(19)
(11)EP 2 475 084 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
25.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/13

(21)Application number: 10813611.0

(22)Date of filing:  12.08.2010
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H02M 3/06(2006.01)
H02J 7/00(2006.01)
H02M 7/48(2007.01)
H02M 7/483(2007.01)
H02M 1/00(2006.01)
H01M 10/42(2006.01)
H01M 10/44(2006.01)
H02M 3/07(2006.01)
H02M 7/49(2007.01)
H02M 7/5387(2007.01)
H02J 7/34(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2010/063697
(87)International publication number:
WO 2011/027660 (10.03.2011 Gazette  2011/10)

(54)

ELECTRICITY-STORAGE DEVICE THAT CAN OUTPUT ALTERNATING CURRENT

STROMSPEICHERVORRICHTUNG ZUR AUSGABE VON WECHSELSTROM

DISPOSITIF DE STOCKAGE D'ÉLECTRICITÉ QUI PEUT FOURNIR DU COURANT ALTERNATIF


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 02.09.2009 JP 2009202633

(43)Date of publication of application:
11.07.2012 Bulletin 2012/28

(73)Proprietors:
  • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
    Tokyo 182-8522 (JP)
  • Japan Capacitor Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Fussa-shi, Tokyo 197-0013 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • ITO Kazushige
    Fussa-shi Tokyo 197-0013 (JP)
  • SEKIDO Tsutomu
    Fussa-shi Tokyo 197-0013 (JP)
  • UNO Masatoshi
    Sagamihara-shi Kanagawa 252-5210 (JP)
  • KUKITA Akio
    Sagamihara-shi Kanagawa 252-5210 (JP)

(74)Representative: Robson, Aidan John et al
Reddie & Grose LLP The White Chapel Building 10 Whitechapel High Street
London E1 8QS
London E1 8QS (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 616 414
JP-A- 8 308 249
US-A- 4 238 820
US-A- 5 656 915
CN-A- 1 057 133
JP-A- 2007 312 517
US-A- 5 610 807
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0001] The present invention relates to an electric energy storage apparatus. More specifically, the present invention relates to an electric energy storage apparatus capable of generating an AC output in a low-loss and low-noise manner without using a DC (direct current) -DC converter and an inverter.

    BACKGROUND ART



    [0002] As one example of a power supply for generating an AC (alternating current) voltage, there is a type based on a system designed to convert a voltage held by electric energy storage means such as a capacitor, through a DC-DC converter and an inverter.

    [0003] FIG. 1 illustrates a typical circuit configuration of such an AC power supply. This electric energy storage apparatus comprises: electric energy storage means; a discharge circuit; a DC/DC converter; and an inverter.

    [0004] Generally, when a certain electronic device is operated by electric power, it is necessary to supply electric power within a predetermined operating voltage range which is determined by characteristics of the device. This is because, although an electronic device can adequately operate within a predetermined voltage range depending on individual characteristics of the device, it becomes operationally unstable or becomes non-operative if a supply voltage changes to a value out of the operating voltage range. Therefore, in the above AC power supply, it is essential to perform control for allowing an output voltage therefrom to fall within a certain range, primarily based on the DC-DC converter.

    [0005] Systems such as these described above are disclosed in US 5656915, US 5610807, CN 10457133, EP 06164141 and US 4238820.

    LIST OF PRIOR ART DOCUMENTS


    [PATENT DOCUMENTS]



    [0006] 

    Patent Document 1: JP 2008-219964 A

    Patent Document 2: JP H06-225462 A

    Patent Document 3: JP S54-126931 A

    Patent Document 4: U.S. Patent No. 03,100,851 B

    Patent Document 5: JP 2007-166691 A

    Patent Document 6: JP H07-115728 A

    Patent Document 7: JP 2002-345157 A


    DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION


    [PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED BY THE INVENTION]



    [0007] Particularly in cases where a capacitor having an output characteristic greatly varying depending on a charged/discharged state thereof is used as the electric energy storage means, it is necessary to operate the DC-DC converter in a wide input voltage range so as to convert the varying output voltage to a voltage falling within a certain operating range. In this case, the operation of the DC-DC converter in a wide input voltage range causes a problem of an increase in loss. Moreover, when the DC-DC converter is a conventional type using a transformer and a coil, there are other problems, such as a problem that a circuit size becomes relatively large due to the coil, and a problem that a weight of the transformer as a whole is increased due to its components such as an iron core.

    [0008] An output voltage of the DC-DC converter is subjected to switching by the inverter, so as to allow the above electric energy storage apparatus to generate an AC output. In this process, when a high voltage is output from the DC-DC converter, switching of the high voltage causes a problem of an increase in noise.

    [0009] Therefore, if an electric energy storage apparatus is provided which is capable of generating an AC output while minimizing the use of a DC-DC converter and an inverter, it leads to an improvement in efficiency, a reduction in noise and a reduction in size of the apparatus as a whole.

    [MEANS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM]



    [0010] The invention is defined in its various aspects in the appended claims to which reference should now be made.

    [EFFECT OF THE INVENTION]



    [0011] The electric energy storage apparatus of the present invention is capable of outputting a DC/AC voltage having a target waveform without using a module such as a DC-DC converter. In an electric energy storage apparatus according to a specific embodiment of the present invention, an inverter also becomes unnecessary.

    [0012] This makes it possible to realize an electric energy storage apparatus capable of outputting a DC/AC voltage in a low-loss and low-noise manner over a wide output intensity range.

    [0013] Further, it becomes possible to regeneratively return energy backflow from the load due to load fluctuation, residual potential, electromagnetic induction, etc., to the electric energy storage module, to achieve more accurate load voltage control, and higher efficiency in energy consumption

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0014] 

    FIG. 1 is a circuit diagram illustrating a conventional AC electric energy storage apparatus using electric energy storage means.

    FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram illustrating an AC output-capable electric energy storage apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

    FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram illustrating a switched capacitor usable as one example of a balancing circuit.

    FIG. 4 is a graph illustrating one example of a voltage waveform to be input into a positive-negative inversion circuit via connection points A, B, in the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 2.

    FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a switch changeover to be performed to compensate for an influence of voltage drop in electric energy storage modules.

    FIG. 6 is a graph illustrating one example of a voltage waveform to be applied to a load by the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 2.

    FIG. 7 is a circuit diagram illustrating an AC output-capable electric energy storage apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention.

    FIG. 8a is a graph illustrating one example of an output voltage waveform obtained when a switch being turned on is changed-over in SW1a to SWn+1a in a first switch group, under a condition that a switch SW1b in a second switch group is turned on, in the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 7.

    FIG. 8b is a graph illustrating one example of an output voltage waveform obtained when a switch being turned on is changed-over in SW1b to SWn+1b in the second switch group, under a condition that the switch SW1a in the first switch group is turned on, in the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 7.

    FIG. 9 is a graph illustrating one example of a voltage waveform to be applied to a load by the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 7.

    FIG. 10 is a circuit diagram for explaining a load voltage deviation occurring when an output voltage changes over time.

    FIG. 11 is a graph illustrating a load voltage deviation occurring when an output voltage changes over time.

    FIG. 12 is a circuit diagram illustrating an electric energy storage apparatus with a regenerative function, according to a third embodiment of the present invention.

    FIG. 13 is a circuit diagram illustrating an electric energy storage apparatus with a regenerative function, according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention.

    FIG. 14 is a circuit diagram illustrating a certain electric energy storage apparatus to explain a voltage outputting method according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention.

    FIG. 15 is a graph illustrating one example of a half-wave waveform voltage to be produced by the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 14.

    FIG. 16 is a circuit diagram illustrating an electric energy storage apparatus in which the number of switches is reduced to one-half as compared to the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 14, and a switch interval is increased two times on the basis of an electric energy storage element.

    FIG. 17 is a graph illustrating one example of a half-wave waveform voltage to be produced by the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 16.

    FIG. 18 is a graph illustrating one example of a half-wave waveform voltage to be produced by PWM-controlling the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 16.

    FIG. 19 is a circuit diagram illustrating an electric energy storage apparatus implementing a method of the present invention and capable of finely adjusting an output voltage using a small number of switches.

    FIG. 20 is a circuit diagram illustrating an electric energy storage apparatus according to a sixth example - not according to the present invention, wherein a constant-voltage DC power supply is connected to each electric energy storage module, in place of the balancing circuit.

    FIG. 21 is a circuit diagram illustrating an electric energy storage apparatus according to the sixth example, wherein a constant-voltage DC power supply is connected to each electric energy storage module, in place of the balancing circuit.

    FIG. 22 is a circuit diagram illustrating an example of a cell voltage equalization circuit usable as one example of the balancing circuit.

    FIG. 23 is a circuit diagram illustrating the circuit in FIG. 22, wherein each switch in an Sa group is in an ON state, and each switch in an Sb group is in an OFF state.

    FIG. 24 is a circuit diagram illustrating the circuit in FIG. 22, wherein each switch in the Sa group is in an OFF state, and each switch in the Sb group is in an ON state.


    DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS



    [0015] With reference to the drawings, an electric energy storage apparatus and a voltage outputting method according to the present invention will now be described. It is to be understood that a configuration of an electric energy storage apparatus according to the present invention is not limited to specific configurations of the following embodiments illustrated in the figures. For example, the following embodiments will be described on the assumption that each of one or more electric energy storage elements is primarily a capacitor. Alternatively, the electric energy storage element may be any chargeable and dischargeable element such as a secondary battery, or a module composed of a plurality of chargeable and dischargeable elements. Each of the electric energy storage elements may have a different capacitance. Further, the following embodiments will be described on the assumption that each of a plurality of switches is a semiconductor switch such as MOSFET. Alternatively, any electronic or mechanical switch may be used.

    [FIRST EMBODIMENT]


    (Configuration of Electric Energy Storage Apparatus 1)



    [0016] FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram illustrating an AC output-capable electric energy storage apparatus 1 according to a first embodiment of the present invention. The electric energy storage apparatus 1 comprises: a balancing circuit 2; an electric energy storage module group 3 composed of n electric energy storage modules (hereinafter referred to as "capacitors") C1 to Cn connected in series; a switch group 4 composed of n switches SW1 to SWn; and a positive-negative inversion circuit 5 including switches ISa1, ISa2, ISb1, ISb2, wherein the electric energy storage apparatus 1 is configured to apply a voltage to a load 6 in a desired magnitude and polarity. The load 6 is not limited to a resistor, but may be any load, such as an element, module or device adapted to be operated by electric power. In the figure, each of the reference codes A, B indicates a connection point serving as an input section of the positive-negative inversion circuit 5.

    [0017] The balancing circuit 2 may be a circuit comprising an electric energy storage cell module disclosed, for example, in the Patent Document 1, or may be a circuit configured as a switched capacitor system comprising capacitors CS1 to CSn - 1 and switches Q1 to Q2n, as illustrated in FIG. 3.

    [0018] In cases where the switched capacitor system in FIG. 3 is used as the balancing circuit 2, the capacitors CS1 to CSn - 1, C1 to Cn are subjected to mutual charging and discharging by means of high-speed changeover of the switches Q1 to Q2n, so that respective voltages dividedly borne by the capacitors are equalized.

