(19)
(11)EP 2 545 642 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
19.10.2016 Bulletin 2016/42

(21)Application number: 11708614.0

(22)Date of filing:  24.02.2011
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H02P 6/18  (2016.01)
H02P 6/185  (2016.01)
H02P 25/024  (2016.01)
H02P 6/08  (2006.01)
H02P 23/14  (2006.01)
H02P 25/03  (2016.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2011/026045
(87)International publication number:
WO 2011/112363 (15.09.2011 Gazette  2011/37)

(54)

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING A PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

VERFAHREN UND SYSTEM ZUR STEUERUNG EINES PERMANENTMAGNET-SYNCHRONMOTORS

PROCÉDÉ ET SYSTÈME DESTINÉS À COMMANDER UN MOTEUR SYNCHRONE À AIMANTS PERMANENTS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 08.03.2010 US 311420 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
16.01.2013 Bulletin 2013/03

(73)Proprietor: Johnson Controls Technology Company
Holland, MI 49423 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • WU, Zhiqiao
    York Pennsylvania 17404 (US)
  • JADRIC, Ivan
    York Pennsylvania 17404 (US)

(74)Representative: Wolff, Felix et al
Kutzenberger Wolff & Partner
Theodor-Heuss-Ring 23 50668 Köln
Theodor-Heuss-Ring 23 50668 Köln (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 341 293
JP-A- 2008 193 869
GB-A- 2 435 356
US-A1- 2002 060 546
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND



    [0001] The application generally relates to a motor drive for a permanent magnet motor. The application relates more specifically to a method and system for controlling a high speed permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM).

    [0002] Variable speed drives (VSDs) are used to power a variety of motor types in Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems. Common types of motors that are used for HVAC&R systems include induction motors, switched reluctance motors, and other AC and DC motors capable of handling the torque and speed ranges required in such HVAC&R systems.

    [0003] Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are of particular interest for use in HVAC&R systems due to their higher efficiency and higher power density as compared to regular AC induction motors. PMSMs are rotating electric machines that operate with a permanent magnet rotor. A permanent magnet rotor may be configured with surface mounted permanent magnets or with interior permanent magnets having different configurations or arrangements. The stator of a PMSM may be similar to a stator of an induction motor. However, a totally different stator design for a PMSM is possible and stator design optimization may be necessary even though the stator topology might be similar to an induction motor. The use of a permanent magnet to generate a substantial air gap magnetic flux makes it possible to design highly efficient PMSMs.

    [0004] A PMSM driven by a sinusoidal current is referred to as a PMSM while, a PMSM driven by a rectangular phase-current waveform can be referred to as a brushless DC (BLDC) machine. The rotor structure of the PMSM and BLDC can be the same as a surface-mounted permanent magnet rotor. Both the PMSM and BLDC are driven by stator currents coupled with the given rotor position. The angle between the generated stator flux linkage and the rotor flux linkage, which is generated by a rotor magnet, defines the torque, and thus speed, of the motor. Both the magnitude of the stator flux linkage and the angle between the stator flux linkage and rotor flux linkage are controllable to maximize the torque or minimize the losses. To maximize the performance of PMSM and ensure the system stability, the motor requires a power electronics converter for proper operation.

    [0005] In order to achieve maximum performance and control when operating a PMSM it is necessary to determine the rotor position. Speed or position sensors, or a combination of both, can be used to determine the rotor position. However, speed or position sensors may not perform properly when exposed to a harsh environment. The addition of sensors also increases the system cost, and may require a complete disassembly of the PMSM in the event of a sensor failure.

    [0006] For high speed and ultra-high speed applications, special speed and position sensors are required, and availability and cost of special speed and position sensors many be a problem. Various kinds of sensorless schemes have been proposed to remove the speed or position sensor by estimating the position from a measured electrical variable, for example, by obtaining the rotor position information from the flux linkage. Accurate flux estimation is required for the rotor position estimation in the sensorless control of PMSM.

    [0007] GB 2 435 356 A discloses a method for correcting the determination of extended rotor flux using a lag function and a correction algorithm that closely approximate a pure integrator function, to correct for lag function errors. This method can extend extended flux sensorless control down to dynamoelectric machine speeds corresponding to approximately 10 Hz electrical frequency.

    [0008] In US 2002/0 060 546 A1 a method for sensorless estimation of the relative position between the stator and the rotor of a three-phase synchronous motor during operation is described. The method comprises the steps of low-pass filtering of the terminal voltage,. Low-pass filtering of the terminal current, high-pass filtering of the terminal current and determining the rotor speed. The relative angular position is determined from the filtered magnitudes and corrected with an angular correction derived from the rotor speed.

    [0009] EP 1 341 293 A1 discloses a method for controlling a synchronous motor that drives a compressor for an air conditioner, wherein the method detects a rotational position of a rotor using a motor model.

    [0010] The existing methods for flux estimation may be adequate when the ratio of the switching frequency to the fundamental frequency is high and the sampling frequency to fundamental frequency ratio is high. However, when operating at a low sampling frequency to fundamental frequency ratio and low switching frequency to fundamental frequency ratio, which is normally the case for high speed or ultra-high speed PMSM drives, accurately estimating the flux linkage becomes more difficult. Thus the traditional methods are not applicable.

    [0011] Intended advantages of the disclosed systems and/or methods satisfy one or more of these needs or provide other advantageous features. Other features and advantages will be made apparent from the present specification. The teachings disclosed extend to those embodiments that fall within the scope of the claims, regardless of whether they accomplish one or more of the aforementioned needs.

    SUMMARY



    [0012] In a first embodiment, a method is disclosed for controlling a synchronous motor by determining a rotor position of the synchronous motor based on estimating a flux linkage. The method includes applying a voltage and current of a stator winding of the motor to a transfer function. The transfer function includes an S-domain integration operation and an error correction variable. The method further includes processing an output of the transfer function to compensate for the error correction variable introduced in the transfer function, generating an estimated rotor flux linkage, computing an angle of the rotor position based on the rotor flux linkage and inputting the computed rotor position to a controller for controlling a position or speed of the motor. A stator current value is predicted at a next time interval by determining an α-axis current and a β-axis current and the α-axis current and the β-axis current is applied to a current prediction model.

