(19)
(11)EP 2 474 823 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
02.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/36

(21)Application number: 11195288.3

(22)Date of filing:  22.12.2011
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G01N 17/02(2006.01)
G01N 17/04(2006.01)

(54)

Corrosion sensor and method for manufacturing a corrosion sensor

Korrosionssensor und Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Korrosionssensors

Capteur de corrosion et procédé de fabrication du capteur de corrosion


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 06.01.2011 US 985541

(43)Date of publication of application:
11.07.2012 Bulletin 2012/28

(73)Proprietor: General Electric Company
Schenectady, NY 12345 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • Hefner, Rebecca Evelyn
    Greenville, SC 29615 (US)
  • Dimascio, Paul S.
    Greenville, SC 29615 (US)

(74)Representative: BRP Renaud & Partner mbB Rechtsanwälte Patentanwälte Steuerberater 
Königstraße 28
70173 Stuttgart
70173 Stuttgart (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 6 132 593
US-A1- 2008 217 172
US-A1- 2010 253 375
US-A1- 2007 193 887
US-A1- 2009 015 271
US-A1- 2010 288 543
  
  • HON K K B ET AL: "Direct writing technology-Advances and developments", CIRP ANNALS, ELSEVIER BV, NL, CH, FR, vol. 57, no. 2, 1 January 2008 (2008-01-01), pages 601-620, XP025675455, ISSN: 0007-8506, DOI: 10.1016/J.CIRP.2008.09.006 [retrieved on 2008-10-28]
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention generally involves a corrosion sensor and methods for manufacturing the corrosion sensor.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Machinery and equipment operated in harsh environments are often subject to accelerated corrosion rates which, if not monitored or controlled, can result in premature aging and eventually failure of the machinery and equipment. For example, in a gas turbine, high temperature combustion gases flow along a hot gas path through a turbine to produce work. The combustion gases may include sufficient quantities of oxygen to produce general corrosion on the metal surfaces along the hot gas path. The general corrosion is characterized by an oxidation-reduction reaction in which the metal surfaces are oxidized, producing an anode at the oxidation site and a cathode at the reduction site.

[0003] Sensors may be installed on the metal surfaces to monitor the presence and/or rate of any general corrosion. For example, as shown in Figure 1, a conventional corrosion sensor 10 installed on a metal surface 12 may comprise alternating layers of electrodes 14 separated by dielectric material 16. The electrodes 14 may have an oxidation potential comparable to that of the metal surfaces 12 so that the general corrosion rate on the metal surfaces 12 may be approximated by the general corrosion rate on the electrodes 14. The general corrosion rate occurring on the metal surfaces 12 may thus be determined using a sensor 18 to measure the electrical potential or current flow across the electrodes 14.

[0004] The bond or interface between the electrodes 14 and the dielectric material 16 in the conventional corrosion sensor 10 may degrade over time, creating small gaps 19 or other low flow regions between the electrodes 14 and dielectric material 16, as shown in Figure 1. These gaps 19 or low flow regions result in a local area conducive to crevice corrosion. Crevice corrosion between the electrodes 14 and dielectric material 16 exposes a larger surface area of the electrodes 14 to the hot gas path, increasing the electrical potential or current flow across the electrodes 14 for the same general corrosion rate. As a result, crevice corrosion changes the calibration and/or accuracy of the conventional corrosion sensors 10 over time. Therefore, a corrosion sensor and method for manufacturing a corrosion sensor resistive to crevice corrosion would be useful.

[0005] US 2007/193887 describes a planarized coupled multi-electrode corrosion sensing device including electrode pads are fabricated on a thin backing, such as a thin film, each pad having an associated electrical lead for connection to auxiliary electronic circuitry, which may include a resistor associated with each electrical pad.

[0006] US 2008/217172 describes an electrochemical corrosion sensor including an array of electrodes, each including a diamond like carbon coating of at least 1 micron thickness, disposed on at least a portion thereof.

[0007] US2010/288543 describes patterning and direct writing of nanoparticle inks formulated to provide conductive lines upon annealing.

