(19)
(11)EP 2 571 858 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.06.2018 Bulletin 2018/25

(21)Application number: 11723158.9

(22)Date of filing:  20.05.2011
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C07D 265/30  (2006.01)
A61P 25/24  (2006.01)
A61P 25/18  (2006.01)
A61K 31/5375  (2006.01)
A61P 25/16  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2011/037361
(87)International publication number:
WO 2011/146850 (24.11.2011 Gazette  2011/47)

(54)

PHENYLMORPHOLINES AND ANALOGUES THEREOF

PHENYLMORPHOLINE UND ANALOGE DAVON

PHENYLMORPHOLINES ET ANALOGUES DE CELLES-CI


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 21.05.2010 US 347259 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
27.03.2013 Bulletin 2013/13

(73)Proprietors:
  • Research Triangle Institute
    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (US)
  • United States of America, as represented by The Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services
    Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7660 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • BLOUGH, Bruce E.
    Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (US)
  • ROTHMAN, Richard
    Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (US)
  • LANDAVAZO, Antonio
    Raleigh, North Carolina 27614 (US)
  • PAGE, Kevin M.
    Willow Spring, North Carolina 27592 (US)
  • DECKER, Ann Marie
    Durham, North Carolina 27713 (US)

(74)Representative: Hoeger, Stellrecht & Partner Patentanwälte mbB 
Uhlandstrasse 14c
70182 Stuttgart
70182 Stuttgart (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2004/052372
WO-A1-2008/087512
FR-A- 1 397 563
GB-A- 899 386
WO-A1-2008/026046
DE-B- 1 135 464
GB-A- 883 220
US-A1- 2005 267 096
  
  • R.A. GLENNON ET AL.: "Beta-Oxygenated Analogues of the 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Agonist 1-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopro pane", JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 47, no. 24, 2004, pages 6034-6041, XP002649213,
  • J. BLAGG ET AL: "Design and synthesis of a functionally selective D3 agonist and its in vivo delivery via the intranasal route", BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, PERGAMON, ELSEVIER SCIENCE, GB, vol. 17, no. 24, 22 October 2007 (2007-10-22), pages 6691-6696, XP022339556, ISSN: 0960-894X, DOI: DOI:10.1016/J.BMCL.2007.10.059
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT



[0001] This invention was made with United States Government support under DA 12970/0207690.000 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The United States Government has certain rights in the invention.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0002] The present application is directed to various compounds and methods of preparation of compounds that are capable of functioning as releasers and/or reuptake inhibitors of one or more monoamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. The application is also directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising one or more of these compounds, which may also comprise one or more additional therapeutic agents. It is also directed to methods of treatment of various conditions that may be responsive to modification of monoamine neurotransmitter levels, such as pre-obesity, obesity, addiction, and depression.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0003] Obesity is a serious public health concern, associated with a number of health conditions. The National Center for Health Statistics reports that 65% of adults are considered to be overweight (pre-obese), with greater than 34% of those adults considered to be obese. The incidences of obesity have dramatically increased over the last twenty years, with the percentage of obese adults having doubled from 1980 to 2004. Children are at risk as well, with an estimated 17% of children from age 2-19 classified as obese. Medical conditions commonly associated with obesity include diabetes and high blood pressure, which may lead to cardiovascular disease, stroke, and premature mortality.

[0004] As a result, there has been an increase in demand for medications to treat pre-obesity and obesity. One type of medication that is available to treat obesity is anorectics, also known as appetite suppressants. One well-known anorectic is Fen-Phen, which was widely prescribed for weight loss in the early 1990s. Fen-Phen is a combination drug that comprises two compounds; namely, fenfluramine and phentermine. Fenfluramine acts via a serotonergic mechanism to increase a user's satiety. Phentermine has a stimulant effect, acting mainly through dopaminergic and noradrenergic mechanisms to decrease a user's appetite. Fen-Phen, although effective in the treatment of obesity, was linked to possible valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension in 1997. As a result, fenfluramine and the Fen-Phen combination drug were pulled from the market in 1997.

[0005] It is thought that the valvular heart disease and pulmonary hypertension associated with the use of fenfluramine and its active metabolite norfenfluramine may result from the stimulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) serotonin receptors. Studies have shown that, in particular, fenfluramine is a potent agonist of a particular type of 5-HT receptor, the 5-HT2B receptor, which is present in human cardiac valves. Phentermine is still available in many countries, including the United States; however, it is classified as a controlled substance due to its chemical and pharmacological similarity to amphetamines. One concern with such compounds is the high potential for abuse.

[0006] Another anorectic, which was prescribed for the short-term treatment of obesity, is phenmetrazine. Phenmetrazine is reportedly a potent substrate for norephinephrine and dopamine transporters and displays stimulant properties similar to those of amphetamines. Some reports indicate that phenmetrazine has been widely abused as a recreational drug and has greater addiction potential than amphetamines. Because of phenmetrazine's high potential for abuse, it was pulled from the market.

[0007] Subsequently, phendimetrazine, a close analogue of phenmetrazine with a methyl substituent on the amine, was released onto the market as an anorectic. Recent research has suggested that phendimetrazine actually exerts its effect via conversion to phenmetrazine. See Rothman et al., Eur. J. Pharmacology 447: 51-57 (2002), incorporated herein by reference. Thus, as with phenmetrazine, phendimetrazine also has a high potential for abuse. Although it is still available for the treatment of obesity, phendimetrazine is a Class III controlled substance and there is a high likelihood of abuse of this drug.

[0008] Accordingly, there is a need for an anorectic drug that acts similarly to the aforementioned drugs on the central nervous system, but does not provide such high potential for abuse and/or does not act as an agonist of the 5-HT2B receptor. Because of their effects on the central nervous system, such compounds may be useful not only for treating obesity and pre-obesity, but also for other diseases related to the central nervous system including addiction, depression, and anxiety.

[0009] Richard A. Glennon et al. describe in the scientific article "β-Oxygenated Analogues of the 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Agonist 1-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane", J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47, 6034-6041, the activation of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors as an
approach to lowering intraocular pressure. 1-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-amino-propan-1-ol was identified as a candidate structure of a serotonin receptor agonist with reduced propensity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

[0010] Julian Blagg et al. describe in the scientific article "Design and synthesis of a functionally selective D3 agonist and its in vivo delivery via the intranasal route", Bioorganic & Medical Chemistry Letters 17 (2007), 6671-6696 the synthesis and biological activity of series of aryl-morpholine dopamine receptor agonists.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0011] The present invention relates generally to compounds and prodrugs that may be useful as releasers and/or reuptake inhibitors of one or more monoamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. It also relates to pharmaceutical formulations of such compounds and/or prodrugs and to methods of using such compounds, prodrugs, or formulations thereof to treat various conditions that may be responsive to the modulation of neurotransmitter levels.

[0012] In one aspect, the present invention provides a compound that may modulate the levels of one or more monoamine neurotransmitters. In some embodiments, the invention provides a compound according to the following structure:

wherein:

R1 is optionally substituted aryl;

R2 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

R3 is H;

R4 is H or C1-3 alkyl; and

R5 is H or OH;

R6 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

with the proviso that when R2 is CH3 and R1 is phenyl, then (a) the phenyl ring of R1 is substituted with one or more substituents; or (b) one or more of R4, R5, and R6 is not H, or a combination of (a) and (b); or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0013] In certain embodiments, a compound of the structure above is provided, wherein R1 is phenyl, substituted phenyl, naphthyl, or substituted naphthyl. In some embodiments, R1 is a substituted aryl group (e.g., a substituted phenyl) and R3 is H.

[0014] In some embodiments, a compound is provided having the structure:

wherein the substituents are as noted above, except that:
each R7 represents a substituent independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4alkoxy, C2-4alkenyl, C2-4 alkynyl, halogen, amino, acylamido, CN, CF3, NO2 N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NR12R13, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3 alkylthio,, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, and CF3SO2, wherein R12 and R13 are each independently selected from H or optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl; and b is an integer from 0-5;
with the proviso that when R2 is CH3, then (a) b is an integer from 1-5, or (b) R3 is substituted C1 alkyl or optionally substituted C2-C3 alkyl, or (c) one or more of R4, R5, and R6 is not H, or a combination of two or more of (a) through (c),
or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0015] In certain embodiments, a compound of the above formula is provided, wherein b is an integer from 1-5, and each R7 is independently selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted C1-4 alkyl, optionally substituted C1-4 alkoxy, halo, OH, CN, and CF3. In some embodiments, b is 1 and the R7 substituent is located meta or para to the morpholine substituent on the phenyl ring.

[0016] In some embodiments, a compound is provided having the structure:

wherein:

each R7 represents a substituent independently selected from the group consisting of OH, optionally substituted C1-4 alkyl, optionally substituted C1-3 alkoxy, optionally substituted C2-4 alkenyl, optionally substituted C2-4 alkynyl, halogen, amino, acylamido, CN, CF3, NO2 N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NR12R13, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3 alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, and CF3SO2; and

c is an integer from 0-7,

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0017] In some embodiments of the present invention, a compound is provided, wherein R2 is H or CH3. In some embodiments of the invention, a compound is provided wherein R4 is H or CH3. In certain embodiments, R4 is optionally substituted C1-3 alkyl. In certain embodiments, one of R2 and R4 is H and the other of R2 and R4 is optionally substituted C1-3 alkyl, In some embodiments, such compounds may comprise an enantiomeric excess of at least 95% of one isomer (e.g., the (2S-5S) enantiomer).

[0018] In one embodiment of the invention, certain compounds are provided, selected from the group consisting of: 2-(3-chloro-phenyl)-3-methyl-morpholine; 2-(3-chloro-phenyl)-3-methyl-morpholin-2-ol; 2-(3-fluoro-phenyl)-3-methyl-morpholine; 2-(3-fluoro-phenyl)-3-methyl-morpholin-2-ol; 3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholin-2-ol; 3-methyl-2-(2'-naphthyl)morpholine; 3-methyl-2-(3'-tolyl)morpholine; 3-methyl-2-(3'-tolyl)morpholin-2-ol; 3-methyl-2-(4'-tolyl)morpholine; 3-methyl-[(4'-fluoro)-2-phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(4'-chloro)-2-phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(4'-methoxy)-2-phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(4'-cyano)-2-phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(3'-hydroxy)-2-phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(3'-methoxy)-2-phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(3'-cyano)-2-Phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(3',4'-dichloro)-2-phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(3'-chloro-4'-fluoro)-2-Phenyl]morpholine; 3-methyl-[(3'-chloro-4'-methyl)-2-Phenyl]morpholine; or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0019] According to the invention, in some embodiments, the compound is one or more of a dopamine releaser, norepinephrine releaser, serotonin releaser, dopamine uptake inhibitor, norepinephrine uptake inhibitor, and serotonin uptake inhibitor. In certain embodiments, the compound is a dopamine releaser or a dual serotonin and dopamine releaser. In some embodiments, the compound is inactive at the 5HT2B receptor.

