(19)
(11)EP 2 541 674 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
01.10.2014 Bulletin 2014/40

(21)Application number: 12171435.6

(22)Date of filing:  11.06.2012
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01P 1/203(2006.01)
H01P 7/08(2006.01)

(54)

High rejection band-stop filter and diplexer using such filters

Bandstopp-Filter mit hoher Unterdrückung und Diplexer mit derartigen Filtern

Filtre stop bande à réjection élevée et duplexeur utilisant de tels filtres


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 29.06.2011 FR 1155819

(43)Date of publication of application:
02.01.2013 Bulletin 2013/01

(73)Proprietor: Thomson Licensing
92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (FR)

(72)Inventors:
  • Robert, Jean-Luc
    92443 Issy les Moulineaux cedex (FR)
  • Lo Hine Tong, Dominique
    92443 Issy les Moulineaux cedex (FR)
  • Louzir, Ali
    92443 Issy les Moulineaux (FR)
  • Minard, Philippe
    92443 Issy les Moulineaux cedex (FR)
  • Le Naour, Jean-Yves
    92443 Issy les Moulineaux (FR)

(74)Representative: Huchet, Anne et al
Technicolor 1, rue Jeanne d'Arc
92443 Issy-les-Moulineaux Cedex
92443 Issy-les-Moulineaux Cedex (FR)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 065 965
WO-A1-2011/008142
  
  • HUSSEIN SHAMAN ET AL: "Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Bandpass Filter With Embedded Band Notch Structures", IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, IEEE SERVICE CENTER, NEW YORK, NY, US, vol. 17, no. 3, 1 March 2007 (2007-03-01), pages 193-195, XP011172304, ISSN: 1531-1309, DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2006.890467
  • MIN-HANG WENG ET AL: "An Ultra-Wideband Bandpass Filter With an Embedded Open-Circuited Stub Structure to Improve In-Band Performance", IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, IEEE SERVICE CENTER, NEW YORK, NY, US, vol. 19, no. 3, 1 March 2009 (2009-03-01), pages 146-148, XP011347483, ISSN: 1531-1309, DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2009.2013733
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to a high rejection band-stop filter, more specifically it relates to a band-stop filter in printed technology. The present invention also relates to diplexers using such filters.

TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND



[0002] In the scope of high bitrate multimedia networks in a domestic environment, there is a growing demand to be able to have digital contents on the various available multimedia devices such as television sets, computers, games consoles, tablets or smart-phones. Hence, it appears necessary to have on these devices a concurrent dual frequency band wireless access that enables data and multimedia applications to be carried simultaneously.

[0003] Currently, some products offer concurrent wireless access (WiFi) in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands. In this case, the 2.4 GHz frequency band is assigned to the transfer of standard data or video while the 5 GHz frequency band is assigned to the transfer of high-definition streams or high resolution games.

[0004] However, the 2.4 GHz WiFi band only has three adjacent channels while the 5 GHz WiFi band has 24 channels. A WiFi access point ensuring concurrent functioning in two contiguous 5 GHz frequency bands enables the distribution of contents in future domestic networks to be noticeably improved and limits potential interference problems. However, the challenge consisting in sharing a single system of antennas with two concurrent radio circuits in the same frequency band, namely the 5 GHz frequency band, resides in the isolation capacity between two active circuits, this challenge being all the more significant as the two frequency bands are practically contiguous.

[0005] In this case, very high rejection exterior filters are required to ensure sufficient isolation for correct concurrent functioning. However, currently no filtering device exists operating in the 5 GHz frequency band that enables isolation in the order of 40 dB to be obtained. Analysis carried out on active filters has demonstrated limitations due primarily to their linearity. Topologies of low-pass / high-pass type with mixed structure, passive elements and microstrip, have been simulated. The simulations show that a high number of poles are required to ensure the required performances, which results in complex filters.

[0006] In order to limit the number of poles, there was an effort to produce a symmetrical response stop band type filters for each of the two 5 GHz WiFi bands either the band 5.15 - 5.35 GHz for the low band or the band 5.45 - 5.72 GHz for the high band, the challenge being to ensure a rejection of 40 dB in the 120 MHz separating these two bands

