(19)
(11)EP 2 526 959 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
02.08.2017 Bulletin 2017/31

(21)Application number: 12174059.1

(22)Date of filing:  10.08.2007
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61K 38/18  (2006.01)
A61K 39/395  (2006.01)
A01K 67/027  (2006.01)
C07K 16/24  (2006.01)
A61K 48/00  (2006.01)
A61P 11/00  (2006.01)
A61K 38/17  (2006.01)
C07K 14/535  (2006.01)

(54)

TREATMENT OF PULMONARY DISEASE CONDITIONS

BEHANDLUNG VON LUNGENERKRANKUNGSZUSTÄNDEN

TRAITEMENT DE TROUBLES D'UNE MALADIE PULMONAIRE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

(30)Priority: 11.08.2006 AU 2006904378

(43)Date of publication of application:
28.11.2012 Bulletin 2012/48

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
07784767.1 / 2056858

(73)Proprietor: CSL Limited
Parkville, Victoria 3052 (AU)

(72)Inventors:
  • Crump, David Eric
    Balwyn North, Victoria 3104 (AU)
  • Nash, Andrew Donald
    Kew, Victoria 3101 (AU)

(74)Representative: Jones, Elizabeth Louise 
Dehns St Bride's House 10 Salisbury Square
London EC4Y 8JD
London EC4Y 8JD (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A2-2007/084485
  
  • BOZINOVSKI S ET AL: "Granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) regulates lung innate immunity to lipopolysaccharide through Akt/Erk activation of NF[kappa]B and AP-1 in vivo", JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 20021108 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC. US, vol. 277, no. 45, 8 November 2002 (2002-11-08), pages 42808-42814, XP007911657,
  • SATO ETSURO ET AL: "Smoke extract stimulates lung fibroblasts to release neutrophil and monocyte chemotactic activities", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, vol. 277, no. 6 part 1, December 1999 (1999-12), pages L1149-L1157, XP009129511, ISSN: 0002-9513
  • MASUBUCHI TAKESHI ET AL: "Smoke extract stimulates lung epithelial cells to release neutrophil and monocyte chemotactic activity", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, vol. 153, no. 6, December 1998 (1998-12), pages 1903-1912, XP009129507, ISSN: 0002-9440
  • KOYAMA S ET AL: "Alveolar type II-like cells release G-CSF as neutrophil chemotactic activity", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY. LUNG CELLULAR AND MOLECULARPHYSIOLOGY, AMERICAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, US, vol. 275, no. 4, 1 October 1998 (1998-10-01), pages L687-L693, XP009129512, ISSN: 1040-0605
  • YOUSEFI SHIDA ET AL: "cDNA representational difference analysis of human neutrophils stimulated by GM-CSF", BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, ACADEMIC PRESS INC. ORLANDO, FL, US, vol. 277, no. 2, 22 October 2000 (2000-10-22), pages 401-409, XP002179732, ISSN: 0006-291X
  • TAKAFUJI SHIGERU ET AL: "Matrix metalloproteinase-9 release from human leukocytes.", JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIONAL ALLERGOLOGY & CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY : OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ASTHMOLOGY (INTERASMA) AND SOCIEDAD LATINOAMERICANA DE ALERGIA E INMUNOLOGÍA 2003, vol. 13, no. 1, 2003, pages 50-55, XP009129469, ISSN: 1018-9068
  • YONG K L: "GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (G-CSF) INCREASES NEUTROPHIL MIGRATION ACROSS VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM INDEPENDENT OF AN EFFECT ON ADHESION: COMPARISON WITH GRANULOCYTE-MARCROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR (GM-CSF)", BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD, GB, vol. 94, no. 1, 19 March 1996 (1996-03-19) , pages 40-47, XP001023856, ISSN: 0007-1048
  • PARNHAM M J ET AL: "Modulation of neutrophil and inflammation markers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by short-term azithromycin treatment", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, ELSEVIER BV, NL, vol. 517, no. 1-2, 4 July 2005 (2005-07-04), pages 132-143, XP004964140, ISSN: 0014-2999
  • PULJIC ET AL: "Lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation is inhibited by neutralization of GM-CSF", EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, ELSEVIER BV, NL, vol. 557, no. 2-3, 3 February 2007 (2007-02-03), pages 230-235, XP005872830, ISSN: 0014-2999
  • VLAHOS R ET AL: "Therapeutic potential of treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by neutralising granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)", PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS, ELSEVIER, GB, vol. 112, no. 1, 1 October 2006 (2006-10-01), pages 106-115, XP025038566, ISSN: 0163-7258 [retrieved on 2006-10-01]
  • KNAPP S ET AL: "Activation of neutrophils and inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine response by endogenous granulocyte colony stimulating factor in murine pneumococcal pneumoniae", JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, CHICAGO, IL, vol. 189, no. 8, 15 April 2004 (2004-04-15), pages 1506-1514, XP008104085, ISSN: 0022-1899, DOI: 10.1086/382962
  • NISHIMAKI K ET AL: "Neutrophil survival-enhancing activity in sputum from patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis", RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, BAILLIERE TINDALL, LONDON, GB, vol. 99, no. 7, 1 July 2005 (2005-07-01), pages 910-917, XP004919112, ISSN: 0954-6111, DOI: 10.1016/J.RMED.2004.12.007
  • KOYAMA S ET AL: "Cyclophosphamide stimulates lung fibroblasts to release neutrophil and monocyte chemoattractants", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY,, vol. 280, no. 6, 1 January 2001 (2001-01-01), pages L1203-L1211, XP008104069, ISSN: 0002-9513
  • DONALD METCALF: "The colony-stimulating factors and cancer", NATURE REVIEWS CANCER, vol. 10, no. 6, 1 June 2010 (2010-06-01), pages 425-434, XP55016976, ISSN: 1474-175X, DOI: 10.1038/nrc2843
  • W. I. DE BOER: "Cytokines and Therapy in COPD* : A Promising Combination?", CHEST, vol. 121, no. 90050, 1 May 2002 (2002-05-01), pages 209S-218, XP55016980, ISSN: 0012-3692, DOI: 10.1378/chest.121.5_suppl.209S
  • Ross Vlahos ET AL: "Neutralizing Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-induced Lung Inflammation", American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 182, no. 1, 1 July 2010 (2010-07-01), pages 34-40, XP055077828, ISSN: 1073-449X, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200912-1794OC
  • "Annex 2", EP12174059, 8 October 2013 (2013-10-08), XP55119086, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:diplus [retrieved on 2014-05-20]
  • Russel Basser: "Declaration of Russel Basser", EP12174059, 8 October 2013 (2013-10-08), XP55119079, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:diplus [retrieved on 2014-05-20]
  • Jason Adamson ET AL: "In Vitro Models of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)" In: "Bronchitis", 23 August 2011 (2011-08-23), InTech, XP055263423, ISBN: 978-953-30-7889-2 DOI: 10.5772/18247,
  • WRIGHT J L ET AL: "Animal models of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease", EXPERT REVIEW OF RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, EXPERT REVIEWS, GB, vol. 4, no. 6, 1 January 2010 (2010-01-01) , pages 723-734, XP009152972, ISSN: 1747-6348
 
Remarks:
The file contains technical information submitted after the application was filed and not included in this specification
 
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates generally to agents which inhibit the activity of G-CSF, which interfere with G-CSF signaling for use in treating or preventing or otherwise ameliorating the effects of pulmonary diseases characterized by or associated with infiltration of neutrophils and complications arising therefrom.

BACKGROUND



[0002] Bibliographic details of references provided in the subject specification are listed at the end of the specification.

[0003] Reference to any prior art is not, and should not be taken as an acknowledgment or any form of suggestion that this prior art forms part of the common general knowledge in any country.

[0004] Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health burden and will become the third largest cause of death in the world by 2020 (Lopez and Murray, Nat Med 4(11):1241-1243, 1998). An exaggerated inflammatory response to inhaled irritants, in particular cigarette smoke, is the likely cause of a progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation, where macrophages and neutrophils are prominent, leads to oxidative stress, emphysema, small airway fibrosis and mucus hypersecretion. However, COPD responds poorly to current anti-inflammatory treatments including potent glucocorticosteroids which produce little or no benefit. COPD lungs may also become colonized with Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria which hasten lung function decline and, along with viruses and inhaled pollutants, are major triggers of recurrent debilitating exacerbations. COPD patients suffer recurrent acute exacerbations (AECOPD) caused by both viruses and bacteria.

[0005] Histological and bronchial biopsy studies show that patients with COPD have an increased number of neutrophils (Di Stefano et al, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158(4):1277-1285, 1998; Retamales et al, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164:469-473, 2001). In addition, BALF and sputum of COPD patients have a marked increase in neutrophils (Pesci et al, Eur Respir J. 12(2):380-386, 1998; Keatings et al, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153(2):530-534, 1996). Neutrophil numbers in bronchial biopsies and induced sputum are correlated with COPD disease severity (Di Stefano et al, 1998 supra, Keatings et al, 1996 supra) and with the rate of decline in lung function (Stanescu et al, Thorax 51(3):267-271, 1996). Neutrophils secrete serine proteases, including neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and protease-3, as well as MMP-8 and MMP-9, which contribute to alveolar destruction and produce emphysema in laboratory animals (Stockely, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160(5 Pt 2):S49-52, 1999; Barnes et al, Eur Respir J 22:672-688, 2003). Soluble agonists, such as C5α, FMLP and PAF have been shown to stimulate matrix-metalloproteinase-9 release from human leukocytes, mainly neutrophils (Takafuji et al., J. Invest. Allergol. Clin. Immunol., 2003, vol. 13(1), pp. 50-55). Neutrophils migrate into the respiratory tract under the direction of neutrophil chemotactic factors, which include IL-8 (Barnes et al, supra 2003). Serine proteases are potent stimulants of mucus hypersecretion and may have an important role in the mucus hypersecretion seen in chronic bronchitis (Sommerhoff et al, J Clin Invest 85(3):682-289, 1990).

[0006] One cytokine involved in inflammatory reactions is granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) which is encoded by the CSF-3 gene. G-CSF is a hemopoietic growth factor that regulates the production of granulocytes (Nicola et al, Nature 314:625, 1985; Metcalf, International Journal of Cancer 25:225, 1980; Nicola et al, Journal of Biological Chemistry 258:9017, 1983). G-CSF mediates its effects through interaction with the G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR, encoded by the CSFR-3 gene), a member of the type I cytokine receptor superfamily (Demetri et al, Blood 78:2791-2808, 1991). Major biological actions of G-CSF in humans and mice, include increasing the production and release of neutrophils from the bone marrow (Souza et al, Science 232:61, 1986; Lord et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:9499-9503, 1989), mobilizing hemopoietic progenitor cells from the marrow into the peripheral blood (Bungart et al, British Journal of Haematology 22:1156, 1990; de Haan et al, Blood 86:2986-2992, 1995; Roberts et al, Blood 89:2736-2744, 1997) and modulating the differentiation and effector functions of mature neutrophils (Yong et al, European Journal of Haematology 49:251-259, 1992; Colotta et al, Blood 80:2012-2020, 1992; Rex et al, Transfusion 35:605-611, 1995; Gericke et al, Journal of Leukocyte Biology 57: 455-461, 1995; Xu et al, British Journal of Haematology 93:558-568, 1996; Yong, Brutish Journal of Haematology 94:40-47, 1996; Jacob et al, Blood 92:353-361, 1998). G-CSF is used to treat neutropenia, as well as mobilization of haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous and allogenic stem cell transplantation (Welte et al, Blood 88:1907-1929, 1996). G-CSF has been shown to increase neutrophil migration across vascular endothelium, but has no effect on neutrophil adhesion to endothelium (Yong., Brit. J. Haematology, 1996, vol. 94(1), pp. 40-47). G-CSF has also been linked with pneumococcal pneumonia as elevated concentrations of G-CSF have been found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from infected patients (Knapp et al., J. Infectious Diseases, 2004, vol. 189(8), pp. 1506-1514).