    [0019] Specifically, when each of the odd-numbered switches Q1, Q3, ---, Q2n-1 is in an ON state, capacitors (C1 and CS1; C2 and CS2; ---; Cn-1 and CSn-1) are connected in parallel, respectively. Thus, if a variation in voltage occurs between the parallel-connected capacitors, mutual charging and discharging are performed, so that the voltage variation will move toward being eliminated. On the other hand, when each of the even-numbered switches Q2, Q4, ---, Q2n is in an ON state, capacitors (C2 and CS1; C3 and CS2; ---; Cn and CSn-1) are connected in parallel, respectively. Thus, if a variation in voltage occurs between the parallel-connected capacitors, mutual charging and discharging are performed, so that the voltage variation will move toward being eliminated.

    [0020] Thus, based on repeatedly performing switching between a mode where all of the odd-numbered switches are turned on and another mode where all of the even-numbered switches are turned on, each of the capacitors is subjected to mutual charging and discharging with respect to all of the remaining capacitors directly or indirectly (through other capacitors), so that voltages across the capacitors CS1 to CSn-1, C1 to Cn are equalized.

    [0021] However, it is not essential for the electric energy storage apparatus 1 of the present invention to equalize voltages across the capacitors C1 to Cn by the balancing circuit 2.

    [0022] Specifically, a magnitude of the output voltage from the electric energy storage apparatus 1 can be adjusted in increments of a voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to Cn, as described in detail later. In this case, it is not essential that voltages across such electric energy storage elements each serving as a unit for the adjustment are equal to each other. For example, the balancing circuit 2 may be configured to apply two types of magnitudes of voltages to the capacitors so as to allow the output voltage to be adjusted in two types of increments. Alternatively, all of the capacitor voltages may be adjusted to different values, respectively.

    [0023] As each of the electric energy storage modules C1 to Cn making up the electric energy storage module group 3, it is possible to use an electric energy storage module composed of two or more capacitors or secondary batteries (or any other electric energy storage elements), instead of using a single capacitor. Even in cases where two or more capacitors or secondary batteries are connected in series or in parallel, it can be handled as with a capacitor by appropriately calculating a composite capacitance thereof.

    [0024] Each of the switches SW1 to SWn comprised in the switch group 4 is disposed in a path connecting a terminal of one of the capacitors C1 to Cn and the connection point A within the electric energy storage apparatus 1. When one of the switches SW1 to SWn is turned on, a terminal of the selected switch is electrically connected to the connection point A, so that, depending on the selected switch, a voltage obtained by summing voltages across one or more of the capacitors C1 to Cn is applied between the connection point A and the connection point B.

    [0025] The positive-negative inversion circuit 5 is configured to perform changeover among the switches ISa1, ISa2, ISb1, ISb2 to select an output terminal of the electric energy storage apparatus 1 to be connected to the connection points A, B. Specifically, a polarity of a voltage to be applied to the load 6 can be selected depending on whether the switches ISa1, ISa2 are turned on, or switches ISb1, ISb2 are turned on. It is to be noted that the above configuration using four switches is simply described as one example of the positive-negative inversion circuit 5, and any other suitable circuit capable of selecting a polarity of the output voltage may be used to implement the electric energy storage apparatus 1 of the present invention.

    [0026] The electric energy storage apparatus 1 in FIG. 2 further comprises a reference waveform oscillating circuit 7, a voltage detection circuit 8, a comparison and calculation circuit 9, a switch control circuit 10, and a positive-negative inversion control circuit 11.

    [0027]  The reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 is configured to output a reference waveform signal representing a target output voltage waveform which is a voltage to be output from the electric energy storage apparatus 1. Typically, the electric energy storage apparatus 1 operates to output a voltage obtained by multiplying an instantaneous voltage in the reference waveform signal output from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7, by a certain magnification value.

    [0028] The voltage detection circuit 8 is configured to detect a voltage across at least one of the capacitors C1 to Cn, or voltages across all of the respective capacitors C1 to Cn. Typically, the voltage detection circuit 8 is configured such that it is connected to the capacitors C1 to Cn to directly detect voltages across the respective capacitors C1 to Cn and output the detected voltages to the comparison and calculation circuit 9. Alternatively, for example, the voltage detection circuit 8 may be configured such that it is connected to an arbitrary element in the balancing circuit to detect a voltage across the element, and then a voltage across each of the capacitors is calculated based on a value of the detected voltage.

    [0029] The voltage detection circuit 8 may be configured to directly detect a voltage across the load 6, instead of the capacitor voltage, as previously described. This is because a specific mathematical relationship is established between the electric energy storage module voltage and the load voltage, depending on one of the switches to be selectively turned on, and thereby it is only necessary to detect one of them so as to adjust an output voltage. Although not illustrated, in such a case, the voltage detection circuit 8 is connected to the load 6, instead of the electric energy storage module group 3.

    [0030] The comparison and calculation circuit 9 is configured to compare a target voltage determined based on a voltage of the reference waveform signal output from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 (typically, the target voltage is determined as a voltage having a polarity and a magnitude obtained by multiplying the voltage of the reference waveform signal by a certain magnification value), with a capacitor voltage output from the voltage detection circuit 8, and output a signal to the switch control circuit 10.

    [0031] For example, the signal may be a signal simply indicative of a ratio between the target voltage and the capacitor voltage. Alternatively, the specific signal may be a signal for informing of a deviation between the target voltage and an output voltage, wherein the comparison and calculation circuit 9 is operable to: receive information about a present switch changeover state from the switch control circuit 10, while receiving a value of the capacitor voltage from the voltage detection circuit 8; calculate a magnitude of a voltage presently output from the electric energy storage apparatus 1, based on the received switch changeover state and the received capacitor voltage value; and calculate the deviation between the target voltage and the output voltage. Alternatively, the comparison and calculation circuit 9 may be configured to determine a switch changeover state to be selected, based on the above information, and output a changeover instruction signal to the switch control circuit 10.

    [0032] The switch control circuit 10 is configured to, based on a signal received from the comparison and calculation circuit 9, output a switch changeover signal to the switch group 4.

    [0033] In cases where a semiconductor switch, such as MOSFET, is used as each of the switches SW1 to SWn, the switch changeover signal may be an RF signal to be generated, for example, by an RF oscillation circuit in the switch control circuit 10. In cases where a mechanical switch is used as each of the switches SW1 to SWn, for example, the switch control circuit 10 may be appropriately configured to generate a suitable control signal depending on a specific operating principle of the switch.

    [0034] The positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 is configured to send a control signal to the positive-negative inversion circuit 5 so as to change a polarity of an output voltage according to need. In cases where the switch-based configuration illustrated in FIG. 2 is used as the positive-negative inversion circuit 5, the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 may be any switch driver as with the switch control circuit. However, the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 is not limited thereto, but any other suitable circuit capable of controlling the operation of the positive-negative inversion circuit 5 may be used depending on a specific configuration of the positive-negative inversion circuit 5. The signal for informing of a polarity of a voltage to be output may be input from the comparison and calculation circuit 9 into the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 via the switch control circuit 10, or may be input from the comparison and calculation circuit 9 directly into the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11.

    [0035] In the operation of the electric energy storage apparatus according to the present invention, the group of circuits 7 to 11 can be advantageously used to automatically perform control during the operation. However, the circuit group is not essential, but the electric energy storage apparatus 1 according to the present invention may be operated under connection with any suitable external device or under control of any suitable external system.

    [0036] In FIG. 2, the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7, the voltage detection circuit 8, the comparison and calculation circuit 9, the switch control circuit 10 and the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 are illustrated as independent circuits, respectively. Alternatively, the circuits may be replaced with a single circuit incorporating all functions thereof. Alternatively, a function of each of the circuits may be borne by two or more arbitrary number of circuits.

    (Operation of Electric Energy Storage Apparatus 1)



    [0037] The operation of the electric energy storage apparatus 1 will be described below. In an initial state, the capacitors C1 to Cn are charged at predetermined voltages, respectively. The voltages may be different from each other, as discussed above. As one example, the following description will be made on the assumption that the same voltage is applied to all of the capacitors. Further, assuming that each of the switches SW1 to SWn is in an OFF state, and an arbitrary changeover state is selected in the positive-negative inversion circuit 5.

    [0038] The comparison and calculation circuit 9 is in a standby state capable of receiving an input of respective signals from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 and the voltage detection circuit 8. As one example, the comparison and calculation circuit 9 is operable to ascertain respective signals from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 and the voltage detection circuit 8 at intervals of a predetermined period of time determined, for example, by a clock frequency of a processing unit (not illustrated) constituting the comparison and calculation circuit 9, and, when both of the signals are present, to execute comparison and calculation.

    [0039] Upon input of signals from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 and the voltage detection circuit 8 into the comparison and calculation circuit 9, the comparison and calculation circuit 9 compares an instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal input from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7, with a capacitor voltage input from the voltage detection circuit 8.

    [0040] For example, assuming that the instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal is + 50 mV, and the voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to Cn is 1V. As a preset magnification value of the electric energy storage apparatus 1, a preliminary setting may be made in which an output is 100 times the reference waveform (typically, based on a setting signal to be input into the comparison and calculation circuit 9 from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 or through any suitable external interface). In this case, the comparison and calculation circuit 9 compares the capacitor voltage 1V, with 5V which is 100 times the instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal, and outputs, to the switch control circuit 10, a signal indicative of "5" which is a ratio therebetween and a signal indicative of "+" which is a polarity of the voltage of the reference waveform signal (or directly outputs a signal indicative of "+ 5V" which is a target output voltage).

    [0041] The switch control circuit 10 selects a changeover state of the switch group 4 to be selected, according to the signals input thereinto. When a signal indicative of "5" as a ratio is input, it is necessary to select a voltage corresponding to five capacitors, as a magnitude of a target output voltage. Thus, the switch control circuit 10 outputs, to the switch group 4, a switch changeover signal for turning on the switch SW5. (Alternatively, the switch control circuit 10 may be configured to, based on a signal indicative of "+ 5V" as a target output voltage received from the comparison and calculation circuit 9, and a capacitor voltage received from the voltage detection circuit 8, make a determination that the switch SW5 should be turned on, and then output a switch changeover signal for turning on the switch SW5.)

    [0042] When the switch SW5 is turned on by the switch changeover signal, a 5V voltage which is a sum of voltages across the respective capacitors C1 to C5 is applied between the connection points A, B.

    [0043] After being output from the comparison and calculation circuit 9, the signal indicative of "+" which is a polarity of the instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal, i.e., a polarity of the target output voltage, is input into the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 through the switch control circuit 10 (or directly). The positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 is preliminarily set such that the switch ISa1 and the switch ISa2 correspond to the "+" signal, and the switch ISb1 and the switch ISb2 correspond to a "-" signal (or to a converse correspondence relationship). Thus, when the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 receives the "+" signal, it outputs, to the positive-negative inversion circuit 5, a control signal for turning on the switches ISa1, ISa2.

    [0044] When the switches ISa1, ISa2 in the positive-negative inversion circuit 5 are turned on by the control signal, the "+5V" voltage, i.e., target output voltage, is applied to the load 6.

    [0045] The operation of adjusting the output voltage according to an instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal at a certain clock time is performed in the above manner. According to the above adjustment operation, the output voltage is adjusted at intervals of a predetermined period of time, based primarily on a clock frequency determined by the comparison and calculation circuit 9, depending on momentarily varying instantaneous values of the target output voltage. The electric energy storage apparatus 1 is capable of selectively outputting a DC voltage and an AC voltage depending on reference waveform signals.

    [0046] Not only based on the instantaneous value of the target output voltage but also when the capacitor voltage is lowered due to discharge of the capacitors C1 to C5, the switch changeover is adequately performed according to the above operation.

