(19)
(11)EP 2 515 071 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
17.09.2014 Bulletin 2014/38

(21)Application number: 12002237.1

(22)Date of filing:  28.03.2012
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01B 11/03  (2006.01)
G06T 7/00  (2006.01)
G01B 11/25  (2006.01)

(54)

Shape measurement device

Formmessvorrichtung

Dispositif de mesure de forme


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 18.04.2011 JP 2011091731

(43)Date of publication of application:
24.10.2012 Bulletin 2012/43

(73)Proprietor: Mitutoyo Corporation
Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 213-8533 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • Nemoto, Kentaro
    Kawasaki Kanagawa 213-8533 (JP)
  • Yamagata, Masaoki
    Kawasaki Kanagawa 213-8533 (JP)
  • Iwamoto, Tadashi
    Kawasaki Kanagawa 213-8533 (JP)
  • Machida, Nobuyoshi
    Kawasaki Kanagawa 213-8533 (JP)

(74)Representative: Müller-Boré & Partner Patentanwälte PartG mbB 
Friedenheimer Brücke 21
80639 München
80639 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2003 071 194
US-B1- 6 268 918
US-A1- 2007 097 381
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS



    [0001] This application is based upon and claims the benefit of priority from the prior Japanese Patent Application No. 2011-091731, filed on April 18, 2011.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


    1. Field of the Invention



    [0002] The present invention relates to a shape measurement device.

    2. Background Art



    [0003] Heretofore, a shape measurement device has been known, which scans a surface of a work, that is referred to as an object to be measured, by a probe in a noncontact manner, and measures a shape of the surface of the work (for example, refer to Japanese Translation of PCT International Application Publication No. JP-T-2009-534969).

    [0004] The probe is composed by including an imaging element such as a charge coupled device (CCD) and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), an image-forming lens, a line laser, and the like, and performs the measurement by using the Scheimpflug principle.

    [0005] As shown in FIG. 6, the Scheimpflug principle refers to that, in the case where planes, which are obtained by individually extending an imaging plane of the imaging element, a principal plane including a principal point of the image-forming lens, and an irradiation plane of the line laser irradiated onto the work, are arranged so as to intersect one another at one point, the imaging plane of the imaging element entirely turns to a focusing state.

    [0006] In the probe using the Scheimpflug principle as described above, measurement accuracy (resolving power) and a measurement range are in a tradeoff relationship. That is to say, in the case of measuring, by the imaging element, the work placed on the irradiation plane of the line laser, then an imaging range of the image-forming lens for use is decided by optical magnification thereof.

    [0007] Therefore, as shown in FIG. 7, in the case of measuring a wide range, an image-forming lens of low magnification is used, and in the case of measuring a narrow range with high accuracy, an image-forming lens of high magnification is used.

    [0008] Incidentally, heretofore, in the probe as described above, a configuration has been adopted, in which the line laser and the image-forming lens are fixed to the probe concerned in a manufacturing process, and cannot be replaced once being fixed. Therefore, the measurement accuracy and measurement range of the probe have been uniquely decided by optical magnification of the fixed image-forming lens and a size of the imaging element.

    [0009] Therefore, in matching with a size of the work for which the measurement is desired to be performed, it has been necessary to switch a probe having an appropriate measurement range (or measurement accuracy), and it has been necessary to prepare plural types of probes different in specifications of the measurement range (measurement accuracy).

    [0010] In order to prepare plural types of the probes only because desired measurement ranges (measurement accuracies) differ, enormous cost has occurred, and in addition, it has been necessary to perform an alignment operation and the like every time of exchanging the probe, resulting in an increase of installation man-hours.

    [0011]  Furthermore, US 2007/0097381 A1 discloses a hand-size structured-light three-dimensional metrology imaging system and method. Laser illumination stripes are scanned across a workpiece surface for obtaining z-height and x-coordinate information. A Scheimpflug configuration is used. Utilizing this configuration, a laser illumination stripe across a raised workpiece portion will be shown in a contour image at the image sensor in a focused manner, such that the offsets along the contour image line due to the raised portions of the workpiece surface can be accurately converted to a z-height measurement.

    [0012] US 6268918 B1 discloses an apparatus and method for detecting a three-dimensional image. The apparatus includes a projector which projects a reference light on an object; an image sensor which senses an image of the object; and a controller for controlling the projector and the image sensor, wherein the image sensor includes an aperture that restricts the passage of entering light; and an aperture controller for setting an aperture value for the aperture when receiving a two-dimensional image input, and setting an aperture value for the aperture when receiving a three-dimensional image input.

