(19)
(11)EP 2 521 826 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
19.10.2016 Bulletin 2016/42

(21)Application number: 10827758.3

(22)Date of filing:  09.11.2010
(51)Int. Cl.: 
E04C 3/04  (2006.01)
E04B 1/24  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CA2010/001750
(87)International publication number:
WO 2011/054094 (12.05.2011 Gazette  2011/19)

(54)

UNITARY STEEL JOIST

UNITÄRER STAHLTRÄGER

SOLIVE EN ACIER UNITAIRE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 09.11.2009 US 272830 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
14.11.2012 Bulletin 2012/46

(73)Proprietor: iSpan Systems LP
Princetown, ON N0J 1V0 (CA)

(72)Inventors:
  • STRIKLAND, Michael, R.
    Richmond Hill, Ontario L4C 1W4 (CA)
  • FOX, Douglas, M.
    Kitchener, Ontario N2N 1C2 (CA)
  • STRICKLAND, Richard, Wilson
    Richmond Hill, Ontario L4C 1W4 (CA)

(74)Representative: Lecomte & Partners 
P.O. Box 1623
1016 Luxembourg
1016 Luxembourg (LU)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-00/46459
CA-A1- 2 455 071
DE-U1- 29 801 562
US-A- 4 324 082
WO-A1-2005/042869
DE-A1- 2 517 485
FR-A- 1 096 922
US-B2- 6 708 459
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] This invention relates to steel joist and in particular steel cold rolled steel joist constructed from a unitary piece of steel with stiffening wings and snap-in-place bridging.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] In the past many innovative joist solutions have been created to improve the performance of floor joists for residential buildings.

    [0003] Today house framing in North America is predominantly wood construction. The wood industry provides an I-Wood section that has the predominant market share in North America. The I-Wood joist is typically comprised of solid wood chord members that are adhered to a web that is a laminated chip board type member. Wood joists have a cost advantage over steel because the installation price for wood is less than steel. When housing construction is slow in North America the price for wood products goes very low, so it becomes very hard for steel to compete with wood for non rated floors based on cost.

    [0004] Steel floor joist construction is gaining popularity now, the Light Steel Frame (LSF) industry has spent the last several years training framers, engineers, architects and contractors about steel framing. Today the market is predominantly cost based; owners and contractors typically build the cheapest way possible. For steel there have been many innovations improving the method of installation and the provision for follow up trades based on using various C-Shape designs. Although there have been considerable improvements, the use of steel joists has not reached a point wherein they are considered a mainstream method for building. In North America I-Wood joists have predominant market share in the framing market because the site laborers are typically trained for building with wood and because the required tools are on hand. For steel joists Standardized Connectors and Snap-in bridging assist with simplifying installation so that steel can be more competitive with wood. Where I-Wood is most competitive, at spans 4,88m (16ft) and less for non rated floors, up until the present invention steel beam options have not presented cost efficient alternatives.

    [0005] For fire and acoustic rated floors, I-Wood joists do not perform as well as solid wood joists or steel joists in certain situations. I-Wood joists face increasing criticism from Fire Officials in North America because installed joists have not performed well under real fire conditions. These I-Wood joist floors have caused injuries, and sometimes fatalities to fire fighters in North America every year where they have fallen through the floors when the joists have failed without warning during a fire. This faulty performance has resulted in calls from Fire Officials to sanction the I-Wood joists or improve their structural performance in fire. As can be seen in the figure 1 showing a chart titled 'Compare Results of ULC-S101 (Full-Scale Fire Resistance Tests), the I-Shaped steel joists (sold under the trademark iSpan™) outperformed the I-Wood joists in these fire tests. This better performance is significant to Fire Officials since the failure mode of the I-Shaped steel joist is typical of what they have experienced with solid wood joists in the past. Figure 2 shows the structural members that were compared. Specifically (a) shows the I-wood joist; (b) the C-shaped steel joist; (c) the I-shaped steel joist sold under the trademark iSpan™; and (d) the solid wood joist. Note in the chart the rapid failure to carry load for the tested I-Wood joist and the more gradual failure of the tested I-Shaped steel joist.