    [0047] For example, assuming that a signal input from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 into the comparison and calculation circuit 9 indicates "+ 50 mV", i.e., the same instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal as before. On the other hand, assuming that a signal input from the voltage detection circuit 8 indicates a voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to Cn is 0.5V (which corresponds to a phenomenon that a voltage drop occurs in each of the capacitors C1 to Cn due to discharge caused by continuous voltage application to the load 6. Even if only the capacitors C1 to C5 are directly connected to the load 6, a voltage drop equally occurs in the capacitors C1 to Cn by the operation of the balancing circuit 2).

    [0048] The comparison and calculation circuit 9 compares the capacitor voltage 0.5V, with 5V which is 100 times the instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal, and outputs, to the switch control circuit 10, a signal indicative of "10" which is a ratio therebetween and a signal indicative of "+" which is a polarity of the target voltage.

    [0049] The switch control circuit 10 selects a changeover state of the switch group 4, according to the signals input thereinto. When a signal indicative of "10" as a ratio is input, it is necessary to select a voltage corresponding to ten capacitors, as a magnitude of a target output voltage. Thus, the switch control circuit 10 outputs, to the switch group 4, a switch changeover signal for turning on the switch SW10 (not illustrated).

    [0050] When the switch SW10 is turned on by the switch changeover signal, a 5V voltage which is a sum of voltages across the respective capacitors C1 to C10 (not illustrated) is applied between the connection points A, B.

    [0051] After being output from the comparison and calculation circuit 9, the signal indicative of "+" which is a polarity of the target output voltage, is input into the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 through the switch control circuit 10 (or directly). Thus, when the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11 receives the "+" signal, it outputs, to the positive-negative inversion circuit 5, a control signal for turning on the switches ISa1, ISa2.

    [0052] When the switches ISa1, ISa2 in the positive-negative inversion circuit 5 are turned on by the control signal (if such a state has already been selected, the switch changeover is unnecessary), the "+5V" voltage is applied to the load 6.

    [0053] As above, based on continuously monitoring a capacitor voltage by the voltage detection circuit 8, it becomes possible to prevent a disturbance of the output voltage due to a voltage drop in the capacitors.

    [0054] FIG. 4 is a graph illustrating one cycle of a voltage which is output between the connection points A, B when a sine wave is input as the target output voltage. During one cycle, an actual sine wave is changed between a positive polarity and a negative polarity. However, the polarity change is not reflected on changeover among the switch group 4, and a voltage having the same polarity is output between the connection points A, B. This voltage is input into the positive-negative inversion circuit, and subjected to conversion corresponding to the polarity of the target output voltage at each clock time.

    [0055] In the graph illustrated in FIG. 4, the output voltage to the connection points A, B changes in a stepwise manner at constant time intervals, instead of changing in a continuous manner. This is because the electric energy storage apparatus 1 is configured to adjust the output voltage at intervals of a predetermined period of time, as previously discussed.

    [0056] In the example illustrated in FIG. 4, the adjustment of the output voltage is performed 16 times during one cycle of the reference waveform signal. It is to be understood that the predetermined period of time may be shortened to obtain a smoother output voltage waveform.

    [0057] FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a switch changeover to be performed to compensate for an influence of voltage drop in the capacitors. When a voltage is continuously applied to the load 6, each of the capacitors C1 to Cn is discharged, and a voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to Cn is lowered, as previously discussed. Therefore, even if a sine wave having a constant amplitude characteristic is input as the reference waveform signal, the number of capacitors required for outputting a voltage having a magnitude corresponding to the constant amplitude characteristic will be increased over time.

    [0058] The graph drawn by the solid line in FIG. 5 indicates a temporal change in a selected one of the switches to output a sine wave corresponding to the reference waveform signal over a certain half cycle. On the other hand, the broken line in FIG. 5 indicates a temporal change in a selected one of the switches to output a sine wave corresponding to the reference waveform signal over another half cycle temporally subsequent to the certain half cycle. FIG. 5 shows that the number of capacitors contributing to an output has to be increased over time to output a voltage value in a sine wave having the same amplitude characteristic and in the same phase characteristic (assuming here that a cycle of the sine wave is sufficiently shorter than a discharge time of the capacitor. If such conditions cannot be established, the graph in FIG. 5 is corrected to a curve extending rightwardly and upwardly over time even in the same half cycle.)

    [0059] In cases where certain charging means is incorporated in the balancing circuit 2, or a constant-voltage DC power supply is connected to the capacitors C1 to Cn, as described in an aftermentioned sixed embodiment, the voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to C5 is kept constant, so that the switch changeover for coping with the voltage drop is unnecessary.

    [0060] FIG. 6 is a graph illustrating an output voltage from the electric energy storage apparatus 1 when a sine wave is input as the reference waveform signal. This voltage is applied to the load 6 as an output of the electric energy storage apparatus 1. Such the waveform corresponds to an AC voltage realized when the voltage illustrated in FIG. 4 is subjected to adequate polarity conversion in the positive-negative inversion circuit 5.

    [SECOND EMBODIMENT]


    (Configuration of Electric Energy Storage Apparatus 1)



    [0061] FIG. 7 is a circuit diagram illustrating an AC output-capable electric energy storage apparatus 1 according to a second embodiment of the present invention. Differently from the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 1, the electric energy storage apparatus 1 according to the second embodiment is devoid of the positive-negative inversion circuit 5 and the positive-negative inversion control circuit 11, and the switch group 4 comprises a first switch group 12 composed of switches SW1a to SWn + 1a, and a second switch group 13 composed of switches SW1b to SWn + 1b.

    [0062] Each of the switches SW1a to SWn + 1a in the first switch group 12 is disposed in a path connecting a terminal of one of n capacitors C1 to Cn and a connection point A within the electric energy storage apparatus 1. Each of the switches SW1b to SWn + 1b in the second switch group 13 is disposed in a path connecting a terminal of one of the capacitors C1 to Cn and a connection point B within the electric energy storage apparatus 1. The electric energy storage apparatus 1 in FIG. 7 is devoid of the positive-negative inversion circuit 5, so that a load 6 is connected between the connection points A, B. Thus, the connection points A, B will hereinafter referred to as "output terminals A, B".

    [0063] The configuration illustrated in FIG. 7 is capable of changing a polarity of an output voltage without using the positive-negative inversion circuit. As one example, when each of the switch SW5a in the first switch group 12 and the switch SW2b in the second switch group 13 is in an ON state, an output voltage corresponding to a sum of voltages across the respective capacitors C2, C3, C4 is applied to the load 6. In this state, a polarity of the output voltage can be changed by performing a switch changeover in each of the switch groups in such a manner that the switch SW2a in the first switch group 12 and the switch SW5b in the second switch group 13 are turned on.

    [0064] The remaining components are the same as those in the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 2. Each component, circuit, element or module is not limited to the illustrated specific configuration, but various changes and modifications may be appropriately made therein.

    (Operation of Electric Energy Storage Apparatus 1)



    [0065] An operation of the electric energy storage apparatus 1 configured as illustrated in FIG. 7 will be described below. In an initial state, the capacitors C1 to Cn are charged at predetermined voltages, respectively. The voltages may be different from each other, as discussed above. As one example, the following description will be made on the assumption that the same voltage is applied to all of the capacitors. Further, assuming that all switches in at least one of the group of switches SW1a to SWn + 1a and the group of switches SW1b to SWn + 1b are in an OFF state, so that no voltage is applied from the electric energy storage apparatus 1 to the load 6.

    [0066] A comparison and calculation circuit 9 is in a standby state capable of receiving an input of respective signals from a reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 and a voltage detection circuit 8. As one example, the comparison and calculation circuit 9 is operable to ascertain respective signals from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 and the voltage detection circuit 8 at intervals of a predetermined period of time determined, for example, by a clock frequency of a processing unit (not illustrated) constituting the comparison and calculation circuit 9, and, when both of the signals are present, to execute comparison and calculation.

    [0067] Upon input of signals from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 and the voltage detection circuit 8 into the comparison and calculation circuit 9, the comparison and calculation circuit 9 compares an instantaneous voltage value of a reference waveform signal input from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7, with a capacitor voltage input from the voltage detection circuit 8.

    [0068] For example, assuming that the instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal is + 50 mV, and the voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to Cn is 1V. As a preset magnification value of the electric energy storage apparatus 1, a preliminary setting may be made in which an output is 100 times the reference waveform (typically, based on a setting signal to be input into the comparison and calculation circuit 9 through any suitable interface). In this case, the comparison and calculation circuit 9 compares the capacitor voltage 1V, with 5V which is 100 times the instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal, and outputs, to the switch control circuit 10, a signal indicative of "5" which is a ratio therebetween and a signal indicative of "+" which is a polarity of the voltage of the reference waveform signal.

    [0069] The switch control circuit 10 selects a changeover state of each of the first switch group 12 and the second switch group 13, according to the signals input thereinto. When a signal indicative of "5" as a ratio is input, it is necessary to select a voltage corresponding to five capacitors, as a magnitude of a target output voltage. Thus, for example, the switch control circuit 10 outputs a signal for turning on the switch SW6a, and a signal for turning on the switch SW1b, to the first switch group 12 and the second switch group 13, respectively, or outputs a signal for turning on the switch SW1a, and a signal for turning on the switch SW6b, to the first switch group 12 and the second switch group 13, respectively.

    [0070] The selection of the changeover states is determined by a polarity of the instantaneous voltage of the reference waveform signal indicated by the signal from the comparison and calculation circuit 9, i.e., a polarity of the target output voltage. As one example, a preliminary setting may be made such that, when the polarity is "+", one of the switches to be selected from the first switch group 12 has a suffix number which is equal to or greater than that of one of the switches to be selected from the second switch group 13 (typically, based on an input into the switch control circuit 10 through any suitable interface). In this case, a switch changeover signal for turning on the switch SW6a and a switch changeover signal for turning on the switch SW1b are output to the first switch group 12 and the second switch group 13, respectively.

    [0071] Alternatively, a preliminary setting may be made such that, when the polarity is "+", the switch SW1b in the second switch group is turned on, and, when the polarity is "-", the switch SW1a in the first switch group is turned on. In other words, a voltage reference point is fixedly set depending on a polarity. Then, when the polarity is "+", a suitable one of the switches is selected from the first switch group, and, when the polarity is "-", a suitable one of the switches is selected from the second switch group, so that it becomes possible to adjust an output voltage according to a magnitude of the target output voltage. This configuration is capable of coping with a change in the target output voltage by performing a switch changeover in only one of the first and second switch groups at any timing, except a timing of change in polarity of the target output voltage, which makes it possible to further reduce noise due to switch changeover.

    [0072] As above, based on the adequate changeover between the first switch group 12 and the second switch group 13, a "+ 5V" voltage which is the target output voltage is applied to the load 6.

    [0073] The operation of adjusting the output voltage according to an instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal at a certain clock time is performed in the above manner. According to the above adjustment operation, the output voltage is adjusted at intervals of a predetermined period of time, based primarily on a clock frequency determined by the comparison and calculation circuit 9, depending on momentarily varying instantaneous values of the target output voltage. The electric energy storage apparatus 1 is capable of selectively outputting a DC voltage and an AC voltage depending on reference waveform signals.

    [0074] Not only based on the instantaneous value of the target output voltage but also when the capacitor voltage is lowered due to discharge of the capacitors C1 to C5, the switch changeover is adequately performed according to the above operation, as with the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 2.