[0020] In another aspect of the invention is provided a prodrug of the compounds disclosed herein, comprising a compound having R3 replaced with a labile protecting group. Prodrugs of the present invention have the following formula:

wherein:
X is an amino acid or peptide.

[0021] In some embodiments, a prodrug is provided having the formula:

wherein R8 is optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl, optionally substituted C1-10 alkoxy,
optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted benzyl, or optionally substituted pyridyl.

[0022] In a further aspect of the invention, a pharmaceutical composition is provided, wherein the composition comprises a compound or prodrug as disclosed herein and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers.

[0023] In a still further aspect of the invention, compounds for use in treating or delaying the progression of disorders that are alleviated by modulating monoamine release in a patient comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound or prodrug as disclosed herein is provided. For example, in certain embodiments, the disorder is selected from the group consisting of addiction, depression, obesity, bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), hypoactive sexual desire disorder, antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction, orgasmic dysfunction, seasonal affective disorder/winter depression, mania, bulimia and other eating disorders, panic disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder, Parkinson's disease, narcolepsy, anxiety disorders, insomnia, chronic pain, migraine headaches, and restless legs syndrome.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0024] The present invention now will be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying figures, in which some, but not all embodiments of the inventions are shown. Indeed, these inventions may be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein; rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will satisfy applicable legal requirements. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout. As used in the specification, and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a", "an", "the", include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0025] Many modifications and other embodiments of the inventions set forth herein will come to mind to one skilled in the art to which these inventions pertain having the benefit of the teachings presented in the foregoing description. Therefore, it is to be understood that the inventions are not to be limited to the specific embodiments disclosed and that modifications and other embodiments are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims. Although specific terms are employed herein, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation.

[0026] The present invention provides compounds that may function to modify the release and/or reuptake of one or more monoamine neurotransmitters selected from dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The invention also provides methods of preparation and pharmaceutical compositions thereof. It also provides methods for using such compounds to treat a variety of disorders that may be responsive to the modulation of one or more of these neurotransmitters. In particular, the compositions and methods can be used in the treatment of obesity, various drug addictions, and depression. In some embodiments, treatment can comprise the use of a compound of the present invention as a single active agent. In other embodiments, treatment can comprise the use of a compound of the present invention in combination with one or more further active agents. The specific pharmaceutical composition (or compositions) used in the invention and the methods of treatment provided by the invention are further described below.

Definitions



[0027] The term "alkyl" as used herein means saturated straight, branched, or cyclic hydrocarbon groups. In particular embodiments, alkyl refers to groups comprising 1 to 10 carbon atoms ("C1-10 alkyl"). In further embodiments, alkyl refers to groups comprising 1 to 8 carbon atoms ("C1-8 alkyl"), 1 to 6 carbon atoms ("C1-6 alkyl"), 1 to 4 carbon atoms ("C1-4 alkyl"), or 1 to 3 carbon atoms ("C1-3 alkyl"). In other embodiments, alkyl refers to groups comprising 3-10 carbon atoms ("C3-10 alkyl"), 3-8 carbon atoms ("C3-8 alkyl"), or 3-6 carbon atoms ("C3-6 alkyl"). In specific embodiments, alkyl refers to methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, pentyl, cyclopentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, hexyl, isohexyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexylmethyl, 3-methylpentyl, 2,2-dimethybutyl, and 2,3-dimethylbutyl. Substituted alkyl refers to alkyl substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of halo (e.g., Cl, F, Br, and I); halogenated alkyl (e.g., CF3, 2-Br-ethyl, CH2F, CH2Cl, CH2CF3, or CF2CF3); hydroxyl; amino; carboxylate; carboxamido; alkylamino; arylamino; alkoxy; aryloxy; nitro; azido; cyano; thio; sulfonic acid; sulfate; phosphonic acid; phosphate; and phosphonate.

[0028] The term "alkenyl" as used herein means alkyl moieties wherein at least one saturated C-C bond is replaced by a double bond. In particular embodiments, alkenyl refers to groups comprising 2 to 10 carbon atoms ("C2-10 alkenyl"). In further embodiments, alkenyl refers to groups comprising 2 to 8 carbon atoms ("C2-8 alkenyl"), 2 to 6 carbon atoms ("C2-6 alkenyl"), or 2 to 4 carbon atoms ("C2-4 alkenyl"). In specific embodiments, alkenyl can be vinyl, allyl, 1-propenyl, 2-propenyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, 3-butenyl, 1-pentenyl, 2-pentenyl, 3-pentenyl, 4-pentenyl, 1-hexenyl, 2-hexenyl, 3-hexenyl, 4-hexenyl, or 5-hexenyl.

[0029] The term "alkynyl" as used herein means alkyl moieties wherein at least one saturated C-C bond is replaced by a triple bond. In particular embodiments, alkynyl refers to groups comprising 2 to 10 carbon atoms ("C2-10 alkynyl"). In further embodiments, alkynyl refers to groups comprising 2 to 8 carbon atoms ("C2-8 alkynyl"), 2 to 6 carbon atoms ("C2-6 alkynyl"), or 2 to 4 carbon atoms ("C2-4 alkynyl"). In specific embodiments, alkynyl can be ethynyl, 1-propynyl, 2-propynyl, 1-butynyl, 2-butynyl, 3-butynyl, 1-pentynyl, 2-pentynyl, 3-pentynyl, 4-pentynyl, 1- hexynyl, 2-hexynyl, 3-hexynyl, 4-hexynyl, or 5-hexynyl.

[0030] The term "alkoxy" as used herein means straight or branched chain alkyl groups linked by an oxygen atom (i.e., -O-alkyl), wherein alkyl is as described above. In particular embodiments, alkoxy refers to oxygen-linked groups comprising 1 to 10 carbon atoms ("C1-10 alkoxy"). In further embodiments, alkoxy refers to oxygen-linked groups comprising 1 to 8 carbon atoms ("C1-8 alkoxy"), 1 to 6 carbon atoms ("C1-6 alkoxy"), 1 to 4 carbon atoms ("C1-4 alkoxy") or 1 to 3 carbon atoms ("C1-3 alkoxy").

[0031] The term "aryl" as used herein means a stable monocyclic, bicyclic, or tricyclic carbon ring of up to 8 members in each ring, wherein at least one ring is aromatic as defined by the Hückel 4n+2 rule. Exemplary aryl groups according to the invention include phenyl and naphthyl.

[0032] The term "halo" or "halogen" as used herein means fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.

[0033] The term "alkylthio" as used herein means a thio group with one or more alkyl substituents, where alkyl is defined as above.

[0034] The term "acylamido" refers to an amide group with one or more acyl substituents, where acyl is as defined below.

[0035] The term "acyl" as used herein means a group formed by removing the hydroxyl group from a carboxylic acid, in which the non-carbonyl moiety of the group is selected from straight, branched, or cyclic alkyl or lower alkyl; alkoxyalkyl including methoxymethyl; aralkyl including benzyl; aryloxyalkyl such as phenoxymethyl; aryl including phenyl optionally substituted with halogen, C1-6 alkyl or C1-6 alkoxy; sulfonate esters such as alkyl or aralkyl sulfonyl including methanesulfonyl; mono-, di-, or triphosphate ester; trityl or monomethoxytrityl; substituted benzyl; trialkylsilyl such as dimethyl-t-butylsilyl or diphenylmethylsilyl.

[0036] The terms "aralkyl" and "arylalkyl" as used herein mean an aryl group as defined above linked to the molecule through an alkyl group as defined above.

[0037] The term "amino" as used herein means a moiety represented by the structure NR2, and includes primary amines, and secondary and tertiary amines substituted by alkyl (i.e., alkylamino). Thus, R2 may represent two hydrogen atoms, two alkyl moieties, or one hydrogen atom and one alkyl moiety.

[0038] The tem "cycloalkyl" means a non-aromatic, monocyclic or polycyclic ring comprising carbon and hydrogen atoms. Substituted cycloalkyl refers to alkyl substituted with one or more moieties selected from the group consisting of halo (e.g., Cl, F, Br, and I); halogenated alkyl (e.g., CF3, 2-Br-ethyl, CH2F, CH2Cl, CH2CF3, or CF2CF3); hydroxyl; amino; carboxylate; carboxamido; alkylamino; arylamino; alkoxy; aryloxy; nitro; azido; cyano; thio; sulfonic acid; sulfate; phosphonic acid; phosphate; and phosphonate.

[0039] The term "analogue" as used herein means a compound in which one or more individual atoms or functional groups have been replaced, either with a different atom or a different functional, generally giving rise to a compound with similar properties.

[0040] The term "derivative" as used herein means a compound that is formed from a similar, beginning compound by attaching another molecule or atom to the beginning compound. Further, derivatives, according to the invention, encompass one or more compounds formed from a precursor compound through addition of one or more atoms or molecules or through combining two or more precursor compounds.

[0041] The term "prodrug" as used herein means any compound which, when administered to a mammal, is converted in whole or in part to a compound of the invention.

[0042] The term "active metabolite" as used herein means a physiologically active compound which results from the metabolism of a compound of the invention, or a prodrug thereof, when such compound or prodrug is administered to a mammal.

[0043] The terms "therapeutically effective amount" or "therapeutically effective dose" as used herein are interchangeable and mean a concentration of a compound according to the invention, or a biologically active variant thereof, sufficient to elicit the desired therapeutic effect according to the methods of treatment described herein.

[0044] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" as used herein means a carrier that is conventionally used in the art to facilitate the storage, administration, and/or the healing effect of a biologically active agent.

