(19)
(11)EP 2 479 143 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
21.09.2016 Bulletin 2016/38

(21)Application number: 10815095.4

(22)Date of filing:  09.07.2010
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C01B 33/035(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2010/004478
(87)International publication number:
WO 2011/030492 (17.03.2011 Gazette  2011/11)

(54)

REACTOR FOR PRODUCING POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON, SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON, AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING POLYCRYSTALLINE SILICON

REAKTOR ZUR HERSTELLUNG VON POLYKRISTALLINEM SILICIUM, SYSTEM ZUR HERSTELLUNG VON POLYKRISTALLINEM SILICIUM UND VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG VON POLYKRISTALLINEM SILICIUM

RÉACTEUR DE PRODUCTION DE SILICIUM POLYCRISTALLIN, SYSTÈME DE PRODUCTION DE SILICIUM POLYCRISTALLIN, ET PROCÉDÉ DE PRODUCTION DE SILICIUM POLYCRISTALLIN


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 14.09.2009 JP 2009211804

(43)Date of publication of application:
25.07.2012 Bulletin 2012/30

(73)Proprietor: Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.
Tokyo 100-0004 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • NETSU, Shigeyoshi
    Joetsu-shi Niigata 942-8601 (JP)
  • OGURO, Kyoji
    Joetsu-shi Niigata 942-8601 (JP)
  • SHIMIZU, Takaaki
    Joetsu-shi Niigata 942-8601 (JP)
  • KUROSAWA, Yasushi
    Joetsu-shi Niigata 942-8601 (JP)
  • KUME, Fumitaka
    Joetsu-shi Niigata 942-8601 (JP)

(74)Representative: Smaggasgale, Gillian Helen 
WP Thompson 138 Fetter Lane
London EC4A 1BT
London EC4A 1BT (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A2- 0 090 321
JP-A- 63 074 909
JP-A- 8 259 211
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Technical Field



    [0001] The present invention relates to a technique for producing polycrystalline silicon, and more specifically relates to a technique that can provide high-purity polycrystalline silicon by reducing contamination with dopant impurities from an inner wall of a reactor when polycrystalline silicon is deposited within the reactor.

    Background Art



    [0002] As a method for producing high-purity polycrystalline silicon used as a raw material for monocrystalline silicon for production of a semiconductor, a Siemens method and a fluidized bed reactor method are known. The Siemens method is a method in which a raw material gas containing chlorosilane is contacted with a heated silicon core, and polycrystalline silicon is grown on the surface of the silicon core by a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) method. The fluidized bed reactor method is a method in which monosilane or trichlorosilane as a raw material is fed and vapor-deposited in a fluidizing gas to obtain granular polysilicon.

    [0003]  In production of polycrystalline silicon, such a phenomenon is known that the quality of polycrystalline silicon is reduced by an impurity gas being discharged from an inner wall surface of a reaction vessel used for a deposition reaction of silicon and undesirably taken into the polycrystalline silicon. In the case where a steel reaction vessel is used, when the temperature of an inner wall surface of the steel reaction vessel is not less than 400°C, that inner wall surface of the steel reaction vessel which contacts a process gas prepared by diluting a silicon raw material gas such as trichlorosilane with hydrogen gas is gradually corroded. As a result, not only component elements of the steel that constitute the inner wall surface of the steel reaction vessel, but also impurity elements contained in the steel are discharged into the reaction atmosphere. If these impurity elements are dopant impurity elements such as phosphorus, boron, aluminum, and arsenic that act as an acceptor or a donor in silicon crystal, the impurity elements result in remarkable reduction of the quality of polycrystalline silicon.

    [0004] In consideration of such problems, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 8-259211 (Patent Literature 1) discloses a technique for obtaining deposited high-purity silicon by depositing silicon within a reaction vessel formed with a material that hardly outgases.

    [0005] Specifically, based on a knowledge that a heat-resistant alloy containing not less than 28% by weight of nickel hardly outgases at a temperature of not more than 600°C, the decomposition and reduction reaction of silanes are performed within a reactor vessel having an inner wall comprising a heat-resistant alloy containing not less than 28% by weight of nickel, thereby to further increase the purity of polycrystalline silicon to be obtained. Examples of the above-described "heat-resistant alloy containing not less than 28% by weight of nickel" include Incoloy 800, Inconel 600, Inconel 601, Incoloy 825, Incoloy 801, Hastelloy B, and Hastelloy C.