    [0075] Based on continuously monitoring a capacitor voltage by the voltage detection circuit 8, it becomes possible to prevent a disturbance of the output voltage due to a voltage drop in each capacitor, as previously discussed.

    [0076] FIGS. 8a and 8b are graphs each illustrating a half cycle of a voltage which is output between the output terminals A, B when a sine wave is input as the reference waveform signal, wherein FIG. 8a illustrates an initial half cycle, and FIG. 8b illustrates a subsequent half cycle. Specifically, FIG. 8a illustrates a voltage which is output in the initial half cycle by turning on one of the switches in the first switch group 12 in a selectively changing-over manner in conformity to a sine-waveform, under a condition that the switch SW1b in the second switch group 13 is turned on, and FIG. 8b illustrates a voltage which is output in the subsequent half cycle by turning on one of the switches in the second switch group 13 in a selectively changing-over manner in conformity to the sine-waveform, under a condition that the switch SW1a in the first switch group 12 is turned on. Based on the adequate changeover between the first switch group 12 and the second switch group 13, it becomes possible to cope with the polarity change, so that a voltage having an arbitrary waveform involving a polarity change can be output without using the positive-negative inversion circuit. FIG. 9 illustrates an AC voltage involving a polarity change, which is output over one cycle by the electric energy storage apparatus 1 illustrated in FIG. 7.

    [0077] As with the first embodiment, the output voltage from the output terminals A, B changes in a stepwise manner at constant time intervals, instead of changing in a continuous manner. This is because the electric energy storage apparatus 1 is configured to adjust the output voltage at intervals of a predetermined period of time, as previously discussed. It is to be understood that the predetermined period of time may be shortened to obtain a smoother output voltage waveform.

    [0078] In addition, also in the electric energy storage apparatus 1 illustrated in FIG. 7, when a voltage is continuously applied to the load 6, each of the capacitors C1 to Cn is discharged, and a voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to Cn is lowered. Therefore, even if a sine wave having a constant amplitude characteristic is input as the reference waveform signal, the number of capacitors required for outputting a voltage having a magnitude corresponding to the constant amplitude characteristic will be increased over time. Thus, it is preferable to perform the switch changeover as illustrated in FIG. 5 in the same manner as that in the first embodiment.

    [0079] In cases where certain charging means is incorporated in the balancing circuit 2, or a constant-voltage DC power supply is connected to the capacitors C1 to Cn, as described in the aftermentioned sixed embodiment, the voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to C5 is kept constant, so that the switch changeover for coping with the voltage drop is unnecessary.

    [THIRD EMBODIMENT]


    (Configuration of Electric Energy Storage Apparatus 1)



    [0080] FIG. 12 is a circuit diagram illustrating an electric energy storage apparatus 1 with a regenerative function, according to a third embodiment of the present invention. As compared to the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 2, the electric energy storage apparatus 1 according to the third embodiment additionally comprises a load voltage detection circuit 14, a comparison and feedback circuit 15 and a regeneration switch control circuit 16.

    [0081] The electric energy storage apparatus 1 in FIG. 12 is capable of, even if a load voltage deviates from a target voltage value obtained by multiplying a voltage of a reference waveform signal by a preset magnification value, correcting the deviation, and regeneratively returning, to capacitors, excess energy of a load 6 corresponding to the deviated voltage, to compensate for voltage drop in the capacitors to some extent.

    (Operation of Electric Energy Storage Apparatus 1)



    [0082] Before explaining a regenerative function realizable by the electric energy storage apparatus 1 illustrated in FIG. 12, a load voltage deviation as a factor requiring the regenerative function will be described below.

    [0083] FIG. 10 illustrates one example of an electric energy storage apparatus convenient for explaining a load voltage deviation. The electric energy storage apparatus 17 comprises a balancing circuit 18, a capacitor group 19 composed of eight capacitors C1 to C8, and a switch group 20 composed of eight switches SW1 to SW8, wherein it is configured to turn on one of the switches in a selectively changing-over manner to output a time-dependent voltage to a load 21.

    [0084] FIG. 11 is a graph illustrating a load voltage deviation from a desired value, occurring when the electric energy storage apparatus 17 outputs a voltage changing over time.

    [0085] In the electric energy storage apparatus 17, when the switches SW1 to SW8 are sequentially turned on in order of SW1, SW2, ---, SW8, at intervals of a predetermined period of time, a current flows from each of the capacitors through the load 21, so that a load voltage is raised in a stepwise manner. A width of each step corresponds to a voltage across each of the capacitors C1 to C8.

    [0086] Considering a situation where, after turning on the SW8 to apply a maximum voltage to the load 21, the switches SW1 to SW8 are sequentially turned on in order of SW7, SW6, ---, SW1, to lower the load voltage in a pattern symmetrical to that during the rising.

    [0087] In this case, if the load 21 is a desired sufficiently heavy resistor, the load voltage is lowered in a stepwise pattern symmetrical to that during the rising, as indicated by a broken line in FIG. 11. However, if the load 21 comprises a reactive element, such as a coil and a capacitor, or if the load 21 is light, or if the load 21 has a certain reactance component due to its shape, wherein the reactance component is unignorably large as compared to a resistance component, a lowering pattern of the load voltage will deviate from the desired pattern, as indicated by the solid line. As one example, such a deviation occurs when an induced electromotive force is generated within the load 21.

    [0088] The electric energy storage apparatus 1 in FIG. 12 is capable of correcting such a load voltage deviation from a desired pattern. With a focus on this point, an operation of the electric energy storage apparatus 1 will be described below.

    [0089] Except for an operation concerning the correction of a load voltage deviation, the electric energy storage apparatus 1 in FIG. 12 operates in the same manner as that in the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 2. Specifically, in a comparison and calculation circuit 9, an instantaneous voltage value of a reference waveform signal input from a reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 is compared with a capacitor voltage input from a voltage detection circuit 8. Then, the number of capacitors required for contributing to a voltage output to the load is determined depending on a preset magnification value, and a corresponding switch changeover signal is output to a switch group 4 to select a magnitude of an output voltage. Further, a control signal corresponding to a (positive/negative) polarity of the instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal input from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 is output to a positive-negative inversion circuit 5 to select a polarity of the output voltage to be applied to the load.

    [0090] As a new operation to be performed by the electric energy storage apparatus 1 in FIG. 12, the load voltage detection circuit 14 is operable to monitor a voltage across the load 6, and output a signal indicative of a detected voltage to the comparison and feedback circuit 15. Additionally, a signal indicative of a target output voltage is input from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 into the comparison and feedback circuit 15. The respective output/input timings of the two signals may be synchronized by a certain external device, or, each of the load voltage detection circuit 14 and the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 may be configured to output the signal to the comparison and feedback circuit 15 at intervals of a predetermined period of time determined, for example, by a clock frequency set for each of them. Alternatively, signals indicative of the instantaneous voltage value of the reference waveform signal and the preset magnification value may be input from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 or any other module constituting the electric energy storage apparatus 1, into the comparison and feedback circuit 15. Alternatively, the electric energy storage apparatus 1 may be configured such that the preset magnification value is preliminarily input into the comparison and feedback circuit 15 directly through an arbitrary external interface.

    [0091] The comparison and feedback circuit 15 is operable, based on a load voltage informed by the signal from the load voltage detection circuit 14, and a target output voltage informed by the signal from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7, to calculate a load voltage deviation from the target output voltage. Subsequently, as one example, the comparison and feedback circuit 15 is operable to generate a signal indicative of a difference between the load voltage and the target voltage, and output the signal to the regeneration switch control circuit 16. Alternatively, the comparison and feedback circuit 15 may be configured to, only when the difference between the load voltage and the target voltage is greater than an allowable limit value, output the signal to the regeneration switch control circuit 16.

    [0092] The regeneration switch control circuit 16 is operable, in response to the signal from the comparison and feedback circuit 15, to output a switch changeover signal to the switch group 4 (when the signal indicative of the difference between the load voltage and the target voltage is input from the comparison and feedback circuit 15, the switch changeover signal is output on condition that a value of the difference is greater than an allowable limit value). When the switch group 4 receives the switch changeover signal, one of the switches set to an ON state to apply the output voltage to the load is opened once, and then one of the switches in the switch group 4 is newly selected and turned on.

    [0093] In the above operation, the switch SW1 is typically turned on. Consequently, only the capacitor C1 is connected to the load 6, and excess energy is regeneratively returned from the load 6 to the capacitor C1 due to a potential difference therebetween. It is not essential to select the switch SW1 so as to perform the regeneration. However, in view of increasing the potential difference from the load 6 to obtain a higher regenerative speed, it is preferable to select the switch SW1 to minimize the number of ones of the capacitors which are to be connected to the load 6.

    [0094] In this example, the regeneration of excess energy means discharge from the load 6 to the capacitor C1, so that the voltage across the load 6 is lowered to become closer to the target value, and the voltage across the capacitor C1 is increased.

    [0095] Voltages across the respective capacitors C1 to Cn are continually adjusted by a balancing circuit 2. Thus, in the electric energy storage apparatus employing the balancing circuit 2 for voltage equalization, the energy charged in the capacitor C1 is distributed over the remaining capacitors C2 to Cn by the balancing circuit 2 to increase those respective capacitor voltages. This makes it possible to extend an operable time of the electric energy storage apparatus 1.

    [0096] After an elapse of a predetermined time from the turn-on of the switch SW1, the switch SW1 is turn off, and a switch changeover signal is output from the switch control circuit 10 to the switch group 4 so as to return the switch group 4 to a changeover state just before start of the regeneration. The information on the elapse of the predetermined time may be given from a certain external device for controlling an operation timing of the entire electric energy storage apparatus. Alternatively, the electric energy storage apparatus may be configured to output a signal indicative of the elapse of the predetermined time, from the regeneration switch control circuit 16 to the switch control circuit 10.

    [0097] Instead of using the elapse of the predetermined time as a condition for a switch changeover, the electric energy storage apparatus 1 may be configured such that the load voltage is compared with the target value by the comparison and feedback circuit 15 as needed, while detecting the load voltage by the load voltage detection circuit 14 even during the regeneration operation, and, when a difference between the load voltage and the target value becomes less than an allowable limit value, a control signal is output from the comparison and feedback circuit 15 to the switch control circuit 10 to return the switch group 4 to a changeover state just before start of the regeneration operation.

    [0098] The subsequent operation is the same as that in the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 2. A magnitude and polarity of the output voltage is adjusted based on momentarily changing inputs from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 and the voltage detection circuit 8.

    [0099] In the third embodiment, a timing of performing the regeneration operation may be arbitrarily set. For example, the electric energy storage apparatus 1 may be configured to perform the regeneration operation at intervals of the same period of time as the predetermined period of time for the adjustment of the output voltage, i.e., in conjunction with each adjustment of the output voltage, based on the inputs from the reference waveform oscillating circuit 7 and the voltage detection circuit 8. Further, the electric energy storage apparatus 1 may be configured to perform the comparison in the comparison and feedback circuit 15 at intervals of a period of time different from the above predetermined period of time.

    [FOURTH EMBODIMENT]



    [0100] The configuration for the regeneration operation may be incorporated in the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 7. FIG. 13 illustrates a configuration of this electric energy storage apparatus.

    [0101] As with the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 12, a load voltage detection circuit 14 is operable to monitor a voltage of a load 6, and a comparison and feedback circuit 15 is operable to compare the load voltage with a target value, and, according to a comparison result, to temporarily change a switch group 4 to a switch changeover state for performing a regenerating operation.