[0045] The term "intermittent administration" as used herein means administration of a therapeutically effective dose of a composition according to the invention, followed by a time period of discontinuance, which is then followed by another administration of a therapeutically effective dose, and so forth.

[0046] The term "neurotransmitter" as used herein encompasses monoamine neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. In particular, the term neurotransmitter as used herein includes, but is not limited to, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

Active Agents



[0047] The present invention provides compounds, methods of preparation of the compounds, pharmaceutical compositions, and methods of treatment of various conditions using such compounds and pharmaceutical compositions.

[0048] In some embodiments, morpholine compounds according to Formula I are provided,

wherein:

R1 is optionally substituted aryl (e.g naphthyl or phenyl) with the optional substituents defined below;

R2 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

R3 is H;

R4 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

R5 is H or OH; and

R6 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

with the proviso that when R2 is CH3 and R1 is phenyl, then (a) the phenyl ring of R1 is substituted with one or more substituents; or (b) one or more of R4, R5, and R6 is not H, or a combination of (a) and (b);
or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0049] In some preferred embodiments, a compound of Formula I is provided wherein R1 is aryl substituted at one or more available sites. Where multiple substitutions are present on R1, multiple different types of substituents may be utilized. The one or more substituents present on R1 are chosen from OH, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 alkoxy, C2-4 alkenyl, C2-4 alkynyl, halogen, amino, acylamido, CN, CF3, NO2, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NR12R13, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3 alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, and CF3SO2, wherein R12 and R13 are each independently selected from H or optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl.

[0050] In some preferred embodiments, a compound of Formula I is provided wherein R2 is H. In some preferred embodiments, a compound of Formula I is provided wherein R2 is C1-3alkyl (e.g., CH3). In some preferred embodiments, a compound of Formula I is provided wherein R3 is H. In some preferred embodiments, a compound of Formula I is provided wherein R4 is H. In some preferred embodiments, a compound of Formula I is provided wherein R4 is C1-3 alkyl (e.g., CH3). In some preferred embodiments, a compound of Formula I is provided wherein R5 is H. In some preferred embodiments, a compound of Formula I is provided wherein R5 is OH.

[0051] In one particular embodiment, the compound of Formula I may be represented by Formula II.

wherein:

R2 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

R3 is H;

R4 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

R5 is H or OH;

R6 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

each R7 represents a substituent independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 alkoxy, C2-4 alkenyl, C2-4 alkynyl, halogen, amino, acylamido, CN, CF3, NO2 N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NR12R13, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3 alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, and CF3SO2, wherein R12 and R13 are each independently selected from H or optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl;

b is an integer from 0-5; and

with the proviso that when R2 is CH3, then (a) b is an integer from 1-5, or (b) one or more of R4, R5, and R6 is not H, or a combination of (a) and (b),
or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0052] In some preferred embodiments, b = 0 or 1. In certain embodiments, b = 1 and R7 is selected from the group consisting of CH3, F, and Cl. In certain embodiments, the R7 substituent is located meta or para to the morpholine substituent on the phenyl ring.

[0053] In another particular embodiment, the compound of Formula I may be represented by Formula III:

wherein:

R2 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

R3 is H;

R4 is H or alkyl;

R5 is H or OH;

R6 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

each R7 represents a substituent independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-4 alkyl, C1-3 alkoxy, C2-4 alkenyl, C2-4 alkynyl, halogen, amino, acylamido, CN, CF3, NO2 N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NR12R13, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3 alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, and CF3SO2; and

c is an integer from 0-7,

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0054] In some embodiments of the present invention, therapeutically inactive prodrugs are provided. Prodrugs are compounds which, when administered to a mammal, are converted in whole or in part to a compound of the invention. In most embodiments, the prodrugs are pharmacologically inert chemical derivatives that can be converted in vivo to the active drug molecules to exert a therapeutic effect. Any of the compounds described herein can be administered as a prodrug to increase the activity, bioavailability, or stability of the compound or to otherwise alter the properties of the compound. In the claimed prodrug embodiments, the amine of the morpholine ring of any one of Formulas I-III is modified to provide a prodrug. Examples of substituent groups that can replace one or more hydrogen atoms on the free amine include amino acid residues or peptides.

[0055] Prodrugs may be particularly useful according to the present invention, as they may provide a safer alternative for treatment due to the noted high potential for abuse of amphetamines and related compounds. Although the therapeutic effect of the prodrugs may be similar to that provided by the free compounds, the prodrugs of the present invention may be stable under conditions commonly used to provide drugs in concentrated form for illicit use. Specifically, using a prodrug should reduce the risk that pills comprising the prodrug might be used to extract the drug and concentrate it or use it via other methods (e.g., via intravenous administration, snorting, or smoking), because additional steps (i.e., for example, acid cleavage and extraction) are required to provide the prodrug compound in the pure drug form. Additionally, a prodrug form may be advantageous in that it may deliver a constant low dose of the drug which reduces abuse liability by "slow onset," i.e., a pharmacokinetics approach.

[0056] Prodrugs of the present invention may be represented by Formula IV:

wherein:

R1, R2, R4, R5, and R6 are the same as indicated above for Formula I;

X is an amino acid or peptide;

n is 1;

Z is a chemical moiety that acts as an adjuvant, wherein each Z may be the same or different, and wherein each Z is different from at least one X; and

m 0.



[0057] In some embodiments, X may be alkyl. In some embodiments, when R2 is CH3, R1 is phenyl, R4-R6 are H, n=1, and m=0, X is not CH3. In some, but not all, embodiments of Formula IV, when R1 is phenyl, the phenyl ring is substituted with one or more substituents and/or one or more of R4, R5, and R6 is not H.

[0058] In some preferred embodiments, X is an amino acid. Where X is an amino acid or peptide, the amino acid(s) may be naturally occurring or unnatural, non-standard, or synthetic, and may be either the L- or D enantiomer. Particularly preferable amino acids for use in the present invention include alanine, lysine, serine, phenylalanine, arginine, glycine, glutamic acid, or leucine. In some preferred embodiments of the invention, a prodrug of Formula IV is provided, wherein m=0. In some preferred embodiments of the invention, a prodrug of Formula IV is provided, wherein X is a single amino acid. In other preferred embodiments, a prodrug of Formula IV is provided, wherein X is a peptide.

[0059] With regard to peptide conjugates, an iterative approach can be used to identify favorable conjugates by synthesizing and testing single amino acid conjugates and subsequently extending the peptide by one amino acid at a time. The parent single amino acid prodrug candidate may exhibit more or less desirable characteristics than the subsequent di- or tri-, etc. peptide candidates. The iterative approach can be beneficial in determining whether peptide length influences bioavailability.

[0060] In preferred embodiments, m = 0, which is represented by Formula V:

wherein the substituents are the same as those indicated for Formula IV.

[0061] In preferred embodiments, when R2 is CH3, R1 is phenyl, R4-R6 are H, and n=1, X is not CH3.

[0062] In some preferred embodiments, prodrugs of the present invention may be represented by the following formula:

wherein the substituents are the same as those indicated for Formula IV, except that:
R8 is optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl, optionally substituted C1-10 alkoxy, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted benzyl, or optionally substituted pyridyl. For example, in certain embodiments, R8 may be, but is not limited to, CH3, CH2CH3, phenyl, benzyl, 4-CH2NPh, 3-pyridyl, OCH3, OCH2CH3, (CH2)3N(CH3)2, (CH2)3N+(CH3)3, O(CH2)NH2, O(CH2)3N(CH3)2, and O(CH2)3N+(CH3)2, or any of the following:



[0063] In some embodiments, compounds or prodrugs with one or more chiral centers are provided. While racemic mixtures of compounds or prodrugs of the invention may be active, selective, and bioavailable, isolated isomers may be of interest as well.

[0064] The compounds and prodrugs disclosed herein as active agents may contain chiral centers, which may be either of the (R) or (S) configuration, or which may comprise a mixture thereof. Accordingly, the present invention also includes stereoisomers of the compounds and prodrugs described herein, where applicable, either individually or admixed in any proportions. Stereoisomers may include, but are not limited to, enantiomers, diastereomers, racemic mixtures, and combinations thereof. Such stereoisomers can be prepared and separated using conventional techniques, either by reacting enantiomeric starting materials, or by separating isomers of compounds and prodrugs of the present invention. Isomers may include geometric isomers. Examples of geometric isomers include, but are not limited to, cis isomers or trans isomers across a double bond. Other isomers are contemplated among the compounds of the present invention. The isomers may be used either in pure form or in admixture with other isomers of the compounds described herein.

[0065] The compounds of the present invention may be compounds according to Formulas I-III with one or more chiral centers, which may be either of the (R) or (S) configuration, or which may comprise a mixture thereof. The carbon to which R1 and R5 are connected may be either of the R or S configuration. When R2 is a substituent other than H, the carbon to which R2 is connected is a chiral center and may be either of the R or S configuration. When R4 is a substituent other than H, the carbon to which R2 is connected to is a chiral center and may be either of the R or S configuration. When R6 is a substituent other than H, the carbon to which R6 is connected is a chiral center and may be either of the R or S configuration. The present invention includes both racemic mixtures of a compound of Formula I and isolated isomers of Formulas I-III. Where more than one chiral center is present in a compound of the invention, some, none, or all of the chiral centers may be enantiomerically enriched. Thus, mixtures of a compound of Formulas I-III may be racemic with respect to one or more chiral centers and/or enantiomerically enriched with respect to one or more chiral centers.

[0066] In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a compound of Formulas I-III is provided wherein the carbon to which R1 and R5 are attached is (R) or (S). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a compound of Formulas I-III is provided wherein the carbon to which R2 is attached is (R) or (S). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a compound of Formulas I-III is provided wherein the carbon to which R4 is attached is (R) or (S). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a compound of Formulas I-III is provided wherein the compound to which R6 is attached is (R) or (S). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a compound of Formulas I-III is provided wherein both the carbon to which R1 and R5 is attached and the carbon to which R2 is attached are independently (R) or (S) (e.g., (R, S), (S, R), (R, R), or (S, S)). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a compound of Formulas I-III is provided wherein both the carbon to which R1 and R5 is attached and the carbon to which R4 is attached are independently (R) or (S) (e.g., (R, S), (S, R), (R, R), or (S, S)). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a compound of Formulas I-III is provided wherein both the carbon to which R1 and R5 is attached and the carbon to which R6 is attached are independently (R) or (S) (e.g., (R, S), (S, R), (R, R), or (S, S)). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a compound of Formulas I-III is provided wherein both the carbon to which R2 is attached and the carbon to which R4 is attached are independently (R) or (S) (e.g., (R, S), (S, R), (R, R), or (S, S)). Obviously, compounds are within the scope of the present invention wherein one, two, three, or four chiral centers are provided on the morpholine ring. Accordingly, various enantiomerically enriched compounds may be provided, wherein the compounds may be racemic with respect to one or more chiral centers and/or enantiomerically enriched with respect to one or more chiral centers.