    Citation List


    Patent Literature



    [0006] Patent Literature 1: Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 8-259211

    Summary of Invention


    Technical Problem



    [0007] The polycrystalline silicon for production of a semiconductor is required to have extremely high purity. Recently, the total amount of dopant impurities needs to be not more than 100 ppt (ppt·atomic) in the atomic ratio. According to a series of tests conducted by the present inventors, however, it was found, for example, that even when polycrystalline silicon was deposited by the Siemens method within a reaction vessel having an inner wall surface comprising Hastelloy C, the amount of dopant impurities taken into the polycrystalline silicon undesirably increased as the temperature of the inner wall of the reaction vessel increased along with progress of the deposition reaction of polycrystalline silicon. Particularly, it was found that when the deposition reaction was performed on a condition in which a temperature of the inner wall of the reaction vessel exceeded 370°C, the total amount of dopant impurities taken into the polycrystalline silicon exceeded 100 ppt·atomic.

    [0008]  As the related art, Patent Literature 1 discloses cooling of a reactor by water in order to obtain anticorrosiveness of the reactor, but only describes a known technique of supplying water at a temperature around room temperature to cool the reactor. In order to reduce mixing of dopant impurities from the inner wall of the reactor when polycrystalline silicon is deposited within the reactor and to obtain high-purity polycrystalline silicon, the temperature needs to be managed at a temperature lower than the upper limit temperature conventionally proposed.

    [0009] Then, an object of the present invention is to provide a technique for providing high-purity polycrystalline silicon and efficiently recovering heat fed to produce polycrystalline silicon.

    Solution to Problem



    [0010] In order to solve the problems above, a reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon according to the present invention includes an anticorrosive layer provided on the inner surface of an inner wall of a reactor, the anticorrosive layer comprising a first alloy material having a composition for which a value R, defined by R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si], is not less than 40%, wherein [Cr] is a mass content (% by mass) of chromium (Cr), [Ni] is a mass content (% by mass) of nickel (Ni), and [Si] is a mass content (% by mass) of silicon (Si); a cooling water flow passage that allows pressurized cooling water having a temperature not less than a standard boiling point to be circulated therethrough; and a heat conductive layer provided between the anticorrosive layer and the cooling water flow passage, the heat conductive layer comprising a second alloy material having heat conductivity higher than that of the first alloy material. Preferably, the value R is not less than 60%.

    [0011] For example, respective mass contents (% by mass) of Cr, Ni, and Si contained in the first alloy material are as follows: [Cr] is in a range of 14.6 to 25.2% by mass, [Ni] is in a range of 19.6 to 77.5% by mass, and [Si] is in a range of 0.3 to 0.6% by mass.

    [0012] The second alloy material is a single steel material or a clad steel material having several kinds of metals attached to each other, for example.

    [0013] A system for producing polycrystalline silicon according to the present invention includes, the above reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon; and a temperature control mechanism capable of controlling the temperature of an innermost surface of the reactor at a temperature of not more than 370°C when the polycrystalline silicon is deposited within the reactor.

    [0014] A process for producing polycrystalline silicon according to the present invention comprises feeding a silicon raw material gas into the inside of a reactor to perform a deposition reaction of polycrystalline silicon in the state where the temperature of an inner surface of the inner wall of the reactor is controlled at a temperature of not less than 100°C and not more than 370°C, wherein the innermost surface of the reactor comprises an alloy material having a composition for which a value R, defined by R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si], is not less than 40%, wherein [Cr] is a mass content (% by mass) of chromium (Cr), [Ni] is a mass content (% by mass) of nickel (Ni), and [Si] is a mass content (% by mass) of silicon (Si).

    [0015] Preferably, the temperature of the innermost surface of the inner wall of the reactor is controlled at a temperature less than 300°C by using the inner wall of the reactor comprising an alloy material having a composition for which the value R is not less than 60%.

    [0016] In the present invention, as the anticorrosive layer provided on the inner surface of the inner wall of the reactor, the alloy material having a composition for which a value R, defined by R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si], is not less than 40% is used. Consequently, the present invention provides a technique for providing high-purity polycrystalline silicon by reducing contamination with dopant impurities from the inner wall of the reactor when polycrystalline silicon is deposited within the reactor.

    [0017] Further, the heat conductive layer comprising the second alloy material having a heat conductivity higher than that of the first alloy material is provided between the anticorrosive layer and the cooling water flow passage. Thereby, the heat fed to produce polycrystalline silicon can be efficiently recovered through cooling water. The heat recovered through the cooling water can be reused as steam, for example.

    Brief Description of Drawings



    [0018] 

    [Figure 1] Figure 1 is a drawing illustrating an example of a configuration of a polycrystalline silicon producing system according to the present invention.

    [Figure 2] Figure 2 is a sectional view illustrating a structure (an inner wall, an outer wall, and a coolant flow passage) of a wall portion of a reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon according to the present invention.

