acetone was added and the heating continued at 45-50°C. After 3h, all the solids from the wall were suspended a slurry was obtained. When the reaction was deemed to be complete by HPLC (5 h) the reaction mixture temperature was cooled to 25°C. The precipitated solids were filtered through a Buchner funnel lined with polypropylene and washed with acetone (2 x 5 mL). The product (2S, 4S)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride F was air dried to give 1.8 g (86% yield). NMR conforms to structure. HPLC area percent: 95.8%. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, δ, ppm, for two conformers): 8.46 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 0.8 H), 8.33 (d, J = 6 Hz, 0.2 H), 7.84-7.7.78 (m, 2 H), 7.54-7.44 (m, 3 H), 6.87-6.78 (m, 1 H), 4.59-4.52 (m, 1H), 4.29-4.24 (m, 1 H), 3.92-3.66 (m, 3 H), 3.51 - 3.44 (m, 1 H), 2.55-2.45 (m, 1 H), 2.05-1.97 (m, 1 H), 1.38 (s, 9H).

Example 4: Synthesis of (2S, 4R)-Methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride (Methyl (4R)-4-(benzoylamino)-L-prolinate hydrochloride)


Step 1: Synthesis of 1-Benzoyl 2-methyl (2S, 4S)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate



[0224] 



[0225] 1-Benzyl 2-methyl (2S, 4R)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate was prepared from commercially available trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline based on literature references (e.g., Bridges et al. J. Med. Chem. 1991, 34, 717; Gregson et al. J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 1161). A solution of 1-benzyl 2-methyl (2S, 4R)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (trans-4-hydroxy-N-Cbz-L-proline methyl ester, 15 g, 53.7 mmol), chloroacetic acid (8.4 g, 88.6 mmol), and triphenyl phosphine (23.2 g, 88.6 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) was cooled to 0-10°C, with mechanical stirring. To this stirred solution was slowly charged DIAD (17.9 g, 88.6 mmol) while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mixture 0-10°C. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature and was stirred at room temperature for 16 h.

[0226] The stirred the reaction mixture was cooled to 0-10°C and was charged with methanol (40 mL). To the stirred reaction mixture was charged 5 N NaOH (40 mL) while maintaining the reaction temperature 0-10°C. The reaction mixture is stirred at 0-10°C for 2 h. Phases were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (4 x 30 mL). The aqueous phase was cooled to 0-10°C and was acidified with concentrated HCl (18 mL) to pH 2. The acidified aqueous solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 40 mL). The combined ethyl acetate solution was concentrated under vacuum to give 23 g of an oil.

[0227] The oil was dissolved in methanol (150 mL). The stirred solution was charged with concentrated sulfuric acid (1 mL). The mixture was heated at reflux for 6 h. The mixture was concentrated to about 75 mL. An aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate (75 mL, prepared from 10 mL of saturated sodium bicarbonate and 65 mL of water) was charged dropwise, followed by the addition of water (150 mL). The slurry was stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h. The slurry was filtered and the wet cake was dried under vacuum (40°C) for 16 h to afford 9.0 g of the title compound (60% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, δ, ppm): 7.61-7.09 (m, 5 H), 5.42-5.04 (m, 2H), 4.47-4.38 (m, 2 H), 3.81-3.57 (m, 5 H), 3.37-3.20 (m, 1 H), 2.39-2.11 (m, 2 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+H): 280.

Step 2: Synthesis of 1-Benzyl 2-methyl (2S, 4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate


Method A



[0228] 



[0229] A solution of 1-benzyl 2-methyl (2S, 4S)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (2.0 g, 7.2 mmoL), triphenylphosphine (2.8 g, 10.7 mmol), N-Boc-ethyl oxamate (2.3 g, 10.7 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was cooled to 0-10°C. To the stirred solution was charged DIAD (2.2 g, 10.7 mmol) while maintaining the reaction temperature 0-10°C. The reaction was stirred at 0-15°C for 3 h.

[0230] A solution of lithium hydroxide monohydrate (0.9 g, 21.5 mmol) in water (100 mL) was charged while maintaining the reaction temperature 0-10C. The reaction was stirred at 0-10°C for 1 h. The reaction was diluted with water (10 mL) and ethyl acetate (30 mL). The phases were separated. The organic phase was extracted with water (15 mL) and brine (15 mL).