[0067] The prodrugs of the present invention may be prodrugs according to Formula IV with one or more chiral centers, which may be either of the (R) or (S) configuration, or which may comprise a mixture thereof. The carbon to which R1 and R5 are connected may be either of the R or S configuration. When R2 is a substituent other than H, the carbon to which R2 is connected is chiral and may be either of the R or S configuration. When R4 is a substituent other than H, the carbon to which R4 is connected to is chiral and may be either of the R or S configuration. When R6 is a substituent other than H, the carbon to which R6 is connected to is chiral and may be either of the R or S configuration. Accordingly, the present invention includes both racemic mixtures of prodrugs of Formula IV and isolated isomers of Formula IV. Where more than one chiral center is present in a compound of the invention, some, none, or all of the chiral centers may be enantiomerically enriched. Thus, mixtures of a compound of Formula IV may be racemic with respect to one or more chiral centers and/or enantiomerically enriched with respect to one or more chiral centers.

[0068] In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a prodrug of Formula IV is provided wherein the carbon to which R1 and R5 are attached is (R) or (S). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a prodrug of Formula IV is provided wherein the carbon to which R2 is attached is (R) or (S). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a prodrug of Formula IV is provided wherein the carbon to which R4 is attached is (R) or (S). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a prodrug of Formula IV is provided wherein both the carbon to which R1 and R5 are attached and the carbon to which R2 is attached are independently (R) or (S) (e.g., (R, S), (S, R), (R, R), or (S, S)). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a prodrug of Formula IV is provided wherein both the carbon to which R1 and R5 are attached and the carbon to which R4 is attached are independently (R) or (S) (e.g., (R, S), (S, R), (R, R), or (S, S)). In some preferred embodiments, an enantiomerically enriched sample of a prodrug of Formula IV is provided wherein both the carbon to which R2 is attached and the carbon to which R4 is attached are independently (R) or (S) (e.g., (R, S), (S, R), (R, R), or (S, S)).

[0069] Various methods are known in the art for preparing optically active forms and determining activity. Such methods include standard tests described herein and other similar tests which are well known in the art. Examples of methods that can be used to obtain optical isomers of the compounds according to the present invention include the following:
  1. i) physical separation of crystals whereby macroscopic crystals of the individual enantiomers are manually separated. This technique may particularly be used when crystals of the separate enantiomers exist (i.e., the material is a conglomerate), and the crystals are visually distinct;
  2. ii) simultaneous crystallization whereby the individual enantiomers are separately crystallized from a solution of the racemate, possible only if the latter is a conglomerate in the solid state;
  3. iii) enzymatic resolutions whereby partial or complete separation of a racemate by virtue of differing rates of reaction for the enantiomers with an enzyme;
  4. iv) enzymatic asymmetric synthesis, a synthetic technique whereby at least one step of the synthesis uses an enzymatic reaction to obtain an enantiomerically pure or enriched synthetic precursor of the desired enantiomer;
  5. v) chemical asymmetric synthesis whereby the desired enantiomer is synthesized from an achiral precursor under conditions that produce asymmetry (i.e., chirality) in the product, which may be achieved using chiral catalysts or chiral auxiliaries;
  6. vi) diastereomer separations whereby a racemic compound is reacted with an enantiomerically pure reagent (the chiral auxiliary) that converts the individual enantiomers to diastereomers. The resulting diastereomers are then separated by chromatography or crystallization by virtue of their now more distinct structural differences and the chiral auxiliary later removed to obtain the desired enantiomer;
  7. vii) first- and second-order asymmetric transformations whereby diastereomers from the racemate equilibrate to yield a preponderance in solution of the diastereomer from the desired enantiomer or where preferential crystallization of the diastereomer from the desired enantiomer perturbs the equilibrium such that eventually in principle all the material is converted to the crystalline diastereomer from the desired enantiomer. The desired enantiomer is then released from the diastereomers;
  8. viii) kinetic resolutions comprising partial or complete resolution of a racemate (or of a further resolution of a partially resolved compound) by virtue of unequal reaction rates of the enantiomers with a chiral, non-racemic reagent or catalyst under kinetic conditions;
  9. ix) enantiospecific synthesis from non-racemic precursors whereby the desired enantiomer is obtained from non-chiral starting materials and where the stereochemical integrity is not or is only minimally compromised over the course of the synthesis;
  10. x) chiral liquid chromatography whereby the enantiomers of a racemate are separated in a liquid mobile phase by virtue of their differing interactions with a stationary phase. The stationary phase can be made of chiral material or the mobile phase can contain an additional chiral material to provoke the differing interactions;
  11. xi) chiral gas chromatography whereby the racemate is volatilized and enantiomers are separated by virtue of their differing interactions in the gaseous mobile phase with a column containing a fixed non-racemic chiral adsorbent phase;
  12. xii) extraction with chiral solvents whereby the enantiomers are separated by virtue of preferential dissolution of one enantiomer into a particular chiral solvent; and
  13. xiii) transport across chiral membranes whereby a racemate is placed in contact with a thin membrane barrier. The barrier typically separates two miscible fluids, one containing the racemate, and a driving force such as concentration or pressure differential causes preferential transport across the membrane barrier. Separation occurs as a result of the non-racemic chiral nature of the membrane which allows only one enantiomer of the racemate to pass through.


[0070] The compound optionally may be provided in a composition that is enantiomerically enriched, such as a mixture of enantiomers in which one enantiomer is present in excess, in particular, to the extent of 95% or more, 96% or more, 97% or more, 98% or more, or 99% or more, including 100%.

[0071] In some embodiments, a compound of Formula I or a prodrug of Formula V is provided, wherein the compound contains one or more chiral centers. Specifically, the carbon to which R1 and R5 is attached is a chiral center, and may have either an R or S configuration. Depending on the substituents on the compound, other chiral centers may be present in the compound as well. In some embodiments, the compound is provided in a composition that is enantiomerically enriched. One preferred configuration is represented below in Figure VII. The chiral center(s) present in the compounds may be designated as either R or S, depending on the specific substituents on the chiral center. For example, in Formula VII below, when R1 is phenyl and R5 is H, the carbon center is designated as R, whereas when R1 is phenyl and R5 is OH, the carbon center is designated as S.

[0072] Although various stereoisomers may be represented by the previous formulas, one particularly preferred configuration of Formula I is represented by Formula VII:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0073] In an alternative embodiment, a preferred configuration of Formula I is represented by Formula VIII, wherein R2 is not H:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0074] In one embodiment, R2 is not H and a chiral center exists both at the carbon to which R1 and R5 are attached, and at the carbon alpha to the amine of the morpholine ring (to which R2 is attached), as shown below in Formula IX:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0075] In another embodiment, an alternative enantiomer is provided, represented by Formula X:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer thereof.

[0076] These compounds or prodrugs, wherein two chiral centers are present in the molecule, may be (R,R), (S,S), (R,S), or (S,R) isomers. The "trans" compounds, wherein one of R1 and R2 is above the plane of the molecule and one of R1 and R2 is below the plane of the molecule are encompassed by the invention. The "cis" compounds, wherein R2 and R1 are both above the plane of the molecule, or wherein R1 and R2 are both below the plane of the molecule, are also within the purview of this invention. In these compounds, as noted above, the identity of the substituents comprising R1 and R5 will determine whether the carbon center to which these substituents are attached is designated as R or S.

[0077] As noted above, the carbon centers to which R2, R4 and R6 are attached may be chiral, when these substituents are not H. Compounds wherein one or more of the four carbons on the morpholine ring are chiral are encompassed within the present invention. Compounds that are enantiomerically enriched with regard to zero, one, two, three, or all four carbon centers on the morpholine ring are encompassed. All isomeric combinations are encompassed within the present invention.

[0078] The terms (R), (S), (R,R), (S,S), (R,S) and (S,R) as used herein mean that the composition contains a greater proportion of the named isomer of the compound or prodrug in relation to other isomers. In a preferred embodiment these terms indicate that the composition contains at least 90% by weight of the named isomer and 10% by weight or less of the one or more other isomers; or more preferably about 95% by weight of the named isomer and 5% or less of the one or more other isomers. In some embodiments, the composition may contain at least 99% by weight of the named isomer and 1% or less by weight of the one or more other isomers, or may contain 100% by weight of the named isomer and 0% by weight of the one of more other isomers. These percentages are based on the total amount of the compound of the present invention present in the composition.

[0079] Additional chiral centers may be present in the compounds and prodrugs of the present invention. Compound samples wherein the compounds contain any of the aforementioned chiral centers may be racemic or may be enantiomerically enriched. Where more than one chiral center is present in a compound or prodrug of the invention, some, none, or all of the chiral centers may be enantiomerically enriched. Thus, they may be racemic with respect to one or more chiral centers and/or enantiomerically enriched with respect to one or more chiral centers.

[0080] The compounds and prodrugs of the present invention may be utilized per se or in the form of a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, solvate, prodrug, or isomer. For example, the compound or prodrug may be provided as a pharmaceutically acceptable salt. If used, a salt of the drug compound or prodrug should be both pharmacologically and pharmaceutically acceptable, but non-pharmaceutically acceptable salts may conveniently be used to prepare the free active compound, prodrug, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof and are not excluded from the scope of this invention. Such pharmacologically and pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be prepared by reaction of the drug with an organic or inorganic acid, using standard methods detailed in the literature.