[0007] To produce asymmetrical response stop band filters responding to the criteria above, work was based on the studies made by Hussein Nasser Hamad Shaman in his thesis of August 2008 entitled "Advanced ultra wideband (UWB) microwave filters for modern wireless communication" at Heriot-Watt University. In this thesis describing different types of ultra wideband microwave filters, Shaman compared performances relating to the bandwidth of diverse structures formed from a transmission line and a "stub". Thus as shown in figure 1, Shaman compares the performances of:
  1. A) A conventional stub in open circuit, namely a transmission line 1 with an input terminal referenced as "input" and an output terminal referenced as "output", a stub 2 of length λ/4 where λ corresponds to the operating frequency, the transmission line having a width Wc while the stub has a weaker width, Ws,
  2. B) a "SPUR-LINE" pattern, as shown in figure 1, a transmission stub 3 comprising an input point "Input" and an output point "Output", this line being fitted with a slot 4 cutting a stub 3a of length λ/4, the slot having a width G, the stub 3a a width Ws and the transmission line 3' a width Wc,
  3. C) A stub in open circuit inserted into a microstrip line called an "embedded open circuited stub", this stub being produced, as shown in figure 1, via a transmission line 5 with an input "input" and an output "output" in which is realised a stub 6 obtained by etching in U form the transmission line 5 in such a way to form a stub 6 having a length λ/4 where λ is the wavelength at the operating frequency and a width Ws while the transmission line has a width Wc and the U etching forming a slot of width G.


[0008] The simulation of three embodiments A, B, C provided the reflection curve S11 and the transmission curve S21 shown on the right of the figure 1. As these curves show, it can be seen that a greater rejection can be obtained with the embodiment C, namely the stub in open circuit.

[0009] Complementary studies were carried out forming a stop band filter using two resonators as shown by C in figure 1. According to a standard topology, two resonators were mounted in series in the same direction, as shown in figure 2 or in series head to tail as shown in figure 3. More specifically, the band-stop filter constituted of two resonators in series in the same direction shown in figure 2, were realised as follows: on a substrate 10 with a conductive layer, were implemented a first resonator 11a and a second resonator 11b mounted in series in the same direction, the two resonators 11 a and 11 b being interconnected via a coupling line 12. These resonators can be symbolised by the elements R1 and the coupling line by the element Phi representing the coupling phase between resonators. Likewise, in figure 3, a band-stop filter is shown formed of two resonators in series head to tail. Thus, on a substrate 20 equipped with a conductive layer was produced a first resonator 21 a interconnected via a coupling line 22 to a second resonator 21 b mounted head to tail with respect to the resonator 21 a. The two embodiments of figures 2 and 3 were simulated providing, for the coupling line 12 or 22, different lengths that enable the inter-resonator coupling phase to be modified. The curves shown in figures 2 and 3 shows that the inter-resonator phase coupling modification induce a displacement of reflection zeros without modification of the response in transmission. This specific non-reciprocal behaviour of the coupling can be used to increase the steepness of the stop band filter either on the right or on the left, according to the 5 GHz frequency band to be rejected.

[0010] It can be seen that the adjustment in the length of inter-resonator coupling is the same as shifting one of the reflection zeros close to the desired cut-off frequency and that an inverse behaviour is obtained depending on whether the resonators in series are in the same direction, as in figure 2, or head to tail, as in figure 3. This interesting property is thus exploited to design asymmetric response stop band filters for which will be used a filter formed of resonators in series in the same direction or a filter formed of filters in series head to tail, according to selectivity on the left or right flank.

[0011] However, the implementation of several resonators as described in figures 2 and 3 does not enable easily used stop band filters to be obtained. The filters obtained have a significant size, as each resonator is locked on λ/4.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0012] Consequently, the present invention proposes a new stop band filter structure using resonators constituted of stubs in open circuit inserted in a transmission line, specifically a microstrip line, that has both a significant rejection in the operating frequency band, namely 5 GHz in a particular embodiment, and that is also compact.

[0013] The purpose of the present invention is thus an asymmetrical response stop band filter comprising, a substrate with a ground plane, an etched transmission line extending between an input terminal and an output terminal and at least two resonators, each resonator being constituted by a section of printed line or "stub" in open circuit, embedded into the printed transmission line, characterized in that the at least two resonators are positioned in parallel together, on the substrate and interconnected in series in the same direction or head to tail. The parallel position of the resonators enables a compact filter to be obtained. Contrary to standard microstrip type topologies, this structure has a co-planar propagation mode and as a result, no coupling appears between the various resonators, the field remaining concentrated between the stub and the associated slots.

[0014] According to another characteristic of the present invention, the number of resonators constituting the filter is calculated according to the level of rejection required. Moreover, the length of the transmission line interconnecting two resonators, corresponds to a coupling length less than 20° at the frequency considered for a connection in series in the same direction and at 90° for a connection in series head to tail.