    [0102] In the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 13, the switch group 4 comprises a first switch group 12 and a second switch group 13. Thus, in the regeneration operation, a switch to be turned on is selected from each of the first switch group 12 and the second switch group 13.

    [0103] In view of a higher regenerative speed, it is preferable to select the switches to apply, to the load 6, a voltage having a reverse polarity with respect to that of the load voltage and a large magnitude. However, this involves a risk of damage to the capacitor due to a large current flowing therein, and a problem that energy of the load 6 is lost beyond a correction range. Thus, the switch changeover state to be employed in the regeneration operation should be set depending on various conditions, such as characteristics of each element and a level of temporal change in the target output voltage, on a case-by-case basis. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art to appropriately perform such a setting according to teaching of the present invention. Therefore, unless otherwise such variations depart from the scope of the present invention hereinafter defined, they should be construed as being included therein.

    [FIFTH EMBODIMENT]



    [0104] A voltage outputting method according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention will be described below. This method may be implemented by using any one of the electric energy storage apparatuses in FIGS. 2, 7, 12 and 13, and designed to finely adjust a substantial output voltage as a meaning of a temporal average value, using a small number of elements.

    [0105] FIGS. 14 and 16 illustrate examples of an electric energy storage apparatus 22 convenient for explaining a problem with an increment width in output voltage adjustment. In each example, the electric energy storage apparatus 22 comprises a balancing circuit 23, a capacitor group 24 composed of the same number of capacitors C1 to C8, and a switch group 25 (26), wherein it is configured to turn on one of the switches in a selectively changing-over manner to output a time-dependent voltage to a load 27. The switch group 25 is different from the switch group 26 in that the switch group 25 is composed of eight switches SW1 to SW8, whereas the switch group 26 is composed of four switches SW1 to SW4.

    [0106] In the electric energy storage apparatus 22 illustrated in FIG. 14, the number of capacitors contributing to the output voltage can be selected in increments of one capacitor by turning on one of the switches SW1 to SW8. On the other hand, in the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 15, the number of capacitors contributing to the output voltage can be selected only in increments of two capacitors by turning on one of the switches SW1 to SW4.

    [0107] FIG. 15 illustrates an output voltage obtained when the switches in the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 14 are sequentially turned on under a condition that the balancing circuit 23 is configured to equalize the capacitor voltages. Assuming that a voltage across each of the capacitors is V, the output voltage is adjusted to (0), V, 2V, ----, 8V by sequentially turning on the switches in order of (each switch is in an OFF state), SW1, SW2, ----, SW8, or adjusted to 8V, 7V, --- V, (0) by sequentially turning on the switches in order of SW8, SW7, --- SW1, (each switch is in the OFF state). In other words, the output voltage is adjusted in increments of V.

    [0108] FIG. 17 illustrates an output voltage obtained when the switches in the electric energy storage apparatus in FIG. 16 are sequentially turned on under a condition that the balancing circuit 23 has the same configuration as above. Assuming that a voltage across each of the capacitors is V, the output voltage is adjusted to (0), 2V, 4V, --, 8V by sequentially turning on the switches in order of (each switch is in an OFF state), SW1, SW2, --, SW4, or adjusted to 8V, 6V, --- 2V, (0) by sequentially turning on the switches in order of SW4, SW3, -- SW1, (each switch is in the OFF state). In other words, the output voltage is adjusted in increments of 2V. This means that, if the number of switches is reduced, it becomes impossible to finely adjust the output voltage in increments of a voltage across each of the capacitors.

    [0109] The present invention solves this problem by pulse width modulation control (PWM control). Specifically, the preset invention makes it possible to adjust a substantial output voltage as a meaning of a temporal average value, in increments of a voltage across one capacitor, in each of the electric energy storage apparatuses illustrated in FIGS. 2, 7, 12 and 13, even if a switch is provided for respective two of the series-connected capacitors as in the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 16. The method will be described based on an example where the number of switches becomes half in the electric energy storage apparatus illustrated in FIG. 2, i.e., based on an electric energy storage apparatus 1 illustrated in FIG. 19 (this method may be implemented in each of the electric energy storage apparatuses illustrated in FIGS. 7, 12 and 13, according to the sample principle).

    [0110] In this method, after completion of one cycle of the output voltage adjustment based on the switch changeover in the switch group 4 and the selection of the output terminals in the positive-negative inversion circuit 5, as a part of the operation described in connection with the first embodiment, etc., a high-speed changeover in a switch group 4 is performed in a first half of a predetermined time before start of a next cycle of the output voltage adjustment.

    [0111] Typically, a step of turning off all of the switches, and a step of re-turning on each of the switches which has been turned on in the previous cycle of the output voltage adjustment, will be repeated plural times, at a given time interval ratio therebetween.

    [0112]  Specifically, in cases where, in the electric energy storage apparatus 1 illustrated in FIG. 19, the switches in the switch group 4 are sequentially turned on in order of (each switch is in the OFF state), SW1, SW2, --, SW4, SW3, --, SW1, (each switch is in OFF state) to output a voltage having the same waveform as that in FIG. 17, a high-speed changeover is performed between a state in which all of the switches are turned off and a state in which the switch SW1 is turned on, in a first half of a time (predetermined time) between turn-on of the switch SW1 and turn-on of the switch SW2. In cases where each changeover is performed at even time intervals, a temporal average voltage value in the first half of the predetermined time is V, whereas a temporal average voltage value in a second half of the predetermined time where the high-speed changeover is not performed, is 2V. In other words, as compared to the case where the high-speed changeover is not performed, the increments for adjustment of the substantial voltage as meaning of a temporal average value can be reduced to 1/2.

    [0113] In the same manner, a high-speed changeover is performed between a state in which all of the switches are turned off and a state in which the switch SW2 is turned on, in a first half of a time (predetermined time) between turn-on of the switch SW2 and turn-on of the switch SW3. In cases where each changeover is performed at a time interval ratio of 1:3, a temporal average voltage value in the first half of the predetermined time is 3V, whereas a temporal average voltage value in a second half of the predetermined time where the high-speed changeover is not performed, is 4V. In other words, as compared to the case where the high-speed changeover is not performed, the increments for adjustment of the substantial voltage as meaning of a temporal average value can be reduced to 1/2.

    [0114] In the subsequent switch changeover, a high-speed changeover is performed in the same manner, so that it becomes possible to substantially reduce the increments for the adjustment to 1/2 so as to finely adjust the output voltage. FIG. 18 illustrates a temporal voltage change obtained when the above method is employed.

    [0115]  In the above high-speed changeover, the time interval ratio in each changeover operation may be arbitrarily set. The increments for the adjustment can be substantial adjusted to any rate other than 1/2 by adjusting the time interval ratio to an arbitrary value.

    [0116] In addition, it is not essential that the high-speed changeover is performed, as discussed above, between the state in which all of the switches are turned off and the state in which the switch which has been selected in the output voltage adjustment is turned on. In other words, a temporal average voltage value during the high-speed changeover can be controlled to a desired value by selecting an arbitrary number of any changeover states (without limiting the number to two), and arbitrarily setting a time interval of each changeover. Further, it is not essential that the high-speed changeover is performed in a front half of a predetermined time.

    [SIXTH EXAMPLE - not according to the invention]



    [0117] Each of the electric energy storage apparatuses according to the first to fifth embodiments is configured to adjust voltages of the respective capacitors, i.e., adjust the increments for adjustment of the output voltage, by using the balancing circuit.

    [0118] However, a constant-voltage DC power supply may be connected to each of the capacitors to adjust voltages of the respective capacitors without using the balancing circuit.

    [0119] FIG. 20 and FIG. 21 illustrate two configurations formed by connecting a constant-voltage DC power supply 28 to each of the capacitors, instead of using the balancing circuit, respectively, in the electric energy storage apparatuses 1 illustrated in FIG. 2 and FIG. 7.

    [0120] Such the electric energy storage apparatuses 1 can also output a DC or AC voltage according to the same principle as that in the first and second embodiments, and may further comprise means for regeneratively retuning excess energy according to the same principle as that in the third and fifth embodiments. Further, the electric energy storage apparatuses 1 may be used to finely adjust the output voltage as in the fifth embodiment.

    [0121] The electric energy storage apparatus 1 where a constant-voltage DC power supply is connected to each of the capacitors is free of the need for taking into account a voltage drop in each of the electric energy storage modules due to discharging, so that it becomes possible to simplify the control of the electric energy storage apparatus 1, as comported to the first and second embodiment.

    [INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY]



    [0122] The electric energy storage apparatus of the present invention does not use a DC-DC converter, an inverter or the like, so that it becomes possible to output a voltage having an arbitrary pattern in a low-loss and low-noise manner, irrespective of whether it is a DC voltage or an AC voltage. Thus, the electric energy storage apparatus of the present invention can be used as a highly-efficient power supply for any electrically-operated device. The electric energy storage apparatus employs, as a major element, a capacitor having a simple mechanism, and therefor low in maintenance cost. Thus, also in view of the high efficiency, it is suitable for use in the field of solar cells.

    (ADDITIONAL STATEMENT)



    [0123] As the aforementioned balancing circuit 2 for use in the electric energy storage apparatus 1 of the present invention, a circuit comprising an electric energy storage module disclosed in JP 2008-219964A (JP 2007-49692; JP 4352183B) may be used, as described in the embodiments above. As one example of such a circuit, a circuit disclosed in FIG. 7 of JP 2008-219964A will be described below.

    [0124] FIG. 22 is a circuit diagram illustrating one embodiment of a cell voltage equalization circuit disclosed in FIG. 7 of JP 2008-219964A. This equalization circuit uses a secondary battery cell as an electric energy storage cell, and has 3-series circuit configuration formed by connecting 3 series circuits in parallel, to have parallel rows consisting of 2-parallel row - 3-parallel row - 2-parallel row. Each of B1A to B2A, B1B to B3B, and B2C to B3C, is a cell. B1B and B3B is a cell having a capacity of 2X, and each of the remaining cells has a capacity of X. Each of Sa1 to Sa6 and Sb1 to SBb6 is a semiconductor switch. Two groups of semiconductor switches, i.e., a Sa group and an Sb group, are alternately turned on/off by using a driver, to change a combination of cells to be connected in parallel in the module, so that the cells in the module are subjected to mutual charging and discharging, to allow voltages across the respective cells to be equalized. The on/off operation using the driver may be performed in a constant cycle. Further, the cycle may be changed depending on temporal change and/or load change.

    [0125] FIG. 23 is a circuit diagram illustrating the equalization circuit, wherein the switches in the Sa group are in an ON state, and the switches in the Sb group are in an OFF state. In this mode, B1A, B2B and B3C; B2A and B3B; and B1B and B2C; are connected in parallel, respectively, to form a 3-series circuit configuration formed by connecting 3 series circuits in parallel, to have parallel rows consisting of 2-parallel row - 3-parallel row - 2-parallel row. In this connection mode, a composite capacity in each parallel row is equally 3X. Thus, if a variation in voltage occurs between the parallel-connected cells, mutual charging and discharging are performed, so that the voltage variation will move toward being eliminated.

    [0126] FIG. 24 is a circuit diagram illustrating the equalization circuit, wherein the switches in the Sa group are in an OFF state, and the switches in the Sb group are in an ON state. In this mode, B1A and B1B; B2A, B2B and B2C; and B3B and B3C; are connected in parallel, respectively, to form a 3-series circuit configuration formed by connecting 3 series circuits in parallel, to have parallel rows consisting of 2-parallel row - 3-parallel row - 2-parallel row. In this connection mode, a composite capacity in each parallel row is equally 3X. Thus, if a variation in voltage occurs between the parallel-connected cells, mutual charging and discharging are performed, so that the voltage variation will move toward being eliminated.