[0081] Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds and prodrugs useful according to the invention include acid addition salts. Salts of non-pharmaceutically acceptable acids, however, may be useful, for example, in the preparation and purification of the compounds. Suitable acid addition salts according to the present invention include organic and inorganic acids. Preferred salts include those formed from hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, phosphoric, citric, tartaric, lactic, pyruvic, acetic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, oxaloacetic, methanesulfonic, ethanesulfonic, p-toluenesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, and isethionic acids. Other useful acid addition salts include propionic acid, glycolic acid, oxalic acid, malic acid, malonic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, salicylic acid, and the like. Particular example of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, sulfates, pyrosulfates, bisulfates, sulfites, bisulfites, phosphates, monohydrogenphosphates, dihydrogenphosphates, metaphosphates, pyrophosphates, chlorides, bromides, iodides, acetates, propionates, decanoates, caprylates, acrylates, formates, isobutyrates, caproates, heptanoates, propiolates, oxalates, malonates, succinates, suberates, sebacates, fumarates, maleates, butyne-1,4-dioates, hexyne-1,6-dioates, benzoates, chlorobenzoates, methylbenzoates, dinitrobenzoates, hydroxybenzoates, methoxyenzoates, phthalates, sulfonates, xylenesulfonates, phenylacetates, phenylpropionates, phenylbutyrates, citrates, lactates, γ-hydroxybutyrates, glycolates, tartrates, methanesulfonates, propanesulfonates, naphthalene-1-sulfonates, naphthalene-2-sulfonates, and mandelates.

[0082] An acid addition salt may be reconverted to the free base by treatment with a suitable base. Preparation of basic salts of acid moieties which may be present on a compound or prodrug useful according to the present invention may be prepared in a similar manner using a pharmaceutically acceptable base, such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, triethylamine, or the like.

[0083] Esters of the active agent compounds according to the present invention may be prepared through functionalization of hydroxyl and/or carboxyl groups that may be present within the molecular structure of the compound or prodrug. Amides and prodrugs may also be prepared using techniques known to those skilled in the art. For example, amides may be prepared from esters, using suitable amine reactants, or they may be prepared from anhydride or an acid chloride by reaction with ammonia or a lower alkyl amine. Moreover, esters and amides of compounds and prodrugs of the invention can be made by reaction with a carbonylating agent (e.g., ethyl formate, acetic anhydride, methoxyacetyl chloride, benzoyl chloride, methyl isocyanate, ethyl chloroformate, methanesulfonyl chloride) and a suitable base (e.g., 4-dimethylaminopyridine, pyridine, triethylamine, potassium carbonate) in a suitable organic solvent (e.g., tetrahydrofuran, acetone, methanol, pyridine, N,N-dimethylformamide) at a temperature of 0 °C to 60 °C. Prodrugs are typically prepared by covalent attachment of a moiety, which results in a compound that is therapeutically inactive until modified by an individual's metabolic system. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable solvates include, but are not limited to, compounds according to the invention in combination with water, isopropanol, ethanol, methanol, DMSO, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, or ethanolamine.

[0084] In the case of solid compositions, it is understood that the compounds and prodrugs used in the methods of the invention may exist in different forms. For example, the compounds or prodrugs may exist in stable and metastable crystalline forms and isotropic and amorphous forms, all of which are intended to be within the scope of the present invention.

[0085] If a compound or prodrug useful as an active agent according to the invention is a base, the desired salt may be prepared by any suitable method known to the art, including treatment of the free base with an inorganic acid, such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and the like, or with an organic acid, such as acetic acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, mandelic acid, fumaric acid, malonic acid, pyruvic acid, oxalic acid, glycolic acid, salicylic acid, pyranosidyl acids such as glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid, alpha-hydroxy acids such as citric acid and tartaric acid, amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid, aromatic acids such as benzoic acid and cinnamic acid, sulfonic acids such a p-toluenesulfonic acid or ethanesulfonic acid, or the like.

[0086] If a compound or prodrug described herein as an active agent is an acid, the desired salt may be prepared by any suitable method known to the art, including treatment of the free acid with an inorganic or organic base, such as an amine (primary, secondary or tertiary), an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal hydroxide or the like. Illustrative examples of suitable salts include organic salts derived from amino acids such as glycine and arginine, ammonia, primary, secondary and tertiary amines, and cyclic amines such as piperidine, morpholine and piperazine, and inorganic salts derived from sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, aluminum and lithium.

[0087] Some preferred compounds of the invention include the following, wherein R4 and R5 are H, the R1 substituent on the morpholine ring is phenyl and the substituents on the phenyl are varied.

Table 1. Reference Compounds
R2R3R4R5R7AR7BR7CR7DR7E
CH3 H H H CH3 H H H H
CH3 H H H H CH3 H H H
CH3 H H H H H CH3 H H
CH3 H H H CH3 CH3 H H H
CH3 H H H CH3 H CH3 H H
CH3 H H H CH3 H H CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH3 H H H CH3
CH3 H H H H CH3 CH3 H H
CH3 H H H H CH3 H CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH3 CH3 CH3 H H
CH3 H H H H CH3 CH3 CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH3 H CH3 H CH3
CH3 H H H CH3 H H CH3 CH3
CH3 H H H CH3 H CH3 CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH3 H CH3 CH3 CH3
CH3 H H H CH3 CH3 H CH3 CH3
CH3 H H H CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H H H H
CH3 H H H H CH2 CH3 H H H
CH3 H H H H H CH2CH3 H H
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H H H
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 H H
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H H CH2CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H H H CH2CH3
CH3 H H H H CH2 CH3 CH2CH3 H H
CH3 H H H H CH2 CH3 H CH2CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H H
CH3 H H H H CH2 CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3
CH3 H H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2 CH3 CH2 CH3
CH3 H H H Cl H H H H
CH3 H H H H Cl H H H
CH3 H H H H H Cl H H
CH3 H H H Cl Cl H H H
CH3 H H H Cl H Cl H H
CH3 H H H Cl H H Cl H
CH3 H H H Cl H H H Cl
CH3 H H H H Cl Cl H H
CH3 H H H H Cl H Cl H
CH3 H H H Cl Cl Cl H H
CH3 H H H H Cl Cl Cl H
CH3 H H H Cl H Cl H Cl
CH3 H H H Cl H H Cl Cl
CH3 H H H Cl H Cl Cl H
CH3 H H H Cl Cl Cl Cl H
CH3 H H H Cl H Cl Cl Cl
CH3 H H H Cl Cl H Cl Cl
CH3 H H H Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl
CH3 H H H F H H H H
CH3 H H H H F H H H
CH3 H H H H H F H H
CH3 H H H F F H H H
CH3 H H H F H F H H
CH3 H H H F H H F H
CH3 H H H F H H H F
CH3 H H H H F F H H
CH3 H H H H F H F H
CH3 H H H F F F H H
CH3 H H H H F F F H
CH3 H H H F H F H F
CH3 H H H F H H F F
CH3 H H H F H F F H
CH3 H H H F F F F H
CH3 H H H F H F F F
CH3 H H H F F H F F
CH3 H H H F F F F F
CH3 H H H Br H H H H
CH3 H H H H Br H H H
CH3 H H H H H Br H H
CH3 H H H Br Br H H H
CH3 H H H Br H Br H H
CH3 H H H Br H H Br H
CH3 H H H Br H H H Br
CH3 H H H H Br Br H H
CH3 H H H H Br H Br H
CH3 H H H Br Br Br H H
CH3 H H H H Br Br Br H
CH3 H H H Br H Br H Br
CH3 H H H Br H H Br Br
CH3 H H H Br H Br Br H
CH3 H H H Br Br Br Br H
CH3 H H H Br H Br Br Br
CH3 H H H Br Br H Br Br
CH3 H H H Br Br Br Br Br
CH3 H H H OCH3 H H H H
CH3 H H H H OCH3 H H H
CH3 H H H H H OCH3 H H
CH3 H H H OCH3 OCH3 H H H
CH3 H H H OCH3 H OCH3 H H
CH3 H H H OCH3 H H OCH3 H
CH3 H H H OCH3 H H H OCH3
CH3 H H H H OCH3 OCH3 H H
CH3 H H H H OCH3 H OCH3 H
CH3 H H H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 H H
CH3 H H H H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 H
CH3 H H H OCH3 H OCH3 H OCH3
CH3 H H H OCH3 H H OCH3 OCH3
CH3 H H H OCH3 H OCH3 OCH3 H
CH3 H H H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 H
CH3 H H H OCH3 H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3
CH3 H H H OCH3 OCH3 H OCH3 OCH3
CH3 H H H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3
CH3 H H H CN H H H H
CH3 H H H H CN H H H
CH3 H H H H H CN H H
CH3 H H H CN CN H H H
CH3 H H H CN H CN H H
CH3 H H H CN H H CN H
CH3 H H H CN H H H CN
CH3 H H H H CN CN H H
CH3 H H H H CN H CN H
CH3 H H H CN CN CN H H
CH3 H H H H CN CN CN H
CH3 H H H CN H CN H CN
CH3 H H H CN H H CN CN
CH3 H H H CN H CN CN H
CH3 H H H CN CN CN CN H
CH3 H H H CN H CN CN CN
CH3 H H H CN CN H CN CN
CH3 H H H CN CN CN CN CN
CH3 H H H OH H H H H
CH3 H H H H OH H H H
CH3 H H H H H OH H H
CH3 H H H OH OH H H H
CH3 H H H OH H OH H H
CH3 H H H OH H H OH H
CH3 H H H OH H H H OH
CH3 H H H H OH OH H H
CH3 H H H H OH H OH H
CH3 H H H OH OH OH H H
CH3 H H H H OH OH OH H
CH3 H H H OH H OH H OH
CH3 H H H OH H H OH OH
CH3 H H H OH H OH OH H
CH3 H H H OH OH OH OH H
CH3 H H H OH H OH OH OH
CH3 H H H OH OH H OH OH
CH3 H H H OH OH OH OH OH
CH3 H H H Cl F H H H
CH3 H H H Cl H F H H
CH3 H H H Cl H H F H
CH3 H H H Cl H H H F
CH3 H H H F Cl H H H
CH3 H H H H Cl F H H
CH3 H H H H Cl H F H
CH3 H H H H Cl H H F
CH3 H H H F H Cl H H
CH3 H H H H F Cl H H
CH3 H H H Cl F F H H
CH3 H H H Cl F H F H
CH3 H H H Cl F H H F
CH3 H H H H Cl H H H
CH3 H H H H Cl H H H
CH3 H H H H Cl H H H
CH3 H H H F H Cl H H
CH3 H H H H F Cl H H
CH3 H H H Cl F F F H
CH3 H H H Cl F H F F
CH3 H H H Cl H F F F
CH3 H H H F Cl F F H
CH3 H H H F Cl H F F
CH3 H H H F Cl F H F
CH3 H H H F F Cl F H
CH3 H H H F F Cl H F
CH3 H H H Cl F F F F
CH3 H H H F Cl F F F
CH3 H H H F F Cl F F
CH3 H H H F Cl Cl H H
CH3 H H H F Cl H Cl H
CH3 H H H F Cl H H Cl
CH3 H H H H F H H H
CH3 H H H H F H H H
CH3 H H H H F H H H
CH3 H H H Cl H F H H
CH3 H H H H Cl F H H
CH3 H H H F Cl Cl Cl H
CH3 H H H F Cl H Cl Cl
CH3 H H H F H Cl Cl Cl
CH3 H H H Cl F Cl Cl H
CH3 H H H Cl F H Cl Cl
CH3 H H H Cl F Cl H Cl
CH3 H H H Cl Cl F Cl H
CH3 H H H Cl Cl F H Cl
CH3 H H H F Cl Cl Cl Cl
CH3 H H H Cl F Cl Cl Cl
CH3 H H H Cl Cl F Cl Cl
CH3 H H H CF3 H H H H
CH3 H H H H CF3 H H H
CH3 H H H H H CF3 H H
CH3 H H H CF3 CF3 H H H
CH3 H H H CF3 H CF3 H H
CH3 H H H CF3 H H CF3 H
CH3 H H H CF3 H H H CF3
CH3 H H H H CF3 CF3 H H
CH3 H H H H CF3 H CF3 H
CH3 H H H CF3 CF3 CF3 H H
CH3 H H H H CF3 CF3 CF3 H
CH3 H H H CF3 H CF3 H CF3
CH3 H H H CF3 H H CF3 CF3
CH3 H H H CF3 H CF3 CF3 H
CH3 H H H CF3 CF3 CF3 CF3 H
CH3 H H H CF3 H CF3 CF3 CF3
CH3 H H H CF3 CF3 H CF3 CF3
CH3 H H H CF3 CF3 CF3 CF3 CF3