    [Figure 3] Figure 3 is a drawing showing dependency of corrosiveness of a Cr-Ni-Si alloy material on a composition (mass content (% by mass): R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si]).

    [Figure 4] Figure 4 is a drawing showing a relationship between a temperature of the inner wall surface on a coolant outlet end side immediately before a polycrystalline silicon deposition step is completed and a concentration of dopant impurities taken into polycrystalline silicon in a reactor having an inner wall comprising a Cr-Ni-Si alloy material, wherein the Cr-Ni-Si alloy material is SUS310S and Hastelloy C.


    Description of Embodiment



    [0019] Hereinafter, with reference to the drawings, an embodiment according to the present invention will be described.

    [0020] Figure 1 is a drawing illustrating an example of a configuration of a system for producing polycrystalline silicon according to the present invention. The drawing shows a polycrystalline silicon producing system 100 in which polycrystalline silicon is deposited by the Siemens method.

    [0021] A reactor 10 is provided on a baseplate 1. Within the reactor 10, an approximately U-shaped silicon core 5 is set, and both ends of the silicon core 5 are connected to electrodes 2a and 2b, respectively, to be electrically conductive. A raw material gas such as trichlorosilane gas for depositing polycrystalline silicon and a process gas such as nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas are fed from a gas nozzle 3 into the reactor 10. By vapor deposition, polycrystalline silicon 6 is deposited on the surface of the silicon core 5 heated by feeding the current from the electrodes 2a and 2b. The gas within the reactor 10 is discharged from a vent 4.

    [0022] Pressurized cooling water (hot water) 15 having a temperature not less than the standard boiling point and fed as a coolant from a steam drum 20 through a pressurized cooling water feeding pump 21 is fed from the lower portion of the reactor 10 to a flow passage through which the pressurized cooling water within the reactor can be circulated. The hot water 15 is discharged from the upper portion of the reactor 10. The pressure of the discharged hot water 15 is detected by a first pressure control unit provided downstream of the reactor 10, namely, a pressure indicator controller PIC22. The pressure is controlled by controlling a degree of opening of a control valve 23, and reduced to a predetermined pressure.

    [0023] The hot water 15 may be used for another heating application in the state where the hot water has high energy. In order to make steam easier to use, however, the hot water 15 having reduced pressure is flushed into the steam drum 20, and cooled while steam is generated. The pressure within the steam drum 20 increased along with the generation of the steam is detected by a second pressure control unit, namely, a pressure indicator controller PIC31. The steam is recovered through a control valve 32. The coolant recovered in the state where the energy per unit amount of the coolant is high can be reused as a heating source for another application as steam more valuable than warm water.

    [0024] A level controller LIC41 detects the height of the solution level of the hot water 15 within the steam drum 20, and controls the degree of opening of the control valve 42 to feed an amount of pure water equivalent to or slightly larger than the amount of the hot water 15 lost by the recovery of the steam. The temperature of the hot water as the coolant is reduced when the hot water 15 is passed through the pressure control valve 23 of the first pressure control unit and flushed into the steam drum 20, and further cooled by feeding pure water through the control valve 42. However, the temperature of the hot water within the steam drum 20 is determined by control of the pressure by the second pressure control unit. The hot water 15 within the steam drum 20 having the thus-controlled temperature is circulated through the feeding pump 21 to the reactor 10 again.

    [0025] Figure 2 is a sectional view illustrating the structure of the wall portion of the reactor 10 according to the present invention. The coolant flow passage 13 that has pressure resistance for circulating the hot water 15 as the coolant is, for example, spirally provided on an outer side of an inner wall 11, namely, between the inner wall 11 on the inner side of the reactor and an outer wall 12 on the outer side of the reactor. The hot water 15 is fed from the lower portion of the reactor 10 and discharged from the top of the reactor 10.

    [0026] The inner wall 11 has a two-layer structure: an anticorrosive layer 11 a comprising a highly anticorrosive alloy material is provided on the inner side of the reactor contacting a corrosive process gas, and a heat conductive layer 11 b for efficiently conducting the heat within the reactor 10 from the inner wall surface to the coolant flow passage 13 is provided between the anticorrosive layer 11 a and the cooling water flow passage 13.

    [0027] The heat conductive layer 11 b comprises an alloy material having a heat conductivity higher than that of the alloy material used in the anticorrosive layer 11 a. For example, the heat conductive layer 11 b comprises a material such as SB steel (carbon steel for boilers and pressure containers) and SGV steel (carbon steel for mid and normal temperature pressure containers). The heat conductive layer 11 b is not limited to those comprising a single steel material, and may be those comprising a clad steel material having several kinds of metals applied to each other. The material of the outer wall 12 does not need to be determined in particular, and the same alloy material as that of the heat conductive layer 11 b may be used, or stainless steel such as SUS304 can be used.

