(19)
(11)EP 2 493 677 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
17.12.2014 Bulletin 2014/51

(21)Application number: 10777153.7

(22)Date of filing:  26.10.2010
(51)Int. Cl.: 
D03D 3/08  (2006.01)
B29B 11/16  (2006.01)
B29C 70/22  (2006.01)
D03D 3/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2010/054117
(87)International publication number:
WO 2011/056586 (12.05.2011 Gazette  2011/19)

(54)

FIBER PREFORM, FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE, AND METHOD OF MAKING THEREOF

FASERVORFORM, FASERVERSTÄRKTER VERBUNDSTOFF UND HERSTELLUNGSVERFAHREN DAFÜR

ÉBAUCHE DE FIBRE, COMPOSITE RENFORCÉ PAR DES FIBRES ET LEUR PROCÉDÉ DE RÉALISATION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 28.10.2009 US 607715

(43)Date of publication of application:
05.09.2012 Bulletin 2012/36

(73)Proprietor: Albany Engineered Composites, Inc.
Rochester, NH 03867 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • GOERING, Jonathan
    York ME 03909 (US)

(74)Representative: Novaimo 
Bâtiment Europa 2 310 avenue Marie Curie Archamps Technopole
74166 Saint Julien en Genevois Cedex
74166 Saint Julien en Genevois Cedex (FR)


(56)References cited: : 
CA-C- 2 238 835
GB-A- 1 356 651
JP-A- 6 170 958
US-A- 5 876 322
FR-A1- 2 633 213
GB-A- 2 177 062
US-A- 3 870 478
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


    Field of the Invention



    [0001] This invention generally relates to a conical fiber preform according to claim 1 and a method of forming a conical fiber preform according to claim 17.

    Description of the Prior Art



    [0002] The use of reinforced composite materials to produce structural components is now widespread, particularly in applications where their desirable characteristics are sought of being light in weight, strong, tough, thermally resistant, self-supporting and adaptable to being formed and shaped. Such components are used, for example, in aeronautical, aerospace, satellite, recreational (as in racing boats and automobiles), and other applications.

    [0003] Typically such components consist of reinforcement materials embedded in matrix materials. The reinforcement component may be made from materials such as glass, carbon, ceramic, aramid, polyethylene, and/or other materials which exhibit desired physical, thermal, chemical and/or other properties, chief among which is great strength against stress failure. Through the use of such reinforcement materials, which ultimately become a constituent element of the completed component, the desired characteristics of the reinforcement materials, such as very high strength, are imparted to the completed composite component. The constituent reinforcement materials typically, may be woven, knitted or braided. Usually particular attention is paid to ensure the optimum utilization of the properties for which the constituent reinforcing materials have been selected. Usually such reinforcement preforms are combined with matrix material to form desired finished components or to produce working stock for the ultimate production of finished components.

    [0004] After the desired reinforcement preform has been constructed, matrix material may be introduced to and into the preform, so that typically the reinforcement preform becomes encased in the matrix material and matrix material fills the interstitial areas between the constituent elements of the reinforcement preform. The matrix material may be any of a wide variety of materials, such as epoxy, polyester, vinylester, ceramic, carbon and/or other materials, which also exhibit desired physical, thermal, chemical, and/or other properties. The materials chosen for use as the matrix may or may not be the same as that of the reinforcement preform and may or may not have comparable physical, chemical, thermal or other properties. Typically, however, they will not be of the same materials or have comparable physical, chemical, thermal or other properties, since a usual objective sought in using composites in the first place is to achieve a combination of characteristics in the finished product that is not attainable through the use of one constituent material alone. So combined, the reinforcement preform and the matrix material may then be cured and stabilized in the same operation by thermosetting or other known methods, and then subjected to other operations toward producing the desired component. It is significant to note at this point that after being so cured, the then solidified masses of the matrix material normally are very strongly adhered to the reinforcing material (e.g., the reinforcement preform). As a result, stress on the finished component, particularly via its matrix material acting as an adhesive between fibers, may be effectively transferred to and borne by the constituent material of the reinforcement preform.