    [0013] US 2003/0071194 A1 discloses an apparatus and method for creating 3D imagery of an object using calibration means to transfer data to a reference frame and visibility analysis to determine and resolve occlusion.

    [0014] Thus, according to an aspect, it is a problem to provide a shape measurement device including a probe capable of adjusting and changing the measurement range and/or the measurement accuracy.

    [0015] This problem is solved by a shape measurement device having the features disclosed in claim 1. A preferred embodiment is defined in dependent claim 2.

    [0016] According to an aspect of the present invention, there is provided a shape measurement device including:

    a light irradiation unit which is adapted to irradiate linear light onto a work;

    an imaging element which is adapted to image reflected light of the light irradiated from the light irradiation unit, the reflected light being reflected by the work; and

    an image-forming lens which is adapted to form an image of the reflected light reflected by the work on an imaging plane of the imaging element, and

    a light irradiation plane of the light irradiation unit, a principal plane including a principal point of the image-forming lens, and the imaging plane of the imaging element satisfy a Scheimpflug principle, and characterised in that

    the shape measurement device further includes:

    an image obtaining region selection unit which is adapted to divide the imaging plane of the imaging element into a plurality of regions, and to select, as an image obtaining region, a region for use in measurement from the plurality of regions in response to at least one of measurement accuracy and a size of a measurement range.


    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0017] The above and other objects, advantages and features of the present invention will become more fully understood from the detailed description given hereinbelow and the appended drawings and tables which are given by way of illustration only, and thus are not intended as a definition of the limits of the present invention, and wherein:

    FIG. 1 is an overall configuration diagram of a shape measurement device of the present invention;

    FIG. 2 is a view for explaining a configuration of an optical probe of the shape measurement device;

    FIGS. 3A and 3B are views for explaining operations of the shape measurement device;

    FIG. 4 is a view for explaining an imaging unit;

    FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing a control configuration for the optical probe;

    FIG. 6 is a view for explaining the Scheimpf lug principle; and

    FIG. 7 is a view for explaining a relationship between measurement accuracy and a measurement range.


    PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION



    [0018] A description is made of an embodiment of the present invention with reference to the drawings. However, the scope of the invention is not limited to the illustrated example.

    [0019] First, a description is made of a configuration.

    [0020] As shown in FIG. 1, a shape measurement device 100 is composed by including a control device 101; an operation unit 102; a host system 103; and a device body unit 104.

    [0021] The control device 101 controls drive of the device body unit 104, and captures necessary measurement coordinate value and the like from the device body unit 104.

    [0022] The operation unit 102 is used for allowing a user to manually operate the device body unit 104 through the control device 101.

    [0023] The host system 103 is composed by including: a display unit 103a that displays a variety of screens; an operation unit 103b that receives an operation designation from the user; a printer unit for performing printing on a sheet; and the like.

    [0024] The display unit 103a is composed, for example, of a liquid crystal display (LCD), and in accordance with an operation signal from the operation unit 103b, displays a variety of setting screens, operation statuses of respective functions, and the like on a screen. The operation unit 103b is composed, for example, of a keyboard having a variety of keys, and outputs the operation signal to the control device 101 in response to an operation by the finger and the like.

    [0025] The host system 103 as described above is used as designating means, for example, in such a case where the user performs an designation operation for arbitrarily designating measurement accuracy, a size (amplitude) of a measurement range, and the like.

    [0026] Moreover, the host system 103 includes functions to edit/execute a part program for designating a measurement procedure in the control device 101, to perform calculation for applying a geometric shape to the measurement coordinate value and the like, which are captured thereto through the control device 101, and to record/transmit the part program.

    [0027] The device body unit 104 has a surface plate mounted on vibration removal board, and includes an optical probe P that drives in X-, Y- and Z-directions above the surface plate, and the like.

    [0028] The optical probe P scans a surface of a work in a noncontact manner, and measures a surface shape of the work.

    [0029] The optical probe P performs measurement by using the Scheimpflug principle, and an imaging plane of an imaging element 32 (to be described later) of an imaging unit 30 entirely turns to a focusing state.

    [0030] As shown in FIG. 2, the optical probe P is composed by including a control unit 10, a light irradiation unit 20, an imaging unit 30 and the like in a cabinet 1.

    [0031] The light irradiation unit 20 is composed by including a light source, a collimator lens, a rod lens (all of which are not shown), and the like, and irradiates linear light onto the work.