[0015] In addition, to enable the surface of the substrate to be further reduced, the substrate is a low loss substrate such as the substrate known as Arlon 25N. The substrate used can also be a standard hyper-frequency substrate such as the substrate called R04003 by Rogers.

[0016] The present invention also relates to a diplexer enabling operation in the adjacent frequency bands, characterized in that it comprises two asymmetrical response stop band filters as described above, the two filters being interconnected via an interconnection line ensuring their reciprocal isolation, one of the filters operating in the high band and the other filter operating in the low band of the band of operating frequencies.

[0017] Preferably, the filter operating in the high band comprises resonators interconnected in series head to tail and the filter operating in the low band comprises resonators interconnected in series in the same direction.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0018] Other characteristics and advantages of the invention will appear upon reading the description of different embodiments, this description being realized with reference to the enclosed drawings, wherein:

Figure 1, already described diagrammatically represents different embodiments of resonators as well as their transmission and reflection curves, according to the frequency.

Figure 2, already described, shows a first embodiment of a stop band filter comprising two open circuit "stub" type resonators, mounted in series in direct direction as well as the transmission curves for different lengths of the coupling line providing the phase.

Figure 3, already described, shows another embodiment of a stop band filter formed of two open circuit "stub" type resonators, mounted in series head to tail as well as the transmission curves for different lengths of the coupling line between the two resonators.

Figure 4 shows a first embodiment of a high rejection stop band filter in accordance with the present invention as well as the reflection and transmission curves of said filter.

Figure 5 shows a second embodiment of a high rejection stop band filter in accordance with the present invention as well as the reflection and transmission curves of said filter.

Figure 6 shows, for the embodiment of figure 5, the reflection and transmission curves according to the number of resonators constituting the stop band filter.

Figure 7 shows an embodiment of a diplexer constituted by two stop band filters according to the embodiments of figure 4 and figure 5 as well as their reflection and transmission curves.

Figure 8 shows the measured responses of a particular embodiment of stop band filters in (a) and of the diplexer in (b).


DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT EMBODIMENTS



[0019] In figure 4, a first embodiment is shown of a high rejection stop band filter in accordance with the present invention. The left side of figure 4 diagrammatically shows the structure of the filter while the right side of figure 4 provides the transmission and reflection curves simulated for said filter.

[0020] As shown in the left side, on a substrate 30 with a conductive layer, four resonators 31a, 31b, 31c and 31d were realised mounted in parallel together in cascade. Each resonator 31a, 31b, 31c and 31d is formed by a stub of length λ/4 etched in a transmission line, as described for the embodiment C of figure 1.

[0021] In the embodiment of figure 4, the resonator 31 a is connected to the resonator 31 b in series in the same direction by a coupling stub 32a whose length determines the coupling phase. Likewise, the resonator 31 b is connected to the resonator 31 c in series in the same direction, by a coupling line 32b and the resonator 31c is connected to the resonator 31d by a coupling line 32c. The length of the coupling line 32a, 32b, 32c is selected to be as low as possible, which enables the steepness of the filter to be accentuated at the transition of two WiFi bands, as explained with reference to figure 2. The filter input is realised at the level of port 1 and the output of the filter is realised at the level of port 2. The electromagnetic simulation of the filter of figure 4 is shown on the right side of figure 4. The filter of figure 4 is particularly adapted to operate in the low band, namely in the embodiment shown, the frequencies band comprised between 5.15 - 5.35 GHz. It has a more steep edge on the right side of the transmission curve. Thus, this filter type will be used rather as a low band filter.

[0022] A description will now be given, with reference to figure 5, of another embodiment of a high rejection stop band filter in accordance with the present invention. In this figure, as in figure 4, the left side diagrammatically shows the filter structure while the right side shows the simulated transmission and reflection curves of said filter.

[0023] As shown on the left side, four resonators 41 a, 41 b, 41 c and 41 d, were realised in cascade on a substrate 40 with a conductive layer. In this embodiment, the four resonators are mounted in series head to tail. Each resonator 41 a, 41 b, 41 c, 41d is formed, likewise the embodiment of figure 4, of a stub of length λ/4 etched in a transmission line. As shown in the figure, two resonators 41 a, 41 b are interconnected head to tail via a coupling line 42a for which the length determines the coupling phase. Likewise, the resonator 41 b is interconnected to the resonator 41 c via a coupling line 42b and the resonator 41 c is interconnected to the resonator 41 d via a coupling line 42c. The filter input is realised at the level of the port 1 and the filter output is realised at the level of the port 2. The simulations carried out on the filter of figure 5 provide the reflection and transmission curves shown in the right side of figure 5. In this case, an abrupt edge is observed on the left side of transmission curves and transmission zeros between 5.470 and 5.720 GHz. This filter structure is used mainly as a stop band filter for the high band of the 5 GHz frequency band.