[0007] Smoke extract has been shown to stimulate lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells to release neutrophil and monocyte chemotactic activities, such as G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and MCP-1, which can be inhibited by antibodies to the chemokines (Sato et al., Amer. J. Physiol., 1999, vol. 277(6), pp. L1149-L1157 and Masubuchi et al., Amer. J. Pathol., 1998, vol. 153(6), pp. 1903-1912). Alveolar type II-like cells have also been shown to release G-CSF as a neutrophil chemotactic activity in response to IL-1β and this activity can be blocked by anti-G-CSF antibody (Koyama et al., Amer. J. Physiol., 1998, vol. 275(4), pp. L687-L693). Cyclophosphamide has also been shown to stimulate neutrophil and monocyte chemoattractants from lung fibroblasts, such as G-CSF (Koyama et al., Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol., 2001, vol. 280, pp. L1203-1211). Notably, TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1 are important chemotactic proteins for macrophages and neutrophils, which are the predominant cells associated with COPD (de Boer, Chest, 2002, vol. 121(5), pp. 209S-218S).

[0008] A variety of genes are preferentially expressed in GM-CSF activated neutrophils when co-cultured with bronchial epithelial cells (Yousefi et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 2000, vol. 277, pp. 401-409). In this respect, GM-CSF has been linked with neutrophil survival in the airways of patients with diffuse panbronchitis (Nishimaki et al., Respiratory Medicine, 2005, vol. 99(7), pp. 910-917). Moreover, anti-GM-CSF antibodies have been shown to suppress LPS-induced inflammation in the lungs of mice (Bozinovski et al., J. Biol. Chem., 2002, vol. 277(45), pp. 42808-42814). For instance, pre-treatment of mice with GM-CSF neutralizing antibody dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (Puljic et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2007, vol. 557(2-3), pp. 230-235). This animal data indicates that neutralisation of GM-CSF ameliorates experimental COPD (Vlahos et al., Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2006, vol. 112(1), pp. 106-115).

[0009] Various methods of diagnosis, markers, screening techniques and animal models for assessing the severity and/or progression or regression of COPD and COPD-related diseases have been proposed (WO 2007/084485). Azithromycin has been proposed as an anti-inflammatory treatment in COPD patients and has been shown to modulate various neutrophil and inflammation markers, but the response to azithromycin seen in healthy volunteers is not so clearly detectable in COPD patients (Parnham et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2005, vol. 517(1-2), pp. 132-143).

[0010] There is an urgent and immediate need to develop new treatments for inflammatory conditions such as COPD, its exacerbated forms such as AECOPD and other pulmonary diseases characterized by or associated with infiltration of neutrophils.

SUMMARY



[0011] Throughout this specification, unless the context requires otherwise, the word "comprise", or variations such as "comprises" or "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated element or integer or group of elements or integers but not the exclusion of any other element or integer or group of elements or integers.

[0012] Nucleotide and amino acid sequences are referred to by a sequence identifier number (SEQ ID NO:). The SEQ ID NOs: correspond numerically to the sequence identifiers <400>1 (SEQ ID NO:1), <400>2 (SEQ ID NO:2), etc. A summary of the sequence identifiers is provided in Table 1. A sequence listing is provided after the claims.

[0013] The use of antagonists of activity of G-CSF, its receptor and/or which inhibit expression of genes encoding G-CSF or its receptor in the treatment of pulmonary diseases or conditions characterized by or associated with infiltration of neutrophils is disclosed herein. In particular, the present invention contemplates the use of G-CSF inhibiting agents in the treatment of chronic immune-mediated inflammatory pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbated forms thereof such as acute exacerbated COPD (AECOPD). Complications arising therefrom or manifestations thereof include chronic bronchitis, oxidative stress, emphysema, mucus hypersecretion, arrhythmias, cor pulmonale pneumonia and lung cancer.

[0014] The present invention is predicated in part on the elucidation of the role of G-CSF in relation to COPD or its exacerbated forms (e.g. AECOPD) or complications therefrom or manifestations thereof. Inhibiting the activity of G-CSF or G-CSFR systemically or locally and/or down-regulating expression of a gene encoding a G-CSF or G-CSFR is proposed to be useful in the treatment of pulmonary conditions characterized by or associated with infiltration of neutrophils.

[0015] Reference to "G-CSF" or its full name "granulocyte-colony stimulating factor" includes homologs and derivatives of G-CSF. A "homolog" or "derivative" includes polymorphic variants of G-CSF.

[0016] Reference to "G-CSFR" or its full name "granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor" includes homologs and derivatives of G-CSFR. A "homolog" or "derivative" includes polymorphic variants of G-CSFR.

[0017] Accordingly, a method is disclosed for the treatment of a pulmonary condition characterized by or associated with infiltration of neutrophils in a subject, said method comprising administering to said subject an amount of an agent effective to inhibit the activity of G-CSF or G-CSFR or inhibit expression of the gene encoding G-CSF or G-CSFR.

[0018] In a particular embodiment, the invention provides a G-CSF inhibiting agent for use in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or an exacerbated form thereof in a subject, wherein said agent is an antibody specific for G-CSF.

[0019] Generally, the agent is for administration for a time and under conditions sufficient to ameliorate the symptoms of the pulmonary condition.

[0020] The administration may be systemic or local. Systemic administration is particularly useful. Reference to "systemic administration" includes intra-articular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous injection, infusion, as well as administration via oral, rectal and nasal routes, or via inhalation. Administration by subcutaneous injection or via inhalation is particularly preferred.

[0021] Proteinaceous, non-proteinaceous (e.g. chemical entities) and nucleic acid molecule agents, which may be used in treatments, are described herein.

[0022] Proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous molecules include peptides, polypeptides and proteins, small, intermediate or large chemical molecules as well as molecules identified from natural product screening or the screening of chemical libraries. Natural product screening includes the screening of extracts or samples from plants, microorganisms, soil river beds, coral, aquatic environments and extraterrestrial environments for molecules or groups of molecules which have an affect on G-CSF activity or the level of G-CSF gene expression. These molecules may also affect G-CSF/G-CSFR interaction.

[0023] The present invention further contemplates combination therapy such as targeting G-CSF and one or more other inflammatory targets.

[0024] Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention relates to a G-CSF inhibiting agent, wherein said agent is an antibody specific for G-CSF and at least one other therapeutic agent selected from an anti-inflammatory, a bronchodilator or an antibiotic for the treatment of COPD or an exacerbated form thereof, such as AECOPD, in a subject.

[0025] The agent of the invention is an antibody which inhibits the activity of G-CSF. Other agents disclosed herein include antibodies that inhibit the activity of G-CSFR, small molecule inhibitors, soluble G-CSF receptors and nucleic acid molecules which inhibit G-CSF or G-CSFR gene expression. The antibody may be mono-specific or multi-specific including bi-specific.

[0026] Hence, in a particularly preferred embodiment, the present invention contemplates administration to a subject of an amount of an antibody effective to inhibit the activity of G-CSF.

[0027] Alternative treatments are disclosed herein, but fall outside the scope of the claims. For example sense or antisense molecules directed to the G-CSF gene or mRNA or G-CSFR gene or mRNA for this purpose are disclosed herein, as well as sense or antisense molecules against any portion of the coding or non-coding regions including leader sequence and selected introns or extons of the G-CSF or G-CSFR gene or mRNA. Hence, sense and antisense molecules of 20 to 30 nucleotide bases in length directed to one or more of SEQ ID NOs:2, 3, 6 or 7 could be used.

[0028] The preferred subjects are mammals and in particular humans.

[0029] The use of pharmaceutical compositions comprising antagonists of G-CSF or G-CSFR activity or gene expression is also described herein. A composition may comprise an anti-G-CSF antibody or an anti-G-CSFR antibody.

[0030] The present invention further contemplates the use of an antibody specific for G-CSF in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of COPD or an exacerbated form thereof in a subject.

[0031] Alternatively expressed the invention provides the use of an agent which inhibits the activity of G-CSF in the manufacture of a medicament for treating COPD in a subject, wherein said agent is an antibody specific for G-CSF.

[0032] A summary of sequence identifiers used throughout the subject specification is provided in Table 1.
TABLE 1
Summary of sequence identifiers
SEQUENCE ID NO:DESCRIPTION
1 Human G-CSF amino acid sequence including the leader sequence
2 Human G-CSF coding and non-coding nucleotide sequence
3 Human G-CSF nucleotide sequence encoding mature protein
4 Human G-CSF mature protein amino acid sequence
5 Human G-CSFR3 amino acid sequence including the leader sequence
6 Human G-CSF3R coding and non-coding nucleotide sequence
7 Human G-CSF3R nucleotide sequence encoding mature protein
8 Human G-CSF3R mature protein amino acid sequence

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0033] 

Figure 1 is a graphical representation showing mice treated with either isotype control or 250µg/dose ip of anti-G-CSF antibody (also referred to as αG-CSF antibody or anti-GCSF) at t = -3 hour, exposed to one dose of LPS at t = 0, and then dissected 24 hours later.

Figures 2a through d are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BALF of LPS-treated mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of control, LPS-treated and LPS + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns = not significant.

Figure 3 is a graphical representation protein levels of TNFα in BALF of LPS-treated mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The protein levels of TNFα in the BALF of control, LPS-treated and LPS + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals were determined by ELISA. Data are expressed as the mean of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant.

Figures 4a through c are graphical representations of MMP9 levels and protease activity in BALF of LPS-treated mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The levels of MMP9 in the BALF of control, LPS-treated and LPS + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals were determined by zymography. Protease activity in the BALF of treated mice was determined by gelatinase and serine protease assay. Data are expressed as the pooled sample of 8 mice per group (Figure 3.3a) and the mean of eight animals per group ± SEM (Figure 3.3b & c). P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns = not significant.

Figures 5a through c are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages and neutrophils whole blood of LPS-treated mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The number of inflammatory cells in the whole blood of control, LPS-treated and LPS + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant.

Figure 6 is a graphical representation showing smoke generated in 50 ml tidal volumes over 10s using timed draw-back mimicking normal smoking inhalation volume and cigarette burn rate.

Figures 7a through d are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BALF of sham or smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of control, smoke-exposed and smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of 8 animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns = not significant.

Figure 8 is a graphical representation of protein levels of TNFα in BALF of sham or smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The protein levels of TNFα Din the BALF of control, smoke-exposed and smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals were determined by ELISA. Data are expressed as the mean of 8 animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant.

Figures 9a through c are graphical representations of MMP9 levels and protease activity in BALF of sham or smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The levels of MMP9 in the BALF of control, LPS-treated and LPS + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals were determined by zymography. Protease activity in the BALF of treated mice was determined by gelatinase and serine protease assay. Data are expressed as the pooled sample of 8 mice per group and the mean of eight animals per group ± SEM.