    [0006] Accordingly, an I-Shaped steel joist that performs well in a fire and is cost competitive would be advantageous for competing in short span wood International patent application published WO 00/46459 discloses a joist according to the preamble of claim 1.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0007] The present invention relates to a unitary steel joist as described in appended independent claim 1 and dependent claims 2-8. The present invention also relates to a unitary steel joist system as described in appended dependent claims 9-15.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0008] The invention will now be described by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

    Fig. 1 is a chart comparing results of S101 tests using 1 Layer of Gypsum with the test results noted "FF" taken from NRCC Research Report #184 dated 2005 and the I-Shaped Steel data taken from ULC-S101 test conducted in 2005;

    Fig. 2 (a) to (d) are perspective view of prior art floor joists wherein (a) is an I-wood joist; (b) is a C-shaped steel joist; (c) is an I-shaped steel joist; and (d) is a solid wood joist;

    Fig. 3 (a) to (d) are perspective views of four alternate embodiments of the unitary joist of the present invention wherein (a) shows one embodiment; (b) shows an embodiment similar to (a) but with an alternate fastener; (c) shows an embodiment similar to (a) but with truncated wings; and (d) shows an embodiment similar to (a) but showing the top wing and the lower wing on the same side of the web;

    Fig. 4 is a perspective view of an embodiment of the unitary steel joist of the present invention over centre supports;

    Fig. 5 is a perspective view of an embodiment of the unitary steel joist of the present invention supported by a wood header;

    Fig. 6 (a) and (b) are perspective views of an embodiment of snap-in-place bridging for use in association with the unitary steel joist of the present invention wherein (a) shows the snap-in-place bridging looking from side and back and (b) shows the snap-in-place bridging looking from the front and side;

    Fig. 7 (a) to (b) are perspective views of embodiments of the snap-in-place bridging of figure 6 shown in situ wherein (a) shows the snap-in-place bridging with the straight edge at the top; (b) shows the snap-in-place bridging with the straight edge at the bottom; and (c) shows two snap-in-place bridging installed adjacent to each other;

    Fig. 8 (a) and (b) are perspective views of an embodiment of an adjustable snap-in-place bridging wherein (a) shows the diagonal portion and (b) shows the adjustable horizontal portion;

    Fig. 9 is a perspective view of the adjustable snap-in-place bridging of figure 8 in situ;

    Fig. 10 (a) and (b) are perspective views of an alternate embodiment of an adjustable snap-in-place bridging wherein (a) shows the diagonal portion and (b) shows the adjustable horizontal portion;

    Fig. 11 is a perspective view of the adjustable snap-in-place bridging of figure 10 in situ;

    Fig. 12 is a perspective view of a plurality of unitary steel joists installed to form a floor;

    Fig. 13 is a chart showing a comparison of different joists including the new I-shaped steel joist of the present invention;

    Fig. 14 is a side view of a unitary steel beam of the present invention also showing a plurality of stitching holes in the top and bottom web;

    Fig. 15 is an enlarged sectional view of a stitching hole;

    Fig. 16 is a partial sectional view of a bridging member attached to a stitching hole;

    Fig. 17 is a top view of the bridging member shown in figure 16;

    Fig. 18 is a perspective view of the bridging member shown in figure 16 and 17;

    Fig. 19 is a sectional view of a bridging member with a unistrut type connectors and hanger therein;

    Fig. 20 is a perspective view of a bridging member with a unistrut pipe hanger and a pipe positioned therein;

    Fig. 21 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side with the joists spanning over a support member with a stiffener placed in the web directly over the support member;

    Fig. 22 is a perspective view of a web stiffener for use in the unitary steel joist shown in figure 21;

    Fig. 23 is an enlarged sectional view of a unitary steel joist connected to a wood sill;

    Fig. 24 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing squash blocking for platform framing attached to a concrete foundation wall with a wood sill and wood rim joist;

    Fig. 25 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing squash blocking for platform framing attached to wood frame wall;

    Fig. 26 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing squash blocking for platform framing attached to a concrete foundation wall with a wood sill and steel end track;