[0008] US 6132 593 describes a method for measuring localized corrosion and other heterogeneous electrochemical processes comprising the steps of forming an integrated multi-sensor wire beam electrode system whose working surface simulates a conventional one piece metal electrode surface in electrochemical behavior, exposing the working surface of the wire beam electrode to an electrolyte as a conventional one-piece electrode surface to allow localized corrosion or other heterogeneous electrochemical processes to occur, measuring local electrochemical parameters from local areas of the wire beam electrode surface by means of wires located at these local areas using read-out means and calculating local electrochemical kinetics of localized corrosion and other heterogeneous processes by means of kinetic equations.

[0009] The document by Hon K. K. B. et al: "Direct Writing Technology Advances and Developments" CIRP Annals, Elsevier BV, NL, CH, FR, Vol. 57, no.2, 1 January 2008 (2008-01-01), pages 601-620, XP025675455, ISSN: 0007-8506, DOI: 10.1016/J. CIRP.2008.09.06 describes the use of materials such as metallics, ceramics, dielectrics and polymers to biomaterials in direct writing techniques.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0010] Aspects and advantages of the invention are set forth below in the following description, or may be obvious from the description, or may be learned through practice of the invention.

[0011] The present invention resides in a corrosion sensor and in a method for manufacturing a corrosion sensor as defined in the appended claims 1 and 4, respectively. Those of ordinary skill in the art will better appreciate the features and aspects of such embodiments, and others, upon review of the specification.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0012] Embodiments of the present invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a simplified side cross-section view of a conventional corrosion sensor;

Fig. 2 is a simplified side cross-section view of a corrosion sensor according to one embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is a top plan view of the corrosion sensor shown in Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is a simplified side cross-section view of a direct write deposition system for manufacturing a corrosion sensor according to one embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is a flow diagram of a method for manufacturing corrosion sensors according to one embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 6 is a flow diagram of an alternative method for manufacturing a corrosion sensor; and

Fig. 7 is a flow diagram of another alternative method for manufacturing a corrosion sensor.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0013] Reference will now be made in detail to present embodiments of the invention, one or more examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. The detailed description uses numerical and letter designations to refer to features in the drawings. Like or similar designations in the drawings and description have been used to refer to like or similar parts of the invention.

[0014] Each example is provided by way of explanation of the invention, not limitation of the invention. In fact, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that modifications and variations can be made in the present invention without departing from the scope thereof. Thus, it is intended that the present invention covers such modifications and variations as come within the scope of the appended claims.

[0015] Embodiments of the present invention provide a corrosion sensor and methods for manufacturing the corrosion sensor that is believed to be more sensitive to detecting and measuring general corrosion and/or more resistant to crevice corrosion known to degrade the sensitivity and accuracy of conventional corrosion sensors. The various embodiments generally benefit from direct write deposition techniques that allow for the repeatable and reliable production of smaller electrodes that are spaced closer together. In addition, the direct write deposition techniques employed by embodiments of the present invention produce a generally seamless interface or joint between the conducting portions and non-conducting portions of the corrosion sensor to reduce and/or prevent crevice corrosion from degrading the corrosion sensor over time.

[0016] Fig. 2 provides a simplified side cross-section view of a corrosion sensor 20 according to one embodiment of the present invention, and Fig. 3 provides a simplified top plan view of the corrosion sensor 20 shown in Fig. 2. The corrosion sensor 20 is designed to be installed in or on a metallic substrate 22 to monitor and/or measure the presence or rate of general corrosion occurring on the metallic substrate 22. During operations, the corrosion sensor 20 experiences general corrosion at approximately the same rate as the metallic substrate 22, and the current flow and/or electrical potential produced by the corrosion sensor 20 may be measured to determine the general corrosion rate of the metallic substrate 22.