    [0005] Frequently, it is desired to produce components in configurations that are other than such simple geometric shapes as plates, sheets, rectangular or square solids, etc. A way to do this is to combine such basic geometric shapes into the desired more complex forms. In any such shapes, a related consideration is to make each juncture between the constituent components as strong as possible. Given the desired very high strength of the reinforcement preform constituents per se, weakness of the juncture becomes, effectively, a "weak link" in a structural "chain".

    [0006] While the prior art has sought to improve upon the structural integrity of the reinforced composite and has partly achieved success, there exists a desire to improve thereon or address the problem through an approach different from the use of adhesives or mechanical coupling. In this regard, one approach might be by creating a woven three dimensional ("3D") structure by specialized machines. However, the expense involved is considerable and rarely is it desirable to have a weaving machine directed to creating a single structure. Another approach would be to weave a two dimensional ("2D") structure and fold it into 3D shape so that the panel is integrally woven, i.e. yarns are continuously interwoven between the planar base or panel portion and other constituent portions.

    [0007] The increased use of composite materials having such fiber preform reinforcements in aircrafts and jet engines has led to the need for composite conical shells. The traditional approach for forming a conical shell has been to generate a flat pattern 10 that is in the shape of a sector of an annulus, as shown in FIG. 1A. This shape is predisposed to take on the shape of a frustum of a cone 20 when it is folded so that the two straight edges 15 are aligned with one another, as shown in FIG. 1B. The flat pattern 10 can be cut from conventional 2D fabric, or can be woven directly into the annular shape using polar weaving equipment, for example.

    [0008] Both methods, however, have certain limitations. Using 2D fabric results in a uniform thickness shell, with uniform distribution of fiber in two directions, but the fiber directions will not be aligned with the principle directions of the cone, i.e. the circumferential and axial directions. Polar weaving, on the other hand, will orient fiber in the principal directions, but the fiber distribution will vary in the axial direction. In either case, there will be a discontinuous seam where the two straight edges come together. Additionally, although the cone can have practically any dimensions, the maximum size that can be fabricated from a single flat pattern is limited by the size of the loom, and there can be substantial waste material if conventional 2D fabrics are used to produce the cone. Using a single piece of fabric is, however, desirable because it minimizes the number of seams and reduces the touch labor required to cut and position the fabric.

    [0009] Document US 5876322 A discloses a conical fiber preform according to the preamble of claim 1 and a method of forming a fiber preform according to the preamble of claim 17.

    Summary of the Invention



    [0010] The present invention overcomes the size restriction and some of the fiber distribution problems of conventional methods.

    [0011] One object of the present invention is to produce a conical shell in which the constituent fiber directions are aligned with the principle directions of the cone, i.e. the circumferential and axial directions. This results in a preform with uniform strength and stiffness with respect to the principal coordinate system, and maximizes strength and stiffness in the principal directions of the resultant structure.

    [0012] Another object of the present invention is to produce a conical shell with uniform fiber distribution in the circumferential as well as axial directions.

    [0013] Yet another object of the present invention is to produce a conical shell with continuous hoop fiber across the entire surface area of the composite so there is no discontinuous seam formed in the structure in the Z direction.

    [0014] Yet another object of the present invention is to produce a conical shell of practically any size.

    [0015] Yet another object of the present invention is to produce a conical shell with the least amount of wastage of fabric material.

    [0016] Yet another object of the present invention is to produce a conical shell using a single piece of fabric to minimize the number of pieces and reduce touch labor.

    [0017] Accordingly, one exemplary embodiment of the present invention is a conical fiber preform including a plurality of warp and weft yarns or fibers interwoven to form a continuous flat spiral fabric. The flat spiral fabric may take the shape of an Archimedes spiral. The weft yarns in the preform may have a uniform or variable pick spacing, or a uniform or variable angular separation. The fabric shaped in the Archimedes spiral may be assembled or wrapped to form a conical shell structure, which could be a portion of a spinner or an exit cone. The Archimedes spiral fabric may be woven on a loom equipped with a differential take-up mechanism. The preform can also include a second layer of Archimedes spiral fabric woven with a plurality of warp and weft yarns or fibers, and the second Archimedes spiral fabric can be wrapped over the first Archimedes spiral fabric to provide extra strength or to produce a balanced preform.