    [0127] Based on repeating the above switch on/off operation, the combination of series-connected and parallel-connected cells are changed to allow each of the cells in the module to be connected in parallel with each of the remaining cells, while maintaining a 3-series circuit configuration formed by connecting 3 series circuits in parallel, to have parallel rows consisting of 2-parallel row - 3-parallel row - 2-parallel row, and maintaining a composite capacity in each parallel row equally (3X), so that it becomes possible to perform mutual charging and discharging between the parallel-connected cells to equalize voltages across the respective cells.

    [0128] The cell voltage equalization circuit in FIG. 22 is simply illustrated by way of example, a similar balancing circuit may be formed as a 4 or more-series circuit configuration and used in the electric energy storage apparatus 1 of the present invention.

    EXPLANATION OF CODES



    [0129] 
    1:
    electric energy storage apparatus
    2:
    balancing circuit
    3:
    electric energy storage module group
    4:
    switch group
    5:
    positive-negative inversion circuit
    6:
    load
    7:
    reference waveform oscillating circuit
    8:
    voltage detection circuit
    9:
    comparison and calculation circuit
    10:
    switch control circuit
    11:
    positive-negative inversion control circuit
    12:
    first switch group
    13:
    second switch group
    14:
    load voltage detection circuit
    15:
    comparison and feedback circuit
    16:
    regeneration switch control circuit
    17:
    electric energy storage apparatus
    18:
    balancing circuit
    19:
    capacitor group
    20:
    switch group
    21:
    load
    22:
    electric energy storage apparatus
    23:
    balancing circuit
    24:
    capacitor group
    25, 26:
    switch group
    27:
    load
    28:
    constant-voltage DC power supply



    Claims

    1. An electric energy storage apparatus (1) comprising:

    an electric energy storage module group (3) formed by connecting in series two or more electric energy storage modules each comprising one or more electric energy storage elements;

    a first switch group (4) comprising two or more switches each provided in a path connecting a first terminal and a terminal of one of the series-connected electric energy storage modules; and

    a second switch group comprising two or more switches each provided in a path connecting a second terminal and a terminal of one of the series-connected electric energy storage modules;

    characterised in that the electric energy storage module group is electrically connected to a balancing circuit (2) configured for adjusting a voltage to be applied to each of the electric energy storage modules at least when discharge is performed from the electric energy storage modules to a load connected to the electric energy storage apparatus between the first and second terminals; and

    wherein the electric energy storage apparatus is configured to perform a switch changeover in the first and second switch groups so as to select a magnitude and polarity of an output voltage between the first and second terminals depending on a configuration of the electric energy storage elements present in a path connecting the first and second terminals.


     
    2. The electric energy storage apparatus as defined in claim 1, which further comprises:

    voltage detection means (8) configured to detect a voltage across the electric energy storage module; and

    first switch-group control means (10) configured to, based on the electric energy storage module voltage detected by the voltage detection means, and a voltage in a target output voltage waveform at a certain clock time, turn on one of the switches comprised in a respective one of the first and second switch groups,

    wherein the electric energy storage apparatus is configured to, depending on a magnitude and polarity of the target output voltage waveform, and the electric energy storage module voltage, control the first and second switch groups to output a voltage having the target output voltage waveform.


     
    3. The electric energy storage apparatus as defined in claim 1, which further comprises:

    voltage detection means (8) configured to detect a voltage across the load connected to the electric energy storage apparatus; and

    first switch-group control means (10) configured to, based on the load voltage detected by the voltage detection means, and a voltage in a target output voltage waveform at a certain clock time, turn on one of the switches comprised in a respective one of the first and second switch groups,

    wherein the electric energy storage apparatus is configured to, depending on a magnitude and polarity of the target output voltage waveform, and the load voltage, control the first and second switch groups to output a voltage having the target output voltage waveform.


     
    4. The electric energy storage apparatus as defined in any one of claims 1 to 3, which further comprises:

    load voltage detection means (8) configured to detect a voltage across a load connected to the electric energy storage apparatus; and

    second switch-group control means configured to, based on a voltage in the target output voltage waveform at a certain clock time, and a load voltage detected at the certain clock time by the load voltage detection means, turn on one of the switches comprised in a respective one of the first and second switch groups,

    wherein the electric energy storage apparatus is configured to adjust the load voltage to conform to the voltage in the target output voltage waveform at the certain clock time, by charging and discharging between the load and the electric energy storage module connected to the load through the switches turned on by the second switch-group control means.


     
    5. A method of outputting a voltage using the electric energy storage apparatus as defined in any one of claims 1 to 4, comprising the steps of:

    inputting a reference waveform signal from reference waveform outputting means;

    based on the reference waveform signal, determining a voltage magnitude and polarity in a target output voltage waveform at a certain clock time; and

    based on the electric energy storage module voltage, and the voltage magnitude and polarity in the target output voltage waveform at the certain clock time, turning on one of the switches comprised in a respective one of the first and second switch groups,

    adjusting, by the balancing circuit, a voltage to be applied to each of the electric energy storage modules at least when discharge is performed from the electric energy storage modules to the load,

    wherein a magnitude and polarity of the output voltage are selected at intervals of a predetermined period of time to adjust the output voltage to conform to the target output voltage waveform.


     
    6. The method as defined in claim 5, which comprises a step of performing a switchover among at least two states selected from the group consisting of a state in which all of the switches in the first or second switch group are turned off and all of states in which any one of the switches in a respective one of the first and second switch groups is turned on, once or more within the predetermined period of time to adjust a temporal average value of the output voltage within the predetermined period of time.
     
    7. An electric energy storage apparatus (1) comprising:

    an electric energy storage module group (3) formed by connecting in series two or more electric energy storage modules each comprising one or more electric energy storage elements; a switch group (4) comprising two or more switches each provided in a path connecting a first connection point and a terminal of one of the series-connected electric energy storage modules; and

    a positive-negative inversion circuit (5) having, as an input section, the first connection point and a second connection point electrically connected to one of the terminals of the series-connected electric energy storage modules, the positive-negative inversion circuit being configured to connect the first connection point and the second connection point to one of output terminals respectively,

    characterised in that the electric energy storage module group is electrically connected to a balancing circuit configured for adjusting a voltage to be applied to each of the electric energy storage modules at least when discharge is performed from the electric energy storage modules to a load connected to the electric energy storage apparatus between the output terminals; wherein the electric energy storage apparatus is configured to perform a switch changeover in the switch group so as to select a magnitude of an output voltage between the first and second connection points depending on a configuration of the electric energy storage elements present in a path connecting the first and second connection points, and cause the positive-negative inversion circuit to select a polarity of the output voltage between the two output terminals depending on the output terminals connected to respective ones of the first and second connection points.


     
    8. The electric energy storage apparatus as defined in claim 7, which further comprises:

    voltage detection means (8) configured to detect a voltage across the electric energy storage module;

    first switch-group control means (10) configured to, based on the electric energy storage module voltage detected by the voltage detection means, and a voltage magnitude in a target output voltage waveform at a certain clock time, turn on one of the switches comprised in the switch group; and

    positive-negative inversion circuit control means (11) configured to, based on a voltage polarity in the target output voltage waveform at the certain clock time, select the output terminals to be connected to the first connection point and the second connection point, in the positive-negative inversion circuit,

    wherein the electric energy storage apparatus is configured to, depending on the magnitude and polarity of the target output voltage waveform, and the electric energy storage module voltage, control the switch group and the positive-negative inversion circuit to output a voltage having the target output voltage waveform.


     
    9. The electric energy storage apparatus as defined in claim 7, which further comprises:

    voltage detection means (8) configured to detect a voltage across a load connected to the output terminals;

    first switch-group control means (10) configured to, based on the load voltage detected by the voltage detection means, and a voltage magnitude in a target output voltage waveform at a certain clock time, turn on one of the switches comprised in the switch group; and

    positive-negative inversion circuit (11) control means configured to, based on a voltage polarity in the target output voltage waveform at the certain clock time, select the output terminals to be connected to the first connection point and the second connection point, in the positive-negative inversion circuit,

    wherein the electric energy storage apparatus is configured to, depending on the magnitude and polarity of the target output voltage waveform, and the load voltage, control the switch group and the positive-negative inversion circuit to output a voltage having the target output voltage waveform.


     
    10. The electric energy storage apparatus as defined in any one of claims 7 to 9, which further comprises:

    load voltage detection means (8) configured to detect a voltage across the load connected to the output terminals; and

    second switch-group control means configured to, based on a voltage in the target output voltage waveform at a certain clock time, and a load voltage detected at the certain clock time by the load voltage detection means, turn on one of the switches comprised in the switch group,

    wherein the electric energy storage apparatus is configured to adjust the load voltage to conform to the voltage in the target output voltage waveform at the certain clock time, by charging and discharging between the load and the electric energy storage module connected to the load through the switch turned on by the second switch-group control means.


     
    11. A method of outputting a voltage using the electric energy storage apparatus as defined in any one of claims 7 to 10, comprising the steps of:

    inputting a reference waveform signal from reference waveform outputting means;

    based on the reference waveform signal, determining a voltage magnitude and polarity in a target output voltage waveform at a certain clock time;

    based on the electric energy storage module voltage, and the voltage magnitude in the target output voltage waveform at the certain clock time, turning on one of the switches comprised in the switch group; and

    based on the voltage polarity in the target output voltage waveform at the certain clock time, selectively connecting each of the first connection point and the second connection point to one of the output terminals, in the positive-negative inversion circuit,

    adjusting, by the balancing circuit, a voltage to be applied to each of the electric energy storage modules at least when discharge is performed from the electric energy storage modules to the load,

    wherein a magnitude and polarity of the output voltage are selected at intervals of a predetermined period of time to adjust the output voltage to conform to the target output voltage waveform.


     
    12. The method as defined in claim 11, which comprises a step of performing a switchover among at least two states selected from the group consisting of a state in which all of the switches in the switch group are turned off and all of states in which any one of the switches in the switch group is turned on, once or more within the predetermined period of time, to adjust a temporal average value of the output voltage within the predetermined period of time.
     
    13. The electric energy storage apparatus as defined in any one of claims 1 to 4 and 7 to 10, wherein at least one of the one or more electric energy storage elements is a capacitor or a secondary battery.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung (1), umfassend:

    eine Elektroenergiespeichermodulgruppe (3), die gebildet ist, indem zwei oder mehr Elektroenergiespeichermodule in Reihe geschaltet sind, die jeweils ein oder mehrere Elektroenergiespeicherelement/e umfassen;

    eine erste Schaltergruppe (4), die zwei oder mehr Schalter umfasst, die jeweils in einem Pfad vorgesehen sind, der einen ersten Anschluss und einen Anschluss eines der in Reihe geschalteten Elektroenergiespeicherspeichermodule verbindet; und

    eine zweite Schaltergruppe, die zwei oder mehr Schalter umfasst, die jeweils in einem Pfad vorgesehen sind, der einen zweiten Anschluss und einen Anschluss eines der in Reihe geschalteten Elektroenergiespeicherspeichermodule verbindet;

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Elektroenergiespeichermodulgruppe elektrisch an eine Ausgleichsschaltung (2) angeschlossen ist, die dazu ausgelegt ist, eine Spannung anzupassen, die an jedes der Elektroenergiespeichermodule zumindest dann angelegt werden soll, wenn eine Entladung aus den Elektroenergiespeichermodulen zu einer Last erfolgt, die an die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung zwischen dem ersten und zweiten Anschluss angeschlossen ist; und

    wobei die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung dazu ausgelegt ist, eine Schalterumschaltung in der ersten und zweiten Schaltergruppe durchzuführen, um eine Größenordnung und Polarität einer Ausgangsspannung zwischen dem ersten und zweiten Anschluss in Abhängigkeit von einer Auslegung der Elektroenergiespeicherelemente auszuwählen, die in einem den ersten und zweiten Anschluss verbindenden Pfad vorhanden sind.