[0017] As shown, a particular embodiment of the corrosion sensor 20 may include a plurality of conductive portions 24, at least one non-conductive portion 26, and a seamless joint 28 between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26. The conductive portions 24 may comprise platinum, palladium, gold, silver, copper, combinations or blends thereof, or other highly conductive materials known in the art. In addition, the conductive portions 24 may be doped with additional materials so that the conductive portions 24 have an oxidation potential comparable to the metallic substrate 22. Although depicted as cylindrical in shape, the conductive portions 24 may take any geometric shape. The at least one non-conductive portion 26 may surround and electrically insulate the conductive portions 24 and may comprise any non-conductive material suitable for the temperatures and pressures anticipated for the metallic substrate 22. For example, the non-conductive portion(s) 26 may comprise dielectric material, ceramics, or other suitable non-conductive materials known in the art. The manufacturing methods disclosed herein generally allow fabrication of smaller and more closely spaced conductive portions 24 than in conventional corrosion sensors. For example, the conductive portions 24 manufactured according to various embodiments of the present invention may have a dimension exposed to general corrosion of less than approximately 500 microns, and in some embodiments as small as approximately 5 microns. Alternately, or in addition, the spacing between adjacent conductive portions 24 may result in the non-conductive portion 26 between adjacent conductive portions 24 having a dimension less than approximately 500 microns, and in some embodiments as small as approximately 5 microns.

[0018] The seamless joint 28 or connection between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26 reduces and/or prevents crevice corrosion from occurring between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26. The seamless joint 28 comprises a brazed joint between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26.

[0019] The corrosion sensor 20 may be attached directly to the metallic substrate 22, for example, by an adhesive material. Alternatively, as shown in Fig. 2, an optional bond coat layer 30 may be included between the corrosion sensor 20 and the metallic substrate 22 to minimize any chemical or electrical interaction between the corrosion sensor 20 and the metallic substrate 22 and/or to provide improved adhesion between the corrosion sensor 20 and the metallic substrate 22. The optional bond coat layer 30 may comprise, for example, alumina, a thermal barrier coating, or another layer to enhance the adherence between the corrosion sensor 20 and the metallic substrate 22. As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, electrodes 32 may connect each conductive portion 24 to an electrical sensor 34. The electrodes 32 may comprise a conductive wire, perhaps formed from the same conductive material and in the same manner as the conductive portions 24, and may be embedded in the corrosion sensor 20 for conducting current flow between the conductive portions 24 and the electrical sensor 34. The electrical sensor 34 may comprise a voltmeter, an ammeter, or another suitable sensor for measuring the electrical potential and/or current flow between the conductive portions 24. In this manner, the voltage or current flow between the conductive portions 24 may be used to determine the general corrosion rate of the substrate material 22.

[0020] The corrosion sensor 20 described and illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3 may be manufactured using one of several direct write deposition techniques. As used herein, "direct write deposition techniques" include dip pen nanolithography, micropen writing, laser particle guidance or laser jet printing, plasma spraying, laser assisted chemical vapor deposition, ink jet printing, and transfer printing, any of which may be adapted to manufacture corrosion sensors 20 within the scope of the present invention. For example, Fig. 4 shows a direct write deposition system 40 for manufacturing corrosion sensors 20 according to various embodiments of the present invention. As shown, the system 40 may include a plurality of nozzles 42 directed at a work piece 44, with relative motion between the nozzles 42 and the work piece 44. For example, the nozzles 42 may be attached to one or more arms 46 or assemblies configured to move each nozzle 42 with respect to the stationary work piece 44. Alternatively, or in addition, the work piece 44 may be located on a conveyor 48 or other surface configured to move the work piece 44 with respect to the nozzles 42.

[0021] Each nozzle 42 may be connected to a separate supply of material dedicated to that particular nozzle 42. Alternately, multiple supplies of materials may be multiplexed through a single nozzle 42. Each supply of material may include a pump, a container 50, a mixer, and other associated equipment for supplying the material to be deposited onto the work piece 44. The material to be deposited may comprise fine powders ranging in size on the order of 10 nanometers to several hundred microns. The fine powders may be suspended in a solvent, such as alcohol or water, that may further include fillers or binders such as starch, cellulose, surfactants, and other additives to adjust the rheological properties of the material. The nozzle diameter and rheology of the supplied material generally determine the minimum and maximum dimensions of the deposited material. For example, nozzles 42 having a diameter of 25-600 microns may readily produce deposits in dimensions ranging from approximately 1-600 microns in width and 1-10 microns in thickness per pass, with the number of passes dependent on the desired thickness of the deposited material.