    Fig. 27 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and a connector for platform framing attached to steel frame wall distribution member;

    Fig. 28 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing an upper and lower bridging member;

    Fig. 29 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing an upper and lower bridging member similar to that shown in figure 28 but also showing partial blocking panels;

    Fig. 30 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing a bridging member with a full blocking panel having a utility hole therein; and

    Fig. 31 is a perspective view of a joist system using a plurality of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and plurality of bridging members.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0009] Generally speaking, the systems described herein are directed to unitary steel joists. As required, embodiments of the present invention are disclosed herein. However, the disclosed embodiments are merely exemplary, and it should be understood that the invention may be embodied in many various and alternative forms.

    [0010] The Figures are not to scale and some features may be exaggerated or minimized to show details of particular elements while related elements may have been eliminated to prevent obscuring novel aspects. Therefore, specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting but merely as a basis for the claims and as a representative basis for teaching one skilled in the art to variously employ the present invention. For purposes of teaching and not limitation, the illustrated embodiments are directed to unitary steel joists.

    [0011] Figure 3 (a), (b), (c) and (d) show four alternate embodiments of the unitary joist of the present invention. Unitary joist 10 is constructed from a unitary piece of steel and is cold rolled into the shape shown herein.

    [0012] The unitary joist 10 includes a lower wing 12, a lower web portion 14, a lower flange 16, a web 18, an upper flange 20, an upper web portion 22 and an upper wing 24. The lower wing 12 extends outwardly from the web 18. The lower web portion 14 extends generally downwardly from the lower wing 12 and is generally parallel to and adjacent to the web 18. The lower flange 16 is generally orthogonal to the web 18 and has a double thickness. Similarly, in one embodiment the upper wing 24 extends outwardly from the web 18 on the opposite side thereof from the lower wing 12. The upper web portion 22 extends generally upwardly from the upper wing 24 and is generally parallel to and adjacent to the web 18. In another embodiment, as shown in figure 3 (d) at 25 the upper wing 24 extends outwardly from the web on the same side as the lower wing 12.

    [0013] Unitary joist 25 offers and alternative wherein the web 18 has a face that is unobstructed. This allows for the attachment of connectors, squash blocks and stiffeners on the unobstructed face 27 of the web 18. Preferably the utility holes and their stiffening and the stitching connectors are on the opposite side from the unobstructed face 27 of the web 18.

    [0014] The size of the wings 12 and 24 may vary. As shown in figure 3 (c) unitary joist 26 may include truncated lower wing 28 and upper wing 30. Further, as shown in figure 3(b) the lower web portion 14 and the upper web portion 22 are each fastened 32 to the web by way of welding, spot welds, screws, rivets, clinching, stitching.

    [0015] Preferably upper wings 24 and lower wings 12 have a plurality of holes 34 formed therein as best seen in figures 4 and 9. Holes 34 may be in the shape of slots as shown herein, however they may also have other shapes. Holes 34 are adapted to receive snap-in-place bridging 40 or other accessories that may also be snapped into place. In addition the web 18 may have a plurality of holes 38 formed therein as shown in figure 11 which are adapted to receive an alternate embodiment of snap-in-place bridging 75. Holes 38 are formed in the top and the bottom of the web 18 proximate to the upper 24 and lower 12 wings.

    [0016] Web 18 may be provided with a plurality of utility holes 41 as shown in figures 7, 9 11, and 12. Utility hole 41 has a lip 43 around the perimeter thereof that extends outwardly. Utility hole 41 allows for easy passage of pipes, wires and other cables. Lip 43 serves to reinforce the web.

    [0017] It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the upper 12 and lower 24 wings provide stiffening. As well where the steel is doubled in the upper 20 and lower 16 flanges and the upper web portion 22 and lower web portion 14 stiffening is provided. With doubling material on the top and bottom of joist the effective web height may be shortened. As well the doubling of material provides additional capacity against web crippling for thin materials.