Figures 10a through c are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages and neutrophils whole blood of sham or smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of control, smoke-exposed and smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns= not significant.

Figure 11 is a graphical representation showing mice treated with either isotype control or 250µg/dose ip of αG-CSF at t=d-1 and d2, and then dissected on day 3 or day 10.

Figures 12a through d are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BALF of influenza-treated, smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody (Day 3 post-infection). The number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of control, influenza-treated + smoke-exposed and influenza + smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns=not significant.

Figures 13a through d are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BALF of influenza-treated, smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody (Day 10 post-infection). The number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of control, influenza-treated + smoke-exposed and influenza + smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns=not significant.

Figures 14 and b are graphical representations of protein levels of TNFα in BALF of influenza-treated, smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody (Day 3 & 10 post-infection). The protein levels of TNFα Din the BALF of control, influenza-treated + smoke-exposed and influenza + smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals were determined by ELISA. Data are expressed as the mean of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns=not significant.

Figures 15a through f are graphical representations of MMP9 levels and protease activity in BALF of influenza-treated, smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody (Day 3 & 10 post-infection). The levels of MMP9 in the BALF of control, influenza-treated + smoke-exposed and influenza + smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals were determined by zymography. Protease activity in the BALF of treated mice was determined by gelatinase and serine protease assay. Data are expressed as the pooled sample of eight mice per group and the mean of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns=not significant.

Figures 16a through c are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages and neutrophil in whole blood of influenza-treated, smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody (Day 3 post-infection). The number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of control, influenza-treated + smoke-exposed and influenza + smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns=not significant.

Figures 17a through c are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages and neutrophils in whole blood of influenza-treated, smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody (Day 10 post-infection). The number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of control, influenza-treated + smoke-exposed and influenza + smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns=not significant.

Figure 18 is a graphical representation of viral titres in the lungs of control, influenza-treated + smoke-exposed and influenza + smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals determined by standard plaque assay titration. Data are expressed as the mean of 8 animals per group ± SEM. ns=not significant.

Figure 19a through d are graphical representations of total viable cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BALF of sham or smoke-exposed mice after treatment with isotype or αG-CSF antibody. The number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of control, smoke-exposed and smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated animals was determined by standard differential cell analysis. Data are expressed as mean cells/mL BALF of eight animals per group ± SEM. P<0.05 (annotated by *) are statistically significant, ns = not significant.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0034] Before describing the present invention in detail, it is to be understood that unless otherwise indicated, the subject invention is not limited to specific formulations of components, manufacturing methods, dosage or diagnostic regimes, or the like. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting.

[0035] The singular forms "a", "an" and "the" include plural aspects unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a cytokine" includes a single cytokine as well as two or more cytokines; reference to "an antibody" includes a single antibody, as well as two or more antibodies; reference to "the invention" includes a single invention or multiple invention; and so forth.

[0036] The present invention concerns a G-CSF inhibiting agent for use in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or an exacerbated form thereof in a subject, wherein said agent is an antibody specific for G-CSF. Alternatively expressed, the invention provides the use of an antibody specific for G-CSF in the manufacture of a medicament for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or an exacerbated form thereof in a subject.

[0037] In describing and claiming the present invention, the following terminology is used in accordance with the definitions set forth below.

[0038] The terms "agent", "compound", and "active" may be used interchangeably herein to refer to a substance that induces a desired pharmacological and/or physiological effect. The terms also encompass pharmaceutically acceptable and pharmacologically active forms thereof, including salts. The desired effect is the inhibition of G-CSF activity or signaling.

[0039] Combination therapy involving the use of a G-CSF antagonist which is an antibody specific for a G-CSF together with another therapeutic agent selected from an anti-inflammatory, a bronchodilator and/or an antibiotic is also contemplated by the present invention.

[0040] The terms "antibody" and "antibodies" include polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and all the various forms derived from monoclonal antibodies, including but not limited to full-length antibodies (e.g. having an intact Fc region), antigen-binding fragments, including for example, Fv, Fab, Fab' and F(ab')2 fragments; and antibody-derived polypeptides produced using recombinant methods such as single chain antibodies. The terms "antibody" and "antibodies" as used herein also refer to human antibodies produced for example in transgenic animals or through phage display, as well as chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies or primatized antibodies. The selection of fragment or modified forms of the antibodies may also involve any effect the fragments or modified forms have on their half-lives. For example, it may in certain circumstances be advantages for an antibody to have a short half-life to avoid global affects of anti-G-CSF treatment, such as neutropenia. Alternatively, where exacerbations are common or likely, an antibody with a longer half-life may be advantageous. A "half-life" for an antibody is considered herein to be short if it is within 2 days or less. A longer half-life for an antibody would be any half-life in excess of 2 days and more preferably may be greater than 7 days.

[0041] The term "monoclonal antibody" is used herein to refer to an antibody obtained from a population of substantially homogeneous antibodies. That is, the individual antibodies comprising the population are identical except for naturally occurring mutations that may be present in minor amounts. The modifier "monoclonal" as used herein therefore indicates the character of the antibody as being obtained from a substantially homogeneous population of antibodies, and is not used to indicate that the antibody was produced by a particular method. For example, monoclonal antibodies in accordance with the present invention may be made by the hybridoma method described by Kohler and Milstein, Nature 256:495-499, 1975, or may be made by recombinant DNA methods (such as described in U.S. Patent No: 4,816,567). Monoclonal antibodies may also be isolated from phage antibody libraries using the techniques described in Clackson et al, Nature 352:624-628, 1991 or Marks et al, J. Mol. Biol. 222:581-597, 1991.

[0042] The terms "effective amount" and "therapeutically effective amount" as used herein mean a sufficient amount of an agent which provides the desired therapeutic or physiological effect or outcome, inhibiting the activity of G-CSF. In addition, the effect may be an amelioration of the symptoms of COPD or an exacerbated form thereof (e.g. AECOPD). Undesirable effects, e.g. side effects, may sometimes manifest along with the desired therapeutic effect; hence, a practitioner balances the potential benefits against the potential risks in determining what is an appropriate "effective amount". The exact amount of agent required will vary from subject to subject, depending on the species, age and general condition of the subject, mode of administration and the like. Thus, it may not be possible to specify an exact "effective amount". However, an appropriate "effective amount" in any individual case may be determined by one of ordinary skill in the art using routine experimentation. For example, the ability of an αG-CSF antibody to ameliorate the effects of COPD or an exacerbated form thereof can be evaluated in an animal model system. One of ordinary skill in the art would be able to determine the required amounts based on such factors as the subject's size, the severity of the subject's symptoms, and the particular composition or route of administration selected.

[0043] The present invention relates to the use of antibodies to G-CSF and the effective amount may include from about 10µg/kg body weight to 20mg/kg body weight of antibody such as 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100µg/kg body weight, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000µg/kg body weight or 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20mg/kg body weight. Similar amounts are provided for single or combination therapy.

[0044] Reference to "a pulmonary condition or disease" includes any exaggerated or excessive or prolonged inflammatory response in the lungs or pulmonary system, which may be stimulated by a foreign object or irritant such as but not limited to smoke, dust, fumes, particles, bacteria, fungi, yeast or viruses. A range of complications and manifestations of the pulmonary conditions include exacerbated forms (e.g. AECOPD), oxidative stress, emphysema, bronchitis, mucus hypersecretion, cor pulmonale (right sided heart failure or enlargement of the heart and heart failure associated with chronic lung disease), arrhythmias, pneumonia and lung cancer. The complications and manifestations include acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. The pulmonary condition may be chronic or acute or a stage inbetween. Recurring acute forms include exacerbations of a chronic condition.

[0045] The present invention is directed to COPD and its exacerbated forms (e.g. AECOPD). Related conditions and complications and manifestations thereof are outlined above.

[0046] A "pharmaceutically acceptable" carrier and/or diluent is a pharmaceutical vehicle comprised of a material that is not biologically or otherwise undesirable, i.e. the material may be administered to a subject along with the selected active agent without causing any or a substantial adverse reaction. Carriers may include any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, antibacterial and antifungal agents, agents used for adjusting tonicity, buffers, chelating agents, and absorption delaying agents and the like.

[0047] Similarly, a "pharmacologically acceptable" salt of a compound is a salt that is not biologically or otherwise undesirable.

[0048] The terms "treating" and "treatment" as used herein refer to therapeutic treatment and may include prophylactic or preventative measures. For example, treatment may result in a reduction in severity and/or the frequency of symptoms of the pulmonary disease (COPD in accordance with the invention), the elimination of symptoms and/or underlying cause of the inflammation, the prevention of the occurrence of symptoms of inflammation and/or their underlying cause and improvement or remediation or amelioration of damage following inflammation. Hence, the treatment may not result in a "cure" but rather an amelioration of symptoms. In addition, treatment may not commence until an exacerbated event occurs. In this context, the term "prophylactic" also applies to the prevention or treatment of a likelihood of an exacerbated event occurring.

[0049] The terms "treating" and "treatment" as used herein also refer to the reduction of one or more symptoms or characteristics associated with pulmonary diseases characterised by or associated with infiltration of neutrophils. Such symptoms or characteristics include increased neutrophil infiltration, increased neutrophils in BALF and sputum, declined lung function, increased levels of serine proteases, such as, but not limited to, neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and protease-3, as well as MMD-8 and MMP-9.

[0050] Similarly, chimeric antibodies may include antibodies to G-CSF comprising the heavy and light chain variable regions of rat or rabbit antibodies to G-CSF and human heavy and light chain constant domains.

[0051] The terms "condition" and "disease" are used interchangeably throughout the subject specification.

[0052] A "subject" as used herein refers to an animal, preferably a mammal and more preferably a human who can benefit from the agent and use of the present invention. There is no limitation on the type of animal that could benefit from the presently described agent and use. A subject regardless of whether a human or non-human animal may be referred to as an individual, patient, animal, host or recipient as well as subject. The agent and use of the present invention have applications in human medicine and veterinary medicine.

[0053] Preferred mammals are humans and laboratory test animals. Examples of laboratory test animals include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, cats and dogs.

[0054] The agent for use in the present invention is an antibody to G-CSF that inhibits G-CSF signalling through the G-CSF receptor. Such antibodies to G-CSF may be referred to as anti-G-CSF antibodies or as αG-CSF. Antibodies to G-CSFR may be referred to as anti-G-CSFR antibodies or as αG-CSFR.

[0055] Although both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies can be readily produced monoclonal antibodies are particularly preferred as they can be generated in large quantities, are highly specific and are directed against a single antigenic site. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody preparations are homogeneous, making them ideal for generating antigen-binding fragments and other engineered antibody derivatives for therapeutic applications.

[0056] Although polyclonal antibodies are also relatively easily prepared, they are not as useful as monoclonal antibodies as polyclonal antibody preparations typically include different antibodies directed against different antigenic sites and thus are not as suitable for generating antigen-binding fragments and other engineered antibody derivatives for therapeutic applications.

[0057] The hybridoma method described above is used in animals, such as mice, to produce monoclonal antibodies. However, antibodies derived from animals are generally unsuitable for administration to humans as they may cause an immune response. As described below, such antibodies may be modified to become suitable for administration to humans or the desired non-human subject.