    [0028] For the reason described later, the alloy material used for the anticorrosive layer is an alloy material having a composition for which a value R, defined by R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si], is not less than 40%, wherein[Cr] is a mass content (% by mass) of chromium (Cr), [Ni]is a mass content (% by mass) of nickel (Ni), and [Si] is a mass content (% by mass) of silicon (Si). Preferably, an alloy material having a value R of not less than 60% is selected.

    [0029] The following describes a corrosiveness test which is the background that leads to the selection of the alloy material having the above composition.

    [0030]  The corrosiveness test was performed as follows: as a sample, a variety of alloy materials were cut into a test piece having a length of 30 mm, a width of 25 mm, and a thickness of 2 mm; the weight of the test piece was precisely weighed, and hung in a highly heated portion in a quartz reactor prepared as a test reactor; an exhaust gas discharged from the polycrystalline silicon reactor was introduced into the quartz reactor; and after a predetermined time at a predetermined temperature had passed, the weight of the test piece was weighed to determine change in the weight.

    [0031] As a first condition selected, the temperature was 200°C and the time was 9 days. As the second condition selected, the temperature was 300°C and the time was 9 days. Under these first and second conditions, the corrosiveness test was performed.

    [0032] First, an exhaust gas within the quartz reactor is replaced by nitrogen. Further, nitrogen is replaced by hydrogen. Part of the gas discharged from a Siemens type polycrystalline silicon reactor is introduced into the quartz reactor in which a test piece is hung in a highly heated portion. The exhaust gas discharged from the polycrystalline silicon reactor is a mixed gas containing H2, HCl, and SiHnCl4-n (n = 0 to 3) as principal components.

    [0033] After the corrosiveness test was completed, the exhaust gas introduced into the quartz reactor was changed to hydrogen to cool the quartz reactor. Next, hydrogen was replaced with nitrogen, and the reactor was opened to the air. Then, the test piece was taken out from the quartz reactor, washed by water, and dried. The weight of the test piece was precisely weighed. As a result, under the first and second conditions, change in the weight was hardly found in any of the test pieces comprising the respective alloy materials. Namely, it was confirmed that at a temperature in the range of not less than 200°C and not more than 300°C, the alloy materials that constitute the inner wall surface are hardly corroded.

    [0034] Then, in order to accelerate corrosion of the alloy material, a temperature at 400°C and a time of 19 days were selected as a third condition, and a temperature of 500°C and a time of 19 days as a fourth condition. Again, the corrosiveness test was performed in the same manner as above except the temperature and the time.

    [0035] Table 1 and Figure 3 show the results of the corrosiveness test performed under the third condition (temperature of 400°C, time: 19 days). Table 1 shows a specific composition of the alloy materials (kinds of steel) and change in the weight after the corrosiveness test. Figure 3 is a graph of the result wherein the abscissa represents an alloy composition (R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si]) and the ordinate represents change in the weight after the corrosiveness test.

    [0036] "NAR" is a registered trademark of Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. "Incoloy" and "Inconel" are registered trademarks of Inco Limited. "Hastelloy" is a registered trademark of Haynes-Stellite Company. "Carpenter" is a registered trademark of Carpenter Technology Corporation.
    [Table 1]
    Alloy material (steel type)[Cr] (%)[Ni] (%)[Si] (%)[Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5[Si] (%)Change in weight (mg/cm2)
    NAR-SN-1 17.2 13.9 4.3 24.7 -4.05
    SUS-305B 19.2 13.0 3.5 27.0 -3.01
    SUS-310S 25.2 19.6 0.5 44.1 -2.87
    Incoloy 800 20.5 31.3 0.3 51.4 -2.78
    Hastelloy C 15.0 57 0.4 71.4 -1.25
    NAR-25-50MTi 24.9 49.8 0.6 73.8 -1.07
    Inconel 600 14.6 77.5 0.37 92.7 -1.53


    [0037] As for a steel type in which the value of the relational expression in mass content (% by mass) among chromium, nickel, and silicon, R = [Cr] + [Ni] -1.5 [Si], is less than 40%, as apparent from Table 1 and Figure 3, when this steel type is used as a material for the inner wall of the reactor, corrosion thereof is easily promoted in deposition of polycrystalline silicon within the reactor.

    [0038] Namely, as the material for the anticorrosive layer provided in the inner wall of the reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon, the alloy material has a value R of not less than 40%, and more preferably a value R of not less than 60%. In the corrosiveness test on the fourth condition (temperature of 500°C, time: 19 days), a more marked change in the weight was found in compared with the corrosiveness test on the third condition.