    [0018] The invention, according to another exemplary embodiment, is a fiber reinforced composite including the fiber preform.

    [0019] The invention, according to a further embodiment, is a method of forming a conical fiber preform, the method including the steps of: interweaving a plurality of warp and weft yarns or fibers to form a continuous spiral fabric in the shape of a flat Archimedes spiral, assembling or wrapping the flat spiral fabric of the Archimedes spiral onto a shaped mandrel to form a conical shell structure, and trimming top and bottom edges of the conical shell along corresponding trim lines. The method can also include weaving a second continuous Archimedes spiral fabric with a plurality of warp and weft yarns or fibers, and wrapping the second Archimedes spiral fabric over the first Archimedes spiral fabric to provide extra strength or to produce a balanced preform. The weft yarns may be inserted with a uniform or variable pick spacing, or a uniform or variable angular separation. The Archimedes spiral fabric may be woven on a loom equipped with a differential take-up mechanism.

    [0020] The invention, according to a further embodiment, is a method of forming a fiber reinforced composite including the fiber preform.

    [0021] The preforms of the invention can be a single layer weave or a multilayer weave fabric woven using any convenient pattern for the warp fiber, i.e., ply-to-ply, through thickness angle interlock, orthogonal, etc. While a plain weave is preferred for the structure, the preform can be woven using practically any conventional weave pattern, such as plain, twill, satin etc. Similarly, while carbon fiber is preferred, the invention is applicable to practically any other fiber type.

    [0022] Potential applications for the fiber preform of the invention include spinners or exit cones for jet engines.

    [0023] The various features of novelty which characterize the invention are pointed out in particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this disclosure. For a better understanding of the invention, its operating advantages and specific objects attained by its uses, reference is made to the accompanying descriptive matter in which preferred, but non-limiting, embodiments of the invention are illustrated and the accompanying drawings in which corresponding components are identified by the same reference numerals.

    Brief Description of the Drawings



    [0024] The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention, are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification. The drawings presented herein illustrate different embodiments of the invention and together with the description serve to explain the principles of the invention. In the drawings:

    FIG. 1A is a schematic of a sector of an annulus of a flat pattern;

    FIG. 1B is a schematic of a cone formed by wrapping the flat pattern shown in FIG. 1A;

    FIG. 2 is a schematic of an Archimedes spiral fabric formed according to one aspect of the invention;

    FIGS. 3A and 3B are different views of a conical shell preform formed according to one aspect of the present invention;

    FIG. 4 is a trimmed conical shell preform formed according to one aspect of the invention; and

    FIG. 5 is a schematic of an Archimedes spiral fabric formed according to one aspect of the invention; and

    FIG. 6 shows trimmed conical shell preforms formed according to different aspects of the invention.


    Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments



    [0025] The instant invention will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which preferred embodiments of the invention are shown.

    [0026] In the following description, like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout the figures. Additionally, in the following description, it is understood that such terms as "upper," "lower," "top," "bottom," "first," "second," and the like are words of convenience and are not to be construed as limiting terms.

    [0027] The invention, according to one exemplary embodiment, is a method for producing a conical fiber preform, by using a relatively narrow fabric that is woven in the shape of an Archimedes spiral. An example of a preform 100 that may be produced using this method is shown in its unwrapped form in FIG. 2.

    [0028] Spiral fabric 50 is woven using warp and weft fibers or yarns, which may be made of any material suitable for the purpose, or any material which exhibits the desired physical, thermal, and/or chemical properties. Carbon, nylon, rayon, glass fiber, ceramic, aramid, polyester, and metal yarns or fibers are but a few examples. While flat multifilament yarns are preferred, yarns or fibers of any form may be used, e.g. monofilaments, flat monofilaments, multifilament yarns, textured multifilament yarns, twisted multifilament yarns, braided structures, or combinations thereof. Each of the yarn components or fibers may be coated with one or more layers of a coating, for example, a finish or any other coating that may enhance the performance of the component fibers, if required.