[0022] As shown in Fig. 4, for example, the system 40 may include separate nozzles 42 dedicated for depositing non-conductive material 52, conductive material 54, and brazing material 56 onto the work piece 44. As the nozzles 42 move with respect to the work piece 44, a controller (not shown) may execute a CAD/CAM or similar program to actuate each nozzle 42 as desired to deposit the specific material onto discrete locations on the work piece 44. For example, the controller may actuate the nozzles 42 to sequentially deposit the non-conductive material 52, conductive material 54, and brazing material 56 onto the bond coat 30 during multiple passes to form the corrosion sensor 20 as shown in Fig. 4. The resulting deposition layers may be cured between successive passes of the nozzles 42 or when the desired thicknesses are achieved using conventional curing devices, such as, for example, ovens, lamps, and other heat sources. Alternately, as shown in Fig. 4, a source 58 may be integrated with the system 40 to cure the resulting deposition layer and/or braze the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26 using, for example, ultraviolet, ultrasonic, thermal, or other forms of heat.

[0023] Multiple variations of the exemplary direct write system 40 shown in Fig. 4 may be used to manufacture corrosion sensors 20 within the scope of the present invention. For example, the system 40 may include one nozzle supplied with the non-conductive filler material 52 to be infiltrated, a second nozzle supplied with the conductive material 54 or slurry, and a third nozzle supplied with the brazing material 56 or slurry. The first nozzle may thus deposit a uniform base coat of the filler material 52 onto the bond coat 30, if present, or metallic substrate 22 during an initial pass or series of passes. The second nozzle may then deposit the conductive material 54 at discrete locations to mix with the filler material 52 in the base coat, and the third nozzle may deposit the brazing material 56 around each discrete location of the conductive material 54. Sintering or other curing may then be performed to the resulting deposition layers to produce any of the corrosion sensors 20 illustrated in Figs. 2-4.

[0024] Method 1: Fig. 5 provides a flow diagram of a first method for manufacturing corrosion sensors 20, for example using the system 40 described and shown in Fig. 4. At block 60, a thin layer of non-conductive or filler material 52 may be deposited, sprayed, printed, or otherwise applied to the substrate, such as, for example the bond coat 30 or directly to the metallic substrate 22 being monitored for corrosion. At block 62, during the same or subsequent passes, a thin layer of conductive or binder material 54 may similarly be deposited, sprayed, printed, or otherwise applied at specific or discrete locations, and at block 64, a brazing material 56 may be deposited, sprayed, printed, or otherwise applied around each discrete location of the conductive or binder material 54.

[0025] One of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate that one or more of the filler material 52, binder material 54, and/or brazing material 56 may be applied as a dry nano-powder, a liquid, or a slurry of fine powders suspended in a solvent, such as alcohol or water, that may further include fillers or binders such as starch, cellulose, surfactants, and other additives to adjust the rheological properties of the material. In addition, the non-conductive or filler material 52, the conductive or binder material 54, and/or the brazing material 56 may be selected or doped to have similar melting points to one another. In this manner, the nozzles 42 may deposit, spray, print, or otherwise apply the conductive or binder material 54 to produce conductive portions 24 having a dimension of less than approximately 500 microns, and in some embodiments as small as approximately 5 microns. In addition, the spacing between adjacent conductive portions 24 may result in the non-conductive portion 26 between adjacent conductive portions 24 having a dimension less than approximately 500 microns, and in some embodiments as small as approximately 5 microns.

[0026] At block 66, the source 58 may be energized to cure the previously applied filler material 52, binder material 54, and/or brazing material 56, for example such as by using ultraviolet, ultrasonic, thermal, or other forms of heat appropriate for the particular filler, binder, and brazing materials 52, 54, 56 being used. Curing of the non-conductive or filler material 52 produces the non-conductive portions 26. Curing of the conductive or binder material 54 mixed with the filler material 52 produces the conductive portions 24 and/or electrodes 32. Curing of the brazing material 56 around each discrete location of the conductive or binder material 54 produces the seamless joint or metallurgical bond 28 between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26.