    Example



    [0039] Based on the examination above, reactors were produced using a steel type that satisfies the condition of the value R of not less than 40%, i.e., SUS310S (value R: 41 to 46%) and Hastelloy C (value R: not less than 62%) as the anticorrosive layer for the inner wall. Using these reactors, polycrystalline silicon was actually deposited. Dependency of the concentration of dopant impurities in the obtained polycrystalline silicon rod on the temperature of the inner wall surface was examined.

    [0040] While hydrogen gas and trichlorosilane gas as the principal raw material were fed from the gas nozzle 3 into each reactor 10 having the anticorrosive layer for the inner wall which anticorrosive layer comprised the steel type SUS310S and Hastelloy C, growth of a polycrystalline silicon rod was performed at a temperature of not less than 1000°C and not more than 1100°C to obtain a polycrystalline silicon rod having a diameter of 120 to 130 mm.

    [0041] Figure 4 is a drawing showing a relationship between the temperature of the inner wall surface (the abscissa) on the coolant outlet end side immediately before the polycrystalline silicon deposition step is completed and the concentration of dopant impurities taken into polycrystalline silicon in the respective reactors having the inner wall comprising a Cr-Ni-Si alloy material, i.e., SUS310S and Hastelloy C. The total amount of the dopants shown by the ordinate is the total amount of the dopants obtained by a photoluminescence analysis, and specifically, the sum of the contents of phosphorus, arsenic, boron, and aluminum.

    [0042] Because of a practical demand in control of the resistivity during growth of the CZ single-crystal or FZ single-crystal used for the semiconductor, the total amount of the dopants in polycrystalline silicon is desirably not more than 100 atomic ppt. As shown in Figure 4, in the case where SUS310S is used for the inner wall surface, by keeping the temperature of the inner wall surface at not more than 220°C, the total amount of the dopants of not more than 100 atomic ppt can be obtained in polycrystalline silicon. In the case where Hastelloy C is used for the inner wall surface, by keeping the temperature of the inner wall surface not more than 370°C, the total amount of the dopants not more than 100 atomic ppt can be obtained in polycrystalline silicon.

    [0043] Further, within the reactor in which the anticorrosive layer of the inner wall is formed with a kind of steel that satisfies the condition that the value R is not less than 60%, polycrystalline silicon is deposited while the temperature of the inner wall surface is kept at not more than 300°C. Thereby, it can be expected that the total amount of dopants in polycrystalline silicon of not more than 10 atomic ppt is obtained.

    [0044] Here, because the reactor 10 is cooled by the pressurized cooling water (hot water) 15 having a temperature higher than a standard boiling point, the temperature of the inner wall surface is controlled at a temperature of not less than 100°C.

    [0045] Table 2 shows examples of alloy materials for which a value R, defined by R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si], is not less than 40% and which are preferable as the material for the anticorrosive layer provided in the inner wall of the reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon.
    [Table 2]
    Alloy material (steel type)[Cr] (%)[Ni] (%)[Si] (%)[Cr]+[Ni]-1.5[Si] (%)
    SUS310S 24-26 19-22 ≤1.5 41-46
    Carpenter 20 19-22 28-30 <1 45-50
    Incoloy 800 18-23 28-35 ≤0.5 45-57
    Hastelloy C 14-17 ≥50 ≤1 ≥62
    Inconel 600 14-17 ≥72 ≤0.5 ≥85


    [0046] Using the reactor according to the present invention, the deposition reaction of polycrystalline silicon is performed. The procedure is mainly as follows. First, the silicon core 5 is connected to the electrodes 2, and the reactor 10 is closely placed on the baseplate 1. Nitrogen gas is fed from the gas nozzle 3 to replace the air within the reactor 10 with nitrogen. The air and nitrogen within the reactor 10 are discharged from the vent 4.

    [0047] After replacement of the air within the reactor 10 with a nitrogen atmosphere is started, the hot water 15 is fed to the coolant flow passage 13, and heating of the inside of the reactor 10 is started. After replacement of the air within the reactor 10 with a nitrogen atmosphere is completed, hydrogen gas is fed from the gas nozzle 3 instead of nitrogen gas to provide a hydrogen atmosphere within the reactor 10.

    [0048] Next, using a heater not shown, the silicon core 5 is preheated to the temperature of not less than 250°C to provide the conductivity such that the current efficiently flows. Subsequently, the current is supplied from the electrodes 2 to the silicon core 5 to heat the silicon core 5 to the temperature of not less than 900°C. Further, along with hydrogen gas, trichlorosilane gas is fed as a raw material gas, vapor deposition is performed on the silicon core 5 at the temperature in the range of not less than 900°C and not more than 1200°C to obtain the polycrystalline silicon 6. The unreacted gas and the by-product gas are discharged from the vent 4.