    [0013] In a second embodiment, a chiller system includes a compressor, a condenser, and an evaporator connected in a closed refrigerant loop. A synchronous motor is connected to the compressor to power the compressor. A variable speed drive is connected to the motor. The variable speed drive is arranged to receive an input AC power at a fixed input AC voltage and a fixed input frequency and provide an output power at a variable voltage and variable frequency to the motor. The variable speed drive includes a converter connectable to an AC power source providing the input AC voltage. The converter is arranged to convert the input AC voltage to a DC voltage. The variable speed drive further includes a DC link connected to the converter and an inverter connected to the DC link. The DC link is configured to filter and store the DC voltage from the converter stage. A controller is arranged to control rotor speed of the synchronous motor based on an estimated flux linkage. The controller is configured to predict a stator current value at a next time interval based on a determined α-axis current and a determined β-axis current and to apply the determined α-axis current and the determined β-axis current to a current prediction model.

    [0014] At least one advantage of the embodiments described herein is a method to control a high speed surface-mounted PMSM without the need for speed/position sensors.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



    [0015] 

    FIG. 1 shows an exemplary embodiment for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning system.

    FIG. 2 shows an isometric view of an exemplary vapor compression system.

    FIG. 3 shows schematically an exemplary embodiment for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning system.

    FIG. 4 shows schematically an exemplary embodiment of a variable speed drive.

    FIG. 5 shows a schematic diagram of an exemplary permanent magnet synchronous motor.

    FIG. 6 is shows schematic diagrams of alternate exemplary rotors of an internal PMSM (IPM).

    FIG. 7 shows an exemplary transfer function for estimating flux in a permanent magnet synchronous motor.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS



    [0016] FIG. 1 shows an exemplary environment for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system 10 in a building 12 for a typical commercial setting. System 10 can include a vapor compression system 14 that can supply a chilled liquid which may be used to cool building 12. System 10 can include a boiler 16 to supply a heated liquid that may be used to heat building 12, and an air distribution system which circulates air through building 12. The air distribution system can also include an air return duct 18, an air supply duct 20 and an air handler 22. Air handler 22 can include a heat exchanger that is connected to boiler 16 and vapor compression system 14 by conduits 24. The heat exchanger in air handler 22 may receive either heated liquid from boiler 16 or chilled liquid from vapor compression system 14, depending on the mode of operation of system 10. System 10 is shown with a separate air handler on each floor of building 12, but it is appreciated that the components may be shared between or among floors.

    [0017] FIGS. 2 and 3 show an exemplary vapor compression system 14 that can be used in HVAC system 10. Vapor compression system 14 can circulate a refrigerant through a circuit starting with compressor 32 and including a condenser 34, expansion valve(s) or device(s) 36, and an evaporator or liquid chiller 38. Vapor compression system 14 can also include a control panel 40 that can include an analog to digital (A/D) converter 42, a microprocessor 44, a non-volatile memory 46, and an interface board 48. Some examples of fluids that may be used as refrigerants in vapor compression system 14 are hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) based refrigerants, for example, R-410A, R-407, R-134a, hydrofluoro olefin (HFO), "natural" refrigerants like ammonia (NH3), R-717, carbon dioxide (CO2), R-744, or hydrocarbon based refrigerants, water vapor or any other suitable type of refrigerant.

    [0018] Motor 50 used with compressor 32 can be powered by a variable speed drive (VSD) 52 or can be powered directly from an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) power source. Motor 50 can include any type of PMSM that can be powered by a VSD or directly from an AC or DC power source.

    [0019] FIG. 4 shows an exemplary embodiment of a VSD. VSD 52 receives AC power having a particular fixed line voltage and fixed line frequency from an AC power source and provides AC power to motor 50 at a desired voltage and desired frequency, both of which can be varied to satisfy particular requirements. VSD 52 can have three components: a rectifier/converter 222, a DC link 224 and an inverter 226. The rectifier/converter 222 converts the fixed frequency, fixed magnitude AC voltage from the AC power source into DC voltage. The DC link 224 filters the DC power from the converter 222 and provides energy storage components such as capacitors and/or inductors. Finally, inverter 226 converts the DC voltage from DC link 224 into variable frequency, variable magnitude AC voltage for motor 50.

    [0020] In an exemplary embodiment, the rectifier/converter 222 may be a three-phase pulse width modulated boost rectifier having insulated gate bipolar transistors to provide a boosted DC voltage to the DC link 224 to obtain a maximum RMS output voltage from VSD 52 greater than the input voltage to VSD 52. Alternately, the converter 222 may be a passive diode or thyristor rectifier without voltage-boosting capability.

    [0021] VSD 52 can provide a variable magnitude output voltage and variable frequency to motor 50, to permit effective operation of motor 50 in response to a particular load conditions. Control panel 40 can provide control signals to VSD 52 to operate the VSD 52 and motor 50 at appropriate operational settings for the particular sensor readings received by control panel 40. For example, control panel 40 can provide control signals to VSD 52 to adjust the output voltage and output frequency provided by VSD 52 in response to changing conditions in vapor compression system 14, i.e., control panel 40 can provide instructions to increase or decrease the output voltage and output frequency provided by VSD 52 in response to increasing or decreasing load conditions on compressor 32. The estimated rotor phase angle θr and rotor frequency ωr, of motor 50, as described in more detail below, may be input to the control panel for feedback control of the position and rotational frequency of motor 50.

    [0022] Compressor 32 compresses a refrigerant vapor and delivers the vapor to condenser 34 through a discharge passage. In one exemplary embodiment, compressor 32 can be a centrifugal compressor having one or more compression stages. The refrigerant vapor delivered by compressor 32 to condenser 34 transfers heat to a fluid, for example, water or air. The refrigerant vapor condenses to a refrigerant liquid in condenser 34 as a result of the heat transfer with the fluid. The liquid refrigerant from condenser 34 flows through expansion device 36 to evaporator 38. A hot gas bypass valve (HGBV) 134 may be connected in a separate line extending from compressor discharge to compressor suction. In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 3, condenser 34 is water cooled and includes a tube bundle 54 connected to a cooling tower 56.