[0058] The αG-CSF antibodies, for example, may also be produced using recombinant methods (for example, in an E. coli expression system) well known in the art. In this approach, DNA encoding monoclonal antibodies, such as the murine monoclonal antibodies of the present invention, may be isolated from the hybridoma cell lines, sequenced using standard procedures and optionally manipulated using recombinant DNA technology. For example, the DNA may be fused to another DNA of interest, or altered (such as by mutagenesis or other conventional techniques) to add, delete, or substitute one or more nucleic acid residues. The DNA may be placed into vectors which are then transfected or transformed into appropriate host cells using methods well known in the art (such as described in U.S. Patent Nos: 4,399,216; 4,912,040; 4,740,461 and 4,959,455). The DNA isolated from the hybridoma cell lines may also be modified to change the character of the antibody produced by its expression.

[0059] For example, chimeric forms of murine αG-CSF monoclonal antibodies may be produced by replacing the nucleotides encoding selected murine heavy and light chain constant domains with nucleotides encoding human heavy and light chain constant domains, such as is described in U.S. Patent No. 4,816,567 and by Morrison et al, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 81:6851, 1984. The chimeric antibodies may then be produced in an appropriate cell line, such as a murine myeloma cell line, that has been transfected with modified DNA.

[0060] Thus, among the antibodies contemplated by the present invention are chimeric αG-CSF antibodies that comprise the heavy and light chain variable regions of the murine αG-CSF monoclonal antibody fused to non-murine heavy and light chain antibody constant domains. Preferably, the non-murine heavy and light chain constant domains are human heavy and light chain antibody constant domains. Similarly, chimeric antibodies may include antibodies to G-CSF comprising the heavy and light chain variable regions of rat or rabbit antibodies to G-CSF and human heavy and light chain constant domains.

[0061] The αG-CSF antibodies for use in the present invention also include humanized antibodies. In general, humanized antibodies are human antibodies (the recipient antibody) in which the complementarity determining (CDR) region residues have been replaced by CDR region residues from a non-human species (the donor antibody), such as from a mouse, rat, rabbit or non-human primate. In some cases, certain framework region (FR) residues of the human antibody may also be replaced by corresponding non-human residues, or the humanized antibodies may comprise residues which are not found in the recipient antibody or in the donor antibody. These modifications are made to enhance antibody performance and affinity. In general, the humanized antibody will comprise substantially all of at least one, and typically two, variable regions, in which all or substantially all of the CDR regions correspond to those of a non-human antibody, and all or substantially all of the FRs are those of a human antibody sequence. The humanized antibody may also optionally comprise at least a portion of an antibody constant region (Fc), typically that of a human antibody. (Jones et al, Nature 321:522-525, 1986; Reichmann et al, Nature 332:323-329, 1988; Presta, Curr. Op. Struck. Biol. 2:593-596, 1992; Liu et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:3439, 1987; Larrick et al, Bio/Technology 7:934, 1989; Winter & Harris, TIPS 14:139, 1993; Carter et al, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 89:4285 1992). Similarly, to create a primatized antibody the murine CDR regions can be inserted into a primate framework using methods known in the art (see e.g. WO 93/02108 and WO 99/55369).

[0062] Alternatively, a humanized antibody may be created by a process of "veneering". A statistical analysis of unique human and murine immunoglobulin heavy and light chain variable regions revealed that the precise patterns of exposed residues are different in human and murine antibodies, and most individual surface positions have a strong preference for a small number of different residues (see Padlan et al, Mol. Immunol. 28:489- 498, 1991 and Pedersen et al, J. Mol. Biol. 235:959-973, 1994). Therefore, it is possible to reduce the immunogenicity of a non-human Fv by replacing exposed residues in its framework regions that differ from those usually found in human antibodies. Because protein antigenicity may be correlated with surface accessibility, replacement of the surface residues may be sufficient to render the mouse variable region "invisible" to the human immune system. This procedure of humanization is referred to as "veneering" because only the surface of the antibody is altered, the supporting residues remain undisturbed.

[0063] Further, WO 2004/006955 describes methods for humanizing antibodies, based on selecting variable region framework sequences from human antibody genes by comparing canonical CDR structure types for CDR sequences of the variable region of a non-human antibody to canonical CDR structure types for corresponding CDRs from a library of human antibody sequences, e.g. germline antibody gene segments. Human antibody variable regions having similar canonical CDR structure types to the non-human CDRs form a subset of member human antibody sequences from which to select human framework sequences. The subset members may be further ranked by amino acid similarity between the human and the non-human CDR sequences. In the method of WO 2004/006955, top ranking human sequences are selected to provide the framework sequences for constructing a chimeric antibody that functionally replaces human CDR sequences with the non-human CDR counterparts using the selected subset member human frameworks, thereby providing a humanized antibody of high affinity and low immunogenicity without need for comparing framework sequences between the non-human and human antibodies.

[0064] The CDRs of a given antibody may be readily identified, for example using the system described by Kabat et al in Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, 5th Ed., US Department of Health and Human Services, PHS, NIH, NIH Publication No. 91-3242, 1991).

[0065] In a preferred embodiment, the antibodies for use in the present invention are human monoclonal antibodies. Such human monoclonal antibodies directed against G-CSF can be generated using transgenic or transchromosomic mice carrying parts of the human immune system rather than the mouse system. These transgenic and transchromosomic mice include mice referred to herein as HuMAb mice and KM mice.

[0066] Still further, alternative transgenic animal systems expressing human immunoglobulin genes are available in the art and can be used to raise antibodies. For example, an alternative transgenic system referred to as the Xenomouse (Abgenix, Inc.) can be used; such mice are described in, for example, US Patent Nos. 5,939,598; 6,075,181; 6,114,598; 6,150,584 and 6,162,963.

[0067] Moreover, alternative transchromosomic animal systems expressing human immunoglobulin genes are available in the art and can be used to raise antibodies against G-CSF. For example, mice carrying both a human heavy chain transchromosome and a human light chain transchromosome, referred to as "TC mice" can be used; such mice are described in Tomizuka et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:722-727, 2000.

[0068] Human monoclonal antibodies can also be prepared using phage display methods for screening libraries of human immunoglobulin genes. Such phage display methods for isolating human antibodies are established in the art. See for example: US Patent Nos. 5,223,409; 5,403,484; and 5,571,698; US Patent Nos. 5,427,908 and 5,580,717; US Patent Nos. 5,969,108 and 6,172,197 and US Patent Nos. 5,885,793; 6,521,404; 6,544,731; 6,555,313; 6,582,915 and 6,593,081.

[0069] Human monoclonal antibodies can also be prepared using SCID mice into which human immune cells have been reconstituted such that a human antibody response can be generated upon immunization. Such mice are described in, for example, US Patent Nos. 5,476,996 and 5,698,767.

[0070] The αG-CSF antibodies for use in the present invention also include antigen-binding fragments such as Fv, Fab, Fab' and F(ab')2 fragments. Traditionally, antigen-binding fragments were generated by the proteolytic digestion of full antibodies (Morimoto et al, Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods 24:107-117,1992; Brennan et al, Science 229:81, 1985). A number of recombinant methods have now been developed for producing antigen-binding fragments of antibodies directly in recombinant host cells.

[0071] For example, Fab'-SH fragments can be directly recovered from E. coli and chemically coupled to form F(ab')2 fragments (Carter et al, Bio/Technology 10:163-167, 1992). F(ab')2 fragments can also be formed using the leucine zipper GCN4 to promote assembly of the F(ab')2 molecule. Fv, Fab or F(ab')2 fragments can also be isolated directly from recombinant host cell cultures. A number of recombinant methods have been developed for the production of single chain antibodies including those described in U.S. Patent No. 4,946,778; Bird, Science 242:423, 1988, Huston et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:5879, 1988 and Ward et al, Nature 334:544, 1989. Single chain antibodies may be formed by linking heavy (VH) and light (VL) chain variable region (Fv region) fragments via an short peptide linker to provide a single polypeptide chain (scFvs). The scFvs may also form dimers or trimers, depending on the length of a peptide linker between the two variable regions (Kortt et al, Protein Engineering 10:423, 1997). Phage display is another well known recombinant method for producing the antigen-binding fragments of the present invention.

[0072] The antigen-binding fragments for use in the present invention may be screened for desired properties. The assays described herein provide the means to identify antigen-binding fragments that bind to G-CSF and which antagonize G-CSF signaling through G-CSFR.

[0073] Mammalian cell lines available as hosts for expression are well known in the art and include many immortalized cell lines available from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). These include, inter alia, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, NSO, SP2 cells, HeLa cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, monkey kidney cells (COS), human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (e.g. Hep G2), A549 cells, 3T3 cells, and a number of other cell lines. Mammalian host cells include human, mouse, rat, dog, monkey, pig, goat, bovine, horse and hamster cells. Cell lines of particular preference are selected through determining which cell lines have high expression levels. Other cell lines that may be used are insect cell lines, such as Sf9. cells, amphibian cells, bacterial cells, plant cells and fungal cells. When recombinant expression vectors encoding the heavy chain or antigen-binding portion thereof, the light chain and/or antigen-binding portion thereof are introduced into mammalian host cells, the antibodies are produced by culturing the host cells for a period of time sufficient to allow for expression of the antibody in the host cells or, more preferably, secretion of the antibody into the culture medium in which the host cells are grown.

[0074] Antibodies can be recovered from the culture medium using standard protein purification methods. Further, expression of antibodies of the invention from host cell lines can be enhanced using a number of known techniques. For example, the glutamine synthetase gene expression system (the GS system) is a common approach for enhancing expression under certain conditions. The GS system is discussed in whole or part in connection with European Patent Nos. 0 216 846, 0 256 055, and 0 323 997 and European Patent Application No. 89303964.4.

[0075] Antibodies expressed by different cell lines or in transgenic animals may have different glycosylation patterns from each other. However, all such antibodies to G-CSF for use in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or exacerbated forms thereof are part of the present invention, regardless of the glycosylation pattern of the antibodies.

[0076] Techniques are also known for deriving an antibody of a different subclass or isotype from an antibody of interest, i.e. subclass switching. Thus, IgG1 or IgG4 monoclonal antibodies may be derived from an IgM monoclonal antibody, for example, and vice versa. Such techniques allow the preparation of new antibodies that possess the antigen-binding properties of a given antibody (the parent antibody), but also exhibit biological properties associated with an antibody isotype or subclass different from that of the parent antibody. Recombinant DNA techniques may be employed. Cloned DNA encoding particular antibody polypeptides may be employed in such procedures, e.g. DNA encoding the constant region of an antibody of the desired isotype.

[0077] Vectors available for cloning and expression in host cell lines are well known in the art, and include but are not limited to vectors for cloning and expression in mammalian cell lines, vectors for cloning and expression in bacterial cell lines, vectors for cloning and expression in phage and vectors for cloning and expression insect cell lines. The antibodies can be recovered using standard protein purification methods.

[0078] In a preferred embodiment, antibodies for use in the method of the present invention are human or humanized αG-CSF antibodies which antagonize G-CSF signaling via G-CSFR.

[0079] Preferably, the human or humanized αG-CSF antibodies are in isolated, homogenous or fully or partially purified form.

[0080] More preferably, the human or humanized αG-CSF antibodies are full-length monoclonal antibodies or antigen-binding fragments.

[0081] As indicated above, the selection of antigen-binding fragments or modified forms of the antibodies may be influenced by the effect the fragments or modified forms have on the individual half-life.