    [0029] Spiral fabric 50 may be woven on a shuttle loom, or any other loom that can be equipped with a differential take up system, for example. A differential take up system allows the edges of the fabric to be advanced at different rates so that the fabric can be provided with a desired and natural in-plane curvature. The system can be programmable so that different take up amounts can be specified for each pick. Spirals 30 and 40 in FIG. 2, for example, represent the edges of spiral fabric 50 and are parallel to the warp fibers, and lines 32 represent paths of weft fibers of the preform. Semicircles 22, 24 are trim lines indicating the top and bottom edges of the cone 100, which may be trimmed in order to make the edges flat and parallel to one another. Semicircle 22 is, for example, a cut line for the top or upper edge of cone 100, and semicircle 24 is, for example, a cut line for the bottom or lower edge of cone 100.

    [0030] As illustrated in FIG. 3A, the take up system of the weaving machine may be selected to produce a spiral fabric so that the angle between successive weft fibers is constant and all weft fibers are of the same length. This produces a uniform width fabric 50 that has axial fibers that are aligned in the r-z planes when the fabric is wound onto a shaped mandrel into a cone, as shown in FIG. 3B. The warp fibers are oriented along a shallow helix 26 that winds continuously around the cone.

    [0031] According to one embodiment, a complementary fabric (not shown) with warp fibers oriented along a helix in the opposite direction may be wrapped over the first fabric 50 to produce a balanced preform. The complementary fabric may or may not be the same as the first spiral fabric. Additional layers of spiral fabric may be used for enhanced physical properties, such as, for example, extra strength. As mentioned earlier, this preform can also be trimmed along the semicircular paths shown in FIG. 2, resulting in a frustum of the conical shell 100. Alternatively, both fabrics may first be wrapped around a shaped mandrel, one over the other, and then the top and bottom edges of the cone 100 may be trimmed. It should, however, be noted that trimming of the top and bottom edges is the only cutting required in the instant method since the fabric 50 is inherently predisposed to wind onto the shaped mandrel or cone with no gaps or overlaps between adjacent windings. An example of a trimmed conical shell preform 100 formed according to the method of the invention is shown in FIG. 4, for example.

    [0032] In the above embodiment, the weft fibers may tend to accumulate at the narrow end of the cone, much like they would in a polar woven fabric. This can, however, be eliminated by weaving a spiral fabric 150 with a uniform arc length or uniform pick spacing between adjacent weft fibers rather than having a uniform angle, according to one exemplary embodiment of the invention. This results in a spiral fabric 150 that maintains uniform balance between warp and weft fiber over the entire surface of the cone 200, as shown in FIG. 5, for example. FIG. 5 is an example of a flat pattern for a fabric 150 with uniform pick spacing, and FIG. 6, for example, illustrates both the uniform pick spacing design 200 and the uniform angular separation design 100 of the present invention. It should be noted, however, that although designs with wefts having uniform pick spacing and uniform angular separation are described herein, the present invention is not limited as such. For example, both pick spacing and/or angular separation of the weft yarns or fibers may be variable, in that the fabric may have uniform pick spacing in the main body of the cone, but may vary as it gets close to the tip of the cone where it is difficult to pack the same amount of fiber.

    [0033] As described above, the methods and preforms of the present invention overcome the size restriction and some of the fiber distribution problems of conventional methods. The constituent fiber directions of the instant conical shell are very nearly aligned with the principle directions of the cone, i.e. the circumferential and axial directions. This results in a preform with uniform strength and stiffness with respect to the principal coordinate system, and maximizes strength and stiffness in the principal directions of the resultant structure. Additionally, the conical shell can have uniform fiber distribution in the circumferential as well as axial directions, and also has continuous hoop fiber across the entire surface area of the composite so there is no discontinuous seam formed in the circumferential direction of the structure.

    [0034] Yet another advantage of the present invention is that the conical shell can be of practically any size, and can be produced with the least amount of wastage of fabric material. Additionally, the conical shell can be produced using a single piece of fabric to minimize the number of pieces and reduce touch labor.