    [0049] During a period of time from the start of heating the silicon core 5 to the step of the deposition reaction of the polycrystalline silicon 6 (or cooling of the polycrystalline silicon rod after the deposition reaction step is completed), the hot water 15 is fed as the coolant to cool the reactor 10. At least during the deposition reaction of the polycrystalline silicon 6, the temperature of the inner wall surface of the reactor 10 is kept at the temperature of not more than 370°C by the temperature control mechanism described below.

    [0050] Namely, the temperature control mechanism may further include a thermometer for measuring the temperature of the innermost surface of the reactor, and control the temperature of the innermost surface of the reactor based on the measured temperature using a control mechanism for determining the temperature of the coolant and the amount of the coolant to be circulated. For practical production, however, preferable is a system that monitors the heat balance within the reactor and in the cooling system, and controls the temperature of the innermmost surface of the reactor by adjusting the amount of the hot water to be circulated and the temperature of the hot water in the cooling system.

    [0051] The mechanism for controlling a temperature of an inner surface of a reactor according to the heat balance uses a method in which the temperature of an inner surface of a reactor is determined from the heat balance obtained from the basic data at the time of designing the system, i.e., the amount of electricity to be applied to the silicon core 5, the amounts and temperatures of hydrogen and silane gases to be introduced, the surface temperature of the polycrystalline silicon 6 that is growing, the heat conductivity of the material for the reactor, the inlet temperature and outlet temperature of the hot water and the amount of the hot water to be circulated, and the like, and the inlet temperature of the hot water and the amount of the hot water to be circulated in the cooling system are adjusted to control the temperature of the innermost surface of the reactor in the control range of the temperature. Simply, the temperature of the innermost surface of the reactor can be estimated from the heat conductivity and thickness of the material for the reactor, the inlet temperature and outlet temperature of the hot water, and the amount of the hot water to be circulated, and controlled by the temperature of the cooling water to be fed and/or the amount of the cooling water to be circulated.

    [0052] The temperature of the hot water 15 fed as the coolant that cools the reactor 10 is set in the range of more than 100°C exceeding the standard boiling point and less than 200°C. In order to prevent boiling in the heat removing surface boundary film of the heat conductive layer 11 b, the pressure of the hot water 15 is controlled at the pressure exceeding the vapor pressure at the boundary film temperature.

    [0053] The hot water 15 having a controlled pressure is fed by the hot water feeding pump 21 from the lower portion of the reactor 10. The hot water 15 is passed through the coolant flow passage 13 contacting the heat conductive layer 11 b to cool the inner wall 11, and heated by the heat conductive layer 11 b to increase the temperature of the hot water, and discharged from the upper portion of the reactor 10.

    [0054] After the polycrystalline silicon 6 is grown to have a desired diameter, the raw material gas and the current fed to the polycrystalline silicon 6 are stopped in this order, and the temperature of the inside of the reactor 10 is reduced. After the temperature of the inside of the reactor 10 is sufficiently reduced, the hot water 15 is switched to cool water, and the reactor 10 is cooled to the temperature around room temperature. Finally, the atmosphere within the reactor 10 is replaced from hydrogen to nitrogen, the reactor 10 is opened to the air, and the grown polycrystalline silicon 6 is extracted.

    Industrial Applicability



    [0055] In the present invention, as the material for the anticorrosive layer provided on that the inner side of the inner wall of the reactor, the first alloy material having a composition for which the value R, defined by R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si], is not less than 40% is used. Thereby, contamination with dopant impurities from the inner wall of the reactor when polycrystalline silicon is deposited within the reactor can be reduced. Moreover, the heat conductive layer comprising the second alloy material having a heat conductivity higher than that of the first alloy material is provided between the anticorrosive layer and the cooling water flow passage. This makes it possible to provide a technique in which the heat fed to produce polycrystalline silicon can be efficiently recovered through the cooling water.

    Reference Signs List



    [0056] 
    1
    Baseplate
    2a, 2b
    Electrode
    3
    Gas nozzle
    4
    Vent
    5
    Silicon core
    6
    Polycrystalline silicon
    10
    Reactor (reaction vessel)
    11
    Inner wall
    11a
    Anticorrosive layer
    11b
    Heat conductive layer
    12
    Outer wall
    13
    Coolant flow passage
    15
    Hot water
    20
    Steam drum
    21
    Hot water feeding pump
    22
    Pressure indicator controller
    23
    Control valve
    31
    Pressure indicator controller
    32
    Control valve
    41
    Level controller
    42
    Control valve
    100
    Polycrystalline silicon producing system



    Claims

    1. A reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon comprising: an anticorrosive layer provided on the inner surface of an inner wall of a reactor, which anticorrosive layer comprises a first alloy material having a composition for which a value R, defined by R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si], is not less than 40% wherein [Cr] is the mass content (% by mass) of chromium (Cr), [Ni] is the mass content (% by mass) of nickel (Ni), and [Si] is the mass content (% by mass) of silicon (Si); a cooling water flow passage that allows pressurized cooling water having a temperature not less than a standard boiling point to be circulated therethrough; and a heat conductive layer provided between the anticorrosive layer and the cooling water flow passage, which heat conductive layer comprises a second alloy material having heat conductivity higher than that of the first alloy material.
     