     
    2. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, die darüber hinaus umfasst:

    ein Spannungserfassungsmittel (8), das dazu ausgelegt ist, eine am Elektroenergiespeichermodul anliegende Spannung zu erfassen; und

    ein Steuermittel (10) für die erste Schaltergruppe, das dazu ausgelegt ist, auf Grundlage der durch das Spannungserfassungsmittel erfassten Elektroenergiespeichermodulspannung und einer Spannung in einer Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit, einen der Schalter einzuschalten, der in einer jeweiligen der ersten und zweiten Schaltergruppe enthalten ist,

    wobei die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung dazu ausgelegt ist, in Abhängigkeit von einer Größenordnung und einer Polarität der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform und der Elektroenergiespeichermodulspannung die erste und zweite Schaltergruppe anzusteuern, eine Spannung mit der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform auszugeben.


     
    3. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, die darüber hinaus umfasst:

    ein Spannungserfassungsmittel (8), das dazu ausgelegt ist, eine an der an der Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung angeschlossenen Last anliegende Spannung zu erfassen; und

    ein Steuermittel (10) für die erste Schaltergruppe, das dazu ausgelegt ist, auf Grundlage der durch das Spannungserfassungsmittel erfassten Lastspannung und einer Spannung in einer Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit, einen der Schalter einzuschalten, der in einer jeweiligen der ersten und zweiten Schaltergruppe enthalten ist,

    wobei die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung dazu ausgelegt ist, in Abhängigkeit von einer Größenordnung und einer Polarität der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform und der Lastspannung die erste und zweite Schaltergruppe anzusteuern, eine Spannung mit der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform auszugeben.


     
    4. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, die darüber hinaus umfasst:

    ein Lastspannungserfassungsmittel (8), das dazu ausgelegt ist, eine an einer an die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung angeschlossenen Last anliegende Spannung zu erfassen; und

    ein Steuermittel für die zweite Schaltergruppe, das dazu ausgelegt ist, auf Grundlage einer in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit, und einer durch das Lastspannungserfassungsmittel zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit erfassten Lastspannung, einen der Schalter einzuschalten, der in einer jeweiligen der ersten und zweiten Schaltergruppe enthalten ist,

    wobei die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung dazu ausgelegt ist, die Lastspannung so anzupassen, dass sie der Spannung in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit entspricht, indem zwischen der Last und dem Elektroenergiespeichermodul geladen und entladen wird, das durch die Schalter an die Last angeschlossen ist, die durch das Steuermittel für die zweite Schaltergruppe eingeschaltet sind.


     
    5. Verfahren zum Ausgeben einer Spannung unter Verwendung der Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, die folgenden Schritte umfassend:

    Eingeben eines Referenzwellenformsignals aus einem Referenzwellenformausgabemittel;

    Bestimmen, auf Grundlage des Referenzwellenformsignals, einer Spannungsgrößenordnung und -polarität in einer Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit; und

    Einschalten, auf Grundlage der Elektroenergiespeichermodulspannung und der Spannungsgrößenordnung und -polarität in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit, eines der Schalter, der in einer jeweiligen der ersten und zweiten Schaltergruppe enthalten ist, Anpassen, durch die Ausgleichsschaltung, einer Spannung, die an jedes der Elektroenergiespeichermodule zumindest dann angelegt werden soll, wenn eine Entladung aus den Elektroenergiespeichermodulen zu der Last erfolgt,

    wobei eine Größenordnung und Polarität der Ausgangsspannung in Intervallen eines vorbestimmten Zeitraums ausgewählt werden, um die Ausgangsspannung so anzupassen, dass sie der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform entspricht.


     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, das einen Schritt umfasst, eine Umschaltung zwischen mindestens zwei Zuständen, die aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus einem Zustand, in dem alle der Schalter in der ersten und zweiten Schaltergruppe ausgeschaltet sind, und all den Zuständen besteht, in denen einer der Schalter in einer jeweiligen der ersten und zweiten Schaltergruppe eingeschaltet ist, ein- oder mehrmals in dem vorbestimmten Zeitraum durchzuführen, um einen zeitlichen Mittelwert der Ausgangsspannung in dem vorbestimmten Zeitraum anzupassen.
     
    7. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung (1), umfassend:

    eine Elektroenergiespeichermodulgruppe (3), die gebildet ist, indem zwei oder mehr Elektroenergiespeichermodule in Reihe geschaltet sind, die jeweils ein oder mehrere Elektroenergiespeicherelement/e umfassen; eine Schaltergruppe (4), die zwei oder mehr Schalter umfasst, die jeweils in einem Pfad vorgesehen sind, der einen ersten Verbindungspunkt und einen Anschluss eines der in Reihe geschalteten Elektroenergiespeicherspeichermodule verbindet; und

    eine Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung (5), die als Eingangsabschnitt den ersten Verbindungspunkt und einen zweiten Verbindungspunkt hat, die elektrisch an einen der Anschlüsse der in Reihe geschalteten Elektroenergiespeichermodule angeschlossen sind, wobei die Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung dazu ausgelegt ist, den ersten Verbindungspunkt bzw. den zweiten Verbindungspunkt mit einem der Ausgangsanschlüsse zu verbinden,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Elektroenergiespeichermodulgruppe elektrisch an eine Ausgleichsschaltung angeschlossen ist, die dazu ausgelegt ist, eine Spannung anzupassen, die an jedes der Elektroenergiespeichermodule zumindest dann angelegt werden soll, wenn eine Entladung aus den Elektroenergiespeichermodulen zu einer Last erfolgt, die an die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung zwischen den Ausgangsanschlüssen angeschlossen ist; wobei die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung dazu ausgelegt ist, eine Schalterumschaltung in der Schaltergruppe durchzuführen, um eine Größenordnung einer Ausgangsspannung zwischen dem ersten und zweiten Verbindungspunkt in Abhängigkeit von einer Auslegung der Elektroenergiespeicherelemente auszuwählen, die in einem den ersten und zweiten Verbindungspunkt verbindenden Pfad vorhanden sind, und zu bewirken, dass die Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung eine Polarität der Ausgangsspannung zwischen den zwei Ausgangsanschlüssen in Abhängigkeit von den Ausgangsanschlüssen auswählt, die an jeweilige der ersten und zweiten Verbindungspunkte angeschlossen sind.


     
    8. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach Anspruch 7, die darüber hinaus umfasst:

    ein Spannungserfassungsmittel (8), das dazu ausgelegt ist, eine am Elektroenergiespeichermodul anliegende Spannung zu erfassen;

    ein Steuermittel (10) für die erste Schaltergruppe, das dazu ausgelegt ist, auf Grundlage der durch das Spannungserfassungsmittel erfassten Elektroenergiespeichermodulspannung und einer in einer Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit bestehenden Spannungsgrößenordnung, einen der Schalter einzuschalten, der in der Schaltergruppe enthalten ist; und

    ein Steuermittel (11) für die Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung, das dazu ausgelegt ist, auf Grundlage einer Spannungspolarität in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit, die Ausgangsanschlüsse auszuwählen, die mit dem ersten Verbindungspunkt und dem zweiten Verbindungspunkt in der Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung verbunden werden sollen,

    wobei die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung dazu ausgelegt ist, in Abhängigkeit von der Größenordnung und Polarität der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform und der Elektroenergiespeichermodulspannung die Schaltergruppe und die Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung anzusteuern, um eine Spannung mit der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform auszugeben.


     
    9. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach Anspruch 7, die darüber hinaus umfasst:

    ein Spannungserfassungsmittel (8), das dazu ausgelegt ist, eine an einer an die Ausgangsanschlüsse angeschlossenen Last anliegende Spannung zu erfassen;

    ein Steuermittel (10) für die erste Schaltergruppe, das dazu ausgelegt ist, auf Grundlage der durch das Spannungserfassungsmittel erfassten Lastspannung und einer Spannungsgrößenordnung in einer Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit, einen der Schalter einzuschalten, der in der Schaltergruppe enthalten ist; und

    ein Steuermittel (11) für die Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung, das dazu ausgelegt ist, auf Grundlage einer Spannungspolarität in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit, die Ausgangsanschlüsse auszuwählen, die mit dem ersten Verbindungspunkt und dem zweiten Verbindungspunkt in der Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung verbunden werden sollen,

    wobei die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung dazu ausgelegt ist, in Abhängigkeit von der Größenordnung und Polarität der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform und der Lastspannung, die Schaltergruppe und die Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung anzusteuern, eine Spannung mit der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform auszugeben.


     
    10. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 9, die darüber hinaus umfasst:

    ein Lastspannungserfassungsmittel (8), das dazu ausgelegt ist, eine an der an die Ausgangsanschlüsse angeschlossenen Last anliegende Spannung zu erfassen; und

    ein Steuermittel für die zweite Schaltergruppe, das dazu ausgelegt ist, auf Grundlage einer Spannung in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit und einer zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit durch das Lastspannungserfassungsmittel erfassten Lastspannung einen der Schalter einzuschalten, der in der Schaltergruppe enthalten ist,

    wobei die Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung dazu ausgelegt ist, die Lastspannung so anzupassen, dass sie der Spannung in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit entspricht, indem zwischen der Last und dem Elektroenergiespeichermodul geladen und entladen wird, das durch den Schalter an die Last angeschlossen ist, der durch das Steuermittel für die zweite Schaltergruppe eingeschaltet ist.


     
    11. Verfahren zum Ausgeben einer Spannung unter Verwendung der Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 10, die folgenden Schritte umfassend:

    Eingeben eines Referenzwellenformsignals aus einem Referenzwellenformausgabem ittel;

    Bestimmen, auf Grundlage des Referenzwellenformsignals, einer Spannungsgrößenordnung und -polarität in einer Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu einer bestimmten Uhrzeit;

    Einschalten, auf Grundlage der Elektroenergiespeichermodulspannung und der Spannungsgrößenordnung in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit, eines der Schalter, der in der Schaltergruppe enthalten ist; und

    selektives Verbinden, auf Grundlage der Spannungspolarität in der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform zu der bestimmten Uhrzeit, jeweils des ersten Verbindungspunkts und des zweiten Verbindungspunkts mit einem der Ausgangsanschlüsse in der Positiv-Negativ-Umkehrschaltung,

    Anpassen, durch die Ausgleichsschaltung, einer Spannung, die zumindest dann an jedes der Elektroenergiespeichermodule angelegt werden soll, wenn eine Entladung aus den Elektroenergiespeichermodulen zu der Last erfolgt,

    wobei eine Größenordnung und Polarität der Ausgangsspannung in Intervallen eines vorbestimmten Zeitraums ausgewählt werden, um die Ausgangsspannung so anzupassen, dass sie der Zielausgangsspannungswellenform entspricht.