    [0035] The preforms of the invention can be a single layer weave or a multilayer weave fabric woven using any convenient pattern for the warp fiber, i.e., ply-to-ply, through thickness angle interlock, orthogonal, etc. While a plain weave is preferred for the structure, the preform can be woven using practically any conventional weave pattern, such as plain, twill, satin etc. Similarly, while carbon fiber is preferred, the invention is applicable to practically any other fiber type.

    [0036] After the preform 100, 200 is assembled or wrapped into the desired conical shell shape, preform 100, 200 may be formed into a composite for use in conical structures such as spinners or exit cones for jet engines. Preform 100, 200 can be, for example, processed into a reinforced composite by impregnating it with a matrix material, such as for example, epoxy, bismaleimide, polyester, vinyl-ester, ceramic, and carbon, using any conventional resin infusion method, such as, for example, resin transfer molding, chemical vapor filtration, wet layup or resin film infusion, thereby forming a three dimensional composite structure.

    [0037] Potential applications for the woven preform of the invention include any structural application that utilizes an Archimedes spiral structure or conical shell structure, although only spinners or exit cones for jet engines are mentioned as examples herein.


    Claims

    1. A conical fiber preform (100, 200) comprising:

    a plurality of warp and weft yarns or fibers, wherein the warp and weft yarns or fibers are interwoven to form a continuous spiral fabric (50, 150), characterised in that the spiral fabric (50, 150) is a flat spiral fabric in the shape of an Archimedes spiral, and

    wherein the flat spiral fabric (50, 150) of the Archimedes spiral is assembled or wrapped in a conical shell structure.


     
    2. The preform of claim 1, wherein the weft yarns have a uniform or variable pick spacing.
     
    3. The preform of claim 1, wherein the weft yarns have a uniform or variable angular separation.
     
    4. The preform of claim 1, wherein the conical shell structure is a portion of a spinner or exit cone.
     
    5. The preform of claim 1, wherein the flat spiral fabric is woven on a loom equipped
    with a differential take-up mechanism.
     
    6. The preform of claim 1, further comprising:

    a second continuous spiral fabric woven with a plurality of warp and weft yarns or fibers.


     
    7. The preform of claim 6, wherein the second spiral fabric is in the shape of an Archimedes spiral.
     
    8. The preform of claim 6, wherein the second spiral fabric is same as or different from the first spiral fabric.
     
    9. The preform of claim 6, wherein the second spiral fabric is wrapped in the opposite direction over the spiral fabric of claim 1.
     
    10. The preform of claim 1 or 6, wherein the warp and weft yarns or fibers are selected from the group consisting of carbon, nylon, rayon, glass fiber, ceramic, aramid, polyester, and metal yarns or fibers.
     
    11. The preform of claim 1 or 6, wherein the warp and weft yarns or fibers are selected from the group consisting of monofilaments, flat monofilaments, multifilament yarns, flat multifilament yarns, textured multifilament yarns, twisted multifilament yarns, and braided structures.
     
    12. The preform of claim 1 or 6, wherein the warp and weft yarns or fibers are coated with one or more layers of a coating, a finish or any other coating that enhances the performance of the component fibers.
     
    13. A fiber reinforced composite comprising the fiber preform according to one of previous claims.
     
    14. The composite of claim 13, further comprising a matrix material.
     
    15. The composite of claim 14, wherein the matrix material is selected from the group consisting of epoxy, bismaleimide, polyester, vinyl-ester, ceramic, and carbon.
     
    16. The composite of claim 13, wherein the composite is a spinner or exit cone.
     
    17. A method of forming a conical fiber preform (100, 200), the method comprising the step of interweaving a plurality of warp and weft yarns or fibers to form a continuous spiral fabric (50, 150), characterised in that the spiral fabric (50, 150) is woven in the shape of a flat Archimedes spiral; and
    the method further comprises the step of assembling or wrapping the flat spiral fabric (50, 150) of the Archimedes spiral to form a conical shell structure.
     
    18. The method of claim 17, wherein it comprises at least one of the following steps :

    - the weft yarns are inserted with a uniform or variable pick spacing ;

    - the weft yarns are inserted with a uniform or variable angular separation ;

    - the flat spiral fabric is woven on a loom equipped with a differential take-up mechanism.