    [0032] Specifically, a laser beam with a predetermined wavelength, which is emitted from the light source, becomes a parallel beam by the collimator lens, and is converted into the linear light by the rod lens, and thereafter, is irradiated as the linear light onto the work. Note that it is also possible to use a cylindrical lens instead of the rod lens.

    [0033] Then, when such a linear laser beam is irradiated from the light irradiation unit 20 onto the work, reflected light of the laser beam is deformed along an irregular shape of the surface of the work, and an outline when the work is cut along a certain cross section is lighted up.

    [0034] The imaging unit 30 is arranged in a direction making a predetermined angle with respect to an irradiation direction of the light irradiated onto the work from the light irradiation unit 20, and receives, from the predetermined angle, the light reflected along the shape of such a work surface.

    [0035] As shown in FIG. 3A, the imaging unit 30 images the work at a predetermined angle, and accordingly, as shown in FIG. 3B, an image of the reflected light of the laser beam, which goes along the surface shape of the work, is imaged.

    [0036] Specifically, as shown in FIG. 4, the imaging unit 30 is composed by including an image-forming lens 31; the imaging element 32; and the like.

    [0037] Note that FIG. 4 is a conceptual view showing an optical positional relationship between the image-forming lens 31 and the imaging element 32. A broken line in FIG. 4 indicates the imaging plane of the imaging element 32, and an alternate long and short dash line indicates a principal plane including a principal point of the image-forming lens 31. Moreover, a chain double-dashed line indicates an irradiation plane of the light irradiation unit 20, from which the laser beam is irradiated onto the work.

    [0038] The image-forming lens 31 forms the image of the reflected light, which comes from the work, on the imaging plane of the imaging element 32.

    [0039] As the image-forming lens 31, a lens with any optical magnification is usable; however, an image-forming lens with lower magnification is preferable since a wider range can be taken as a measurable range.

    [0040] The imaging element 32 includes an image sensor (not shown) that images an image of the work (that is, the reflected light from the work) through the image-forming lens 31.

    [0041] The image sensor is composed by including CMOS light receiving elements, for example, in a matrix of 1024 pixels x 1280 pixels, which are individually arrayed in two directions perpendicular to each other.

    [0042] The image sensor has a so-called rolling shutter function to allow only the light receiving elements arranged in one or plural rows (or columns) to simultaneously receive the light, and to sequentially perform such light reception per row (or per column) in a column direction (or in a row direction).

    [0043] With regard to the imaging element 32, by control of the control unit 10 (to be described later), a part of the imaging plane thereof is selected as an image obtaining region, and only pixels of the image obtaining region concerned are read out and used.

    [0044] As shown in FIG. 5, the control unit 10 is composed by including: a central processing unit (CPU) 11; a random access memory (RAM) 12; a storage unit 13; and the like, and performs centralized control for the operations of light irradiation unit 20 and the imaging unit 30.

    [0045] The CPU 11 performs various pieces of control processing, for example, in accordance with a variety of processing programs stored in the storage unit 13.

    [0046] The RAM 12 forms a work memory area that stores therein data subjected to arithmetic operation processing by the CPU 11.

    [0047] For example, the storage unit 13 stores a system program executable by the CPU 11, the variety of processing programs executable by the system program concerned, data for use in the event of executing the variety of processing programs, data of a variety of processing results subjected to the arithmetic operation processing by the CPU 11, and the like. Note that the programs are stored in the storage unit 13 in a form of program codes readable by a computer.

    [0048] Specifically, in the storage unit 13, for example, an image obtaining region selection program 131 and the like are stored.

    [0049] The image obtaining region selection program 131 is a program, for example, that allows the CPU 11 to divide the imaging plane of the imaging element 32 into a plurality of regions, and to select a region for use in the measurement as the image obtaining region from the plurality of divided regions in response to the measurement accuracy and/or the size of the measurement range.

    [0050] Specifically, as shown in FIG. 4, the CPU 11 divides the imaging plane (effective imaging region) of the imaging element 32 into the plurality of regions and recognizes the divided regions in response to the preset number of divisions. Therefore, the measurement range is also set for each of the divided regions.

    [0051] FIG. 4 shows a state where the imaging plane of the imaging element 32 is divided into three regions S1, S2 and S3. In this case, the measurement range is divided into a measurement range H1 corresponding to the region S1, a measurement range H2 corresponding to the region S2, and a measurement range H3 corresponding to the region S3. Note that high-accuracy measurement is possible in order of S1 > S2 > S3 (H1 > H2 > H3) based on characteristics of a Scheimpflug optical system.