[0027] At block 68, the thickness of the various layers are checked, and one or more of blocks 60, 62, 64 and/or 66 may be repeated, as desired, to increase the thickness of the conductive portions 24, non-conductive portions 26, and/or seamless joint 28 on the corrosion sensor 20. Once the desired thickness of each layer is achieved, the process continues to block 70 where electrodes 32, if not previously formed in concert with the conductive portions 24, may be connected to each discrete location of the conductive material 24. If desired, the electrodes 32 may be pretreated or conditioned to create an adherent oxide layer resistant to crevice corrosion on the surface of the electrodes, as represented by block 72. The pretreatment or conditioning of the electrodes 32 may take place after each layer is applied to the substrate. Alternately, the pretreatment or conditioning of the electrodes 32 may take place as a final finishing process. At block 74, the electrodes 32 may be connected to the electrical sensor 34 so that the electrical sensor 34 is connected to each discrete location of the conductive material 24.

[0028] Method 2: Fig. 6 provides a flow diagram of an alternative method for manufacturing corrosion sensors 20 not according to the present invention. At block 80, a first layer of non-conductive material 26 may be deposited, sprayed, printed, or otherwise applied to the substrate. The substrate may comprise, for example, the bond coat 30 or the metallic substrate 22 being monitored for corrosion and may already include electrodes 32 pre-positioned at desired locations to connect to the subsequently applied conductive portions 24. At block 82, the conductive portions 24 may be written onto the non-conductive material 26 in particular locations in a manner similar to writing with an ink pen. For example, a metal in solution, such as a molten metal or a metal powder in a liquid solution, may be written onto the non-conductive material 26 to form the desired patterns of the conductive portions 24. As previously described, the specific locations of the conductive portions 24 may result in a dimension of less than approximately 500 microns, and in some embodiments as small as approximately 5 microns. In addition, the spacing between adjacent conductive portions 24 may result in the non-conductive portion 26 between adjacent conductive portions 24 having a dimension less than approximately 500 microns, and in some embodiments as small as approximately 5 microns.

[0029] At block 84, the resulting conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26 may be cured, for example using ultraviolet, ultrasonic, thermal, or other forms of heat appropriate for the particular materials being used. At block 86, the thickness of the various layers is checked. If desired, the writing (block 82) and/or curing (block 84) process may be repeated with additional layers of the metal repeatedly written onto the previously cured conductive portions 24 to build up the conductive portions 24 at specific locations to be thicker than the underlying electrodes 32 being used.

[0030] When the desired thickness of the conductive portions 24 is achieved, the process continues to block 88 where a second or final layer of the non-conductive material 26 may be applied over the entire surface, covering both the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26. A final curing step may be repeated, if desired. At block 90, a portion of the second or final layer of the non-conductive material 26 may be lightly machined to expose the surface of the conductive portions 24 without exposing the underlying electrodes 32. At block 92, the electrical sensor 34 may be connected to each of the conductive portions 24 and/or electrodes 32 to produce the corrosion sensor 20 with the seamless joint 28 between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26.

[0031] Method 3: Fig. 7 provides a flow diagram of another alternative method for manufacturing corrosion sensors 20 not according to the present invention. In this particular method, the corrosion sensors 20 may be formed using thermal spray or cold spray techniques, such as, for example, high velocity oxy-fuel, thermal spray, or cold spray techniques. Specifically, at block 100, the non-conductive material 26 may be sprayed onto the substrate using a thermal spray or cold spray technique known in the art. The substrate may again comprise, for example, the bond coat 30 or the metallic substrate 22 being monitored for corrosion and may already include electrodes 32 at desired locations to connect to the subsequently applied conductive portions 24. At block 102, the conductive portions 24 may be sprayed onto the substrate and/or non-conductive material 26 in particular locations to achieve the desired pattern or spacing of conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26 across the substrate, as previously described with respect to Methods 1 and 2. Specifically, the specific locations of the conductive portions 24 may result in a dimension of less than approximately 500 microns, and in some embodiments as small as approximately 5 microns. In addition, the spacing between adjacent conductive portions 24 may result in the non-conductive portion 26 between adjacent conductive portions 24 having a dimension less than approximately 500 microns, and in some embodiments as small as approximately 5 microns. At block 104, the non-conductive material 26 may be sprayed around the previously applied conductive portions 24 to fill the space between the conductive portions 24 and diffuse with the conductive portions 24 to form the seamless bond 28 between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26.