[0088] Some additional preferred compounds of the present invention include the following, wherein R4 is CH3, R2 and R5 are H, the R1 substituent on the morpholine ring is a phenyl, and the substituents on the phenyl are varied.

Table 2. Representative Compounds of the Invention
R2R3R4R5R7AR7BR7CR7DR7E
H H CH3 H CH3 H H H H
H H CH3 H H CH3 H H H
H H CH3 H H H CH3 H H
H H CH3 H CH3 CH3 H H H
H H CH3 H CH3 H CH3 H H
H H CH3 H CH3 H H CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH3 H H H CH3
H H CH3 H H CH3 CH3 H H
H H CH3 H H CH3 H CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH3 CH3 CH3 H H
H H CH3 H H CH3 CH3 CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH3 H CH3 H CH3
H H CH3 H CH3 H H CH3 CH3
H H CH3 H CH3 H CH3 CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH3 H CH3 CH3 CH3
H H CH3 H CH3 CH3 H CH3 CH3
H H CH3 H CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 H H H H
H H CH3 H H CH2CH3 H H H
H H CH3 H H H CH2CH3 H H
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H H H
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 H H
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 H H CH2CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 H H H CH2CH3
H H CH3 H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H H
H H CH3 H H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H H
H H CH3 H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 H H CH2CH3 CH2CH3
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3
H H CH3 H CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2CH3
H H CH3 H Cl H H H H
H H CH3 H H Cl H H H
H H CH3 H H H Cl H H
H H CH3 H Cl Cl H H H
H H CH3 H Cl H Cl H H
H H CH3 H Cl H H Cl H
H H CH3 H Cl H H H Cl
H H CH3 H H Cl Cl H H
H H CH3 H H Cl H Cl H
H H CH3 H Cl Cl Cl H H
H H CH3 H H Cl Cl Cl H
H H CH3 H Cl H Cl H Cl
H H CH3 H Cl H H Cl Cl
H H CH3 H Cl H Cl Cl H
H H CH3 H Cl Cl Cl Cl H
H H CH3 H Cl H Cl Cl Cl
H H CH3 H Cl Cl H Cl Cl
H H CH3 H Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl
H H CH3 H F H H H H
H H CH3 H H F H H H
H H CH3 H H H F H H
H H CH3 H F F H H H
H H CH3 H F H F H H
H H CH3 H F H H F H
H H CH3 H F H H H F
H H CH3 H H F F H H
H H CH3 H H F H F H
H H CH3 H F F F H H
H H CH3 H H F F F H
H H CH3 H F H F H F
H H CH3 H F H H F F
H H CH3 H F H F F H
H H CH3 H F F F F H
H H CH3 H F H F F F
H H CH3 H F F H F F
H H CH3 H F F F F F
H H CH3 H Br H H H H
H H CH3 H H Br H H H
H H CH3 H H H Br H H
H H CH3 H Br Br H H H
H H CH3 H Br H Br H H
H H CH3 H Br H H Br H
H H CH3 H Br H H H Br
H H CH3 H H Br Br H H
H H CH3 H H Br H Br H
H H CH3 H Br Br Br H H
H H CH3 H H Br Br Br H
H H CH3 H Br H Br H Br
H H CH3 H Br H H Br Br
H H CH3 H Br H Br Br H
H H CH3 H Br Br Br Br H
H H CH3 H Br H Br Br Br
H H CH3 H Br Br H Br Br
H H CH3 H Br Br Br Br Br
H H CH3 H OCH3 H H H H
H H CH3 H H OCH3 H H H
H H CH3 H H H OCH3 H H
H H CH3 H OCH3 OCH3 H H H
H H CH3 H OCH3 H OCH3 H H
H H CH3 H OCH3 H H OCH3 H
H H CH3 H OCH3 H H H OCH3
H H CH3 H H OCH3 OCH3 H H
H H CH3 H H OCH3 H OCH3 H
H H CH3 H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 H H
H H CH3 H H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 H
H H CH3 H OCH3 H OCH3 H OCH3
H H CH3 H OCH3 H H OCH3 OCH3
H H CH3 H OCH3 H OCH3 OCH3 H
H H CH3 H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 H
H H CH3 H OCH3 H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3
H H CH3 H OCH3 OCH3 H OCH3 OCH3
H H CH3 H OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3
H H CH3 H CN H H H H
H H CH3 H H CN H H H
H H CH3 H H H CN H H
H H CH3 H CN CN H H H
H H CH3 H CN H CN H H
H H CH3 H CN H H CN H
H H CH3 H CN H H H CN
H H CH3 H H CN CN H H
H H CH3 H H CN H CN H
H H CH3 H CN CN CN H H
H H CH3 H H CN CN CN H
H H CH3 H CN H CN H CN
H H CH3 H CN H H CN CN
H H CH3 H CN H CN CN H
H H CH3 H CN CN CN CN H
H H CH3 H CN H CN CN CN
H H CH3 H CN CN H CN CN
H H CH3 H CN CN CN CN CN
H H CH3 H OH H H H H
H H CH3 H H OH H H H
H H CH3 H H H OH H H
H H CH3 H OH OH H H H
H H CH3 H OH H OH H H
H H CH3 H OH H H OH H
H H CH3 H OH H H H OH
H H CH3 H H OH OH H H
H H CH3 H H OH H OH H
H H CH3 H OH OH OH H H
H H CH3 H H OH OH OH H
H H CH3 H OH H OH H OH
H H CH3 H OH H H OH OH
H H CH3 H OH H OH OH H
H H CH3 H OH OH OH OH H
H H CH3 H OH H OH OH OH
H H CH3 H OH OH H OH OH
H H CH3 H OH OH OH OH OH
H H CH3 H Cl F H H H
H H CH3 H Cl H F H H
H H CH3 H Cl H H F H
H H CH3 H Cl H H H F
H H CH3 H F Cl H H H
H H CH3 H H Cl F H H
H H CH3 H H Cl H F H
H H CH3 H H Cl H H F
H H CH3 H F H Cl H H
H H CH3 H H F Cl H H
H H CH3 H Cl F F H H
H H CH3 H Cl F H F H
H H CH3 H Cl F H H F
H H CH3 H H Cl H H H
H H CH3 H H Cl H H H
H H CH3 H H Cl H H H
H H CH3 H F H Cl H H
H H CH3 H H F Cl H H
H H CH3 H Cl F F F H
H H CH3 H Cl F H F F
H H CH3 H Cl H F F F
H H CH3 H F Cl F F H
H H CH3 H F Cl H F F
H H CH3 H F Cl F H F
H H CH3 H F F Cl F H
H H CH3 H F F Cl H F
H H CH3 H Cl F F F F
H H CH3 H F Cl F F F
H H CH3 H F F Cl F F
H H CH3 H F Cl Cl H H
H H CH3 H F Cl H Cl H
H H CH3 H F Cl H H Cl
H H CH3 H H F H H H
H H CH3 H H F H H H
H H CH3 H H F H H H
H H CH3 H Cl H F H H
H H CH3 H H Cl F H H
H H CH3 H F Cl Cl Cl H
H H CH3 H F Cl H Cl Cl
H H CH3 H F H Cl Cl Cl
H H CH3 H Cl F Cl Cl H
H H CH3 H Cl F H Cl Cl
H H CH3 H Cl F Cl H Cl
H H CH3 H Cl Cl F Cl H
H H CH3 H Cl Cl F H Cl
H H CH3 H F Cl Cl Cl Cl
H H CH3 H Cl F Cl Cl Cl
H H CH3 H Cl Cl F Cl Cl
H H CH3 H CF3 H H H H
H H CH3 H H CF3 H H H
H H CH3 H H H CF3 H H
H H CH3 H CF3 CF3 H H H
H H CH3 H CF3 H CF3 H H
H H CH3 H CF3 H H CF3 H
H H CH3 H CF3 H H H CF3
H H CH3 H H CF3 CF3 H H
H H CH3 H H CF3 H CF3 H
H H CH3 H CF3 CF3 CF3 H H
H H CH3 H H CF3 CF3 CF3 H
H H CH3 H CF3 H CF3 H CF3
H H CH3 H CF3 H H CF3 CF3
H H CH3 H CF3 H CF3 CF3 H
H H CH3 H CF3 CF3 CF3 CF3 H
H H CH3 H CF3 H CF3 CF3 CF3
H H CH3 H CF3 CF3 H CF3 CF3
H H CH3 H CF3 CF3 CF3 CF3 CF3


[0089] The compounds of the present invention may display different types of activities. In general, the compounds of the present invention may function as monoamine neurotransmitter releasers, which effectuate the release of one or more of dopamine, norepinephrine, and/or serotonin and/or may act as monoamine neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors. In certain embodiments, the compounds cause release of dopamine. In certain embodiments, compounds that cause dopamine release are desirable because they may be useful for treatment of stimulant (e.g., cocaine and methamphetamine) addiction.