[0024] As shown on the curve of figure 5, it can be seen that in the case of a filter comprising four resonators mounted in series head to tail, a level of rejection in or around -20 dB is obtained. This level of rejection is in general insufficient to ensure the isolation performance levels required, in the case where this filter is used to isolate two contiguous frequency bands.

[0025] As a result, as shown in figure 6, the performance levels of a high rejection stop band filter formed of resonators in series head to tail, were simulated modifying the number of resonators in a way to study the transmission responses of the filters.

[0026] As shown on the left side of figure 6, a stop band filter was simulated comprising six resonators mounted head to tail while on the right side, transmission and reflection curves are shown of stop band filters with four resonators mounted head to tail as in figure 5. The curves obtained show that a greater rejection level is obtained with a stop band filter comprising six resonators mounted in series head to tail.

[0027] The results obtained above are used to produce a diplexer enabling a same antenna system to be shared in concurrent dual radio» architecture

[0028] As shown in the right side of figure 7, the diplexer is constituted on a substrate 50 with a conductive layer, of a first filter 51 formed of six resonators in series head to tail enabling a high band filter to be obtained. This resonator 51 is connected via a microstrip line 53 to a band-stop filter 52 formed of four resonators in series in direct direction providing a low band filter, the microstrip line interconnecting the resonators 51 and 52 enabling a reciprocal isolation to be ensured between the two stop band filters.

[0029] The diplexer of figure 7 was simulated and the transmission response of the two filters is provided by the curves on top of figure 7 while the reflection response of the two filters is provided by the curves at the bottom of figure 7. It can be seen that a low band rejection is thus obtained at around 5.15 GHz and a high band rejection in the range 5.5 -5.7 GHz is obtained with a level of rejection comprised between -30 and -40 dB. It is noted that the bandwidth of the rejected band in low band is narrower than in the high band. This phenomenon is linked to the structural differences of the resonators, namely in the same direction or head to tail, inducing different couplings. The second graph describes the adaptation in the bandwidth of rejection filters, in the order of 10 dB for the low band filter and greater than 15 dB for the high band filter.

[0030] To complete the study, a printed circuit was produced using as a substrate, the substrate called 25N from the Arlon company with εr = 3.38, a TgD = 0.0027. In order to limit conductivity losses, the nickel-gold type surface treatment was left out. Stop band filters such as described in figures 4 and 5 were produced on this substrate as well as a diplexer as described in figure 7. The measurements of transmission and reflection were thus realised with these different circuits and the measurement results are shown in figure 8 in part (a) for the filters and in part (b) for the diplexer. For the diplexer, a rejection is thus observed for a low band between 5 and 5.2 GHz and a rejection for a high band between 5.3 and 5.8 GHz with a rejection level greater than -30 dB. Figure 8a describes for each band-stop filter, the comparative results obtained by measurement and by electromagnetic simulation, figure 8b describes the reflection and transmission responses of 2 channels of the diplexer.


Claims

1. Asymmetric response stop band filter comprising on a substrate (30, 40) with a ground plane, a transmission line extending between an input terminal (port 1) and an output terminal (port 2) and at least two resonators (31 a, 31 b, 31 c, 31 d ; 41 a, 41 b, 41 c,41 d), each resonator being constituted by a section of printed line or "stub" in open circuit, embedded into the printed transmission line, characterized in that the at least two resonators are positioned in parallel together, on the substrate and interconnected (32a, 32b, 32c; 42a, 42b, 42c) in series in the same direction or head to tail.
 
2. Stop band filter according to claim 1, characterized in that the number of resonators constituting the filter is calculated according to the level of rejection required.
 
3. Stop band filter according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the length of the transmission line (32a, 32b, 32c; 42a, 42b, 42c) interconnecting two resonators corresponds to a coupling length of <20°for a connection in series in the same direction and at 90° for a connection in series head to tail.
 
4. Stop band filter according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the substrate is a low loss substrate such as the substrate known as ARLON 25 N.
 
5. Diplexer enabling operation in adjacent frequency bands, characterized in that it comprises two asymmetric response stop band filters (51, 52) according to claims 1 to 4, the two filters being mounted in series (53), one of the filters operating in the high band and the other filter operating in the low band.
 