    [0052] Then, when the user performs, by using the host system 103, the designation operation for designating the CPU 11 executes the image obtaining region selection program 131, and selects the image obtaining region from the three regions S1, S2 and S3 in response to the designation operation.

    [0053] For example, in the case of designating the measurement accuracy as "high", the region S1 is selected as the image obtaining region.

    [0054] Moreover, in the case of designating the measurement accuracy as "high" and designating the measurement range as "wide", the region S2 is selected as the image obtaining region.

    [0055] Furthermore, in the case of designating the measurement range as "wide", the region S3 is selected as the image obtaining region.

    [0056] Specifically, in response to the designation of the user, the CPU 11 selects the measurement accuracy at which the measurement range is to be measured, and selects the size of the measurement range to be measured.

    [0057] The CPU 11 executes the image obtaining region selection program 131 as described above, thereby functioning as image obtaining region selecting means.

    [0058] Next, a description is made of functions.

    [0059] In this embodiment, as described above, for example, in the case where the measurement is desired to be performed with high accuracy, the measurement is performed in such a range with high optical magnification by using the region S1 in the imaging plane of the imaging element 32, and accordingly, the high accuracy measurement is possible.

    [0060] Moreover, for example, in the case where the measurement is desired to be performed in the wide measurement range, the measurement is performed in such a range with low optical magnification by using the region S3 in the imaging plane of the imaging element 32, and accordingly, the wide range measurement is possible.

    [0061] As described above, even if the image-forming lens 31 (optical probe P) is not exchanged, the measurement can be performed in an appropriate measurement range (or measurement accuracy).

    [0062] Moreover, in the imaging element 32, in the case of performing such partial readout as described above, which uses only one region of the imaging plane of the imaging element 32, a frame rate can be enhanced in comparison with the case of reading out all pixels, and accordingly, it is possible to realize high-speed scanning.

    [0063] Hence, the high-speed scanning can be realized by using an available imaging element known in public.

    [0064] As described above, in accordance with this embodiment, when the user designates the measurement accuracy and/or the size of the measurement range, the control unit 10 divides the imaging plane of the imaging element 32 into the plurality of regions (S1 to S3), and selects the image obtaining region for use in the measurement in response to the designated measurement accuracy and/or size of the measurement range.

    [0065] Therefore, the measurement range and the measurement accuracy can be adjusted/changed without replacing the image-forming lens 31.

    [0066] Hence, it is unnecessary to prepare plural types of the optical probes different in specifications of the measurement range and the measurement accuracy, and cost is reduced. Moreover, it is unnecessary to perform exchange work for the optical probe, and the like, and accordingly, reduction of installation man-hours can be achieved. Furthermore, the high-speed scanning that has been heretofore achieved can be maintained.

    [0067] Hence, usability of the shape measurement device can be enhanced.

    [0068] Note that, in the above-described embodiment, such a configuration has been illustrated, in which the imaging plane of the imaging element 32 is divided into the three regions S1 to S3, and the divided regions are recognized; however, the number of divisions is not limited to this, and just needs to be two or more. Moreover, the imaging plane may be divided into the regions so that the regions can overlap one another.

    [0069] Moreover, in the above-described embodiment, such a configuration has been illustrated, in which the user designates the measurement accuracy and the measurement range; however, a function may be mounted, which is to automatically decide the measurement accuracy and the measurement range in response to the shape of the work. In this case, for example, irregularities and the like of the work are recognized based on CAD data read in advance, and the measurement accuracy and the measurement range are decided.

    [0070] According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a shape measurement device including:

    a light irradiation unit which is adapted to irradiate linear light onto a work;

    an imaging element which is adapted to image reflected light of the light irradiated from the light irradiation unit, the reflected light being reflected by the work; and

    an image-forming lens which is adapted to form an image of the reflected light reflected by the work on an imaging plane of the imaging element, and

    a light irradiation plane of the light irradiation unit, a principal plane including a principal point of the image-forming lens, and the imaging plane of the imaging element satisfy a Scheimpflug principle, and characterised in that

    the shape measurement device further includes:

    an image obtaining region selection unit which is adapted to divide the imaging plane of the imaging element into a plurality of regions, and to select, as an image obtaining region, a region for use in measurement from the plurality of regions in response to at least one of measurement accuracy and a size of a measurement range.



    [0071] Preferably, the shape measurement device further includes:

    a designation unit which is adapted to designate at least one of the measurement accuracy and the size of the measurement range.