[0082] A soluble form of the G-CSFR which competes with the naturally occurring membrane-associated G-CSFR for G-CSF interaction is described herein. Those skilled in the art can readily prepare soluble forms of the receptor, see for example US 5,589,456 and Honjo et al.

[0083] The terms "nucleic acids", "nucleotide" and "polynucleotide" include RNA, cDNA, genomic DNA, synthetic forms and mixed polymers, both sense and antisense strands, and may be chemically or biochemically modified or may contain non-natural or derivatized nucleotide bases, as will be readily appreciated by those skilled in the art. Such modifications include, for example, labels, methylation, substitution of one or more of the naturally occurring nucleotides with an analog (such as the morpholine ring), internucleotide modifications such as uncharged linkages (e.g. methyl phosphonates, phosphotriesters, phosphoamidates, carbamates, etc.), charged linkages (e.g. phosphorothioates, phosphorodithioates, etc.), pendent moieties (e.g. polypeptides), intercalators (e.g. acridine, psoralen, etc.), chelators, alkylators and modified linkages (e.g. α-anomeric nucleic acids, etc.). Also included are synthetic molecules that mimic polynucleotides in their ability to bind to a designated sequence via hydrogen binding and other chemical interactions. Such molecules are known in the art and include, for example, those in which peptide linkages substitute for phosphate linkages in the backbone of the molecule.

[0084] The terms "nucleobases" and "nucleotides" may be used interchangeably.

[0085] The aspect described above can be worked by conventional molecular biology and recombinant DNA techniques. The techniques are well known in the art and are described in various publications, such as Sambrook, Fritsch & Maniatis, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Second Edition (1989) Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.; DNA Cloning: A Practical Approach, Volumes I and II, D. N. Glover ed. 1985 and Ausubel et al. (eds.), Currant Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.

[0086] Nucleic acids may be flanked by natural regulatory (expression control) sequences, or may be associated with heterologous sequences, including promoters, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and other ribosome binding site sequences, enhancers, response elements, suppressors, signal sequences, polyadenylation sequences, introns, 5'-and 3'-non-coding regions, and the like.

[0087] A "promoter" or "promoter sequence" is a DNA regulatory region capable of binding an RNA polymerase in a cell and initiating transcription of a coding sequence. A promoter sequence is generally bounded at its 3' terminus by the transcription initiation site and extends upstream in the 5' direction to include the minimum number of bases or elements necessary to initiate transcription at any level. A transcription initiation site as well as protein binding domains (consensus sequences) responsible for the binding of RNA polymerase may be found within the promoter sequence. The promoter may be operably associated with other expression control sequences, including enhancer and repressor sequences or with a nucleic acid. Promoters which may be used to control gene expression include cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the SV40 early promoter region.

[0088] A coding sequence is "under the control of", "functionally associated with" or "operably associated with" transcriptional and translational control sequences in a cell when the sequences direct RNA polymerase mediated transcription of the coding sequence into RNA, preferably mRNA, which then may be trans-RNA spliced (if it contains introns) and, optionally, translated into a protein encoded by the coding sequence.

[0089] The terms "express" and "expression" mean allowing or causing the information in a gene, RNA or DNA sequence to be converted into a product; for example, producing a protein by activating the cellular functions involved in transcription and translation of a nucleotide sequence. A DNA sequence is expressed in or by a cell to form an "expression product" such as RNA (such as mRNA or a double stranded short RNA, hairpin RNA or antisense RNA) or a protein (such as an antagonist of cytokine activity or portion of an anti-cytokine antibody). The expression product itself may also be said to be "expressed" by the cell.

[0090] The terms "vector", "cloning vector" and "expression vector" mean the vehicle (such as a plasmid) by which a DNA or RNA sequence can be introduced into a host cell, so as to transform the host and, optionally, promote expression and/or replication of the introduced sequence.

[0091] The term "transfection" or "transformation" means the introduction of a nucleic acid into a cell. These terms may refer to the introduction of a nucleic acid encoding a cytokine cross-reactive antibody or a fragment thereof into a cell. A host cell that receives the introduced DNA or RNA has been "transformed" and is a "transformant" or a "clone". The DNA or RNA introduced to a host cell can come from any source, including cells of the same genus or species as the host cell, or cells of a different genus or species.

[0092] The term "host cell" means any cell of any organism that is selected, modified, transfected, transformed, grown, or used or manipulated in any way, for the production of a substance by the cell, for example the expression of a protein or the replication of a gene.

[0093] The term "expression system" means a host cell and compatible vector which, under suitable conditions, can express a protein or nucleic acid which is carried by the vector and introduced to the host cell. Common expression systems include E. coli host cells and plasmid vectors, insect host cells and Baculovirus vectors, and mammalian host cells and vectors.

[0094] Agents disclosed herein (e.g. antibodies, proteins such as non-signalling mutant forms of G-CSF, small chemical molecules, soluble receptors, etc) may be conveniently supplied in pharmaceutical compositions.

[0095] Composition forms suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions (where water soluble) and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions. It must be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and must be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. The carrier can be a solvent or dilution medium comprising, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol and liquid polyethylene glycol, and the like), suitable mixtures thereof and vegetable oils. The proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of superfactants. Prevention of the action of microorganisms can be brought about by various anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents, for example, parabens, chlorobutanol, phenol, sorbic acid, thirmerosal and the like. In many cases, it will be preferable to include agents to adjust tonicity, for example, sugars or sodium chloride. Prolonged absorption of the injectable compositions can be brought about by the use in the compositions of agents delaying absorption, for example, aluminium monostearate and gelatin.

[0096] Sterile injectable solutions are prepared by incorporating the active compounds in the required amount in the appropriate solvent with the active ingredient and optionally other active ingredients as required, followed by filtered sterilization or other appropriate means of sterilization. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, suitable methods of preparation include vacuum drying and the freeze-drying technique which yield a powder of active ingredient plus any additionally desired ingredient.

[0097] When the modulator is suitably protected, it may be orally administered, for example, with an inert diluent or with an assimilable edible carrier, or it may be enclosed in hard or soft shell gelatin capsule, or it may be compressed into tablets, or it may be incorporated directly with the food of the diet or administered via breast milk. For oral therapeutic administration, the active ingredient may be incorporated with excipients and used in the form of ingestible tablets, buccal tablets, troches, capsules, elixirs, suspensions, syrups, wafers and the like. Such compositions and preparations should contain at least 1% by weight of modulator. The percentage of the compositions and preparations may, of course, be varied and may conveniently be between about 5 to about 80% of the weight of the unit. The amount of modulator in such therapeutically useful compositions is such that a suitable dosage will be obtained. Compositions or preparations may be prepared so that an oral dosage unit form contains between about 0.1 µg and 200 mg of modulator. Alternative dosage amounts include from about 1 µg to about 1000 mg and from about 10 µg to about 500 mg. These dosages may be per individual or per kg body weight. Administration may be per hour, day, week, month or year.

[0098] Tablets, troches, pills, capsules, creams and the like may also contain the components as listed hereafter. A binder such as gum, acacia, corn starch or gelatin; excipients such as dicalcium phosphate; a disintegrating agent such as corn starch, potato starch, alginic acid and the like; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate; and a sweetening agent such as sucrose, lactose or saccharin may be added or a flavoring agent such as peppermint, oil of wintergreen or cherry flavoring. When the dosage unit form is a capsule, it may contain, in addition to materials of the above type, a liquid carrier. Various other materials may be present as coatings or to otherwise modify the physical form of the dosage unit. For instance, tablets, pills or capsules may be coated with shellac, sugar or both. A syrup or elixir may contain the active compound, sucrose as a sweetening agent, methyl and propylparabens as preservatives, a dye and flavoring such as cherry or orange flavor. Of course, any material used in preparing any dosage unit form should be pharmaceutically pure and substantially non-toxic in the amounts employed. In addition, the active compound(s) may be incorporated into sustained-release preparations and formulations.

[0099] Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and/or diluents include any and all solvents, dispersion media, coatings, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal agents, isotonic and absorption delaying agents and the like. The use of such media and agents for pharmaceutical active agents is well known in the art and except insofar as any conventional media or agent is incompatible with the modulator, their use in the therapeutic compositions is contemplated. Supplementary active compounds can also be incorporated into the compositions.

[0100] As indicated above, administration may be by any means. For the treatment of pulmonary inflammatory conditions intra-nasal, intravenous and intra-pulmonary administration is particularly efficacious.

[0101] Dosage regimens may be adjusted to provide the optimum desired response (e.g. a therapeutic response). For example, a single bolus may be administered, several divided doses may be administered over time or the dose may be proportionally reduced or increased as indicated by exigencies of the therapeutic situation. It is especially advantageous to formulate parenteral compositions in dosage unit form for ease of administration and uniformity of dosage.

[0102] A physician or veterinarian having ordinary skill in the art can readily determine and prescribe the effective amount of the pharmaceutical composition required. For example, the physician or veterinarian could start doses of the αG-CSF antibody for use in the present invention, employed in a pharmaceutical composition at levels lower than that required in order to achieve the desired therapeutic effect and gradually increase the dosage until the desired effect is achieved. In general, a suitable daily dose of a composition may be that amount of the compound which is the lowest dose effective to produce a therapeutic effect. Such an effective dose will generally depend upon the factors described above. It is preferred that administration be by injection, preferably proximal to the site of the target (e.g. lung). If desired, the effective daily dose of a pharmaceutical composition may be administered as two, three, four, five, six or more subdoses administered separately at appropriate intervals throughout the day.

[0103] For therapeutic applications, the αG-CSF antibodies for use in the present invention are administered to a mammal, preferably a human, in a pharmaceutically acceptable dosage form such as those discussed above, including those that may be administered to a human intravenously as a bolus or by continuous infusion over a period of time by intra-pulmonary, nasal, oral or intra-arterial routes.

[0104] Animal models useful for testing inhibition of G-CSF or its receptor, or other approaches to antagonism of G-CSF activity, include acute LPS exposure, sub-chronic cigarette smoke exposure and influenza infection of smoke-exposed mice (exacerbation model).

[0105] In these models, neutrophilic inflammation, TNFα production and excessive protease activity enable the determination of the effectiveness of αG-CSF/αG-CSFR antibodies or other antagonists, or reduced G-CSF levels or G-CSF signalling, in suppressing some of the key features of COPD-like inflammation.

[0106] Neutrophils are a major predominant cell type infiltrating the airways of COPD patients (Beeh and Beier, Clin Exp Allergy 26(2):142-157, 2006; Stockley, Chest 121(5 Suppl):151S-155S, 2002). The ability of neutrophils to generate reactive oxygen species and proteases is critical to their host defence role. However, as with all aspects of the immune response, over-activity can be detrimental.

[0107] The cytokine milieu present in the airways of COPD sufferers provides the ideal environment for enhanced neutrophilic inflammation (Barnes, N Engl J Med 343(4):269-280, 2000; Barnes, Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 14(6):511-522, 2003). Since neutrophil survival in the healthy lung is normally very limited, the prolonged life of neutrophils in COPD is an important feature.

[0108] In accordance with the present invention, suppression of G-CSF with a test antagonist had a significant impact on neutrophil number in the BALF and blood induced by LPS, cigarette smoke exposure and influenza infection. As neutrophils are key mediators of COPD-like inflammation, the significant reduction in neutrophil numbers induced by the G-CSF antagonist in all three COPD models indicates that the antagonism of G-CSF activity is a useful therapeutic approach.