     
    19. The method of claim 17, further comprising the step of:

    trimming top and bottom edges of the conical shell along corresponding trim lines.


     
    20. The method of claim 17, further comprising the step of:

    coating the warp and weft yarns or fibers with one or more layers of a coating, a finish or any other coating that enhances the performance of the component fibers.


     
    21. The method of claim 19, further comprising the step of:

    weaving a second continuous spiral fabric with a plurality of warp and weft yarns or fibers.


     
    22. The method of claim 21, further comprising at least one of the following steps of:

    - wrapping the second spiral fabric over the spiral fabric of claim 20;

    - the second spiral fabric is in the shape of an Archimedes spiral;

    - the second spiral fabric is same as or different from the first spiral fabric.


     
    23. A method of forming a fiber reinforced composite, the method comprising the steps of:

    forming a conical fiber preform according to one of claims 17 to 22.


     
    24. The method of claim 23, further comprising the step of:

    impregnating the preform in a matrix material.


     
    25. The method of claim 23, wherein the matrix material is a resin, and the composite is formed from a process selected from the group consisting of resin transfer molding, chemical vapor filtration, wet layup and resin film infusion.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Konischer Faservorformling (100, 200) mit einem kontinuierlichen Spiralgewebe (50, 150) aus mehreren Kett- und Schussfäden oder -fasern,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es sich bei dem Spiralgewebe (50, 150) um ein flaches Spiralgewebe in Form einer archimedischen Spirale handelt,
    wobei das flache Spiralgewebe (50, 150) der archimedischen Spirale in einer konischen Mantelkonstruktion montiert oder umwickelt vorliegt.
     
    2. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 1, bei dem die Schussfäden über eine einheitliche oder unterschiedliche Fadendichte verfügen.
     
    3. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 1, bei dem die Schussfäden über einen einheitlichen oder unterschiedlichen Winkelabstand verfügen.
     
    4. Vorformling nach Anspruch 1, bei dem die konische Mantelkonstruktion Teil einer Spinnerkappe oder eines Austrittskonus ist.
     
    5. Vorformling nach Anspruch 1, bei dem das flache Spiralgewebe auf einer mit einem Differentialregler ausgerüsteten Webmaschine hergestellt ist.
     
    6. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend:

    ein zweites kontinuierliches Spiralgewebe aus mehreren Kett- und Schussfäden oder -fasern.


     
    7. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 6, bei dem das zweite Spiralgewebe in Form einer archimedischen Spirale vorliegt.
     
    8. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 6, bei dem das zweite Spiralgewebe dem ersten gleicht oder sich davon unterscheidet.
     
    9. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 6, bei dem das zweite Spiralgewebe gegenüber dem Spiralgewebe gemäß Anspruch 1 in entgegengesetzter Richtung darauf umwickelt vorliegt.
     
    10. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 1 oder 6, bei dem die Kett- und Schussfäden oder -fasern ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Kohlenstoff, Polyamid, Reyon, Glasfaser, Keramik, Aramid, Polyester und Metallfäden oder -fasern.
     
    11. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 1 oder 6, bei dem die Kett- und Schussfäden oder -fasern ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Monofilamenten, glatten Monofilamenten, Multifilamentgarnen, glatten Multifilamentgarnen, texturierten Multifilamentgarnen, gedrehten Multifilamentgarnen und Geflechten.
     
    12. Faservorformling nach Anspruch 1 oder 6, bei dem die Kett- und Schussfäden oder -fasern mit mindestens einer Schicht eines Beschichtungsmittels, eines Ausrüstungsmittels oder eines sonstigen, das Leistungsvermögen der anteiligen Fasern verbessernden Beschichtungsmittels versehen sind.
     
    13. Faserverbundkörper, umfassend den Faservorformling gemäß einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche.
     
    14. Faserverbundkörper nach Anspruch 13, ferner umfassend ein Matrixmaterial.
     
    15. Faserverbundkörper nach Anspruch 14, bei dem das Matrixmaterial ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Epoxid, Bismaleinimid, Polyester, Vinylester, Keramik und Kohlenstoff.
     