    2. The reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon according to Claim 1, wherein the value R is not less than 60%.
     
    3. The reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein respective mass contents (% by mass) of Cr, Ni, and Si contained in the first alloy material are as follows: [Cr] is in a range of 14.6 to 25.2% by mass, [Ni] is in a range of 19.6 to 77.5% by mass, and [Si] is in a range of 0.3 to 0.6% by mass.
     
    4. The reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon according to Claim 1, wherein the second alloy material is a single steel material or a clad steel material having several kinds of metals attached to each other.
     
    5. A system for producing polycrystalline silicon comprising: a reactor for producing polycrystalline silicon according to Claim 1 or 2; and a temperature control mechanism capable of controlling the temperature of an innermost surface of the reactor at a temperature of not more than 370°C when the polycrystalline silicon is deposited within the reactor.
     
    6. A process for producing polycrystalline silicon comprising: feeding a silicon raw material gas into the inside of a reactor to perform a deposition reaction of polycrystalline silicon in the state where the temperature of an inner surface of the inner wall of the reactor is controlled at a temperature of not less than 100°C and not more than 370°C, wherein the innermost surface of the reactor comprises an alloy material having a composition for which a value R, defined by R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1.5 [Si], is not less than 40%, wherein [Cr] is the mass content (% by mass) of chromium (Cr), [Ni] is the mass content (% by mass) of nickel (Ni), and [Si] is the mass content (% by mass) of silicon (Si).
     
    7. The process for producing polycrystalline silicon according to Claim 6, wherein the temperature of the innermost surface of the inner wall of the reactor is controlled at a temperature less than 300°C by using the inner wall of the reactor comprising an alloy material having a composition in which the value R is not less than 60%.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Reaktor zur Herstellung von polykristallinem Silizium umfassend: eine Korrosionsschutzschicht bereitgestellt auf der inneren Oberfläche einer Innenwand eines Reaktors, welche Korrosionsschutzschicht eine erste Legierung umfasst mit einer Zusammensetzung für welche ein Wert R, definiert als R=[Cr] + [Ni] - 1,5 [Si], nicht weniger als 40% beträgt, wobei [Cr] der Massenanteil (Masse-%) von Chrom (Cr) ist, [Ni] der Massenanteil (Masse-%) von Nickel (Ni) ist und [Si] der Massenanteil (Masse-%) von Silizium (Si) ist; ein Kühlwasserströmungskanal, welcher es ermöglicht unter Druck befindliches Kühlwasser mit einer Temperatur nicht geringer als ein Standard-Siedepunkt hierdurch umzuwälzen; und eine wärmeleitende Schicht bereitgestellt zwischen der Korrosionsschutzschicht und dem Kühlwasserströmungskanal, wobei die wärmeleitende Schicht ein zweites Legierungsmaterial umfasst mit einer Wärmeleitfähigkeit höher als die von dem ersten Legierungsmaterial.
     
    2. Reaktor zur Herstellung von polykristallinem Silizium nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Wert R nicht weniger als 60% beträgt.
     
    3. Reaktor zur Herstellung von polykristallinem Silizium nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei jeweilige Massenanteile (Masse-%) von Cr, Ni und Si enthalten in dem ersten Legierungsmaterial wie folgt sind: [Cr] liegt in einem Bereich von 14,6 bis 25,2 Masse-%, [Ni] liegt in einem Bereich von 19,6 bis 77,5 Masse-% und [Si] liegt in einem Bereich von 0,3 bis 0,6 Masse-%.
     
    4. Reaktor zur Herstellung von polykristallinem Silizium nach Anspruch 1, wobei das zweite Legierungsmaterial ein einphasiges Stahlmaterial oder ein plattiertes Stahlmaterial ist mit verschiedenen Arten von Metallen, die miteinander verbunden sind.
     
    5. System zur Herstellung von polykristallinem Silizium umfassend: einen Reaktor zur Herstellung von polykristallinem Silizium nach Anspruch 1 oder 2; und ein Mechanismus zur Temperaturkontrolle, der geeignet ist, die Temperatur von der innersten Oberfläche des Reaktors bei einer Temperatur von nicht mehr als 370°C zu kontrollieren, wenn das polykristalline Silizium abgeschieden wird innerhalb des Reaktors.
     