[0032] At block 106, the thickness of the sensor 20, particularly the thickness of the conductive material 24 at discrete locations, is checked. If desired, the process of spraying conductive portions 24 at discrete locations (block 102) and non-conductive portions 26 around the conductive portions 24 (block 104) may be repeated as necessary to achieve a desired thickness of the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26. When the desired thickness of the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26 is achieved, the process continues to block 108 where the electrical sensor 34 may be connected to each of the conductive portions 24 or electrodes 32 to produce the corrosion sensor 20 with the seamless bond 28 between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26.

[0033] It is believed that one or more of the previously described direct write deposition techniques will allow the manufacture of corrosion sensors 20 within the scope of the present invention with one or more benefits over the existing technology. For example, the techniques described herein will allow for the repeatable, cost-effective production of corrosion sensors 20 having smaller conductive portions 24 capable of detecting and/or measuring smaller amounts of aqueous or molten salt corrosion. The smaller sized corrosion sensors 20 will also be suitable for smaller environments that were previously too small to accommodate a corrosion sensor. In addition, the seamless metallurgical joint 28 between the conductive and non-conductive portions 24, 26 reduces the occurrence of crevice corrosion to enhance the accuracy and reliability of the corrosion sensors 20 over time.

[0034] This written description uses examples to disclose the invention, including the best mode, and also to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the invention, including making and using any devices or systems and performing any incorporated methods. The patentable scope of the invention is defined by the claims, and may include other examples that occur to those skilled in the art.


Claims

1. A corrosion sensor (20) comprising:

a. a plurality of direct write deposited conductive portions (24); and

b. at least one direct write deposited non-conductive portion (26) between adjacent direct write deposited conductive portions (24), wherein the at least one direct write deposited non-conductive portion (26) between adjacent direct write deposited conductive portions (24) has a dimension less than 500 microns;
characterized in that it further comprises

c. direct write deposited brazing material (56) around each of the plurality of direct write deposited conductive portions (24), wherein the direct write deposited brazing material (56) is cured to form a seamless joint (28) between the direct write deposited conductive portions (24) and the at least one direct write deposited non-conductive portion (26) between adjacent direct write deposited conductive portions (24).


 
2. The corrosion sensor (20) as in claim 1, wherein the at least one direct write deposited non-conductive portion (26) between adjacent direct write deposited conductive portions (24) has a dimension less than 5 microns.
 
3. The corrosion sensor (20) as in claim 1 or 2, wherein each of the plurality of direct write deposited conductive portions (24) has a dimension less than 500 microns.
 
4. A method for manufacturing a corrosion sensor (20) comprising:

a. direct write depositing a non-conductive material (52) to a substrate (22) to form at least one non-conductive portion (26);

b. direct write depositing a conductive material (54) to discrete locations on the non-conductive material (52) to form at plurality of conductive portions (24), wherein the at least one non-conductive portion (26) is located between adjacent conductive portions (24) and the at least one non-conductive portion (26) has a dimension less than 500 microns; and characterized by the steps of

c. direct write depositing a brazing material (56) around each discrete location of the conductive material (54); and

d. curing the direct write deposited brazing material around each discrete location of the conductive material (54) to form a seamless joint between the direct write deposited non-conductive material (52) and the direct write deposited conductive material (54).


 
5. The method as in claim 4, further comprising direct write depositing the conductive material (54) so that the discrete locations have a dimension less than 500 microns.
 
6. The method as in claim 4 or 5, further comprising direct write depositing the conductive material (54) so that the distance between the discrete locations of conductive material (54) is less than 500 microns.
 
7. The method as in any of claims 4 to 6, further comprising direct write depositing the conductive material (54) so that the distance between the discrete locations of conductive material (54) is less than 5 microns.
 
8. The method as in any of claims 4 to 7, further comprising curing at least one of the non-conductive material (52) or the conductive material (54).
 
9. The method as in any of claims 4 to 8, further comprising connecting an electrode (32) to each discrete location of the conductive material (54).
 