    [0023] The liquid refrigerant delivered to evaporator 38 absorbs heat from another fluid, which may or may not be the same type of fluid used for condenser 34, and undergoes a phase change to a refrigerant vapor. In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 3, evaporator 38 includes a tube bundle 60 having a supply line 60S and a return line 60R connected to a cooling load 62. A process fluid, for example, water, ethylene glycol, calcium chloride brine, sodium chloride brine, or any other suitable liquid, enters evaporator 38 via return line 60R and exits evaporator 38 via supply line 60S. Evaporator 38 lowers the temperature of the process fluid in the tubes. The tube bundle 60 in evaporator 38 can include a plurality of tubes and a plurality of tube bundles. The vapor refrigerant exits evaporator 38 and returns to compressor 32 by a suction line to complete the circuit or cycle. In an exemplary embodiment, vapor compression system 14 may use one or more of each of variable speed drive (VSD) 52, motor 50, compressor 32, condenser 34, expansion valve 36 and/or evaporator 38 in one or more refrigerant circuits.

    [0024] The control method described with respect to FIG. 7 below provides a compensation method for estimating a flux in a permanent magnet synchronous motor to reduce the estimation error due to the unavoidable dc shift from voltage and current measurements and an error coefficient or correction variable a. The method includes the steps of adjusting the value of an error correction variable at selected intervals; changing the value of error correction variable as a function of a speed of a rotor of the PMSM; applying a first value of the error correction variable that is configured to obtain faster convergence over a predetermined initial motor starting interval; and applying a second value of the error correction variable after the predetermined initial motor starting interval, the second value configured to reduce an error in the flux estimation. In addition, the compensation method reduces the estimation error due to the error correction variable a. An estimated flux linkage includes a real component alpha and an imaginary component beta. The alpha and beta components of the estimated flux linkage may be used to compensate for the error due to the error correction variable a.

    [0025] Referring to FIG. 5, an exemplary PMSM 86 includes a stator portion 72. The stator portion 72 can be configured substantially similar to a stator of a conventional induction motor. Stator portion 72 includes a plurality of windings 74 disposed in slots 25 defined by a plurality of teeth 17, symmetrically distributed about an inside radius of stator portion 72 adjacent to a rotor portion 70. Rotor portion 70 is positioned axially concentrically with and inside stator portion 72. Rotor portion 70 and stator portion 72 are separated by an air gap 68. Rotor portion 70 may include a cylindrical steel rotor frame or cage 31 with a plurality of permanent magnets 84 arranged peripherally on rotor cage 31. Permanent magnets 84 produce a magnetic field in air gap 68.

    [0026] Permanent magnets 84 may be positioned or arranged to provide multiple pole arrangements or configurations, for example 2-pole or 4-pole (see, e.g., FIGS. 6A and 6B), in rotor portion 70. Permanent magnets 84 may be adhesively affixed to cage 31, and are enveloped by a sleeve 29 to maintain permanent magnets 84 on cage 31 when centrifugal forces act on rotor portion 70 during rotation of PMSM 86. Sleeve 29 may be constructed of carbon fiber tubular sheet material, stainless steel or other similarly flexible, high strength, magnetically non-permeable material. Air gap 68 is small relative to an effective air gap g shown between opposing arrows 45. Effective air gap g includes the height h of permanent magnets 84 and sleeve 29.

    [0027] Referring next to FIG. 7, in an exemplary method of flux estimation in a PMSM, a low-pass filter is used to obtain the estimated flux. The transfer function of the low pass filter is represented by equation 1:

    wherein:

    s represents an S-domain integration operation of the low-pass filter; and

    a = the error correction variable for the low-pass filter.



    [0028] In one embodiment, the low pass filter represented by the transfer function may be implemented in software. Alternately, the low pass filter may be implemented in hardware components, e.g., integrated circuit, ASIC, or R-L-C circuit. By increasing the value of variable a in Equation 1 the convergence of the estimated flux can occur in a shorter time interval, but the error in the estimated flux will be greater. By decreasing the value of the variable a convergence can occur more slowly, but with a smaller estimation error. For example, when rotor speed is 94.25 rad/s, a different "a" value yields different angle errors.
    a = 2 sin ϕ = 0.9997749 angle error = 1.2167°
    a = 4 sin ϕ = 0.99910058 angle error = 2.43025°
    a = 6 sin ϕ = 0.99797971 angle error = 3.64265°
    a = 8 sin ϕ = 0.99641682 angle error = 4.851787°
    a = 10 sin ϕ = 0.99441813 angle error = 6.056610°


    [0029] An open loop estimation method 100 is shown in FIG. 7. An α-axis voltage va is applied to an input 101 of a summation block 102. The inputs to the estimation method are motor phase currents and voltages expressed in α-β coordinate frame. The coordinate frames and voltage and current vectors of PMSM, being the phase axes a, b and c, and α-axis and β-axis represent a fixed Cartesian coordinate frame aligned with phase a; d-axis and q-axis represent a rotating Cartesian coordinate frame aligned with rotor flux. The α-β frame expressions for α-axis and β-axis are obtained by applying a Clarke transformation to their corresponding three phase representation.

    [0030] An α-axis current value ia, representing the phase a stator, or armature, current, is provided to a current prediction model 104 which predicts the current used in the estimation. The output ia of current prediction model 104 is multiplied by stator resistance rs at block 106 to generate an estimated drop-off voltage on stator winding. The output of block 106 is then subtracted from α-axis phase a voltage va in summation block 102, and the output of block 102 is applied to transfer function block 108, represented by the transfer function of Equation 1. In transfer function block 108, filter variable a is introduced to achieve a minimum error at different speed ranges within a required convergence time. The output of block 108 is then compensated at block 110 to reduce or remove the error introduced by a in block 108. The output of block 110 is combined at summation block 112 with an output of block 114. Block 114 represents the stator mutual inductance Lm, which is the value by which the input predicted current ia is multiplied to generate the output of block 114. The output of block 114 is subtracted from the error compensated air gap flux linkage, or output of block 110, at block 112. The difference of blocks 110, 114 is the output of block 112, representing the estimated rotor flux linkage in α-axis. Then the rotor phase angle θr is estimated by angle calculation block 116 using the estimated rotor flux linkage from both α and β-axis. The estimated rotor phase angle θr 120 is applied to block 118, and the time domain derivative of the estimated rotor phase angle θr 120 is generated at the output of block 117 as the rotor frequency ωr.