    6. Verfahren zur Herstellung von polykristallinem Silizium, umfassend: Beschickung eines Siliziumrohmaterialgases in das Innere von einem Reaktor, um eine Abscheidungsreaktion von polykristallinem Silizium durchzuführen in dem Zustand, wo die Temperatur an der inneren Oberfläche der Innenwand des Reaktors kontrolliert wird bei einer Temperatur von nicht weniger als 100°C und nicht mehr als 370°C, wobei die innerste Oberfläche des Reaktors ein Legierungsmaterial umfasst mit einer Zusammensetzung, für welche ein Wert R, definiert als R=[Cr] + [Ni] - 1,5 [Si], nicht weniger als 40% beträgt, wobei [Cr] der Massenanteil (Masse-%) von Chrom (Cr) ist, [Ni] der Massenanteil (Masse-%) von Nickel (Ni) ist und [Si] der Massenanteil (Masse-%) von Silizium ist.
     
    7. Das Verfahren zur Herstellung von polykristallinem Silizium nach Anspruch 6, wobei die Temperatur der innersten Oberfläche der Innenwand des Reaktors kontrolliert wird bei einer Temperatur niedriger als 300°C durch Verwenden der Innenwand des Reaktors umfassend ein Legierungsmaterial mit einer Zusammensetzung, bei welcher der Wert R nicht weniger als 60% beträgt.
     


    Revendications

    1. Réacteur de production de silicium polycristallin comprenant : une couche anticorrosive fournie sur la surface intérieure d'une paroi intérieure d'un réacteur, laquelle couche anticorrosive comprend un premier matériau d'alliage ayant une composition pour laquelle une valeur R, définie par R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1,5 [Si], n'est pas inférieure à 40 %, où [Cr] est la teneur en masse (% en masse) de chrome (Cr), [Ni] est la teneur en masse (% en masse) de nickel et [Si] est la teneur en masse (% en masse) de silicium ; un passage d'écoulement d'eau de refroidissement qui permet à de l'eau de refroidissement sous pression ayant une température non inférieure à un point d'ébullition standard devant circuler à travers celui-ci ; et une couche thermo-conductrice fournie entre la couche anticorrosive et le passage d'écoulement d'eau de refroidissement, laquelle couche thermo-conductrice comprend un second matériau d'alliage ayant une conductivité thermique supérieure à celle du premier matériau d'alliage.
     
    2. Réacteur de production de silicium polycristallin selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la valeur R n'est pas inférieure à 60 %.
     
    3. Réacteur de production de silicium polycristallin selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel les teneurs en masse respectives (% en masse) de Cr, de Ni et de Si contenues dans le premier matériau d'alliage sont les suivantes : [Cr] est dans une plage de 14,6 à 25,2 % en masse, [Ni] est dans une plage de 19,6 à 77,5 % en masse et [Si] est dans une plage de 0,3 à 0,6 % en masse.
     
    4. Réacteur de production de silicium polycristallin selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le second matériau d'alliage est un matériau d'acier unique ou un matériau d'acier plaqué ayant plusieurs types de métaux fixés les uns aux autres.
     
    5. Système de production de silicium polycristallin comprenant : un réacteur de production de silicium polycristallin selon la revendication 1 ou 2 ; et un mécanisme de contrôle de température capable de contrôler la température d'une surface la plus intérieure du réacteur à une température non supérieure à 370 °C lorsque le silicium polycristallin est déposé dans le réacteur.
     
    6. Procédé de production de silicium polycristallin comprenant : l'alimentation d'un matériau de silicium brut gazeux à l'intérieur d'un réacteur pour réaliser une réaction de dépôt de silicium polycristallin dans un état dans lequel la température d'une surface intérieure de la paroi intérieure du réacteur est contrôlée à une température non inférieure à 100 °C et non supérieure à 370 °C, dans lequel la surface la plus intérieure du réacteur comprend un matériau d'alliage ayant une composition pour laquelle une valeur R, définie par R = [Cr] + [Ni] - 1,5 [Si], n'est pas inférieure à 40 %, où [Cr] est la teneur en masse (% en masse) de chrome (Cr), [Ni] est la teneur en masse (% en masse) de nickel et [Si] est la teneur en masse (% en masse) de silicium.
     
    7. Procédé de production de silicium polycristallin selon la revendication 6, dans lequel la température de la surface la plus intérieure de la paroi intérieure du réacteur est contrôlée à une température inférieure à 300 °C à l'aide de la paroi intérieure du réacteur comprenant un matériau d'alliage ayant une composition pour laquelle la valeur R n'est pas inférieure à 60 %.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description