     
    12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, das einen Schritt umfasst, eine Umschaltung zwischen mindestens zwei Zuständen, die aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus einem Zustand, in dem alle der Schalter in der Schaltergruppe ausgeschaltet sind, und all den Zuständen besteht, in denen irgendeiner der Schalter in der Schaltergruppe eingeschaltet ist, ein- oder mehrmals in dem vorbestimmten Zeitraum durchzuführen, um einen zeitlichen Mittelwert der Ausgangsspannung in dem vorbestimmten Zeitraum anzupassen.
     
    13. Elektroenergiespeichervorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 und 7 bis 10, wobei es sich bei mindestens einem des einen Elektroenergiespeicherelements oder der mehreren Elektroenergiespeicherelemente um einen Kondensator oder eine Sekundärbatterie handelt.
     


    Revendications

    1. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique (1), comprenant :

    un groupe de modules de stockage d'énergie électrique (3) formé en connectant une série de deux modules de stockage d'énergie électrique ou plus comprenant chacun un ou plusieurs éléments de stockage d'énergie électrique ;

    un premier groupe de commutateurs (4) comprenant deux commutateurs ou plus fournis chacun dans un parcours connectant une première borne et une borne de l'un des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique connectés en série ; et

    une deuxième groupe de commutateurs comprenant deux commutateurs ou plus fournis chacun dans un parcours connectant une deuxième borne et une borne de l'un des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique connectés en série ;

    caractérisé en ce que le groupe de modules de stockage d'énergie électrique est connecté électriquement à un circuit équilibreur (2) configuré pour régler une tension à appliquer à chacun des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique au moins lorsqu'une décharge est effectuée des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique à une charge connectée à l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique entre la première et la deuxième borne ; et

    dans lequel l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique est configuré pour effectuer un changement de commutateurs dans le premier et le deuxième groupe de commutateurs de manière à sélectionner une magnitude et une polarité d'une tension de sortie entre la première et la deuxième borne en fonction d'une configuration des éléments de stockage d'énergie électrique présents dans un parcours connectant la première et la deuxième borne.


     
    2. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon la revendication 1, qui comprend en outre :

    un moyen de détection de tension (8) configuré pour détecter une tension en travers du module de stockage d'énergie électrique ; et

    un premier moyen de commande de groupes de commutateurs (10) configuré pour, sur la base de la tension du module de stockage d'énergie électrique détectée par le moyen de détection de tension, et d'une tension dans une forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle, mettre en circuit l'un des commutateurs compris dans un groupe respectif des premier et deuxième groupes de commutateurs,

    où l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique est configuré pour, en fonction d'une magnitude et d'une polarité de la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible, et de la tension du module de stockage d'énergie électrique, commander au premier et au deuxième groupe de commutateurs de sortir une tension ayant la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible.


     
    3. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon la revendication 1, qui comprend en outre :

    un moyen de détection de tension (8) configuré pour détecter une tension en travers de la charge connectée à l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique ; et

    un premier moyen de commande de groupes de commutateurs (10) configuré pour, sur la base de la tension de charge détectée par le moyen de détection de tension, et d'une tension dans une forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle, mettre en circuit l'un des commutateurs dans un groupe respectif des premier et deuxième groupes de commutateurs,

    où l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique est configuré pour, en fonction d'une magnitude et d'une polarité de la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible, et de la tension de charge, commander aux premier et deuxième groupes de commutateurs de sortir une tension ayant la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible.


     
    4. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, qui comprend en outre :

    un moyen de détection de tension de charge (8) configuré pour détecter une tension en travers d'une charge connectée à l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique ; et

    un deuxième moyen de commande de groupes de commutateurs configuré pour, sur la base d'une tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle, et d'une tension de charge détectée au certain temps de cycle par le moyen de détection de tension de charge, mettre en circuit l'un des commutateurs compris dans un groupe respectif des premier et deuxième groupes de commutateurs,

    où l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique est configuré pour régler la tension de charge afin qu'elle soit conforme à la tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible au certain temps de cycle, en chargeant et déchargeant entre la charge et le module de stockage d'énergie électrique connecté à la charge par les commutateurs mis en circuit par le deuxième moyen de commande de groupes de commutateurs.


     
    5. Procédé pour sortir une tension en utilisant un appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, comprenant les étapes consistant à :

    entrer un signal de forme d'onde de référence d'un moyen de sortie de forme d'onde de référence ;

    sur la base du signal de forme d'onde de référence, déterminer une magnitude et une polarité de tension dans une forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle ; et

    sur la base de la tension du module de stockage d'énergie électrique, et de la magnitude et polarité de la tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle, mettre en circuit l'un des commutateurs dans un groupe respectif des premier et deuxième groupes de commutateurs, régler, par le circuit équilibreur, une tension à appliquer à chacun des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique au moins lorsqu'une décharge est effectuée des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique à la charge,

    dans lequel une magnitude et une polarité de la tension de sortie sont sélectionnées à des intervalles d'une période de temps prédéterminée pour régler la tension de sortie afin qu'elle soit conforme à la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible.


     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, qui comprend une étape consistant à effectuer une permutation entre au moins deux états sélectionnés parmi le groupe consistant en un état dans lequel tous les commutateurs dans les premier et deuxième groupes de commutateurs sont mis hors circuit et tous les états dans lesquels l'un quelconque des commutateurs dans un groupe respectif des premier et deuxième groupes de commutateurs est mis en circuit, une fois ou plus durant la période de temps prédéterminée pour régler une valeur temporelle moyenne de la tension de sortie durant la période de temps prédéterminée.
     
    7. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique (1), comprenant :

    un groupe de modules de stockage d'énergie électrique (3) formé en connectant en série deux modules de stockage d'énergie électrique ou plus comprenant chacun un ou plusieurs éléments de stockage d'énergie électrique ; un groupe de commutateurs (4) comprenant deux commutateurs ou plus fournis chacun dans un parcours connectant un premier point de connexion et une borne de l'un des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique connectés en série ; et

    un circuit d'inversion positif-négatif (5) ayant, en tant qu'une section d'entrée, le premier point de connexion et un deuxième point de connexion connectés électriquement à l'une des bornes des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique connectés en série, le circuit d'inversion positif-négatif étant configuré pour connecter le premier point de connexion et le deuxième point de connexion à l'une des bornes de sortie respectivement,

    caractérisé en ce que le groupe de modules de stockage d'énergie électrique est connecté électriquement à un circuit équilibreur configuré pour régler une tension à appliquer à chacun des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique au moins lorsqu'une décharge est effectuée des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique à une charge connectée à l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique entre les bornes de sortie ;

    où l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique est configuré pour effectuer un changement de commutateurs dans le groupe de commutateurs de manière à sélectionner une magnitude d'une tension de sortie entre les premier et deuxième points de connexion en fonction d'une configuration des éléments de stockage d'énergie électrique présents dans un parcours connectant les premier et deuxième points de connexion, et faire que le circuit d'inversion positif-négatif sélectionne une polarité de la tension de sortie entre les deux bornes de sortie en fonction des bornes de sortie connectées à des points respectifs des premier et deuxième points de connexion.


     
    8. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon la revendication 7, qui comprend en outre :

    un moyen de détection de tension (8) configuré pour détecter une tension en travers du module de stockage d'énergie électrique ;

    un premier moyen de commande de groupe de commutateurs (10) configuré pour, sur la base de la tension du module de stockage d'énergie électrique détectée par le moyen de détection de tension, et d'une magnitude de tension dans une forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle, mettre en circuit l'un des commutateurs dans le groupe de commutateurs ; et

    un moyen de commande de circuit d'inversion positif-négatif (11) configuré pour, sur la base d'une polarité de tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible au certain temps de cycle, sélectionner les bornes de sortie à connecter au premier point de connexion et au deuxième point de connexion dans le circuit d'inversion positif-négatif,

    où l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique est configuré pour, en fonction de la magnitude et de la polarité de la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible, et de la tension du module de stockage d'énergie électrique, commander au groupe de commutateurs et au circuit d'inversion positif-négatif de sortir une tension ayant la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible.


     
    9. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon la revendication 7, qui comprend en outre :

    un moyen de détection de tension (8) configuré pour détecter une tension en travers d'une charge connectée aux bornes de sortie ;

    un premier moyen de commande de groupe de commutateurs (10) configuré pour, sur la base de la tension de charge détectée par le moyen de détection de tension, et d'une magnitude de tension dans une forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle, mettre en circuit l'un des commutateurs compris dans le groupe de commutateurs ; et

    un moyen de commande de circuit d'inversion positif-négatif (11) configuré pour, sur la base d'une polarité de tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle, sélectionner les bornes de sortie à connecter au premier point de connexion et au deuxième point de connexion dans le circuit d'inversion positif-négatif,

    où l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique est configuré pour, en fonction de la magnitude et de la polarité de la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible, et de la tension de charge, commander au groupe de commutateurs et au circuit d'inversion positif-négatif de sortir une tension ayant la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible.


     
    10. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 9, qui comprend en outre :

    un moyen de détection de tension de charge (8) configuré pour détecter une tension en travers de la charge connectée aux bornes de sortie ; et

    un moyen de commande de groupe de commutateurs configuré pour, sur la base d'une tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle, et d'une tension de charge détectée au certain temps de cycle par le moyen de détection de tension, mettre en circuit l'un des commutateurs compris dans le groupe de commutateurs,

    où l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique est configuré pour régler la tension de charge afin qu'elle soit conforme à la tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible au certain temps de cycle, en chargeant et en déchargeant entre la charge et le module de stockage d'énergie électrique connecté à la charge par le commutateur mis en circuit par le deuxième moyen de commande de groupe de commutateurs.


     
    11. Procédé pour sortir une tension en utilisant l'appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 10, comprenant les étapes consistant à :

    entrer un signal de forme d'onde de référence d'un moyen de sortie de forme d'onde de référence ;

    sur la base du signal de forme d'onde de référence, déterminer une magnitude et une polarité de tension dans une forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible à un certain temps de cycle ;

    sur la base de la tension du module de stockage d'énergie électrique, et de la magnitude de tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible au certain temps de cycle, mettre en circuit l'un des commutateurs compris dans le groupe de commutateurs ; et

    sur la base de la polarité de tension dans la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible au certain temps de cycle, connecter sélectivement chacun d'entre le premier point de connexion et le deuxième point de connexion à l'une des bornes de sortie, dans le circuit d'inversion positif-négatif,

    régler, par le circuit équilibreur, une tension à appliquer à chacun des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique au moins lorsqu'une décharge est effectuée des modules de stockage d'énergie électrique à la charge.

    où une magnitude et une polarité de la tension de sortie sont sélectionnées à des intervalles d'une période de temps prédéterminée pour régler la tension de sortie afin qu'elle soit conforme à la forme d'onde de tension de sortie cible.


     
    12. Procédé selon la revendication 11, qui comprend une étape consistant à effectuer une permutation entre au moins deux états sélectionnés parmi le groupe consistant en un état dans lequel tous les commutateurs dans le groupe de commutateurs sont hors circuit et tous les états dans lesquels l'un quelconque des commutateurs dans le groupe de commutateurs est en circuit, une fois ou plusieurs durant la période de temps prédéterminée, pour régler une valeur moyenne temporelle de la tension de sortie durant la période de temps prédéterminée.
     
    13. Appareil de stockage d'énergie électrique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4 et 7 à 10, dans lequel au moins l'un de l'un ou des plusieurs éléments de stockage d'énergie électrique est un condensateur ou une batterie secondaire.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description