    [0031] More precise flux estimation and control of PMSM 86 may be achieved by adjusting the value of variable a at selected intervals. For example, the value of a may be changed as a function of the rotor speed wherein the value of a is greater initially, i.e., upon starting PMSM 86 to obtain a faster convergence at the beginning of the estimation. After the convergence, a smaller value of a is applied to reduce the error in the flux estimation. In addition, in an exemplary embodiment, the value of a may be transitioned gradually, or ramped down from the higher initial value of a to the lower value of a, to provide improved system stability.

    [0032] An exemplary embodiment of the method is described as follows:

    ramp down a :

    If (ωr > 1200 and ωr < 1500)

    a = 5 - (ωr -1200) * 0.01

    If (ωr > 1500)

    a = 2

    ("a " = error correction variable)



    [0033] A compensation method is disclosed to reduce the estimation error due to a. The estimated flux linkage includes two components, a real component alpha (α) and an imaginary component beta (β). Alpha and beta components of the estimated flux linkage may be used to compensate for the magnitude error due to the error correction variable a . The expressions of the magnitude compensation are given by the following equations:

    wherein:

    a is the error correction variable and

    ωr is the rotor speed.



    [0034] The second step is for the phase angle correction, in which the flux linkage complex variable includes two components, a real component alpha and an imaginary component beta, is used. Alpha and beta components of this complex variable may be used to compensate for the phase error due to the error correction variable a. The expressions of the complex variable used for phase angle correction is given as:



    [0035] If the magnitude compensation and the phase compensation are combined, the expressions of the compensation are given by the following equations:



    wherein:



    and



    are the alpha and beta components of the flux linkage after compensation;

    fα and fβ are the alpha components of the flux linkage before compensation; and

    ωr is the rotor speed.



    [0036] Since the ratio of the sampling frequency to the fundamental frequency is low, a relatively long delay is unavoidable without increasing the sampling frequency. Increasing the sampling frequency generally increases the cost of a control system. A current prediction method can be employed to predict the current to eliminate the effect of the sampling delay, without the need for increasing the sampling frequency. For high speed and ultra high speed applications, the sampling number per cycle becomes greatly reduced. To reduce the estimation error, the current at the Nth sampling interval may be used to predict the current at the next (N+1)th sampling interval. The predicted current may then be used to reduce the error in the flux linkage estimation. The current prediction is based on the PMSM machine model.

    [0037] An exemplary embodiment of the method is described.

    [0038] The prediction method is based on the q-d reference:

    Predicted q axis current is given as:

    predicted d-axis current is given as:

    Wherein,



    and

    are the q- and d-axis voltages at the Nth sampling interval;



    and

    are the q- and d-axis currents at the Nth sampling interval;



    and

    are the predicted q- and d-axis currents at the (N+1)th sampling interval;



    and

    are the q- and d-axis flux linkages at the Nth sampling interval;

    ωr is the rotor speed.



    [0039] While the foregoing describes a control system and method for controlling a sensorless PMSM, the control system and method for estimating an angle position and speed of a motor may be applied to other types of sensorless, synchronous motors, e.g., induction-type motors, and such synchronous motors are considered to be within the scope of control system herein described and claimed.

    [0040] It should be understood that the application is not limited to the details or methodology set forth in the following description or illustrated in the figures. It should also be understood that the phraseology and terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description only and should not be regarded as limiting.

    [0041] While the exemplary embodiments illustrated in the figures and described herein are presently preferred, it should be understood that these embodiments are offered by way of example only. Accordingly, the present application is not limited to a particular embodiment, but extends to various modifications. The order or sequence of any processes or method steps may be varied or re-sequenced according to alternative embodiments.

    [0042] The present application contemplates methods, systems and program products on any machine-readable media for accomplishing its operations. The embodiments of the present application may be implemented using an existing computer processors, or by a special purpose computer processor for an appropriate system, incorporated for this or another purpose or by a hardwired system.

    [0043] It is important to note that the construction and arrangement of the flux estimation method for PMSM control as shown in the various exemplary embodiments is illustrative only. Although only a few embodiments have been described in detail in this disclosure, those who review this disclosure will readily appreciate that many modifications are possible (e.g., variations in sizes, dimensions, structures, shapes and proportions of the various elements, values of parameters, mounting arrangements, use of materials, colors, orientations, etc.) without materially departing from the novel teachings and advantages of the subject matter recited in the application. For example, elements shown as integrally formed may be constructed of multiple parts or elements, the position of elements may be reversed or otherwise varied, and the nature or number of discrete elements or positions may be altered or varied. Accordingly, all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the present application. The order or sequence of any process or method steps may be varied or re-sequenced according to alternative embodiments. Other substitutions, modifications, changes and omissions may be made in the design, operating conditions and arrangement of the exemplary embodiments without departing from the scope of the present application.

    [0044] As noted above, embodiments within the scope of the present application include program products comprising machine-readable media for carrying or having machine-executable instructions or data structures stored thereon. Such machine-readable media can be any available media that can be accessed by a general purpose or special purpose computer or other machine with a processor. By way of example, such machine-readable media can comprise RAM, ROM, EPROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium which can be used to carry or store desired program code in the form of machine-executable instructions or data structures and which can be accessed by a general purpose or special purpose computer or other machine with a processor. When information is transferred or provided over a network or another communications connection (either hardwired, wireless, or a combination of hardwired or wireless) to a machine, the machine properly views the connection as a machine-readable medium. Thus, any such connection is properly termed a machine-readable medium. Combinations of the above are also included within the scope of machine-readable media. Machine-executable instructions comprise, for example, instructions and data which cause a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or special purpose processing machines to perform a certain function or group of functions.

    [0045] It should be noted that although the figures herein may show a specific order of method steps, it is understood that the order of these steps may differ from what is depicted. Also two or more steps may be performed concurrently or with partial concurrence. Such variation will depend on the software and hardware systems chosen and on designer choice. It is understood that all such variations are within the scope of the application. Likewise, software implementations could be accomplished with standard programming techniques with rule based logic and other logic to accomplish the various connection steps, processing steps, comparison steps and decision steps.