    [0018] As shown in figures 4, 5 and 11, the unitary steel joist 10 of the present invention may be positioned over centre supports 42 (figure 4) or supported by a wood header 44 (figure 5). Adjacent joists 10 may have a connector 46 to attach adjacent joists together. As well centre support connectors 48 may be used to connect joist 10 to centre supports 42. Preferably centre support connectors 48 are snap-in-place connectors connectable to the plurality of holes 34 in the wings. Adjustable connectors 50 may be used to connect joist 10 to wood headers 44.

    [0019] Joists 10 are designed to be used with snap-in-place bridging 40. Three different embodiments of snap-in-place bridging are shown herein and will be described below. Referring to figures 6 and 7, snap-in-place bridging 40 includes a generally a generally triangular face 52, a generally horizontal edge portion 54 on one side thereof, an angled edge portion 56 on another side thereof, and a generally vertical edge 58 on the third side thereof. Snap-in-place teeth 60 extend from one side of the generally horizontal edge 54 and a spacing/fastener tab 62 extends from the other side thereof. As well, snap-in-place teeth extend from the generally vertical edge 58. Snap-in-place teeth 60 are adapted to be received into holes 34 in upper 24 and lower wings 12. Face 52 may have a utility hole 64 formed therein. The snap-in-place bridging 40 may be positioned such that generally horizontal edge 54 is at the top as shown in figure 7 (a) alternatively it can be positioned such that it is along the bottom as shown in figure 7 (b). As a further alternative a pair of snap in place bridging 40 may be placed adjacent to each other as shown in figure 7 (c). In this latter embodiment the two snap-in-place bridging 40 serve as structural blocking.

    [0020] An alternate embodiment of snap-in-place bridging 65 is shown in figure 9. Snap-in-place bridging 65 includes a generally horizontal piece 68 shown in figure 8 (b) and an angled piece 66 shown in figure 8 (a). Top piece 68 has snap-in-place teeth 60 on each end thereof and a plurality of holes 70. Angled piece 66 has bridging teeth 72 on each end thereof. Bridging teeth 72 are adapted to engage the holes 34 in unitary steel joist 10 at one end thereof and holes 70 in top piece 68 at the other end thereof as shown in figure 9.

    [0021] An alternate embodiment of snap-in-place bridging 75 is shown in figure 11. Snap-in-place bridging 75 includes a generally horizontal piece 76 shown in figure 10 (b) and an angled piece 74 shown in figure 10 (a). Top piece 76 is similar to top piece 68 but it has snap-in-place teeth 60 on one end thereof, extensions 80 on the other end thereof and a plurality of holes 78. Angled piece 74 has top bridging teeth 82 on one end thereof and lower bridging teeth 84 on the other end thereof. Extensions 80 are adapted to extend through holes 38 in web 18 of unitary steel joist 10 on one side thereof and snap-in-place teeth 60 are adapted to engage holes 34 in wings of unitary steel joist 10. Top bridging teeth 82 are adapted to engage the holes 78 in top piece 76 and bottom bridging teeth 84 are adapted to engage holes 38 in web 18 as shown in figure 11.

    [0022] As shown in figure 12 a plurality of unitary steel joists 10 may be used to create a floor.

    [0023] The embodiments of the unitary steel joist of the present invention are made of steel to enhance fire performance. Unitary steel joist are substantially an I-Section because it is an efficient shape structurally, and the joist includes a method for snap-in bridging and modular parts so it goes together easily. This new invention provides an I-Shaped metal joist that includes modular snap-in bridging to simplify site assemble and reduce costs. It uses only a single piece of strip width for the joist section to be produced and therefore it may be cold formed into the shapes described above, so the cost to manufacture is very low.

    [0024] The wings in an embodiment of the steel joist of the present invention has been developed to specifically increase the flange to web weight ratio, while shortening the effective web height. This method of building a joist allows the structural member to perform in a structurally superior manner while providing the installers with the advantage of having snap-in bridging. The method of manufacturing the new joists shown in this invention will reduce manufacture costs; the unique shape will reduce material use and simplify the site installer's work. The result is a steel floor joist system that is very competitive with I-Wood for spans of 3,05 to 6,71m (10ft to 22ft). This method will also compete more efficiently in the 7,01 to 9,14m (23ft to 30ft) span range.