[0231] The ethyl acetate solution was concentrated under vacuum and the resulting residue was dissolved in toluene (20 mL). To the stirred solution was charged methanol (6 mL) and acetyl chloride (1 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 h. The reaction mixture is diluted with 0.5 N HCl (30 mL). The phases were separated. The toluene phase was extracted with 0.5 N HCl (15 mL). The combined aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL).

[0232] The above aqueous solution was cooled to 0-10°C and was basified with 10 N NaOH to pH 11. The aqueous solution was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL). The combined aqueous phase was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under vacuum to afford the title compound as a yellow oil, 0.5 g (25% yield).

Method B:



[0233] 



[0234] To a stirred slurry of 1-benzyl 2-methyl (2S, 4S)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (40.5 g, 0.145 mol), triphenylphasphine (47.5 g, 0.181 mol), phthalimide (26.6 g, 0.181 mol) in toluene (245 mL) at 15°C, was added diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (38.3 g, 0.189 mol) over 12 min. while the temperature was maintained at 15-25°C. The mixture was stirred at 15-25°C for 30 min. before concentrating to about 250 mL. The concentrate was then cooled to 0-5°C in an ice-bath, and stirred at the same temperature for 2 h. The precipitated solid was filtered, washed with cold toluene (100 mL), and discarded. The filtrate was washed with 0.1 N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (2 x 200 mL), and then with water (100 mL). The organic phase was concentrated to a residue of about 130 g crude (2S, 4R)-1-benzyl 2-methyl 4-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate in toluene. A small analytical sample was purified by silica gel chromatography. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.86-7.83 (m, 2 H), 7.77-7.72 (m, 2 H), 7.39-7.29 (m, 5 H), 5.26-5.00 (m, 3 H), 4.71-4.66 (m, 1 H), 3.95-3.90 (m, 2 H), 3.79, 3.63 (two s, 3 H), 3.10-2.99 (m, 1 H), 2.29-2.20 (m, 1 H).

[0235] Other solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate may substituted for toluene effectively. The reaction may be run at a range from about -5 to 35°C with little effect on results.

[0236] The above toluene solution was transferred to a 2-L flask with 30 mL of toluene rinse. The solution was diluted with methanol (800 mL). To the diluted solution was added hydrazine hydrate (20.5 g, 0.347 mol). After stirring at 20-25°C for 10 min, the mixture was heated to 55-60°C over 15 min. and maintained at the same temperature for 3 h. HPLC showed that the reaction was complete. The mixture was cooled to 20-25°C before water (30 g) was added to facilitate stirring. The fluffy solid was filtered, washed with toluene (100 mL) and discarded. The filtrate was acidified to pH 3 with 4 N HCl (about 65 mL). The acidic mixture was concentrated under vacuum to a residual volume of about 200 mL, and further acidified with hydrochloric acid to pH ~1. Dichloromethane (170 mL) and water (65 mL) were added to the above concentrate with efficient stirring. The organic phase was separated, extracted with water (50 mL) and discarded. The combined aqueous phases were washed with dichloromethane (170 mL), and then diluted with more dichloromethane (150 mL). The biphasic mixture was neutralized with 5 N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to pH ~12. The aqueous phase was separated, and extracted with dichloromethane (150 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with 0.025 N aqueous sodium hydroxide (100 mL) and then with water (50 mL). The final organic phase was concentrated to give 1-benzoyl 2-methyl (2S, 4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-1,2-carboxylate as an oil (26.8 g, 66% overall yield from 1-benzyl 2-methyl (2S, 4S)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate). 1H NMR (CDCl3, δ, ppm): 7.62-7.08 (m, 5 H), 5.40-4.99 (m, 2H), 4.50-4.44 (m, 1 H), 3.81-3.57 (m, 5 H), 3.30-3.18 (m, 1 H), 2.19-1.81 (m, 2 H), 1.30-1.25 (m, 2 H). MS (m/z, positive ESI, for M+H): 279.