    Claims

    1. A method for controlling a synchronous motor (50, 86) by determining a rotor position of the synchronous motor (50, 86) by estimating a flux linkage, the method comprising:

    applying a voltage of a stator winding (74) of the motor (50, 86) to a transfer function, the transfer function comprising an S-domain integration operation and an error correction variable;

    processing an output of the transfer function to compensate for the error correction variable introduced in the transfer function;

    generating an estimated flux linkage;

    computing an angle of the rotor position based on the estimated flux linkage; and

    inputting the computed rotor position to a controller (40) for controlling a position or speed of the motor;

    characterized by
    predicting a stator current value at a next time interval by determining an α-axis current and a β-axis current and applying the α-axis current and the β-axis current to a current prediction model.
     
    2. The method of claim 1, wherein the transfer function represents a low pass filter or
    further comprising:

    - multiplying the predicted stator current value by a stator resistance value, and preferably generating an estimated drop-off voltage on the stator winding.


     
    3. The method of claim 2, wherein the voltage of a stator winding (74) is obtained by subtracting the estimated drop-off voltage from an α-axis voltage and a β-axis voltage of the stator winding.
     
    4. The method of claim 1, wherein:

    - the error correction variable is selected to achieve a minimum error at multiple speed ranges within a required convergence time or

    - the processing an output of the transfer function to compensate for the error correction variable introduced in the transfer function comprises:

    compensating to reduce or remove an error introduced by the error correction variable to obtain a flux linkage generated by a rotor (70) of the motor (50, 86).


     
    5. The method of claim 1, wherein generating an estimated flux linkage comprises:

    computing an estimated flux linkage by multiplying a stator mutual inductance value by a predicted stator current and subtracting the multiplied stator mutual inductance from the estimated flux linkage to generate an estimated rotor flux linkage.


     
    6. The method of claim 5, further comprising estimating a rotor phase angle based on the estimated flux linkage from both α and β-axis; and generating a rotor frequency as a time domain derivative of the estimated rotor phase angle.
     
    7. The method of claim 1, wherein

    - the transfer function is expressed as

    wherein s represents the S-domain integration operation; and

    α= the error correction variable or

    - wherein the processing an output of the transfer function further comprises using a compensation algorithm comprising an alpha component and a beta component of the estimated flux linkage to compensate for the error due to the error correction variable, wherein the magnitude compensation algorithm is expressed by:

    wherein:

    a is the error correction variable and

    ωr is a rotor speed.


     
    8. The method of claim 7, wherein a flux linkage complex variable includes a real component and an imaginary component, the flux linkage complex variable being employed to compensate for a phase error due to the error correction variable, the flux linkage complex variable expressed by:


     
    9. The method of claim 8, further comprising combining a magnitude compensation and a phase compensation, the combination of magnitude compensation and the phase compensation determined by the following equations:



    wherein:



    and

    are the alpha component and the beta component of the flux linkage after compensation;

    fα and fβ are the alpha component and the beta component of the flux linkage before compensation; and

    ωr is the rotor speed.


     
    10. The method of claim 1, further comprising:

    - determining a stator current value and the stator winding voltage at an Nth sampling interval;
    predicting the stator current value at an N+1th sampling interval based on the determined stator current value and the stator winding voltage at the Nth sampling interval; and
    applying the predicted stator current value at the N+1th sampling interval to reduce the error in the estimated flux linkage or

    - changing the value of error correction variable as a function of a speed of a rotor of the motor;
    applying a first value of the error correction variable that is configured to obtain faster convergence over a predetermined initial motor starting interval; and
    applying a second value of the error correction variable after the predetermined initial motor starting interval, the second value configured to reduce an error in the flux estimation.


     
    11. A chiller system comprising:

    a compressor (32), a condenser (34), and an evaporator (38) connected in a closed refrigerant loop;

    a synchronous motor (50, 86) connected to the compressor (32) to power the compressor (32); and

    a variable speed drive (52) connected to the motor (50, 86), the variable speed drive (52) being configured to receive an input AC power at a fixed input AC voltage and a fixed input frequency and provide an output power at a variable voltage and variable frequency to the motor (50, 86), the variable speed drive (52) comprising:

    a converter (222) connectable to an AC power source providing the input AC voltage, the converter (222) being configured to convert the input AC voltage to a DC voltage;

    a DC link (224) connected to the converter (222), the DC link (224) being configured to filter and store the DC voltage from the converter stage (222); and

    an inverter (226) connected to the DC link (224); and

    a controller (40) configured to control a rotor speed of the synchronous motor (50, 86) based on a rotor angle from an estimated flux linkage,
    characterized in that
    the controller (40) is configured to predict a stator current value at a next time interval based on a determined α-axis current and a determined β-axis current and to apply the determined α-axis current and the determined β-axis current to a current prediction model.
     
    12. The system of claim 11, wherein the controller (40) is configured to:

    apply a voltage of a stator winding (74) of the motor (50, 86) to a transfer function, the transfer function comprising an S-domain integration operation and an error correction variable;

    process an output of the transfer function to compensate for the error correction variable introduced in the transfer function;

    generate an estimated flux linkage;

    compute an angle of the rotor position based on the estimated flux linkage; and input the computed rotor position to the controller (40).


     
    13. The system of claim 12, wherein the transfer function is expressed as:

    wherein s represents the S-domain integration operation; and

    a= the error correction variable or

    further comprising a compensation algorithm, the compensation algorithm comprising an alpha component and a beta component of the estimated flux linkage to compensate for an error due to the error correction variable, wherein the magnitude compensation algorithm is expressed by:

    wherein:

    a is the error correction variable and

    ωr is a rotor speed.