[0090] In certain embodiments, the compounds cause release of serotonin. In some embodiments, the compounds cause release of dopamine and serotonin. In some of these embodiments, there is little or no norepinephrine release. In some embodiments, the compounds show little or no activity at the 5HT2B receptor. In some embodiments, the compounds of the present invention function as uptake inhibitors of one or more monoamine neurotransmitters. In particular embodiments, the compounds show hybrid activity in that they cause release of one or more monoamines and also cause uptake inhibition of one or more monoamines. For example, in some embodiments, compounds of the present invention act as dopamine and/or norepinephrine releasers and as serotonin uptake inhibitors. In certain embodiments, the compounds are serotonin releasers or serotonin uptake inhibitors, but display little to no activity at the 5HT2B receptor.

[0091] In some embodiments, phenyl ring substitution increases serotonin release. In certain embodiments, increased serotonin release is desirable in decreasing the addiction liability commonly demonstrated by dopamine releasers and some combination dopamine/serotonin releasers.

Compositions



[0092] While it is possible for the compounds and prodrugs of the present invention to be administered in the raw chemical form, it is preferred for the compounds or prodrugs to be delivered as a pharmaceutical formulation. Accordingly, there are provided by the present invention pharmaceutical compositions comprising at least one compound capable of inhibiting the reuptake of one or more monoamines. As such, the formulations of the present invention comprise a compound of any of the formulas noted herein, as described above, or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, or solvate thereof, together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers therefore, and optionally, other therapeutic ingredients.

[0093] By "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" is intended a carrier that is conventionally used in the art to facilitate the storage, administration, and/or the healing effect of the agent. The carrier(s) must be pharmaceutically acceptable in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not unduly deleterious to the recipient thereof. A carrier may also reduce any undesirable side effects of the agent. Such carriers are known in the art. See, Wang et al. (1980) J. Parent. DrugAssn. 34(6):452-462, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0094] Adjuvants or accessory ingredients for use in the formulations of the present invention can include any pharmaceutical ingredient commonly deemed acceptable in the art, such as binders, fillers, lubricants, disintegrants, diluents, surfactants, stabilizers, preservatives, flavoring and coloring agents, and the like. The compositions may further include diluents, buffers, binders, disintegrants, thickeners, lubricants, preservatives (including antioxidants), flavoring agents, taste-masking agents, inorganic salts (e.g., sodium chloride), antimicrobial agents (e.g., benzalkonium chloride), sweeteners, antistatic agents, surfactants (e.g., polysorbates such as "TWEEN 20" and "TWEEN 80", and pluronics such as F68 and F88, available from BASF), sorbitan esters, lipids (e.g., phospholipids such as lecithin and other phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, fatty acids and fatty esters, steroids (e.g., cholesterol)), and chelating agents (e.g., EDTA, zinc and other such suitable cations). Other exemplary pharmaceutical excipients and/or additives suitable for use in the compositions according to the invention are listed in Remington: The Science & Practice of Pharmacy, 21st ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2006); in the Physician's Desk Reference, 64th ed., Thomson PDR (2010); and in Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, 6th ed., Eds. Raymond C. Rowe et al., Pharmaceutical Press (2009), which are incorporated herein by reference.

[0095] Binders are generally used to facilitate cohesiveness of the tablet and ensure the tablet remains intact after compression. Suitable binders include, but are not limited to: starch, polysaccharides, gelatin, polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, waxes, and natural and synthetic gums. Acceptable fillers include silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, alumina, talc, kaolin, powdered cellulose, and microcrystalline cellulose, as well as soluble materials, such as mannitol, urea, sucrose, lactose, dextrose, sodium chloride, and sorbitol. Lubricants are useful for facilitating tablet manufacture and include vegetable oils, glycerin, magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, and stearic acid. Disintegrants, which are useful for facilitating disintegration of the tablet, generally include starches, clays, celluoses, algins, gums, and crosslinked polymers. Diluents, which are generally included to provide bulk to the tablet, may include dicalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, lactose, cellulose, kaolin, mannitol, sodium chloride, dry starch, and powdered sugar. Surfactants suitable for use in the formulation according to the present invention may be anionic, cationic, amphoteric, or nonionic surface active agents. Stabilizers may be included in the formulations to inhibit or lessen reactions leading to decomposition of the active agent, such as oxidative reactions.

[0096] Formulations of the present invention may include short-term, rapid-onset, rapid-offset, controlled release, sustained release, delayed release, and pulsatile release formulations, providing the formulations achieve administration of a compound as described herein. See Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (18th ed.; Mack Publishing Company, Eaton, Pennsylvania, 1990), herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0097] Pharmaceutical formulations according to the present invention are suitable for various modes of delivery, including oral, parenteral (including intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intradermal, and transdermal), topical (including dermal, buccal, and sublingual), and rectal administration. The most useful and/or beneficial mode of administration can vary, especially depending upon the condition of the recipient and the disorder being treated. However, in preferred embodiments, the formulation is for oral delivery, as oral administration may provide the drug while maintaining abuse resistance.

[0098] The pharmaceutical formulations may be conveniently made available in a unit dosage form, whereby such formulations may be prepared by any of the methods generally known in the pharmaceutical arts. Generally speaking, such methods of preparation comprise combining (by various methods) an active agent, such as the compounds of Formula I according to the present invention (or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, or solvate thereof) or the prodrugs of Formula IV, with a suitable carrier or other adjuvant, which may consist of one or more ingredients. The combination of the active ingredient with the one or more adjuvants is then physically treated to present the formulation in a suitable form for delivery (e.g., shaping into a tablet or forming an aqueous suspension).

[0099] Pharmaceutical formulations according to the present invention suitable as oral dosage may take various forms, such as tablets, capsules, caplets, and wafers (including rapidly dissolving or effervescing), each containing a predetermined amount of the active agent. The formulations may also be in the form of a powder or granules, a solution or suspension in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid, and as a liquid emulsion (oil-in-water and water-in-oil). The active agent may also be delivered as a bolus, electuary, or paste. It is generally understood that methods of preparations of the above dosage forms are generally known in the art, and any such method would be suitable for the preparation of the respective dosage forms for use in delivery of the compounds according to the present invention.

[0100] A tablet containing a compound or prodrug according to the present invention may be manufactured by any standard process readily known to one of skill in the art, such as, for example, by compression or molding, optionally with one or more adjuvant or accessory ingredient. The tablets may optionally be coated or scored and may be formulated so as to provide slow or controlled release of the active agent.

[0101] Solid dosage forms may be formulated so as to provide a delayed release of the active agent, such as by application of a coating. Delayed release coatings are known in the art, and dosage forms containing such may be prepared by any known suitable method. Such methods generally include that, after preparation of the solid dosage form (e.g., a tablet or caplet), a delayed release coating composition is applied. Application can be by methods such as airless spraying, fluidized bed coating, use of a coating pan, or the like. Materials for use as a delayed release coating can be polymeric in nature, such as cellulosic material (e.g., cellulose butyrate phthalate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, and carboxymethyl ethylcellulose), and polymers and copolymers of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and esters thereof.

[0102] Solid dosage forms according to the present invention may also be sustained release (i.e., releasing the active agent over a prolonged period of time), and may or may not also be delayed release. Sustained release formulations are known in the art and are generally prepared by dispersing a drug within a matrix of a gradually degradable or hydrolyzable material, such as an insoluble plastic, a hydrophilic polymer, or a fatty compound. Alternatively, a solid dosage form may be coated with such a material.

[0103] Formulations for parenteral administration include aqueous and non-aqueous sterile injection solutions, which may further contain additional agents, such as anti-oxidants, buffers, bacteriostats, and solutes, which render the formulations isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient. The formulations may include aqueous and non-aqueous sterile suspensions, which contain suspending agents and thickening agents. Such formulations for patenteral administration may be presented in unit-dose or multi-dose containers, such as, for example, sealed ampoules and vials, and may be stores in a freeze-dried (lyophilized) condition requiring only the addition of the sterile liquid carrier, for example, water (for injection), immediately prior to use. Extemporaneous injection solutions and suspensions may be prepared from sterile powders, granules, and tablets of the kind previously described.

[0104] The compounds according to the present invention may also be administered transdermally, wherein the active agent is incorporated into a laminated structure (generally referred to as a "patch") that is adapted to remain in intimate contact with the epidermis of the recipient for a prolonged period of time. Typically, such patches are available as single layer "drug-in-adhesive" patches or as multi-layer patches where the active agent is contained in a layer separate from the adhesive layer. Both types of patches also generally contain a backing layer and a liner that is removed prior to attachment to the skin of the recipient. Transdermal drug delivery patches may also be comprised of a reservoir underlying the backing layer that is separated from the skin of the recipient by a semipermeable membrane and adhesive layer. Transdermal drug delivery may occur through passive diffusion or may be facilitated using electrotransport or iontophoresis.

[0105] Formulations for rectal delivery of the compounds of the present invention include rectal suppositories, creams, ointments, and liquids. Suppositories may be presented as the active agent in combination with a carrier generally known in the art, such as polyethylene glycol. Such dosage forms may be designed to disintegrate rapidly or over an extended period of time, and the time to complete disintegration can range from a short time, such as about 10 minutes, to an extended period of time, such as about 6 hours.