10. The method as in claim 9, further comprising forming an oxide layer (72) on the electrodes (32).
 
11. The method as in any of claims 4 to 10, further comprising connecting an electrical sensor (34) to each discrete location of the conductive material (54).
 
12. The method as in any of claims 4 to 11, wherein the non-conductive material (52) is a filler material.
 
13. The method as in any of claims 4 to 12, wherein the conductive material (54) is a binder material.
 


Ansprüche

1. Korrosionssensor (20), umfassend:

a. eine Vielzahl durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedener leitfähiger Abschnitte (24); und

b. mindestens einen durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen nicht leitfähigen Abschnitt (26) zwischen benachbarten, durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen leitfähigen Abschnitten (24), wobei der mindestens eine durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedene nicht leitfähige Abschnitt (26) zwischen benachbarten, durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen leitfähigen Abschnitten (24) eine Abmessung von weniger als 500 Mikrometern aufweist; dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass er ferner umfasst

c. durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenes Hartlötmaterial (56) um jeden der Vielzahl durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedener leitfähiger Abschnitte (24), wobei das durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedene Hartlötmaterial (56) gehärtet ist, um eine nahtlose Verbindung (28) zwischen den durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen leitfähigen Abschnitten (24) und dem mindestens einen durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen nicht leitfähigen Abschnitt (26) zwischen benachbarten, durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen leitfähigen Abschnitten (24) zu bilden.


 
2. Korrosionssensor (20) nach Anspruch 1, wobei der mindestens eine durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedene nicht leitfähige Abschnitt (26) zwischen benachbarten, durch direktes abgeschiedenen leitfähigen Abschnitten (24) einer Abmessung weniger als 5 Mikrometern aufweist.
 
3. Korrosionssensor (20) nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei jeder der Vielzahl durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen leitfähigen Abschnitte (24) eine Abmessung von weniger als 500 Mikrometern aufweist.
 
4. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines Korrosionssensors (20), umfassend:

a. Abscheiden durch direktes Schreiben eines nicht leitfähigen Materials (52) auf einem Substrat (22), um mindestens einen nicht leitfähigen Abschnitt (26) zu bilden;

b. Abscheiden durch direktes Schreiben eines leitfähigen Materials (54) auf einzelne Stellen auf dem nicht leitfähigen Material (52), um eine Vielzahl leitfähiger Abschnitte (24) zu bilden, wobei der mindestens eine nicht leitfähige Abschnitt (26) zwischen benachbarten leitfähigen Abschnitten (24) angeordnet ist und der mindestens eine nicht leitfähige Abschnitt (26) eine Abmessung von weniger als 500 Mikrometern aufweist; und gekennzeichnet durch die Schritte

c. Abscheiden durch direktes Schreiben eines Hartlötmaterials (56) um jede einzelnen Stelle des leitfähigen Materials (54); und

d. Härten des durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen Hartlötmaterials um jede einzelne Stelle des leitfähigen Materials (54), um eine nahtlose Verbindung zwischen dem durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen nicht leitfähigen Material (52) und dem durch direktes Schreiben abgeschiedenen leitfähigen Material (54) zu bilden.


 
5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 4, ferner umfassend das Abscheiden durch direktes Schreiben des leitfähigen Materials (54), sodass die einzelnen Stellen eine Abmessung von weniger als 500 Mikrometern aufweisen.
 
6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 4 oder 5, ferner umfassend das Abscheiden durch direktes Schreiben des leitfähigen Materials (54), sodass der Abstand zwischen den einzelnen Stellen des leitfähigen Materials (54) weniger als 500 Mikrometer beträgt.
 
7. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 6, ferner umfassend das Abscheiden durch direktes Schreiben des leitfähigen Materials (54), sodass der Abstand zwischen den einzelnen Stellen des leitfähigen Materials (54) weniger als 5 Mikrometer beträgt.
 
8. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 7, ferner umfassend das Härten von mindestens einem aus dem nicht leitfähigem Material (52) oder dem leitfähigem Material (54).
 
9. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 8, ferner umfassend das Verbinden einer Elektrode (32) mit jeder einzelnen Stelle des leitfähigen Materials (54).
 
10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, ferner umfassend das Bilden einer Oxidschicht (72) auf den Elektroden (32).
 
11. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 10, ferner umfassend das Verbinden eines elektrischen Sensors (34) mit jeder einzelnen Stelle des leitfähigen Materials (54).
 
12. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 11, wobei das nicht leitfähige Material (52) ein Füllstoff ist.
 
13. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 4 bis 12, wobei das leitfähige Material (54) ein Bindematerial ist.
 


Revendications

1. Capteur de corrosion (20) comprenant :

a. une pluralité de parties conductrices déposées en écriture directe (24) ; et

b. au moins une partie non conductrice déposée en écriture directe (26) entre des parties conductrices déposées en écriture directe (24) adjacentes, dans lequel l'au moins une partie non conductrice déposée en écriture directe (26) entre des parties conductrices déposées en écriture directe (24) adjacentes a une dimension inférieure à 500 microns ; caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend en outre

c. un matériau de brasage déposé en écriture directe (56) autour de chacune de la pluralité de parties conductrices déposées en écriture directe (24), dans lequel le matériau de brasage déposé en écriture directe (56) est durci pour former un joint sans soudure (28) entre les parties conductrices déposées en écriture directe (24) et l'au moins une partie non conductrice déposée en écriture directe (26) entre les parties conductrices déposées en écriture directe (24) adjacentes.


 
2. Capteur de corrosion (20) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'au moins une partie non conductrice déposée en écriture directe (26) entre des parties conductrices déposées en écriture directe (24) adjacentes a une dimension inférieure à 5 microns.
 
3. Capteur de corrosion (20) selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel chacune de la pluralité de parties conductrices déposées en écriture directe (24) a une dimension inférieure à 500 microns.
 
4. Procédé de fabrication d'un capteur de corrosion (20) comprenant :

a. le dépôt en écriture directe d'un matériau non conducteur (52) sur un substrat (22) pour former au moins une partie non conductrice (26) ;

b. le dépôt en écriture directe d'un matériau conducteur (54) sur des positions distinctes sur le matériau non conducteur (52) pour former une pluralité de parties conductrices (24), dans lequel l'au moins une partie non conductrice (26) se situe entre des parties conductrices (24) adjacentes et l'au moins une partie non conductrice (26) a une dimension inférieure à 500 microns ; et caractérisé par les étapes consistant à

c. déposer en écriture directe un matériau de brasage (56) autour de chaque position distincte du matériau conducteur (54) ; et

d. durcir le matériau de brasage déposé en écriture directe autour de chaque position distincte du matériau conducteur (54) pour former un joint sans soudure entre le matériau non conducteur déposé en écriture directe (52) et le matériau conducteur déposé en écriture directe (54).


 
5. Procédé selon la revendication 4, comprenant en outre le dépôt en écriture directe du matériau conducteur (54) de sorte que les positions distinctes aient une dimension inférieure à 500 microns.
 
6. Procédé selon la revendication 4 ou 5, comprenant en outre le dépôt en écriture directe du matériau conducteur (54) de sorte que la distance entre les positions distinctes du matériau conducteur (54) soit inférieure à 500 microns.
 
7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 6, comprenant en outre le dépôt en écriture directe du matériau conducteur (54) de sorte que la distance entre les positions distinctes du matériau conducteur (54) soit inférieure à 5 microns.
 
8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 7, comprenant en outre le durcissement d'au moins l'un du matériau non conducteur (52) ou du matériau conducteur (54).
 
9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 8, comprenant en outre la connexion d'une électrode (32) à chaque position distincte du matériau conducteur (54).
 
10. Procédé selon la revendication 9, comprenant en outre la formation d'une couche d'oxyde (72) sur les électrodes (32).
 
11. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 10, comprenant en outre la connexion d'un capteur électrique (34) à chaque position distincte du matériau conducteur (54).
 
12. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 11, dans lequel le matériau non conducteur (52) est un matériau de remplissage.
 
13. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 à 12, dans lequel le matériau conducteur (54) est un matériau liant.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description