     
    14. The system of claim 13, wherein a flux linkage complex variable includes a real component and an imaginary component, the flux linkage complex variable is employed to compensate for a phase error due to the error correction variable, the complex variable used for phase angle correction is expressed by:


     
    15. The method of claim 12, wherein magnitude compensation and phase compensation are combined, the combination of the magnitude compensation and the phase compensation are expressed by:



    wherein:



    and

    are the alpha and beta components of the flux linkage after compensation;

    fα and fβ are the alpha and beta components of the flux linkage before compensation; and

    ωr is the rotor speed.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zur Steuerung eines Synchronmotors (50, 86) durch Bestimmen einer Rotorposition des Synchronmotors (50, 86) durch Schätzen einer Flussverbindung, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

    Anwenden einer Spannung einer Statorwicklung (74) des Motors (50, 86) auf eine Transferfunktion, wobei die Transferfunktion eine Integrationsoperation über den S-Bereich und eine Fehlerkorrekturvariable umfasst;

    Verarbeiten einer Ausgabe der Transferfunktion, um die Fehlerkorrekturvariable, die in die Transferfunktion eingeführt ist, zu kompensieren;

    Erzeugen einer geschätzten Flussverbindung;

    Berechnen eines Winkels der Rotorposition auf der Grundlage der geschätzten Flussverbindung; und

    Eingeben der berechneten Rotorposition an eine Steuereinheit (40), um eine Position oder eine Drehzahl des Motors zu steuern;

    gekennzeichnet durch
    Vorhersagen eines Statorstromwerts in einem nächsten Zeitintervall, indem ein Strom der α-Achse und ein Strom der β-Achse bestimmt werden und indem der Strom der α-Achse und der Strom der β-Achse auf ein Stromvorhersagemodell angewandt werden.
     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Transferfunktion einen Tiefpassfilter darstellt oder
    ferner umfassend:

    - Multiplizieren des vorhergesagten Statorstromwerts mit einem Statorwiderstandswert, und vorzugsweise Erzeugen eines geschätzten Spannungsabfalls auf die Statorwicklung.


     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 2, wobei die Spannung einer Statorwicklung (74) erhalten wird, indem der geschätzte Spannungsabfall von einer Spannung der α-Achse und einer Spannung der β-Achse der Statorwicklung subtrahiert wird.
     
    4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei:

    - die Fehlerkorrekturvariable ausgewählt ist, um einen minimalen Fehler bei mehrfachen Drehzahlbereichen innerhalb einer erforderlichen Konvergenzzeit zu erreichen, oder

    - das Verarbeiten einer Ausgabe der Transferfunktion, um die Fehlerkorrekturvariable, die in die Transferfunktion eingeführt ist, zu kompensieren, umfasst:

    Kompensieren, um einen Fehler, der durch die Fehlerkorrekturvariable eingeführt ist, zu vermindern oder zu entfernen, um eine Flussverbindung zu erhalten, die durch einen Rotor (70) des Motors (50, 86) erzeugt wird.


     
    5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Erzeugen einer geschätzten Flussverbindung umfasst:

    Berechnen einer geschätzten Flussverbindung, indem ein Wert einer gegenseitigen Statorinduktivität mit einem vorhergesagten Statorstrom multipliziert wird und indem die multiplizierte gegenseitige Statorinduktivität von der geschätzten Flussverbindung subtrahiert wird, um eine geschätzte Rotorflussverbindung zu erzeugen.


     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, das ferner Schätzen eines Rotorphasenwinkels auf der Grundlage der geschätzten Flussverbindung sowohl von der α-Achse als auch von der β-Achse umfasst; und Erzeugen einer Rotorfrequenz als eine Zeitbereichsableitung des geschätzten Rotorphasenwinkels.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei:

    - die Transferfunktion ausgedrückt ist als

    wobei s die Integrationsoperation über den S-Bereich darstellt; und

    a = die Fehlerkorrekturvariable ist, oder

    - wobei das Verarbeiten einer Ausgabe der Transferfunktion ferner ein Verwenden eines Kompensationsalgorithmus umfasst, der eine alpha-Komponente und eine beta-Komponente der geschätzten Flussverbindung umfasst, um den Fehler aufgrund der Fehlerkorrekturvariablen zu kompensieren, wobei die Größe des Kompensationsalgorithmus ausgedrückt ist durch:

    wobei:

    a die Fehlerkorrekturvariable ist und

    ωr eine Rotordrehzahl ist.


     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei eine komplexe Variable einer Flussverbindung eine reelle Komponente und eine imaginäre Komponente enthält, wobei die komplexe Variable einer Flussverbindung angewandt wird, um einen Phasenfehler aufgrund der Fehlerkorrekturvariablen zu kompensieren, wobei die komplexe Variable einer Flussverbindung ausgedrückt ist durch:


     
    9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, das ferner ein Kombinieren einer Größenkompensation und einer Phasenkompensation umfasst, wobei die Kombination von Größenkompensation und der Phasenkompensation durch die folgenden Gleichungen bestimmt ist:



    wobei:

    f'α und f'β die alpha-Komponente bzw. die beta-Komponente der Flussverbindung nach der Kompensation sind;

    fα und fβ die alpha-Komponente bzw. die beta-Komponente der Flussverbindung vor der Kompensation sind; und

    ωr die Rotordrehzahl ist.


     
    10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, das ferner umfasst:

    - Bestimmen eines Statorstromwerts und der Statorwicklungsspannung in einem N-ten Probenintervall;
    Vorhersagen des Statorstromwerts in einem (N+1)-ten Probenintervall auf der Grundlage des bestimmten Statorstromwerts und der Statorwicklungsspannung in dem N-ten Probenintervall; und
    Anlegen des vorhergesagten Statorstromwerts in dem (N+1)-ten Probenintervall, um den Fehler in der geschätzten Flussverbindung zu vermindern, oder

    - Ändern des Werts der Fehlerkorrekturvariablen als eine Funktion einer Drehzahl eines Rotors des Motors;
    Anwenden eines ersten Werts der Fehlerkorrekturvariablen, die konfiguriert ist, um eine schnellere Konvergenz über ein vorgegebenes anfängliches Motorstartintervall zu erhalten; und
    Anwenden eines zweiten Werts der Fehlerkorrekturvariablen nach dem vorgegebenen anfänglichen Motorstartintervall, wobei der zweite Wert konfiguriert ist, um einen Fehler in der Flussschäfzung zu vermindern.