    16. Faserverbundkörper nach Anspruch 13, bei dem es sich um eine Spinnerkappe oder einen Austrittskonus handelt.
     
    17. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines konischen Faservorformlings (100, 200), bei dem man ein kontinuierliches Spiralgewebe (50, 150) aus mehreren Kett- und Schussfäden oder -fasern herstellt, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass man das Spiralgewebe (50, 150) in Form einer flachen archimedischen Spirale webt und ferner das flache Spiralgewebe (50, 150) der archimedischen Spirale zu einer konischen Mantelkonstruktion montiert oder umwickelt.
     
    18. Verfahren nach Anspruch 17, umfassend mindestens einen der nachstehenden Schritte:

    - Einziehen der Schussgarne mit einer einheitlichen oder unterschiedlichen Fadendichte,

    - Einziehen der Schussgarne mit einem einheitlichen oder unterschiedlichen Winkelabstand,

    - Weben des flachen Spiralgewebes auf einer mit einem Differentialregler ausgerüsteten Webmaschine.


     
    19. Verfahren nach Anspruch 17, ferner umfassend den Schritt:

    Zuschneiden der Ober- und Unterkanten des konischen Mantels entlang entsprechender Zuschneidelinien.


     
    20. Verfahren nach Anspruch 17, ferner umfassend den Schritt:

    Beschichten der Kett- und Schussfäden oder -fasern mit mindestens einer Schicht eines Beschichtungsmittels,

    eines Ausrüstungsmittels oder eines sonstigen, das Leistungsvermögen der anteiligen Fasern verbessernden Beschichtungsmittels.


     
    21. Verfahren nach Anspruch 19, ferner umfassend den Schritt:

    Weben eines zweiten kontinuierlichen Spiralgewebes aus mehreren Kett- und Schussfäden oder -fasern.


     
    22. Verfahren nach Anspruch 21, ferner umfassend mindestens einen der nachstehenden Schritte:

    - Wickeln des zweiten Spiralgewebes über das Spiralgewebe gemäß Anspruch 20,

    - das zweite Spiralgewebe liegt in Form einer archimedischen Spirale vor,

    - das zweite Spiralgewebe gleicht dem ersten oder unterscheidet sich davon.


     
    23. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Faserverbundkörpers, bei dem man einen konischen Faservorformling nach einem der Ansprüche 17 bis 22 herstellt.
     
    24. Verfahren nach Anspruch 23, ferner umfassend den Schritt:

    Imprägnierung des Faservorformlings in einem Matrixmaterial.


     
    25. Verfahren nach Anspruch 23, bei dem man als Matrixmaterial ein Harz einsetzt und den Faserverbundkörper nach einem Verfahren herstellt, das ausgewählt wird aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Resin-Transfer-Molding, chemischer Gasphaseninfiltration (CVI), dem Nasslaminierverfahren und dem RFI-Verfahren (Resin Film Infusion).
     


    Revendications

    1. Ébauche de fibres conique (100, 200) comprenant :

    une pluralité de fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame, les fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame étant entrelacés pour former un tissu en spirale continu (50, 150),

    caractérisée en ce que le tissu en spirale (50, 150) est un tissu en spirale plat sous la forme d'une spirale d'Archimède, et

    dans laquelle le tissu en spirale plat (50, 150) de la spirale d'Archimède est assemblé ou enroulé en une structure de coque conique.


     
    2. Ébauche selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle les fils de trame ont une densité de trame uniforme ou variable.
     
    3. Ébauche selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle les fils de trame ont une séparation angulaire uniforme ou variable.
     
    4. Ébauche selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle la structure de coque conique est une partie d'un cône de pénétration ou d'éjection.
     
    5. Ébauche selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le tissu en spirale plat est tissé sur un métier à tisser équipé d'un mécanisme d'enroulement différentiel.
     
    6. Ébauche selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre :

    un deuxième tissu en spirale continu tissé avec une pluralité de fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame.


     
    7. Ébauche selon la revendication 6, dans laquelle le deuxième tissu en spirale se présente sous la forme d'une spirale d'Archimède.
     