[0109] In the Examples the following methods are employed.

Animals



[0110] Specific pathogen-free male Balb/C mice aged 7 weeks and weighing -20 g were obtained from the Animal Resource Centre Pty. Ltd. (Perth, Australia). The animals were housed at 20 C on a 12-h day/night cycle in sterile micro-isolators and fed a standard sterile diet of Purina mouse chow with water allowed ad libitum.

Cigarette smoke exposure



[0111] Mice were placed in an 18 litre perspex chamber in a class II biosafety cabinet and exposed to cigarette smoke. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days, delivered three times per day at 8.00 am, 12 noon and 4 pm using 3 cigarettes spaced over one hour. In pilot experiments, it was found that 3, 6 and 9 cigarettes per day are very well tolerated. Sham-exposed mice were placed in an 18 litre perspex chamber but do not receive cigarette smoke. On the fifth day, mice were killed by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) overdose of anaesthetic (5.6 mg ketamine/1.12 mg xylazine, Parnell Laboratories, NSW, Australia) and the lungs lavaged with PBS. Commercially available filter-tipped cigarettes (manufactured by Philip Morris, Australia) of the following composition were used: 16 mg or less of tar, 1.2 mg or less of nicotine and 15 mg or less of CO. Smoke was generated in 50 ml tidal volumes over 10 s using timed draw-back mimicking normal smoking inhalation volume and cigarette burn rate. Group sizes of 8 mice per treatment were used to ensure the study was powered to detect differences in response variable at the 0.05 confidence level.

Drug administration



[0112] Mice were given the specified doses of PBS, isotype control or anti-G-CSF antibody (as outlined in section 1) once daily (60 minutes prior to first smoke), administered by i.p. injection.

Virus infection



[0113] Mice exposed to cigarette smoke (as described above) are infected with a non-lethal, mouse adapted influenza strain [Mem71, H3N1] at a dose known (in normal mice) to cause productive replication and inflammation, but no overt disease. Mice are dissected 3d and 10d after influenza infection. Control mice receive a preparation of uninfected cells used to grow the virus.

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)



[0114] BAL was performed in terminally anaesthetized mice. Briefly, lungs from each mouse were lavaged in situ with a 400 µl aliquot, followed by three 300 µl of PBS, with approximately 1 ml of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) recovered from each animal. Smoke exposure had no effect on the recovered volume. The total number of viable cells in the BALF was determined by using the fluorophores ethidium bromide and acridine orange (Molecular Probes, San Diego, USA) on a standard Neubauer hemocytometer using a Zeiss Axioscope Fluorescence microscope. Cytospins were prepared using 200 µl BALF at 350 rpm for 10 min on a Cytospin 3 (Shandon, UK). Cytospin preparations were stained with DiffQuik (Dade Baxter, Australia) and cells identified and differentiated into mononuclear, epithelial, eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages by standard morphological criteria. A minimum of 500 cells per slide were counted.

Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assays (ELISAs)



[0115] TNFα concentrations in BALF samples were measured using Pharmingen OptEIA (Trademark) ELISA kits (Pharmingen) as per manufacturer's instructions. The absorbances were read at 450 nm (Victor 1420 Multilabel Counter, Wallac), and analysed using the Microplate Manager (Registered) (BioRad, USA) program, which derived the standard curve and sample absorbances.

Protease Expression and Activity in BALF



[0116] Zymography was used to assess protease expression. Briefly, BALF from animals in each treatment group were pooled and concentrated by adding 250 µl of 50% v/v trichloroacetic acid to 500 µl of pooled BALF samples and left at 4 °C overnight. The next day samples were spun (13,000 rpm for 10 min, at 4 °C) and the pellet washed twice with 300 µl 80% diethyl ether (in 20% v/v ethanol) and dried in air for 10 min. The pellet was then resuspended in 50 µl of 1 x non-reducing buffer, heated for 10 min at 65 °C and 20 µl loaded on SDS-page mini-gels. SDS-page mini-gels (10% v/v) were prepared with the incorporation of gelatin (2 mg/ml) before casting. BALF (20 µl) was run into gels at a constant voltage of 200 V under non-reducing conditions. When the dye front reached the bottom, gels were removed and washed twice for 15 min in 2.5% v/v Triton X-100 and incubated at 37 °C overnight in zymography buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), 5 mM CaCl2, 1 mM ZnCl2 and 0.01% v/v NaN3). The gels were then stained for 45 min with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 and extensively destained. Following destaining, zones of enzyme activity appeared clear against the Coomassie Blue background.

[0117] Neat BALF was also tested for net gelatinase and net serine protease activity using fluorescence-conjugated gelatin (Molecular Probes, USA) and N-methoxysuccinyl-ala-ala-pro-val-p-Nitroanilide (Sigma, USA), respectively. The gelatin substrate (10 µg) was diluted in 50 mM Tris pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM CaCl2, 0.01% v/v NaN3 and incubated at room temperature for 16 h with 100 µl of neat BALF. The digested substrate had absorption/emission maxima at 495 nm/515 nm. The N-methoxysuccinyl-ala-ala-pro-val-p-Nitroanilide substrate (50 µg) was diluted in 50 mM Tris pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM CaCl2, 0.01% NaN3 and incubated at room temperature for 16 h with 100 µl of neat BALF. The digested substrate had absorption maxima at 405 nm. The fluorescence intensity of the substrates was measured in a microplate reader (Victor II, Wallac) to detect quantitative differences in activity.

Virus quantitation



[0118] Whole lungs were removed from 4 mice per treatment group and weighed. Lungs were homogenized in maintenance medium, with 2x15 sec pulses, followed by a low speed clearing spin. Serial dilutions of lung homogenate were then used in plaque assays as previously described (Youil, J Virol Methods 120(1):23-31, 2004) and viral titres were expressed as pfu/g lung.

Histology



[0119] To ensure consistent morphological preservation of lungs, mice were killed by intraperitoneal anaesthesia (5.6 mg ketamine/1.12 mg xylazine) overdose and then perfusion fixed via a tracheal cannula with 4% v/v formaldehyde at exactly 200mm H2O pressure. After 1 h, the trachea was ligated, the lungs were removed from the thorax and immersed in 4% v/v formaldehyde for a minimum period of 24 h. After fixation of the lung tissue and processing in paraffin wax, sections (3 - 4 µm thick) were cut transversely through the left lobe. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for general histopathology.

Statistical analyses



[0120] As data were normally distributed, they are presented as grouped data expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean (s.e.m.); n represents the number of mice. Differences in total BALF cell types and differential counts were determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett post hoc test for multiple comparisons, where appropriate. In some cases, Student's unpaired t-test was used to determine if there were significant differences between means of pairs. All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism (Trademark) for Windows (Version 3.03). In all cases, probability levels less than 0.05 (*P<0.05) were taken to indicate statistical significance.

EXAMPLE 1


Rationale and Study Design



[0121] This is a model of acute lung inflammation where instilled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces intense neutrophilic inflammation. Detailed kinetics and the use of anti-GM-CSF antibodies in this model system have previously been published (Bozinovski et al, J Biol Chem 277(45):42808-42814, 2002; Bozinovski et al, Am JPhysiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 286(4):L877-885, 2004) . Under the conditions described below, inflammation in this model is refractory to the glucocorticosteroid dexamethsaone (Bozinovski et al, J Proteome Res 4(1):136-145, 2005).

Experimental design:



[0122] Mice were treated with either isotype control or 250µg/dose ip of αG-CSF at t = -3 hours, exposed to one dose of LPS at t = 0, and then dissected 24 hours later (Figure 1).
  1. (i) Groups:

    Control-no treatment

    Saline

    LPS

    LPS + isotype (Rat IgG1, GL113)

    LPS + αG-CSF (Rat αG-CSF, MAB414)

    Saline + isotype (Rat IgG1, GL113)

    Saline + αG-CSF (Rat αG-CSF, MAB414)

  2. (ii) Endpoints:

    BAL fluid

    • total/differential cell counts
    • ELISAs (TNF alpha)
    • zymography (protease induction)
    • protease activity

    Blood

    • blood smears
    • total/differential cell counts

    Whole lungs

    • snap-frozen and pooled for each group

    The data are of BAL fluid and blood cell counts, graphs of ELISA results, graphs of protease activity and zymography gels. Frozen BAL fluid samples and pooled lung samples have also been retained.

  3. (iii) Mice:

    Male Balb/c mice; 6 weeks of age; approximately 20 grams

    8/group

    56 mice supplied by ARC, Perth.

  4. (iv) Drug formulation:

    Test compound: αG-CSF antibody (αG-CSF)

    Specificity: mouse G-CSF (neutralises G-CSF bioactivity)

    Ig class: rat IgG1

    Source: R&D Systems

    Catalog number: MAB414

    Clone: 67604

    Endotoxin level: <0.1 EU per 1 µg of mAb, as supplied by R&D.

    Formulation: Supplied as a 0.2 µM filtered solution in PBS at 9.95 mg/mL. Diluted to 1.0 mg/mL with sterile endotoxin free PBS. Stored as 5 mg (5 mL) aliquots, at -20C.

    Dosage: 250 µg/injection/mouse, i.p.

    Test compound: isotype control antibody (isotype)

    Specificity: E. coli β-galactosidase

    Ig class: rat IgG1

    Source: Walter and Eliza Hall Institute Monoclonal Antibody Lab Clone: GL113

    Endotoxin level: <0.1 EU per 1 µg of mAb, as supplied by WEHI.

    Formulation: Supplied as sterile solution in PBS at 1.3 mg/mL. Diluted to 1.0 mg/mL with sterile endotoxin free PBS. Stored in 5 mg (5 mL) aliquots, at -20C.

    Dosage: 250 µg/injection/mouse, i.p.


Effect of αG-CSF antibody on inflammatory cell number in BALF of LPS-treated mice



[0123] αG-CSF antibody, isotype control or PBS (saline) did not increase inflammatory cell number in the BALF of saline-treated animals (Figures 2a through to d).

[0124] LPS caused a significant increase in total cell number (Figure 2a), neutrophils (Figure 2c) and lymphocytes (Figure 2d) in the BALF. The isotype control did not have an effect on inflammatory cell number.

[0125] In contrast, αG-CSF caused a significant decrease in the total number of cells and the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, but not macrophages, in LPS-treated animals (Figure 2).

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on protein levels of TNFα, in BALF of LPS-treated mice, as determined by ELISAs



[0126] There was very little TNFα detected in the BALF of saline- or LPS-treated animals at the 24 hour timepoint (Figure 3). However, it appeared that αG-CSF caused a marked increase in TNFα levels in the BALF of LPS-treated mice.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on protease expression and activity in BALF of LPS-treated mice, as determined by zymography and protease assays



[0127] LPS treatment caused a marked increase in MMP9 expression (Figure 4a) and protease activity (Figures 4b and c) in the BALF of mice. However, there was no effect of either isotype control or αG-CSF on LPS-induced protease expression or activity.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on inflammatory cell number in blood of LPS-treated mice



[0128] LPS caused a significant increase in the number of total viable cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the blood of treated mice. αG-CSF caused a significant reduction in neutrophil number in LPS-treated animals, but did not affect total viable cell or macrophage numbers. Note that there were no lymphocytes detected in the blood of any of the animals.