     
    11. Kühlsystem, das umfasst:

    einen Verdichter (32), einen Kondensator (34) und einen Verdampfer (38), der in einem geschlossenen Kühlkreislauf verbunden ist;

    einen Synchronmotor (50, 86), der mit dem Verdichter (32) verbunden ist, um den Verdichter (32) anzutreiben; und

    einen variablen Drehzahlantrieb (52), der mit dem Motor (50, 86) verbunden ist, wobei der variable Drehzahlantrieb (52) konfiguriert ist, um eine Eingabe einer Wechselspannungsleistung bei einer festen Eingabe einer Wechselspannung und einer festen Eingabefrequenz zu empfangen und um eine Ausgabeleistung bei einer variablen Spannung und variablen Frequenz dem Motor (50, 86) bereitzustellen, wobei der variable Drehzahlantrieb (52) umfasst:

    einen Umsetzer (222), der mit einer Leistungsquelle einer Wechselspannung verbunden werden kann und der die Eingangswechselspannung bereitstellt, wobei der Umsetzer (222) konfiguriert ist, die Eingangswechselspannung in eine Gleichspannung umzusetzen;

    eine Gleichspannungsverbindung (224), die mit dem Umsetzer (222) verbunden ist, wobei die Gleichspannungsverbindung (224) konfiguriert ist, um die Gleichspannung aus der Umsetzerphase (222) zu filtern und zu speichern; und

    einen Invertierer (226), der mit der Gleichspannungsverbindung (224) verbunden ist; und

    eine Steuereinheit (40), die konfiguriert ist, um eine Rotordrehzahl des Synchronmotors (50, 86) auf der Grundlage eines Rotorwinkels aus der geschätzten Flussverbindung zu steuern,
    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass
    die Steuereinheit (40) konfiguriert ist, um einen Statorstromwert in einem nächsten Zeitintervall auf der Grundlage eines bestimmten Stroms der α-Achse und eines bestimmten Stroms der β-Achse vorherzusagen und um den bestimmten Strom der α-Achse und den bestimmten Strom der β-Achse auf ein Stromvorhersagemodell anzuwenden.
     
    12. System nach Anspruch 11, wobei die Steuereinheit (40) konfiguriert ist, um:

    eine Spannung einer Statorwicklung (74) des Motors (50, 86) auf eine Transferfunktion anzuwenden, wobei die Transferfunktion eine Integrationsoperation über den S-Bereich und eine Fehlerkorrekturvariable umfasst;

    eine Ausgabe der Transferfunktion zu verarbeiten, um die Fehlerkorrekturvariable, die in die Transferfunktion eingeführt ist, zu kompensieren;

    eine geschätzte Flussverbindung zu erzeugen;

    einen Winkel der Rotorposition auf der Grundlage der geschätzten Flussverbindung zu berechnen; und die berechnete Rotorposition an die Steuereinheit (40) einzugeben.


     
    13. System nach Anspruch 12, wobei die Transferfunktion ausgedrückt ist als:

    wobei s die Integrationsoperation über den S-Bereich darstellt; und

    a = die Fehlerkorrekturvariable ist, oder

    ferner umfassend einen Kompensationsalgorithmus, wobei der Kompensationsalgorithmus eine alpha-Komponente und eine beta-Komponente der geschätzten Flussverbindung umfasst, um einen Fehler aufgrund der Fehlerkorrekturvariablen zu kompensieren, wobei die Größe des Kompensationsalgorithmus ausgedrückt ist durch:

    wobei:

    a die Fehlerkorrekturvariable ist und

    ωr eine Rotordrehzahl ist.


     
    14. System nach Anspruch 13, wobei eine komplexe Variable einer Flussverbindung eine reelle Komponente und eine imaginäre Komponente enthält, wobei die komplexe Variable einer Flussverbindung angewandt wird, um einen Phasenfehler aufgrund der Fehlerkorrekturvariablen zu kompensieren, wobei die komplexe Variable, die für eine Phasenwinkelkorrektur verwendet wird, ausgedrückt ist durch:


     
    15. Verfahren nach Anspruch 12, wobei eine Größenkompensation und eine Phasenkompensation kombiniert werden, wobei die Kombination der Größenkompensation und der Phasenkompensation ausgedrückt ist durch:



    wobei:

    f'α und f'β die alpha- bzw. die beta-Komponente der Flussverbindung nach der Kompensation sind;

    fα und fβ die alpha- bzw. die beta-Komponente der Flussverbindung vor der Kompensation sind; und

    ωr die Rotordrehzahl ist.


     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé pour commander un moteur synchrone (50, 86) par détermination d'une position de rotor du moteur synchrone (50, 86) par estimation d'un couplage par flux, le procédé consistant à :

    appliquer une tension d'un enroulement statorique (74) du moteur (50, 86) à une fonction de transfert, la fonction de transfert comprenant une opération d'intégration de domaine S et une variable de correction d'erreur ;

    traiter une sortie de la fonction de transfert pour compenser la variable de correction d'erreur introduite dans la fonction de transfert ;

    générer un couplage par flux estimé ;

    calculer un angle de la position de rotor en se basant sur le couplage par flux estimé ; et

    entrer la position de rotor calculée dans un dispositif de commande (40) destiné à commander une position ou une vitesse du moteur ;

    caractérisé par le fait de
    prédire une valeur de courant statorique pendant un prochain intervalle de temps par détermination d'un courant d'axe α et d'un courant d'axe β et par application du courant d'axe α et du courant d'axe β à un modèle de prédiction de courant.
     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la fonction de transfert représente un filtre passe-bas ou
    consistant en outre à :

    - multiplier la valeur de courant statorique prédite par une valeur de résistance statorique et, de préférence, générer une tension de chute estimée sur l'enroulement statorique.


     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 2, dans lequel la tension d'un enroulement statorique (74) est obtenue par soustraction de la tension de chute estimée d'une tension d'axe α et d'une tension d'axe β de l'enroulement statorique.
     
    4. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel :

    - la variable de correction d'erreur est sélectionnée de sorte à obtenir une erreur minimale à de multiples plages de vitesse pendant un temps de convergence requis ou

    - le traitement d'une sortie de la fonction de transfert pour compenser la variable de correction d'erreur introduite dans la fonction de transfert consiste à :

    effectuer une compensation afin de réduire ou de supprimer une erreur introduite par la variable de correction d'erreur pour obtenir un couplage par flux généré par un rotor (70) du moteur (50, 86).


     
    5. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la génération d'un couplage par flux estimé consiste à :

    calculer un couplage par flux estimé par multiplication d'une valeur d'inductance mutuelle statorique par un courant statorique prédit et par soustraction de l'inductance mutuelle statorique multipliée du couplage par flux estimé pour générer un couplage par flux rotorique estimé.