[0237] The reaction is generally most effective in alcoholic solvents such as methanol, ethanol or propanol, but other solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile also give satisfactory results. Reaction temperatures may vary up to boiling points of solvents used.

Step 3: Synthesis of (2S,4R)-Methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride (Methyl (4R)-4-(benzoylamino)-L-prolinate hydrochloride)



[0238] 



[0239] To a solution of 1-benzyl 2-methyl (2S, 4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (26.8 g, 0.096 mol) in dichloromethane (75 mL) at 0-5°C, were charged water (140 mL) and sodium bicarbonate (20.2 g, 0.24 mol), followed by slow addition of benzoyl chloride (13.4 g, 0.095 mol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) while the temperature was maintained at 0-10°C. After stirring for 5 min, the mixture was warmed to 20-25°C. Water (60 mL) was added to dissolve the solid. The organic phase was separated and washed with 1 N hydrochloric acid (25 mL), 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate (30 mL), and water (55 mL). The organic phase was distilled, and dichloromethane was replaced with methanol to give 75 g of a residual concentrate. A small sample of the product, (2S, 4R)-1-benzyl 2-methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxytate, was taken out for analysis. 1H NMR (300 Hz, CDCl3) δ 7.81-7.72 (m, 2 H), 7.52-7.19 (m, 8 H), 6.48-6.40 (m, 1 H), 5.21-4.99 (m, 2 H), 4.77-4.74 (m, 1 H), 4.52-4.45 (m, 1 H), 3.98-3.89 (m, 1 H), 3.74, 3.59 (two s, 3 H), 3.58-3.47 (m, 1 H), 2.41-2.26 (m, 2 H).

[0240] In this reaction, solvents such as toluene, ethyl acetate, or tetrahydrofuran may substituted for dichloromethane. This transformation may also be performed under non-aqueous conditions using bases such as triethylamine, N, N-diisopropylethylamine.

[0241] To the above methanol concentrate of (2S, 4R)-1-benzyl 2-methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboacylate, were added a slurry of 10% Pd/C (dry, 4.1 g) in methanol (100 mL) and cyclohexene (80 mL). The mixture was heated at reflux (57°C) for 7 h. before being cooled to 20-25°C. Palladium catalyst was filtered off through a pad of Celite, and washed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated, and cyclohexene was removed as a methanol azetrope. To the final methanol solution was added 1 N hydrogen chloride in diethyl ether (110 mL, 0.11 mol) while the temperature was maintained at 20-25°C. The resulting slurry was cooled to 10-15°C over 20 min. The solid product was filtered and washed with toluene. The wet solid was dried at 60°C under vacuum to give 22.4 g of (2S, 4R)-methyl 4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate hydrochloride as white solid (81.7% overall yield from 1-benzoyl 2-methyl (2S, 4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate). 1H NMR (CDCl3, δ, ppm): 9.99 (bs, 2 H), 8.95 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 1H), 7.97-7.94 (m, 2H), 7.58-7.45 (m, 3 H), 4.71 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.68-4.61 (m 1 H), 3.78 (s, 3 H), 3.58 (dd, J = 11.9, 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.32 (dd, J = 11.9, 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.41 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 2.39 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H).

[0242] Cyclohexene may be replaced by other hydrogen transfer agents such as 2-methyl-cyclohexene, cyclohexadiene, ammonium formate. The benzyloxycarbonyl group may also be removed by catalytic hydrogenation.

Example 5: Preparation of crystalline (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate


Method 1:



[0243] 32 mg of amorphous (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride was dissolved in three volumes of an isopropanol/water (19.5:0.5 ratio by volume) mixed solvent at room temperature. The container was left open, and the crystals that had formed were collected. The crystalline solid was dried at 40-50°C under vacuum to give crystalline (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

Method 2



[0244] 60.5 mg of amorphous (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride was dissolved in 0.3 mL isopropanol/t-butyl methyl ether (7:3 ratio by volume) and 2.0 mL acetone/water (19:1 ratio by volume) mixed solvent system at room temperature. The container was left open, and the crystals that had formed were collected. The crystalline solid was dried at 40-50°C under vacuum to give crystalline (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.