EXAMPLE 2


Sub-Chronic Smoke



[0129] In this model, mice were exposed to smoke (or sham handled) 3 times a day (2 cigarettes/exposure) for 4 days, and analyzed on the fifth day, as previously described (Chen et al, Neuropsychopharmacology 30(4),713-719 2005).

Experimental design:



[0130] Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 days, 3 times per day. Mice were treated with either isotype control or 250µg/dose ip of αG-CSF at t=d-1 and d2, and then dissected on day 5. Smoke exposure conditions were as previously described (Vlahos et al, Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 290(5):L931-945, 2006). Briefly, mice received smoke from 3 cigarettes for 1 h and this was done three times a day for up to 4 days. Commercially available filter-tipped cigarettes (manufactured by Philip Morris, Australia) of the following composition were used: 16 mg or less of tar, 1.2 mg or less of nicotine and 15 mg or less of CO. Smoke was generated in 50 ml tidal volumes over 10 s using timed draw-back mimicking normal smoking inhalation volume and cigarette burn rate (Figure 6).
  1. (i) Groups:

    Sham (handled, but not exposed to smoke)

    Sham + isotype (Rat IgG1, GL1113)

    Sham + αG-CSF (Rat αG-CSF, MAB414)

    Smoke alone

    Smoke + isotype (Rat IgG1, GL113)

    Smoke + αG-CSF (Rat αG-CSF, MAB414)

  2. (ii) Endpoints:

    BAL fluid

    • total/differential cell counts
    • ELISAs (TNF alpha)
    • zymography (protease induction)
    • protease activity

    Blood

    • blood smears
    • total/differential cell counts

    Whole lungs

    • snap-frozen and pooled for each group


    The data are of BAL fluid and blood cell counts, graphs of ELISA results, graphs of protease activity and zymography gels. Frozen BAL fluid samples and pooled lung samples have also been retained.
  3. (iii) Mice required:

    8/group

    48 mice (described above)

  4. (iv) Drug formulation:

    Test compound: αG-CSF antibody (described above)

    Test compound: isotype control antibody (described above)


Effect of αG-CSF antibody on inflammatory cell number in BALF of smoke-exposed mice



[0131] The αG-CSF antibody did not increase the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF of sham mice (Figure 7).

[0132] 4-day smoke exposure caused a significant increase in the number of macrophages (Figure 7b), neutrophils (Figure 7c) and lymphocytes (Figure 7d), as well as total cell number (Figure 7a), in the BALF of mice.

[0133] The isotype control reduced total cell number and the number of macrophages and neutrophils in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice, while αG-CSF caused a significant reduction in the number of macrophages, neutrophils and total cells, and a marked reduction in the number of lymphocytes in BALF.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on protein levels of TNFα, in BALF of smoke-exposed mice, as determined by ELISAs



[0134] While there were low levels of TNFα detectable in the BALF of sham-treated animals (Figure 8), cigarette smoke exposure caused a marked increase in TNFα levels. The isotype control caused a slight reduction and αG-CSF caused a significant reduction in TNFα levels in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on protease expression and activity in BALF of smoke-exposed mice, as determined by zymography and protease assays



[0135] There was a significant increase in MMP9 expression in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice which was reduced by αG-CSF but not isotype control (Figure 9a).

[0136] In contrast, there was no significant increase in either gelatinase (Figure 9b) or serine protease activity (Figure 9c) after smoke exposure. There was no discernable effect of the isotype control or αG-CSF on serine protease activity, although αG-CSF appeared to cause a significant increase in gelatinase activity.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on inflammatory cell number in blood of smoke-exposed mice



[0137] Smoke exposure caused a significant increase in neutrophil numbers in the blood, compared to sham-treated animals. Note that there were no lymphocytes detected in the blood of any of the animals.

[0138] The isotype control caused a significant reduction in total cell number and the number of macrophages in the blood of smoke-exposed animals, while αG-CSF antibody caused a significant reduction in total cell, neutrophil and macrophage numbers in smoke-exposed animals.

EXAMPLE 3


Smoke and Influenza (Exacerbation) Study


Experimental design:



[0139] Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 days, 3 times per day (day-5 to day -2). Mice were then infected with influenza (MDCK cell-derived Mem-71, influenza A strain) or diluent (uninfected MDCK cell preparation) on day 0. Mice were treated with either isotype control or 250µg/dose ip of αG-CSF at t=d-1 and d2, and then dissected on day 3 or day 10.
  1. (i) Groups:
    1. 1. Control-no treatment (x 2)
    2. 2. Diluent (x 2)
    3. 3. Diluent + isotype (x 2)
    4. 4. Diluent + αG-CSF (x2)
    5. 5. Influenza (x 2)
    6. 6. Influenza + isotype (x 2)
    7. 7. Influenza + αG-CSF (x 2)
  2. (ii) Endpoints:

    BAL fluid

    • total/differential cell counts
    • ELISAs (TNF alpha)
    • zymography (protease induction)
    • protease activity

    Blood

    • blood smears
    • total/differential cell counts

    Whole lungs

    • lung viral quantitation
    • PFA-fixed lungs for histology (Grp1, 5, 6, 7 only)
    • snap-frozen and pooled for each group


    The data are of BAL fluid and blood cell counts, graphs of ELISA results, lung viral titres, graphs of protease activity and zymography gels. Quantitative lung histology results and histology slides has been provided for control and influenza-treated groups at both timepoints. Frozen BAL fluid samples and pooled lung samples have also been retained.
  3. (iii) Mice required:

    12/group (ie 8 for BAL and 4 for viral titration in whole lungs)

    Additional 4/group in Grp1, 5, 6, 7 for histology

    184 mice (as described in section 1.1)

  4. (iv) Drug formulation:

    Test compound: αG-CSF antibody (described above)

    Test compound: isotype control antibody (described above)


Effect of αG-CSF antibody on inflammatory cell number in BALF of influenza-treated and smoke-exposed mice



[0140] At Day 3 post-infection (Figure 12), cigarette smoke-exposure caused a marked increase in the total number of cells (Figure 12a) and numbers of macrophages (Figure 12b) and lymphocytes (Figure 12d) in BALF, which was further elevated, along with neutrophil number (Figure 12c), by influenza infection of smoke-exposed mice.

[0141] The isotype control had no effect on total cell number or number of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in the BALF of smoke-exposed, influenza-treated mice.

[0142] αG-CSF, however, caused a significant reduction in the total number of cells and the number of macrophages and neutrophils, and a marked reduction in lymphocyte numbers in the BALF of smoke-exposed and influenza-treated animals.

[0143] At Day 10 post-infection (Figure 13), cigarette smoke exposure did not cause a marked increase in inflammatory cell number in the BALF. However, influenza-infection of smoke-exposed mice caused a marked increase in all inflammatory cells in the BALF (Figures 13a-d) which was slightly increased by isotype control, but markedly decreased by αG-CSF antibody treatment.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on protein levels of TNFα, in BALF of influenza-treated and smoke-exposed mice, as determined by ELISAs



[0144] Cigarette smoke exposure caused a marked increase in BALF TNFα levels at Day 3 and Day 10 (Figure 14). Influenza caused a reduction in BALF TNFα at Day 3 post-infection which was further reduced by αG-CSF (Figure 14a).

[0145] At Day 10 post-infection, influenza caused a small increase in BALF TNFα in smoke-exposed mice which was only slightly reduced by αG-CSF treatment (Figure 14b).

[0146] The isotype control caused slight reductions in TNFα levels at both Day 3 and Day 10 which were not as marked as with αG-CSF antibody treatment.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on protease expression and activity in BALF of influenza-treated and smoke-exposed mice, as determined by zymography and protease assays



[0147] At Day 3 post-infection, cigarette smoke caused a slight increase in MMP9 expression (Figure 15a) and gelatinase activity (Figure 15c). Gelatinase activity was further elevated with influenza infection. This elevation in protease levels and activity was reduced with αG-CSF treatment.

[0148] At Day 10 post-infection, cigarette smoke caused a reduction in MMP9 levels in BALF (Figure 15b). Influenza infection increased MMP9 levels and gelatinase activity (Figure 15c) in BALF of smoke-exposed mice at Day 10, and this elevation in protease levels and activity was reduced with αG-CSF.

[0149] There was no effect of either cigarette smoke exposure or influenza-infection on serine protease activity in BALF at Day 3 or Day 10 (Figure 15e and f) and, therefore, no discernable effect of αG-CSF.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on inflammatory cell number in blood of influenza-treated and smoke-exposed mice



[0150] At Day 3 post-infection (Figure 16), cigarette smoke caused a marked increase in inflammatory cells in the blood which was significantly increased after influenza exposure (macrophage numbers were markedly elevated after influenza infection). αG-CSF caused a significant reduction in neutrophil number in the blood of smoke-exposed and influenza-infected animals (Figure 16c), and a marked reduction in total cell number in the blood. αG-CSF had little effect on macrophage number in the blood of smoke-exposed, influenza-infected mice.

[0151] At Day 10 post-infection (Figure 17), influenza infection caused a significant increase in total cell, macrophage and neutrophil numbers in the blood of smoke-exposed mice. αG-CSF caused a significant reduction in neutrophil number and a marked reduction in macrophage and total cell number in the blood of smoke-exposed and influenza-infected mice.

Effect of αG-CSF antibody on viral titres in the lungs of influenza-treated and smoke exposed mice



[0152] αG-CSF caused a marked reduction in viral titres in smoke-exposed and influenza-infected mice, compared to isotype-treated mice (Figure 18) at Day 3 post-infection. No virus was detected in any of the treatment groups at Day 10 post-infection.

Effect of αGCSF antibody on inflammatory cell recruitment into the lung tissue of influenza-treated and smoke-exposed mice, as determined by histological analyses



[0153] Samples were taken from the PFA-fixed lungs of control, influenza-treated + smoke-exposed and influenza + smoke + αG-CSF antibody-treated mice and paraffin-mounted and stained to reveal structural and cellular changes in lung parenchyma, vasculature and bronchi. Images were taken using a Zeiss microscope at 10X and 20x. Images taken at both Day 3 and Day 10 of a peribronchial region in the left lung showed that smoke and influenza caused marked potentiation of inflammation recognized as infiltration of the region between blood vessels and bronchus with mononuclear cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Parenchymal infiltration was also evident. In comparison to isotype control, the αG-CSF antibody markedly reduced the extent of inflammation in all regions.

EXAMPLE 4


Sub-Chronic Smoke



[0154] In this model, mice were exposed to smoke (or sham handled) 3 times a day (2 cigarettes/ exposure) for 4 days, and analyzed on the fifth day, as previously described (Chen et al, Neuropsycho-pharmacology 30(4):713-719, 2005). Mice were treated with either isotype control or 85 µg tn or 250 µg ip of anti-GCSF at t=d-1 and d+2.