     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, consistant en outre à estimer un angle de phase rotorique en se basant sur le couplage par flux estimé à la fois par rapport à l'axe α et à l'axe β ; et générer une fréquence rotorique en tant que dérivé de domaine temporel de l'angle de phase rotorique estimé.
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel

    - la fonction de transfert est exprimée sous la forme

    où s représente l'opération d'intégration de domaine S ; et

    a est la variable de correction d'erreur ou

    - dans lequel le traitement d'une sortie de la fonction de transfert consiste en outre à utiliser un algorithme de compensation comprenant une composante alpha et une composante bêta du couplage par flux estimé pour compenser l'erreur due à la variable de correction d'erreur, dans lequel l'algorithme de compensation de grandeur est exprimé par :

    dans lequel :

    a est la variable de correction d'erreur et

    ωr est une vitesse de rotor.


     
    8. Procédé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel une variable complexe de couplage par flux comprend une composante réelle et une composante imaginaire, la variable complexe de couplage par flux étant employée pour compenser une erreur de phase due à la variable de correction d'erreur, la variable complexe de couplage par flux étant exprimée par :


     
    9. Procédé selon la revendication 8, consistant en outre à combiner une compensation de grandeur et une compensation de phase, la combinaison de la compensation de grandeur et de la compensation de phase étant déterminée par les équations suivantes :



    dans lesquelles :

    fα' et fβ' sont la composante alpha et la composante bêta du couplage par flux après compensation ;

    fα et fβ sont la composante alpha et la composante bêta du couplage par flux avant compensation ; et

    ωr est la vitesse de rotor.


     
    10. Procédé selon la revendication 1, consistant en outre à :

    - déterminer une valeur de courant statorique et la tension d'enroulement statorique à un Nième intervalle d'échantillonnage ;
    prédire la valeur de courant statorique à un (N + 1)ième intervalle d'échantillonnage sur la base de la valeur de courant statorique et de la tension d'enroulement statorique déterminées au Nième intervalle d'échantillonnage ; et
    appliquer la valeur de courant statorique prédite au (N + 1)ième intervalle d'échantillonnage afin de réduire l'erreur dans le couplage par flux estimé ou

    - changer la valeur d'une variable de correction d'erreur en fonction d'une vitesse d'un rotor du moteur ;

    appliquer une première valeur de la variable de correction d'erreur qui est configurée pour obtenir une convergence plus rapide sur un intervalle de démarrage de moteur initial prédéterminé ; et
    appliquer une seconde valeur de la variable de correction d'erreur après l'intervalle de démarrage de moteur initial prédéterminé, la seconde valeur étant configurée pour réduire une erreur dans l'estimation de flux.
     
    11. Système de refroidisseur comprenant :

    un compresseur (32), un condensateur (34) et un évaporateur (38) raccordés dans une boucle fermée de fluide réfrigérant ;

    un moteur synchrone (50, 86) raccordé au compresseur (32) pour faire fonctionner le compresseur (32) ; et

    un variateur de vitesse (52) raccordé au moteur (50, 86), le variateur de vitesse (52) étant configuré pour recevoir une alimentation d'entrée en courant alternatif (CA) à une tension alternative d'entrée fixe et une fréquence d'entrée fixe et fournir une puissance de sortie à une tension variable et une fréquence variable au moteur (50, 86), le variateur de vitesse (52) comprenant :

    un convertisseur (222) pouvant être raccordé à une source d'alimentation en CA fournissant la tension alternative d'entrée, le convertisseur (222) étant configuré pour convertir la tension alternative d'entrée en tension continue (CC) ;

    une liaison en courant continu (224) raccordée au convertisseur (222), la liaison en courant continu (224) étant configurée pour filtrer et stocker la tension continue provenant de l'étage de convertisseur (222) ; et

    un onduleur (226) raccordé à la liaison en courant continu (224) ; et

    un dispositif de commande (40) configuré pour commander une vitesse de rotor du moteur synchrone (50, 86) en se basant sur un angle rotorique par rapport à un couplage par flux estimé,
    caractérisé en ce que
    le dispositif de commande (40) est configuré pour prédire une valeur de courant statorique pendant un prochain intervalle de temps en se basant sur un courant d'axe α déterminé et sur un courant d'axe β déterminé et appliquer le courant d'axe α déterminé et le courant d'axe β déterminé à un modèle de prédiction de courant.
     
    12. Système selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le dispositif de commande (40) est configuré pour :

    appliquer une tension d'un enroulement statorique (74) du moteur (50, 86) à une fonction de transfert, la fonction de transfert comprenant une opération d'intégration de domaine S et une variable de correction d'erreur ;

    traiter une sortie de la fonction de transfert pour compenser la variable de correction d'erreur introduite dans la fonction de transfert ;

    générer un couplage par flux estimé ;

    calculer un angle de la position de rotor en se basant sur le couplage par flux estimé ; et

    entrer la position de rotor calculée dans le dispositif de commande (40).


     
    13. Système selon la revendication 12, dans lequel la fonction de transfert est exprimée sous la forme

    où s représente l'opération d'intégration de domaine S ; et

    a est la variable de correction d'erreur ou

    comprenant en outre un algorithme de compensation, l'algorithme de compensation comprenant une composante alpha et une composante bêta du couplage par flux estimé pour compenser une erreur due à la variable de correction d'erreur, dans lequel l'algorithme de compensation de grandeur est exprimé par :

    dans lequel :

    a est la variable de correction d'erreur et

    ωr est une vitesse de rotor.


     
    14. Système selon la revendication 13, dans lequel une variable complexe de couplage par flux comprend une composante réelle et une composante imaginaire, la variable complexe de couplage par flux est employée pour compenser une erreur de phase due à la variable de correction d'erreur, la variable complexe utilisée pour une correction d'angle de phase étant exprimée par :


     
    15. Procédé selon la revendication 12, dans lequel une compensation de grandeur et une compensation de phase sont combinées, la combinaison de la compensation de grandeur et de la compensation de phase étant exprimée par :



    dans lesquelles :

    fα' et fβ' sont les composantes alpha et bêta du couplage par flux après compensation ;

    fα et fβ sont les composantes alpha et bêta du couplage par flux avant compensation ; et

    ωr est la vitesse de rotor.


     




    Drawing


















    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description