6. Diplexer according to claim 5, characterized in that the filter (51) operating in the high band comprises six resonators interconnected in series head to tail and in that the filter (52) operating in the low band comprises four resonators interconnected in series in the same direction.
 


Ansprüche

1. Sperrbandfilter mit asymmetrischem Frequenzgang, das auf einem Substrat (30, 40) mit einer Masseplatte eine Übertragungsleitung, die zwischen einem Eingangsanschluss (Port 1) und einem Ausgangsanschluss (Port 2) verläuft, und mindestens zwei Resonatoren (31a, 31b, 31c, 31d; 41a, 41b, 41c, 41d) umfasst, wobei jeder Resonator durch einen Abschnitt einer gedruckten Leitung oder "Blindleitung" in Leerlaufschaltung gebildet ist, der in die gedruckte Übertragungsleitung eingebettet ist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die mindestens zwei Resonatoren parallel zueinander auf dem Substrat positioniert sind und in derselben Richtung oder in einer Kopf-Schwanz-Anordnung in Reihe geschaltet sind (32a, 32b, 32c; 42a, 42b, 42c).
 
2. Sperrbandfilter nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Anzahl der Resonatoren, die das Filter bilden, in Übereinstimmung mit dem erforderlichen Grad an Unterdrückung berechnet worden ist.
 
3. Sperrbandfilter nach einem der Ansprüche 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Länge der Übertragungsleitung (32a, 32b, 32c; 42a, 42b, 42c), die zwei Resonatoren verbindet, für eine Reihenschaltung in derselben Richtung einer Kopplungslänge von < 20° und für eine Kopf-Schwanz-Reihenschaltung einer von 90° entspricht.
 
4. Sperrbandfilter nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Substrat ein verlustarmes Substrat wie etwa das als ARLON 25 N bekannte Substrat ist.
 
5. Duplexer, der den Betrieb in angrenzenden Frequenzbändern ermöglicht, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass er zwei Sperrbandfilter (51, 52) mit asymmetrischem Frequenzgang nach Anspruch 1 bis 4 umfasst, wobei die zwei Filter in Reihe geschaltet sind (53), wobei eines der Filter in dem hohen Band arbeitet und das andere Filter in dem tiefen Band arbeitet.
 
6. Duplexer nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Filter (51), das im hohen Band arbeitet, sechs Resonatoren umfasst, die in einer Kopf-Schwanz-Anordnung in Reihe geschaltet sind, und dass das Filter (52), das im tiefen Band arbeitet, vier Resonatoren umfasst, die in derselben Richtung in Reihe geschaltet sind.
 


Revendications

1. Filtre stop bande à réponse asymétrique comprenant, sur un substrat (30,40) doté d'un plan de masse, une ligne de transmission s'étendant entre une borne d'entrée (port 1) et une borne de sortie (port 2) et au moins deux résonateurs (31a, 31b, 31c, 31d ; 41a, 41b, 41c,41d), chaque résonateur étant constitué par une section de ligne imprimée ou « tronçon » dans un circuit ouvert, intégré dans la ligne de transmission imprimée, caractérisé en ce que les au moins deux résonateurs sont positionnés ensemble en parallèle sur le substrat et interconnectés (32a, 32b, 32c ; 42a, 42b, 42c) en série dans la même direction ou tête-bêche.
 
2. Un filtre stop bande selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le nombre de résonateurs constituant le filtre est calculé selon le niveau de réjection requis.
 
3. Un filtre stop bande selon l'une des revendications 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que la longueur de la ligne de transmission (32a, 32b, 32c ; 42a, 42b, 42c) interconnectant deux résonateurs correspond à une longueur de couplage de <20° pour une connexion en série dans la même direction et à 90 ° pour une connexion en série tête-bêche.
 
4. Un filtre stop bande selon l'une des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisé en ce que le substrat est un susbstrat à perte faible comme le substrat connu sous le nom de ARLON 25 N.
 
5. Opération d'activation de diplexeur dans les bandes de fréquence adjacentes, caractérisé en ce qu'elle comprend deux filtres stop bande de réponse asymétrique (51, 52) selon les revendications 1 à 4, les deux filtres étant montés en série (53), un des filtres fonctionnant dans la bande haute et l'autre filtre fonctionnant dans la bande basse.
 
6. Diplexeur selon la revendication 5, caractérisé en ce que le filtre (51) fonctionnant dans la bande haute comprend six résonateurs interconnectés en série tête-bêche et en ce que le filtre (52) fonctionnant dans la bande basse comprend quatre résonateurs interconnectés en série dans la même direction.
 




Drawing