Experimental design:



[0155] Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 days, 3 times per day. Mice were treated with either isotype control (250µg/dose ip or 85µg/dose tn) or anti-GCSF (250µg/dose ip or 85µg/dose tn) at t=d-1 and d2, and then dissected on day 5. Smoke exposure conditions were as previously described (Vlahos et al, supra 2006). Briefly, mice received smoke from 3 cigarettes for 1 h and this was done three times per day for up to 4 days. Commercially available filter-tipped cigarettes (manufactured by Philip Morris, Australia) of the following composition were used: 16 mg or less of tar, 1.2 mg or less of nicotine and 15 mg or less of CO. Smoke was generated in 50 ml tidal volumes over 10 s using timed draw-back mimicking normal smoking inhalation volume and cigarette burn rate.
  1. (i) Groups:
    1. 1. Sham (handled but no smoke exposure)
    2. 2. Smoke alone
    3. 3. Smoke + isotype via transnasal (85µg = 50µL @ 1.7 mg/mL) (Rat IgG1, GL113)
    4. 4. Smoke + anti-GCSF via transnasal (85µg = 50µL @ 1.7 mg/mL) (Rat anti-GCSF, MAB414)
    5. 5. Smoke + isotype via IP injection (250µg) (Rat IgG1, GL113)
    6. 6. Smoke + anti-GCSF via IP injection (250µg) (Rat anti-GCSF, MAB414)
  2. (ii) Endpoints:

    BAL fluid

    • total/differential cell counts
    • ELISAs (TNF alpha)
    • zymography (protease induction)

    Blood

    • total/differential cell counts

    Whole lungs

    • snap-frozen and pooled for each group


    Note: The following graphs have been provided: graphs of BAL fluid and blood cell counts, graphs of ELISA results and zymography gels. Frozen BAL fluid samples and pooled lung samples will be shipped to the client.
  3. (iii) Mice required:

    8/group

    48 mice

  4. (iv) Drug formulation:

    Test compound: αG-CSF antibody

    Specificity: mouse G-CSF (neutralises G-CSF bioactivity)

    Ig class: rat IgG1

    Source: R&D Systems

    Catalog number: MAB414

    Clone: 67604

    Endotoxin level: <0.1 EU per 1 µg of mAb, as supplied by R&D.

    Formulation: Supplied as a 0.2 µM filtered solution in PBS at 9.95 mg/mL.

    Diluted to 1.0 mg/mL with sterile endotoxin free

    PBS: Provided as 5 mg (5 mL) aliquots, stored at -20°C.

    Dosage: 250 µg/injection/mouse, i.p or 85µg/transnasal/mouse, t.n.

    Test compound: isotype control antibody

    Specificity: E. coli β-galactosidase

    Ig class: rat IgG1

    Source: Walter and Eliza Hall Institute Monoclonal Antibody Lab

    Clone: GL113

    Endotoxin level: <0.1 EU per 1 µg of mAb, as supplied by WEHI.

    Formulation: Supplied as a sterile solution in PBS at 1.3 mg/mL. Diluted to 1.0 mg/mL with sterile endotoxin free PBS. Provided in 5 mg (5 mL) aliquots; stored at -20°C.

    Dosage: 250 µg/injection/mouse, i.p or 85µg/transnasal/mouse, t.n .


Effect of αG-CSF antibody on inflammatory cell number in BALF of smoke-exposed mice



[0156] 4-day smoke exposure caused a significant increase in total viable cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BALF compared to the sham group (Figure 19).

[0157] The αG-CSF antibody administered transnasally, caused a significant reduction in total viable cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BALF compared to the transnasally-administered isotype group.

[0158] The αG-CSF antibody administered via intraperitoneal injection caused a significant reduction in total viable cells and neutrophils, but had no effect on macrophage or lymphocyte numbers, in the BALF compared to the isotype (ip) group.

EXAMPLE 5


Inhibition of G-CSF mediated proliferation in hG-CSF Receptor expressing Ba/F3 cells by various G-CSF antagonists



[0159] BaF3 cells stably transfected with hG-CSFR as described by Layton et al, supra 1997 were cultured in 96 well plates at 20,000 cells / well in DMEM media with 5% FBS and 0.5ng/ml rh or mGCSF (R&D Sytems Cat # 214-CS and Cat# 414-CS respectively). G-CSF antagonists (R&D Systems MAB414, anti-hG-CSFR mAb711 and hG-CSFR-Fc) were added at threefold titrating doses starting from 1µM and cell proliferation measured by MTS reduction (Cory et al, Cancer Commun. 3:207-12, 1991; Riss and Moravec, sura 1993) after 48 hours culture.

A. Inhibition by anti-G-CSF Antibody:



[0160] A commercial R&D Systems antibody MAB414 was able to inhibit mG-CSF proliferation with an IC50 of 10pM.

B. Inhibition by anti-hG-CSFR Antibody:



[0161] A murine monoclonal antibody against the hG-CSF Receptor, mAb711, (Layton et al, supra 1997) and its humanized derivative were able to inhibit mG-CSF proliferation with IC50's of 1.1nM and 1.5nM respectively.

[0162] A chimeric antibody comprising the heavy and light chain variable regions of mAb711 and human IgG1 heavy and light chain constant regions inhibited G-CSF activity with a similar IC50 to the murine monoclonal antibody mAb711.

C. Inhibition by soluble hG-CSFR-Fc protein:



[0163] A soluble G-CSFR-Fc protein (Honjo et al, Acta Cryst F61:788-790, 2005) was able to inhibit mG-CSF proliferation with an IC50 of 22pM.

[0164] These results demonstrate that the biological activity of G-CSF may be inhibited by a variety of antagonists, including but not limited to antibodies to G-CSF, antibodies to G-CSFR, and soluble G-CSF receptors.

[0165] Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the invention described herein is susceptible to variations and modifications other than those specifically described. It is to be understood that the invention includes all such variations and modifications which fall within the scope of the appended claims. The invention also includes all of the steps, features, compositions and compounds referred to or indicated in this specification, individually or collectively, and any and all combinations of any two or more of said steps or features which fall within the scope of the appended claims.

BIBLIOGRAPHY



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SEQUENCE LISTING



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Claims

1. A G-CSF inhibiting agent for use in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or an exacerbated form thereof in a subject, wherein said agent is an antibody specific for G-CSF.
 
2. The agent for the use of Claim 1, wherein the G-CSF antibody is an antigen binding fragment specific for G-CSF.
 
3. The agent for the use of Claim 1 or 2, wherein the exacerbated form is acute exacerbated COPD (AECOPD).
 
4. The agent for the use of any one of Claims 1 to 3, wherein the subject is a human.
 
5. The agent for the use of any one of Claims 1 to 4, wherein said agent is for administration with a therapeutic agent selected from the list consisting of an anti-inflammatory agent, bronchodilator and an antibiotic.
 
6. The agent for the use of any one of Claims 1 to 5, wherein the antibody specific for G-CSF is a monoclonal antibody.
 
7. The agent for the use of Claim 6, wherein the antibody is a chimeric, human or humanized antibody.
 
8. The agent for the use of Claim 6, wherein the antibody is a human antibody.
 
9. Use of an agent as defined in any one of Claims 1, 2 or 6 to 8 in the manufacture of a medicament for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or an exacerbated form thereof in a subject.
 
10. The use of Claim 9, wherein the exacerbated form is acute exacerbated COPD (AECOPD).
 
11. The use of claim 9 or 10, wherein the subject is a human.
 
12. The use of any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein said agent is for administration with a therapeutic agent selected from the list consisting of an anti-inflammatory agent, bronchodilator and an antibiotic.
 
13. The use of any one of claims 9 to 11, wherein said medicament additionally comprises a therapeutic agent selected from the list consisting of an anti-inflammatory agent, bronchodilator and an antibiotic.
 


Ansprüche

1. G-CSF-hemmendes Mittel zur Verwendung im Behandeln einer chronischen obstruktiven Lungenerkrankung (engl. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD) oder einer verstärkten Form davon in einem Subjekt, wobei das Mittel ein für G-CSF spezifischer Antikörper ist.
 
2. Mittel zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, wobei der G-CSF-Antikörper ein für G-CSF spezifisches antigenbindendes Fragment ist.
 
3. Verfahren zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die verstärkte Form akute verstärkte COPD (engl. acute exacerbated COPD) ist.
 
4. Mittel zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei das Subjekt ein Mensch ist.
 
5. Mittel zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei das Mittel für eine Verabreichung mit einem therapeutischen Mittel ist, das ausgewählt ist aus der Liste bestehend aus einem entzündungshemmenden Mittel, Bronchodilator und einem Antibiotikum.
 
6. Mittel zur Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei der für G-CSF spezifische Antikörper ein monoklonaler Antikörper ist.
 
7. Mittel zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 6, wobei der Antikörper ein chimärer, humaner oder humanisierter Antikörper ist.
 
8. Mittel zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 6, wobei der Antikörper ein humaner Antikörper ist.
 
9. Verwendung eines Mittels nach einem der Ansprüche 1, 2 oder 6 bis 8 in der Herstellung eines Medikaments zum Behandeln einer chronischen obstruktiven Lungenerkrankung (COPD) oder einer verstärkten Form davon in einem Subjekt.
 
10. Verwendung nach Anspruch 9, wobei die verstärkte Form eine akute verstärkte COPD (AECOPD) ist.
 
11. Verwendung nach Anspruch 9 oder 10, wobei das Subjekt ein Mensch ist.
 
12. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 9 bis 11, wobei das Mittel für eine Verabreichung mit einem therapeutischen Mittel ist, das ausgewählt ist aus der Liste bestehend aus einem entzündungshemmenden Mittel, Bronchodilator und einem Antibiotikum.
 
13. Verwendung nach einem der Ansprüche 9 bis 11, wobei das Medikament ferner ein therapeutisches Mittel umfasst, das ausgewählt aus der Liste bestehend aus einem entzündungshemmenden Mittel, Bronchodilator und einem Antibiotikum.
 


Revendications

1. Agent inhibiteur de G-CSF pour utilisation dans le traitement de la bronchopneumopathie chronique obstructive (COPD) ou d'une forme exacerbée de celle-ci chez un sujet, dans lequel ledit agent est un anticorps spécifique au G-CSF.
 
2. Agent pour utilisation selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'anticorps G-CSF est un fragment de liaison d'antigène spécifique au G-CSF.
 
3. Agent pour utilisation selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel la forme exacerbée est une COPD exacerbée aiguë (AECOPD).
 
4. Agent pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel le sujet est un humain.
 
5. Agent pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel ledit agent est destiné à une administration avec un agent thérapeutique choisi dans la liste constituée d'un agent anti-inflammatoire, d'un bronchodilatateur et d'un antibiotique.
 
6. Agent pour utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel l'anticorps spécifique au G-CSF est un anticorps monoclonal.
 
7. Agent pour utilisation selon la revendication 6, dans lequel l'anticorps est un anticorps chimère, humain ou humanisé.
 
8. Agent pour utilisation selon la revendication 6, dans lequel l'anticorps est un anticorps humain.
 
9. Utilisation d'un agent tel que défini dans l'une quelconque des revendications 1, 2 ou 6 à 8 dans la fabrication d'un médicament pour le traitement de la bronchopneumopathie chronique obstructive (COPD) ou d'une forme exacerbée de celle-ci chez un sujet.
 
10. Utilisation selon la revendication 9, dans laquelle la forme exacerbée est une COPD exacerbée aiguë (AECOPD).
 
11. Utilisation selon la revendication 9 ou 10, dans laquelle le sujet est un humain.
 
12. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 9 à 11, dans laquelle ledit agent est destiné à une administration avec un agent thérapeutique sélectionné dans la liste constituée d'un agent anti-inflammatoire, d'un bronchodilatateur et d'un antibiotique.
 
13. Utilisation selon l'une quelconque des revendications 9 à 11, dans laquelle ledit médicament comprend en outre un agent thérapeutique sélectionné dans la liste constituée d'un agent anti-inflammatoire, d'un bronchodilatateur et d'un antibiotique.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description