    [0025] Another advantage of this invention for house framing is that an I-Shaped joist outperforms C-Shape steel joists in a strength to mass comparison, see chart shown in figure 13 taken from a comparative analysis of I-Shape section properties versus C-Shape section properties.. The embodiments of the unitary steel joist of the present invention provide the steel industry with the opportunity to compete with the I-Wood joist market by virtue of outperforming on costing as well as fire performance.

    [0026] As shown in figure 14 and 15, stitching holes 100 may be provided in the lower web portion 14 or upper web portion 22 as an alternate for attaching bridging members. Stitching holes 100 may be used in addition to or alternatively to holes 34 in the wings. Stitching holes 100 are adapted to receive bridging members. Preferably stitching holes 100 are constructed by cutting a hole in the web 18 and then folding the material back. Preferably the material is folded back on the side opposite from the unobstructed face 27 of the web 18.

    [0027] Referring to figures 16 to 18 an alternate bridging member 102 is shown which is for use in association with stitching holes 100. Bridging member 102 is adapted to pass through stitching holes 100. Bridging member 102 includes through tabs 104 adapted to pass through stitching holes 100. Through tabs 104 may have various configurations to provide a lock so that bridging member snaps in place. Bridging member 102 may also have side tabs 106 and an upper tab 108. Side tabs 106 and upper tab 108 may be provided with holes 110 that are adapted to receive a bolt.

    [0028] Referring to figures 19 and 20 bridging members 102 may be used in association with unistrut members. Firgure 19 shows a Unistrut hanger 120 inserted in the bridging section102. Figure 20 shows a unistrut pipe hanger 120 attached to a bridging member 102. Figure 20 shows a pipe 122 in pipe hanger 120.

    [0029] Referring to figures 21 to 27, joist 25 is shown attached to different types of walls and supports. Unitary steel joist 25 has top 24 and bottom 12 wings on the same side of web 18. Joist 25 has an unobstructed face 27 on one side of the web 18. Unobstructed face allows for a full height web stiffener 126. Web stiffener 126 has a plurality of holes 128 formed therein. Web stiffener 126 has lips 130 formed on each side thereof. Since unitary steel joist 25 has an unobstructed face 27, there is provided access to one side of the bottom flange 16 thereby facilitating fastening to beam or wall therebelow. Figure 23 shows unitary steel joist attached to a wood sill 132 with a fastener 134.

    [0030] Figures 24 and 25 show a unitary steel joist 25 having top and bottom wings on the same side attached to a wall having a wood sill 136. The unobstructed face 27 of web 18 allows for squash blocking 138 for platform framing. The squash blocking is generally L-shaped having one side adapted to be attached to unitary steel beam 25 and the other side attached to vertical rim joist 140. Squash blocking 138 has a plurality of holes 142 formed therein for receiving fasteners therein. A pair of adjustment slots 144 are also formed in the squash blocking and are similarly adapted to receive fasteners.

    [0031] Figures 27 and 28 show a unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side attached to a distribution member on a steel frame wall.

    [0032] Fig. 28 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing an upper and lower bridging member.

    [0033] Fig. 29 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing an upper and lower bridging member similar to that shown in figure 28 but also showing partial blocking panels.

    [0034] Fig. 30 is a perspective view of a joist system using an embodiment of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and showing a bridging member with a full blocking panel having a utility hole therein.

    [0035] Fig. 31 is a perspective view of a joist system using a plurality of unitary steel joist having top and bottom wings on the same side and plurality of bridging members.

    [0036] As used herein, the terms "comprises" and "comprising" are to construed as being inclusive and opened rather than exclusive. Specifically, when used in this specification including the claims, the terms "comprises" and "comprising" and variations thereof mean that the specified features, steps or components are included. The terms are not to be interpreted to exclude the presence of other features, steps or components.