Method 3



[0245] 36.5 mg of amorphous (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride was dissolved in 0.5 mL of an acetone/water (19.5:0.5 ratio by volume) mixed solvent at room temperature. The container was stirred and the crystals that had formed were collected. The crystalline solid was dried at 40-50°C under vacuum to give crystalline (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.


Claims

1. A compound that is (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.
 
2. The compound of claim 1, having a desolvation onset temperature of 104°C.
 
3. The compound of claim 1, having two endothermic transitions with onset temperatures of 104°C and 168°C.
 
4. The compound of any one of the preceding claims, having powder x-ray diffraction peaks at 12.5°2θ and 19.0°2θ, optionally further having powder x-ray diffraction peaks at 17.1°2θ, 19.7°2θ, 20.5°2θ, 21.8°2θ, 23.3°2θ and 23.4°2θ, optionally further having powder x-ray diffraction peaks at 5.4°2θ, 20.7°2θ, 21.2°2θ, 23.1°2θ, 26.4°2θ, and 27.4°2θ.
 
5. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of any one of claims 1 to 4 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
 
6. A compound of any one of claims 1 to 4 for use in therapy.
 
7. A compound of any one of claims 1 to 4 for use in a method of treating cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation of airway epithelium, disorders of alveolar tissue, bladder incontinence, impaired hearing, endothelial lesions, Type I or Type II diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, atherosclerosis, CNS related conditions, seizures, ischemia, dental tissue disorders, kidney diseases, anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, superficial wounds, deep wounds resulting from trauma, bone fractures, erectile dysfunction, urinary bladder incontinence, neuropathic pain, subchronic and chronic inflammation, cancer, failure of bone marrow, stem cell transplantation, conditions arising during transplantation of cells and tissues, conditions arising during medical procedures, conditions caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species, free radicals or nitric oxide, diseases or disorders of pregnancy, female infertility or stroke, preferably for use in a method of treating cardiovascular disease or in a method of treating ischemia.
 
8. A compound of any one of claims 1 to 4 for use in a method of preventing or treating ischemic injury in one or more organs of a mammal, wherein the organ is optionally selected from the heart, the central nervous system, the kidney, the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, the lungs and limbs.
 
9. Use of a compound of any one of claims 1 to 4 in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, inflammation of airway epithelium, disorders of alveolar tissue, bladder incontinence, impaired hearing, endothelial lesions, Type I or Type II diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, atherosclerosis, CNS related conditions, seizures, ischemia , dental tissue disorders, kidney diseases, anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, superficial wounds, deep wounds resulting from trauma, bone fractures, erectile dysfunction, urinary bladder incontinence, neuropathic pain, subchronic and chronic inflammation, cancer, failure of bone marrow, stem cell transplantation, conditions arising during transplantation of cells and tissues, conditions arising during medical procedures, conditions caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species, free radicals or nitric oxide, diseases or disorders of pregnancy, female infertility or stroke, preferably for use in a method of treating cardiovascular disease or in a method of treating ischemia.
 
10. Use of a compound of any one of claims 1 to 4 in the manufacture of a medicament for the prevention or treatment of ischemic injury in one or more organs of a mammal, wherein the organ is optionally selected from the heart, the central nervous system, the kidney, the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, the lungs and limbs.
 
11. A method for preparing a compound defined in any one of claims 1 to 4 comprising providing a solution of (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride in a crystallization medium, wherein the crystallization medium comprises at least one water-miscible organic solvent and water, and maintaining the solution for a time and under conditions suitable for forming the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate.
 
12. The method of preparing a compound defined in any one of claims 1 to 4 according to claim 11, wherein the at least one water-miscible organic solvent comprises at least one solvent selected from water-miscible alcohols, water-miscible ketones and water-miscible ethers, preferably selected from water-miscible C1-C4 alcohols, water-miscible C1-C6 ketones and C1-C6 water-miscible ethers.
 
13. The method of preparing a compound defined in any one of claims 1 to 4 according to claim 11, wherein the at least one water-miscible organic solvent comprises a mixture of isopropanol, acetone and t-butyl methyl ether.
 