    [0072] The embodiment disclosed this time should be considered in all respects to be illustrative but not to be restrictive. The scope of the present invention is not shown by the above description, but by claims, and is intended to include the equivalents to claims and all modifications within the scope of claims.


    Claims

    1. A shape measurement device (100) comprising:

    a light irradiation unit (20) which is adapted to irradiate linear light onto a work;

    an imaging element (32) which is adapted to image reflected light of the light irradiated from the light irradiation unit, the reflected light being reflected by the work; and

    an image-forming lens (31) which is adapted to form an image of the reflected light reflected by the work on an imaging plane of the imaging element, wherein

    a light irradiation plane of the light irradiation unit, a principal plane including a principal point of the image-forming lens, and the imaging plane of the imaging element satisfy a Scheimpflug principle, characterised in that

    the shape measurement device further comprises:

    an image obtaining region selection unit (13, 131) which is adapted to divide the imaging plane of the imaging element into a plurality of regions, and to select, as an image obtaining region, a region for use in measurement from the plurality of regions in response to at least one of measurement accuracy and a size of a measurement range.


     
    2. The shape measurement device according to claim 1, further comprising:

    a designation unit (103) which is adapted to designate at least one of the measurement accuracy and the size of the measurement range.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Eine Formmessvorrichtung (100), die Folgendes umfasst:

    eine Licht-Bestrahlungs-Einheit (20), die dazu angepasst ist, lineares Licht auf ein Werk zu strahlen;

    ein abbildendes Element (32), das dazu angepasst ist, reflektiertes Licht vom ausgestrahlten Licht der Licht-Bestrahlungs-Einheit abzubilden, wobei das reflektierte Licht durch das Werk reflektiert wird; und

    eine bildgebende Linse (31), die dazu angepasst ist, ein Bild des reflektierten Lichtes, das vom Werk reflektiert wird, in einer Bildebene des abbildenden Elements zu formen, wobei

    eine Lichteinstrahlungsebene der Licht-Bestrahlungs-Einheit, eine Hauptebene einschließlich eines Hauptpunktes der bildgebenden Linse, und die Bildebene des abbildenden Elements ein Scheimpflug-Prinzip erfüllen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

    die Formmessvorrichtung des Weiteren Folgendes umfasst:

    eine bilderzielende Bereichsauswahl-Einheit (13, 131), die dazu angepasst ist, die Bildebene des abbildenden Elements in eine Vielzahl an Regionen aufzuteilen, und, als eine bilderzielende Region, eine Region aus der Vielzahl an Regionen zur Verwendung bei der Messung auszuwählen, als Antwort auf mindestens einen der Folgenden: Messgenauigkeit und Ausmaß eines Messbereichs.


     
    2. Die Formmessvorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, die des Weiteren Folgendes umfasst:

    eine Bezeichnungs-Einheit (103), die dazu angepasst ist, mindestens einen der Folgenden: Messgenauigkeit und Ausmaß eines Messbereichs zu bezeichnen.


     


    Revendications

    1. Un dispositif de mesure de forme (100), comprenant:

    une unité d'irradiation lumineuse (20), qui est adaptée pour irradier de la lumière linéaire sur une oeuvre ;

    un élément formateur d'image (32), qui est adapté pour former une image de la lumière réfléchie à partir de la lumière irradiée par l'unité d'irradiation lumineuse, la lumière réfléchie étant réfléchie par l'oeuvre ; et

    une lentille de formation d'image (31), qui est adaptée pour former une image de la lumière réfléchie, réfléchie par l'oeuvre dans un plan d'imagerie de l'élément formateur d'image, sachant que

    un plan d'irradiation lumineuse de l'unité d'irradiation lumineuse, un plan principal incluant un point principal de la lentille de formation d'image, et le plan d'imagerie de l'élément formateur d'image satisfont à un principe de Scheimpflug, caractérisé en ce que

    le dispositif de mesure de forme comprend en outre :

    une unité de sélection de région d'obtention d'image (13, 131), qui est adaptée pour subdiviser le plan d'imagerie de l'élément formateur d'image en une pluralité de régions, et pour sélectionner en tant que région d'obtention d'image une région pour une utilisation dans le mesurage à partir de la pluralité de régions en réponse à au moins un parmi la précision de mesure et une taille de la plage de mesure.


     
    2. Le dispositif de mesure de forme d'après la revendication 1, comprenant en outre :

    une unité de désignation (103) adaptée pour désigner au moins l'un parmi la précision de mesure et une taille de la plage de mesure.


     




    Drawing
























    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description