    Claims

    1. A unitary steel joist (10,25,26) comprising:

    a generally vertical web (18);

    a generally horizontal bottom flange (16) extending outwardly on each side of the web (18);

    a generally horizontal top flange (20) extending outwardly on each side of the web (18) ;

    a bottom wing (12) extending outwardly from one side of the web (18);

    a bottom web portion (14) extending between the bottom flange (16) and the bottom wing (12);

    a top wing (24) extending outwardly from one side of the web (18);

    a top web portion (22) extending between the top flange (20) and the top wing (24); wherein the bottom wing (12) and the top wing (24) extend generally orthogonal to the vertical web (18) and characterized in that the unitary steel joist (10,25,26) is made from a unitary piece of steel, and wherein the web (18), the bottom flange (16), the top flange (20), the bottom wing (12), the bottom web portion (14), the top wing (24) and the top web portion (22) are cold rolled from the unitary piece of steel,

    and wherein the said bottom flange (16) and said top flange (12) has a double thickness wherein layers of the double thickness are proximate to each other.
     
    2. A unitary steel joist (10,25,26) as claimed in claim 1 wherein the bottom wing (12) and the top wing (24) are on the same side of the web (18).
     
    3. A unitary steel joist (10,25,26) as claimed in claim 1 wherein the bottom wing (12) and the top wing (24) are on opposite sides of the web (18).
     
    4. A unitary steel joist (10,25,26) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3 wherein the web (18) further include a plurality of utility holes (41) formed therein.
     
    5. A unitary steel joist (10,25,26) as claimed in claim 4 wherein each utility hole (41) has a lip (43) around the perimeter thereof.
     
    6. A unitary steel joist (10,25,26) as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 5 further including a plurality of stitching holes (100) formed in the web (18).
     
    7. A unitary steel joist (10,25,26) as claimed in claim 6 wherein the plurality of stitching holes (100) is positioned in the web (18) between the bottom flange (16) and the bottom wing (12) and wherein the stitching holes (100) also extend through the bottom web portion (14).
     
    8. A unitary steel joist (10,25,26) as claimed in claim 6 or 7 wherein the plurality of stitching holes (100) is positioned in the web (18) between the top flange (20) and the top wing (24) and wherein the stitching holes (100) also extend through the top web portion (22).
     
    9. A unitary steel joist system comprising a plurality of unitary steel joists as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 8.
     
    10. A unitary steel joist system as claimed in claim 9 further including a snap in place bridging (40, 65, 75) member adapted to be positioned between adjacent unitary steel joists (10,25,26) and a Unistrust pipe hanger (120) attached to the bridging member (102).
     
    11. A unitary steel joist system as claimed in claim 10 wherein the bridging member (102) is an upper bridging member and further including a lower bridging member attached between adjacent unitary steel joists (10,25,26) and spaced downwardly from the upper bridging member.
     
    12. A unitary steel joist system as claimed in claim 11 further including at least one partial blocking panel extending between the upper and lower bridging members.
     
    13. A unitary steel joist system as claimed in claim 10 wherein the bridging member includes a full blocking panel.
     
    14. A unitary steel joist system as claimed in claim 13 wherein the full blocking panel has a utility hole (41) formed therein.
     
    15. A unitary steel joist system as claimed in any one of claims 9 to 14 further including squash blocking (138).
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Unitärer Stahlträger (10,25,26), umfassend:

    einen generell vertikalen Steg (18);

    einen generell horizontalen unteren Flansch (16), der sich an beiden Seiten des Stegs (18) nach außen erstreckt;

    einen generell horizontalen oberen Flansch (20), der sich an beiden Seiten des Stegs (18) nach außen erstreckt;

    einen unteren Flügel (12), der sich von einer Seite des Stegs (18) nach außen erstreckt;

    einen unteren Stegteil (14), der sich zwischen dem unteren Flansch (16) und dem unteren Flügel (12) erstreckt;

    einen oberen Flügel (24), der sich von einer Seite des Stegs (18) nach außen erstreckt;

    einen oberen Stegteil (22), der sich zwischen dem oberen Flansch (20) und dem oberen Flügel (24) erstreckt;

    wobei der untere Flügel (12) und der obere Flügel (24) sich generell orthogonal zu dem vertikalen Steg (18) erstrecken, und dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der unitäre Stahlträger (10,25,26) aus einem unitären Stück Stahl hergestellt ist, und wobei der Steg (18), der untere Flansch (16), der obere Flansch (20), der untere Flügel (12), der untere Stegteil (14), der obere Flügel (24) und der obere Stegteil (22) aus dem unitären Stück Stahl kaltgewalzt sind, und
    wobei der untere Flansch (16) und der obere Flansch (12) eine doppelte Dicke aufweisen, wobei Schichten mit doppelter Dicke sich nahe beieinander befinden.
     