14. The method of preparing a compound defined in any one of claims 1 to 4 according to claim 11, wherein the conditions suitable for forming the (2S, 4R)-1-(2-aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid hydrochloride monohydrate comprise maintaining the solution at room temperature.
 
15. The method of preparing a compound defined in any one of claims 1 to 4 according to claim 11, wherein the crystallisation medium comprises up to 5% by volume of water.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verbindung, die (2S,4R)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidin-2-carbon-säurehydrochloridmonohydrat ist.
 
2. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 mit einer Desolvationsbeginntemperatur von 104 °C.
 
3. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 mit zwei endothermen Übergängen mit Beginntemperaturen von 104 °C und 168 °C.
 
4. Verbindung nach einem der vorangegangenen Ansprüche mit Pulver-Röntgenbeugungsreflexen bei 12,5 °2θ und 19,0 °2θ, gegebenenfalls des Weiteren mit Pulver-Röntgenbeugungsreflexen bei 17,1 °2θ, 19,7 °2θ, 20,5 °2θ, 21,8 °2θ, 23,3 °2θ und 23,4 °2θ, gegebenenfalls des Weiteren mit Pulver-Röntgenbeugungsreflexen bei 5,4 °2θ, 20,7 °2θ, 21,2 °2θ, 23,1 °2θ, 26,4 °2θ und 27,4 °2θ.
 
5. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, die eine Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 und einen pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Träger umfasst.
 
6. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 zur therapeutischen Verwendung.
 
7. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Herz-Gefäß-Erkrankung, Osteoporose, Entzündung des Luftröhrenepithels, Störungen des Alveolargewebes, Blaseninkontinenz, Gehörbeeinträchtigung, endothelialen Läsionen, Typ-I- oder Typ-II-Diabetes, diabetischer Retinopathie, diabetischer Neuropathie, Atherosklerose, ZNS-bezogenen Leiden, Krampfanfällen, Ischämie, Dentalgewebestörungen, Nierenerkrankungen, Anämie, Leukopenie, Thrombozytopenie, Panzytopenie, oberflächlichen Wunden, aus einem Trauma resultierenden tiefen Wunden, Knochenbrüchen, Erektionsstörungen, Harnblaseninkontinenz, neuropathischen Schmerzen, subchronischer und chronischer Entzündung, Krebs, Knochenmarksinsuffizienz, Stammzellentransplantation, während der Transplantation von Zellen und Geweben entstehenden Leiden, während medizinischen Vorgängen entstehenden Leiden, durch einen Überschuss reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies, freier Radikale oder Stickoxids verursachten Leiden, Erkrankungen oder Störungen im Zuge der Schwangerschaft, weiblicher Unfruchtbarkeit oder Schlaganfall, vorzugsweise zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Herz-Gefäß-Erkrankung oder in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Ischämie.
 
8. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Prävention oder Behandlung von ischämischer Verletzung an einem oder mehreren Organen eines Säugetiers, worin das Organ gegebenenfalls aus dem Herz, dem Zentralnervensystem, der Niere, dem Magen-Darm-Trakt, der Leber, der Lunge und den Extremitäten ausgewählt ist.
 
9. Verwendung einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 zur Herstellung eines Medikaments zur Behandlung von Herz-Gefäß-Erkrankung, Osteoporose, Entzündung des Luftröhrenepithels, Störungen des Alveolargewebes, Blaseninkontinenz, Gehörbeeinträchtigung, endothelialen Läsionen, Typ-I- oder Typ-II-Diabetes, diabetischer Retinopathie, diabetischer Neuropathie, Atherosklerose, ZNS-bezogenen Leiden, Krampfanfällen, Ischämie, Dentalgewebestörungen, Nierenerkrankungen, Anämie, Leukopenie, Thrombozytopenie, Panzytopenie, oberflächlichen Wunden, aus einem Trauma resultierenden tiefen Wunden, Knochenbrüchen, Erektionsstörungen, Harnblaseninkontinenz, neuropathischen Schmerzen, subchronischer und chronischer Entzündung, Krebs, Knochenmarksinsuffizienz, Stammzellentransplantation, während der Transplantation von Zellen und Geweben entstehenden Leiden, während medizinischen Vorgängen entstehenden Leiden, durch einen Überschuss reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies, freier Radikale oder Stickoxids verursachten Leiden, Erkrankungen oder Störungen im Zuge der Schwangerschaft, weiblicher Unfruchtbarkeit oder Schlaganfall, vorzugsweise zur Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Herz-Gefäß-Erkrankung oder in einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Ischämie.
 