    8. Ébauche selon la revendication 6, dans laquelle le deuxième tissu en spirale est identique ou différent du premier tissu en spirale.
     
    9. Ébauche selon la revendication 6, dans laquelle le deuxième tissu en spirale est enroulé dans la direction opposée par-dessus le tissu en spirale de la revendication 1.
     
    10. Ébauche selon la revendication 1 ou 6, dans laquelle les fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame sont choisis dans le groupe constitué par les fils ou fibres de carbone, nylon, rayonne, fibre de verre, céramique, aramide, polyester, et métal.
     
    11. Ébauche selon la revendication 1 ou 6, dans laquelle les fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame sont choisis dans le groupe constitué par les monofilaments, les monofilaments plats, les fils multifilaments, les fils multifilaments plats, les fils multifilaments texturés, les fils multifilaments entortillés, et les structures tressées.
     
    12. Ébauche selon la revendication 1 ou 6, dans laquelle les fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame sont recouverts d'une ou plusieurs couches d'un enduit, d'un apprêt ou de tout autre revêtement qui améliore les performances des fibres constituantes.
     
    13. Composite renforcé de fibres comprenant l'ébauche de fibres selon une des revendications précédentes.
     
    14. Composite selon la revendication 13, comprenant en outre un matériau matriciel.
     
    15. Composite selon la revendication 14, dans lequel le matériau matriciel est choisi dans le groupe constitué par un époxyde, un bismaléimide, un polyester, un ester vinylique, une céramique, et du carbone.
     
    16. Composite selon la revendication 13, le composite étant un cône de pénétration ou d'éjection.
     
    17. Procédé de formation d'une ébauche de fibres conique (100, 200), le procédé comprenant l'étape consistant à :

    entrelacer une pluralité de fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame pour former un tissu en spirale continu (50, 150), caractérisé en ce que

    le tissu en spirale (50, 150) est tissé sous la forme d'une spirale d'Archimède plate ; et

    le procédé comprend en outre l'étape consistant à assembler ou enrouler le tissu en spirale plat (50, 150) de la spirale d'Archimède pour former une structure de coque conique.


     
    18. Procédé selon la revendication 17, comprenant au moins une des étapes suivantes :

    - les fils de trame sont insérés avec un compte en duites uniforme ou variable ;

    - les fils de trame sont insérés avec une séparation angulaire uniforme ou variable ;

    - le tissu en spirale plat est tissé sur un métier à tisser équipé d'un mécanisme d'enroulement différentiel.


     
    19. Procédé selon la revendication 17, comprenant en outre l'étape consistant à :

    couper les bords supérieur et inférieur de la coque conique le long de lignes de coupe correspondantes.


     
    20. Procédé selon la revendication 17, comprenant en outre l'étape consistant à :

    recouvrir les fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame d'une ou plusieurs couches d'un enduit, d'un apprêt ou de tout autre revêtement qui améliore les performances des fibres constituantes.


     
    21. Procédé selon la revendication 19, comprenant en outre l'étape consistant à :

    tisser un deuxième tissu en spirale continu avec une pluralité de fils ou fibres de chaîne et de trame.


     
    22. Procédé selon la revendication 21, comprenant en outre au moins une des étapes suivantes :

    - enrouler le deuxième tissu en spirale par-dessus le tissu en spirale de la revendication 20 ;

    - le deuxième tissu en spirale se présente sous la forme d'une spirale d'Archimède ;

    - le deuxième tissu en spirale est identique au ou différent du premier tissu en spirale.


     
    23. Procédé de formation d'un composite renforcé de fibres, le procédé comprenant les étapes consistant à :

    former une ébauche de fibres conique selon une des revendications 17 à 22.


     
    24. Procédé selon la revendication 23, comprenant en outre l'étape consistant à :

    imprégner l'ébauche dans un matériau matriciel.


     
    25. Procédé selon la revendication 23, dans lequel le matériau matriciel est une résine, et le composite est formé à partir d'un procédé choisi dans le groupe constitué par un moulage par transfert de résine, une filtration chimique en phase vapeur, un moulage au contact et une infusion de film de résine.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description