    2. Unitärer Stahlträger (10,25,26) nach Anspruch 1, wobei der untere Flügel (12) und der obere Flügel (24) sich an derselben Seite des Stegs (18) befinden.
     
    3. Unitärer Stahlträger (10,25,26) nach Anspruch 1, wobei der untere Flügel (12) und der obere Flügel (24) sich an entgegengesetzten Seiten des Stegs (18) befinden.
     
    4. Unitärer Stahlträger (10,25,26) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei der Steg (18) weiter eine Vielzahl von darin geformten Nutzöffnungen (41) beinhaltet.
     
    5. Unitärer Stahlträger (10,25,26) nach Anspruch 4, wobei jede Nutzöffnung (41) um ihren Umfang herum eine Lippe (43) aufweist.
     
    6. Unitärer Stahlträger (10,25,26) nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, weiter eine Vielzahl von in dem Steg (18) geformten Heftöffnungen (100) umfassend.
     
    7. Unitärer Stahlträger (10,25,26) nach Anspruch 6, wobei die Vielzahl von Heftöffnungen (100) in dem Steg (18) zwischen dem unteren Flansch (16) und dem unteren Flügel (12) angeordnet ist und wobei die Heftöffnungen (100) sich auch durch den unteren Stegteil (14) erstrecken.
     
    8. Unitärer Stahlträger (10,25,26) nach Anspruch 6 oder 7, wobei die Vielzahl von Heftöffnungen (100) in dem Steg (18) zwischen dem oberen Flansch (20) und dem oberen Flügel (24) angeordnet ist und wobei die Heftöffnungen (100) sich auch durch den oberen Stegteil (22) erstrecken.
     
    9. Unitäres Stahlträgersystem, umfassend eine Vielzahl unitärer Stahlträger nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8.
     
    10. Unitäres Stahlträgersystem nach Anspruch 9, weiter ein Einrast-Überbrückungselement (40,65,75) beinhaltend, das zur Positionierung zwischen benachbarten unitären Stahlträgern (10,25,26) und einer an dem Überbrückungselement (102) befestigten Unistrust-Rohraufhängung (120) eingerichtet ist.
     
    11. Unitäres Stahlträgersystem nach Anspruch 10, wobei das Überbrückungselement (102) ein oberes Überbrückungselement ist, und es weiter ein unteres Überbrückungselement beinhaltet, das zwischen benachbarten unitären Stahlträgern (10,25,26) befestigt und von dem oberen Überbrückungselement nach unten beabstandet ist.
     
    12. Unitäres Stahlträgersystem nach Anspruch 11, weiter mindestens ein teilweises Blockierpaneel beinhaltend, das sich zwischen dem oberen und dem unteren Überbrückungselement erstreckt.
     
    13. Unitäres Stahlträgersystem nach Anspruch 10, wobei das Überbrückungselement ein vollständiges Blockierpaneel beinhaltet.
     
    14. Unitäres Stahlträgersystem nach Anspruch 13, wobei das vollständige Blockierpaneel eine darin geformte Nutzöffnung (41) aufweist.
     
    15. Unitäres Stahlträgersystem nach einem der Ansprüche 9 bis 14, weiter seitlich anschließende Verstärkungselemente (138) beinhaltend.
     