10. Verwendung einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 zur Herstellung eines Medikaments zur Prävention oder Behandlung von ischämischer Verletzung an einem oder mehreren Organen eines Säugetiers, worin das Organ gegebenenfalls aus dem Herz, dem Zentralnervensystem, der Niere, dem Magen-Darm-Trakt, der Leber, der Lunge und den Extremitäten ausgewählt ist.
 
11. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, das das Bereitstellen einer Lösung von (2S,4R)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamido-pyrrolidin-2-carbonsäurehydrochlorid in einem Kristallisationsmedium, worin das Kristallisationsmedium zumindest ein wassermischbares organisches Lösungsmittel und Wasser umfasst, und das Aufbewahren der Lösung für einen Zeitraum und unter Bedingungen, die zur Bildung des (2S,4R)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidin-2-carbonsäurehydrochloridmonohydrats geeignet sind, umfasst.
 
12. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 nach Anspruch 11, worin das zumindest eine wassermischbare organische Lösungsmittel zumindest ein aus wassermischbaren Alkoholen, wassermischbaren Ketonen und wassermischbaren Ethern, vorzugsweise aus wassermischbaren C1-4-Akoholen, wassermischbaren C1-6-Ketonen und wassermischbaren C1-6-Ethern, ausgewähltes Lösungsmittel umfasst.
 
13. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 nach Anspruch 11, worin das zumindest eine wassermischbare organische Lösungsmittel ein Gemisch aus Isopropanol, Aceton und t-Butylmethylether umfasst.
 
14. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 nach Anspruch 11, worin die zur Bildung des (2S,4R)-1-(2-Aminoacetyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidin-2-carbonsäurehydrochloridmonohydrats geeigneten Bedingungen das Aufbewahren der Lösung bei Raumtemperatur umfassen.
 
15. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 nach Anspruch 11, worin das Kristallisationsmedium bis zu 5 Vol.-% Wasser umfasst.
 


Revendications

1. Composé qui est le chlorhydrate d'acide (2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacétyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylique monohydraté.
 
2. Composé selon la revendication 1, ayant une température de début de désolvatation de 104°C.
 
3. Composé selon la revendication 1, ayant deux transitions endothermiques avec des températures de début de 104°C et 168°C.
 
4. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, ayant des pics de diffraction des rayons X par la technique des poudres à 12,5° 2θ et 19,0° 2θ, ayant éventuellement en outre des pics de diffraction des rayons X par la technique des poudres à 17,1° 2θ, 19,7° 2θ, 20,5° 2θ, 21,8° 2θ, 23,3° 2θ et 23,4° 2θ, ayant éventuellement en outre des pics de diffraction des rayons X par la technique des poudres à 5,4° 2θ, 20,7° 2θ, 21,2° 2θ, 23,1° 2θ, 26,4° 2θ, et 27,4° 2θ.
 
5. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4 et un véhicule pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
 
6. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, pour utilisation en thérapie.
 
7. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, pour utilisation dans une méthode de traitement d'une maladie cardiovasculaire, de l'ostéoporose, d'une inflammation de l'épithélium des voies aériennes, de troubles du tissu alvéolaire, de l'incontinence urinaire, d'une altération auditive, de lésions endothéliales, du diabète de type I ou de type II, d'une rétinopathie diabétique, d'une neuropathie diabétique, de l'athérosclérose, d'états liés au SNC, d'une crise d'épilepsie, d'une ischémie, de troubles du tissu dentaire, de maladies rénales, d'une anémie, d'une leucopénie, d'une thrombocytopénie, d'une pancytopénie, de blessures superficielles, de blessures profondes résultant d'un traumatisme, de fractures osseuses, d'un dysfonctionnement érectile, de l'incontinence urinaire, d'une douleur neuropathique, d'une inflammation sous-chronique ou chronique, d'un cancer, d'une insuffisance en moelle osseuse, d'une greffe de cellules souches, d'états survenant lors d'une greffe de cellules et de tissus, d'états survenant au cours de procédures médicales, d'états dus à un excès d'espèces oxygénées réactives, de radicaux libres ou d'oxyde nitrique, de maladies ou troubles liés à une grossesse, de la stérilité féminine ou d'un accident vasculaire, de préférence pour utilisation dans une méthode de traitement d'une maladie cardiovasculaire ou dans une méthode de traitement d'une ischémie.
 
8. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, pour utilisation dans une méthode de prévention ou de traitement d'une lésion ischémique dans un ou plusieurs organes d'un mammifère, dans lequel l'organe est éventuellement choisi parmi le coeur, le système nerveux central, les reins, les voies gastro-intestinales, le foie, les poumons et les membres.
 
9. Utilisation d'un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4 dans la fabrication d'un médicament destiné au traitement d'une maladie cardiovasculaire, de l'ostéoporose, d'une inflammation de l'épithélium des voies aériennes, de troubles du tissu alvéolaire, de l'incontinence urinaire, d'une altération auditive, de lésions endothéliales, du diabète de type I ou de type II, d'une rétinopathie diabétique, d'une neuropathie diabétique, de l'athérosclérose, d'états liés au SNC, d'une crise d'épilepsie, d'une ischémie, de troubles du tissu dentaire, de maladies rénales, d'une anémie, d'une leucopénie, d'une thrombocytopénie, d'une pancytopénie, de blessures superficielles, de blessures profondes résultant d'un traumatisme, de fractures osseuses, d'un dysfonctionnement érectile, de l'incontinence urinaire, d'une douleur neuropathique, d'une inflammation sous-chronique ou chronique, d'un cancer, d'une insuffisance de la moelle osseuse, d'une greffe de cellules souches, d'états survenant lors d'une greffe de cellules et de tissus, d'états survenant au cours de procédures médicales, d'états dus à un excès d'espèces oxygénées réactives, de radicaux libres ou d'oxyde nitrique, de maladies ou troubles liés à une grossesse, de la stérilité féminine ou d'un accident vasculaire, de préférence pour utilisation dans une méthode de traitement d'une maladie cardiovasculaire ou dans une méthode de traitement d'une ischémie.
 
10. Utilisation d'un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4 dans la fabrication d'un médicament destiné à la prévention ou au traitement d'une lésion ischémique dans un ou plusieurs organes d'un mammifère, dans lequel l'organe est éventuellement choisi parmi le coeur, le système nerveux central, les reins, les voies gastro-intestinales, le foie, les poumons et les membres.
 
11. Procédé pour préparer un composé défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, comprenant les opérations consistant à disposer une solution de chlorhydrate d'acide (2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacétyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylique dans un milieu de cristallisation, le milieu de cristallisation comprenant au moins un solvant organique miscible avec l'eau et de l'eau, et à maintenir la solution pendant un temps et dans des conditions convenant pour la formation du chlorhydrate d'acide (2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacétyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylique monohydraté.
 
12. Procédé selon la revendication 11 pour préparer un composé défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel l'au moins un solvant organique miscible avec l'eau comprend au moins un solvant choisi parmi les alcools miscibles avec l'eau, les cétones miscibles avec l'eau et les éthers miscibles avec l'eau, de préférence choisi parmi les alcools en C1 à C4 miscibles avec l'eau, les cétones en C1 à C6 miscibles avec l'eau et les éthers en C1 à C6 miscibles avec l'eau.
 
13. Procédé selon la revendication 11 pour préparer un composé défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel l'au moins un solvant organique miscible avec l'eau comprend un mélange d'isopropanol, d'acétone et de t-butyl-méthyléther.
 
14. Procédé selon la revendication 11 pour préparer un composé défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel les conditions convenant pour la formation du chlorhydrate d'acide (2S,4R)-1-(2-aminoacétyl)-4-benzamidopyrrolidine-2-carboxylique monohydraté comprennent le maintien de la solution à la température ambiante.
 
15. Procédé selon la revendication 11 pour préparer un composé défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel le milieu de cristallisation comprend jusqu'à 5 % en volume d'eau.
 




Drawing
























REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description