    Revendications

    1. Poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) comprenant :

    une âme (18) généralement verticale ;

    une semelle inférieure (16) généralement horizontale qui s'étend vers l'extérieur de chaque côté de l'âme (18) ;

    une semelle supérieure (20) généralement horizontale qui s'étend vers l'extérieur de chaque côté de l'âme (18) ;

    une aile inférieure (12) qui s'étend vers l'extérieur à partir d'un côté de l'âme (18) ;

    une portion d'âme inférieure (14) qui s'étend entre la semelle inférieure (16) et l'aile inférieure (12) ;

    une aile supérieure (24) qui s'étend vers l'extérieur à partir d'un côté de l'âme (18) ;

    une portion d'âme supérieure (22) qui s'étend entre la semelle supérieure (20) et l'aile supérieure (24) ;

    dans laquelle, l'aile inférieure (12) et l'aile supérieure (24) s'étendent d'une manière générale en position orthogonale par rapport à l'âme verticale (18) et caractérisée en ce que la poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) est réalisée à partir d'une pièce unitaire en acier et dans laquelle l'âme (18), la semelle inférieure (16), la semelle supérieure (20), l'aile inférieure (12), la portion d'âme inférieure (14), l'aile supérieure (24) et la portion d'âme supérieure (22) sont soumises à un laminage à froid à partir de la pièce unitaire en acier, et dans laquelle ladite semelle inférieure (16) et ladite semelle supérieure (12) possèdent une double épaisseur, les couches de la double épaisseur étant disposées à proximité l'une de l'autre.
     
    2. Poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle l'aile inférieure (12) et l'aile supérieure (24) sont disposées sur le même côté de l'âme (18).
     
    3. Poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle l'aile inférieure (12) et l'aile supérieure (24) sont disposées sur les côtés opposés de l'âme (18).
     
    4. Poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans laquelle on pratique en outre plusieurs trous utilitaires (41).
     
    5. Poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) selon la revendication 4, dans laquelle chaque trou utilitaire (41) possède une lèvre (43) autour de son périmètre.
     
    6. Poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans laquelle on pratique en outre plusieurs trous d'assemblage (100) dans l'âme (18).
     
    7. Poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) selon la revendication 6, dans laquelle lesdits plusieurs trous d'assemblage (100) sont disposés dans l'âme (18) entre la semelle inférieure (16) et l'aile inférieure (12), et dans laquelle les trous d'assemblage (100) s'étendent également à travers la portion d'âme inférieure (14).
     
    8. Poutrelle unitaire en acier (10, 25, 26) selon la revendication 6 ou 7, dans laquelle lesdits plusieurs trous d'assemblage (100) sont disposés dans l'âme (18) entre la semelle supérieure (20) et l'aile supérieure (24), et dans laquelle les trous d'assemblage (100) s'étendent également à travers la portion d'âme supérieure (22).
     
    9. Système de poutrelles unitaires en acier comprenant plusieurs poutrelles unitaires en acier selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8.
     
    10. Système de poutrelles unitaires en acier selon la revendication 9, englobant en outre un élément faisant office de pont (40, 65, 75) qui se met en place par encliquetage, conçu pour venir se disposer entre des poutrelles unitaires adjacentes en acier (10, 25, 26) et un porte-tuyau Unitrut (120) fixé à l'élément faisant office de pont (102).
     
    11. Système de poutrelles unitaires en acier selon la revendication 10, dans lequel l'élément faisant office de pont (102) est un élément supérieur faisant office de pont, et englobant en outre un élément inférieur faisant office de pont fixé entre des poutrelles unitaires adjacentes en acier (10, 25, 26) et espacé vers le bas par rapport à l'élément supérieur faisant office de pont.
     
    12. Système de poutrelles unitaires en acier selon la revendication 11, englobant en outre au moins un panneau de blocage partiel s'étendant entre les éléments supérieur et inférieur faisant office de pont.
     
    13. Système de poutrelles unitaires en acier selon la revendication 10, dans lequel l'élément faisant office de pont englobe un panneau de blocage complet.
     
    14. Système de poutrelles unitaires en acier selon la revendication 13, dans lequel un trou utilitaire (41) est pratiqué dans le panneau de blocage complet.
     
    15. Système de poutrelles unitaires en acier selon l'une quelconque des revendications 9 à 14, englobant en outre des blocs de transfert (138).
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description