[0106] The compounds of the formulas above may be formulated in compositions including those suitable for oral, buccal, rectal, topical, nasal, ophthalmic, or parenteral (including intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, or intramuscular injection) administration. The compositions may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any of the methods well known in the art of pharmacy. All methods include the step of bringing a compound or prodrug of one of the formulas disclosed herein into association with a carrier that constitutes one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the compositions are prepared by bringing a compound or prodrug of the invention into association with a liquid carrier to form a solution or a suspension, or alternatively, bringing a compound or prodrug of the invention into association with formulation components suitable for forming a solid, optionally a particulate product, and then, if warranted, shaping the product into a desired delivery form. Solid formulations of the invention, when particulate, will typically comprise particles with sizes ranging from about 1 nanometer to about 500 microns. In general, for solid formulations intended for intravenous administration, particles will typically range from about 1 nm to about 10 microns in diameter.

[0107] The amount of the compound or prodrug of any one of the formulas disclosed herein contained in the formulation will vary depending the specific compound or prodrug selected, dosage form, target patient population, and other considerations, and will be readily determined by one skilled in the art. The amount of the compound or prodrug in the formulation will be that amount necessary to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of the compound to a patient in need thereof to achieve at least one of the therapeutic effects associated with the compounds or prodrugs of the invention. In practice, this will vary widely depending upon the particular compound or prodrug , its activity, the severity of the condition to be treated, the patient population, the stability of the formulation, and the like. Compositions will generally contain anywhere from about 1% by weight to about 99% by weight of a compound or prodrug of the invention, typically from about 5% to about 70% by weight, and more typically from about 10% to about 50% by weight, and will also depend upon the relative amounts of excipients/additives contained in the composition.

Combinations



[0108] In specific embodiments, active agents used in combination with compounds or prodrugs of the present invention comprise one or more compounds generally recognized as useful for treating the conditions discussed herein. In one embodiment, the use of two or more drugs, which may be of different therapeutic classes, may enhance efficacy and/or reduce adverse effects associated with one or more of the drugs.

[0109] For example, in certain embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating pre-obesity and obesity, comprising a combination of a compound or prodrug of the present invention and one or more known antiobesity drugs. Common therapeutic classes of obesity drugs include those that decrease food intake by either reducing appetite or increasing satiety, those that decrease nutrient absorption, and those that increase energy expenditure. In some embodiments, the compounds disclosed herein, either in a form according to any one of Formulas I, II, III, VI, VII, VIII, IX, or X or in prodrug form according to Formula IV or Formula V, may be used with one or more known antiobesity drugs. Examples of known antiobesity drugs include: phentermine, which is an appetite suppressant; topiramate, which is an depressant/epilepsy drug that has been shown to interfere with binge eating and may result in decreased weight and decreased blood pressure; Orlistat (Xenical, Alli®), which reduces intestinal fat absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase; Sibutramine (Reductil or Meridia), which is an anorectic or appetite suppressant; diethylpropion (diethylcathinone/amfepramone, also sold as Anorex,® Tenuate,® and Tepanil®), which is a stimulant marketed as an appetite suppressant (which functions as a prodrug for ethcathinone); Mazindol (Mazanor, Sanorex), which is a tetracyclic stimulant drug used for short-term treatment of obesity; Rimonabant (Acomplia), which is a recently developed medication that is a cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonist that acts centrally on the brain to decrease appetite and may also increase energy expenditure; metformin (glucophage) in people with diabetes mellitus type 2; and Exenatide (Byetta) and Pramlintide (Symlin), which both delay gastric emptying and promote a feeling of satiety. Other over-the-counter weight loss products including herbal remedies, laxatives, diet pills, diuretic drugs, and/or pyruvate may also be combined with the compounds and/or prodrugs disclosed herein. The compounds and prodrugs disclosed herein may also be used in combination with non drug-based therapy, including caloric restriction, exercise, and behavioral therapy.

[0110] In other embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating depression comprising administering a combination of a compound or prodrug of the present invention and one or more known antidepressants. Antidepressants useful according to the invention comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclics, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (5-HT-NE dual reuptake inhibitors), and norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs).

[0111] In one embodiment, compounds or prodrugs of the present invention may be combined with one or more compounds that are serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the extracellular level of the serotonin by inhibiting its reuptake into the presynaptic cell, which increases the level of serotonin available to bind to and stimulate the postsynaptic receptor. Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (PROZAC®) paroxetine (PAXIL®), sertraline (ZOLOFT®), citalopram (CELEXA®), escitalopram (LEXAPRO®), nefazodone (SERZONE®) and fluvoxamine (LUVOX®).

[0112] In another embodiment, compounds or prodrugs of the present invention may be combined with one or more compounds that at least partially inhibit the function of monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) comprise a class of compounds understood to act by inhibiting the activity of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme generally found in the brain and liver of the human body, which functions to break down monoamine compounds, typically through deamination. There are two isoforms of monoamine oxidase inhibitors, MAO-A and MAO-B. The MAO-A isoform preferentially deaminates monoamines typically occurring as neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, melatonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine). Thus, MAOIs have been historically prescribed as antidepressants and for treatment of other social disorders, such as agoraphobia and social anxiety. The MAO-B isoform preferentially deaminates phenylethylamine and trace amines. Dopamine is equally deaminated by both isoforms. The activity of MAOIs may be reversible or non-reversible and MAOIs may be selective for a specific isoform. For example, the MAOI moclobemide (also known as Manerix or Aurorix) is known to be approximately three times more selective for MAO-A than MAO-B. Any compound generally recognized as being an MAOI may be useful according to the present invention. Non-limiting examples of MAOIs useful in combination with compounds or prodrugs of the present invention for preparing compositions according to the invention include the following: isocarboxazid (MARPLAN®); moclobemide (Aurorix, Manerix, or Moclodura); phenelzine (NARDIL®); tranylcypromine (PARNATE®); selegiline (ELDEPRYL®, EMSAM®, or 1-deprenyl); lazabemide; nialamide; iproniazid (marsilid, iprozid, ipronid, rivivol, or propilniazida); iproclozide; toloxatone; harmala; brofaromine (Consonar); benmoxin (Neuralex); and certain tryptamines, such as 5-MeO-DMT (5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) or 5-MeO-AMT (5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine).

[0113] According to still another embodiment of the invention, compounds or prodrugs of any one of the formulas disclosed herein may be combined with one or more compounds that are norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs). NRIs are also known as noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NARIs) and generally function to elevate the level of norepinephrine in the central nervous system (CNS) by inhibiting reuptake of norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft into the presynaptic neuronal terminal. Norepinephrine is a catech`olamine and phenylethylamine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect many conditions. Any compound typically recognized as inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine in the CNS can be used according to the present invention. Non-limiting examples of NRIs useful according to the invention comprise atomoxetine (STRATTERA®), reboxetine (EDRONAX®, VESTRA®, or NOREBOX®), viloxazine (EMOVIT®, VIVALAN®, VIVARINT®, or VIVILAN®), maprotiline (DEPRILEPT®, LUDIOMIL®, or PSYMION®), bupropion (WELLBUTRIN® or ZYBAN®), and radafaxine.

[0114] Further non-limiting examples of specific antidepressants useful according to the invention include tricyclics such as amitriptyline, nortriptyline, and desipramine; serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as venlafaxine (EFFEXOR®), duloxetine (CYMBALTA®), and milnacipran; tetracyclics such as maprotiline and mirtazapine; and other classes of compounds, including triazolopyridines such as trazodone.

[0115] The above compounds and classes of compounds are only examples of the types of active agents that can be used in combination with a compound or prodrug of the present invention for the treatment of mood disorders, sleep disorders, or attention deficit disorders and are not intended to be limiting of the invention. Rather, various further active agents can be combined with one or more compounds of the present invention according to the invention. For example, any drug generally recognized as being an antidepressant, antinarcoleptic, or ADHD treatment can be used in combination with one or more compounds of the present invention. Moreover, it is possible according to the invention to combine two or more additional active agents with one or more compounds or prodrugs of the present invention for treatment of the noted conditions.

[0116] Non-limiting examples of further active agents that can be combined with compounds of the present invention include: mood stabilizers (such as lithium, olanzipine, verapamil, quetiapine, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, valproate, oxcarbazepine, risperidone, aripiprazole, and ziprasidone); antipsychotics (such as haloperidol and other butyrophenones, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, and other phenothiazines, and clozapine); serotonin receptor antagonist (5-HT2 and 5-HT3 antagonists) (such as ondansetron, tropisetron, katenserin, methysergide, cyproheptadine, and pizotifen); serotonin receptor agonists (5-HT1A receptor agonists) (such as buspirone); stimulants [such as caffeine, ADDERALL®, methylphenidate (METADATE®, RITALIN®, or CONCERTA®), pemoline (CYLERT®), or modafinil (PROVIGIL®)]; and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) (XYREM®). Although the above compounds are described in terms of classes of compounds and specific compounds, it is understood that there is substantial overlap between certain classes of compounds (such as between mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and serotonin receptor antagonists). Thus, specific compounds exemplifying a specific class of compounds may also properly be identified with one or more further classes of compounds. Accordingly, the above classifications should not be viewed as limiting the scope of the types of compounds useful in combination with compounds and prodrugs of the present invention for treating the conditions described herein.

[0117] Since the compounds and prodrugs of the present invention may also be useful in the treatment of stimulant (e.g., cocaine and/or methamphetamine) addiction, they may be combined with other drugs for the treatment of addiction. For example, drugs that are commonly used for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction include, but are not limited to, bupropion, modafinil, Ibogaine, Mirtzapine, dextroamphetamine, monoamine reuptake inhibitors (such as indatraline, fluoxetine, bupropion and imipramine), and amino acids. Although cocaine replacement therapies to treat addiction are being researched, there is currently no FDA-approved treatment for cocaine addiction.

[0118] Combinations of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention with other therapeutic agents are also included in the present invention, wherein the condition to be treated is any condition that may be responsive to the inhibition of dopamine, serotonin and/or norepinephrine reuptake.

[0119] The compound or prodrug of any of the formulas disclosed herein and the one or more other therapeutic agents may be contained within a single composition or alternatively may be administered concurrently or sequentially (consecutively) in any order. For sequential administration, each of the compound or prodrug of the formulas disclosed herein and the one or more other therapeutic agents can be formulated in its own pharmaceutical composition, each of which is to be administered sequentially, in any order. Alternatively, the compound or prodrug of the formulas disclosed herein and the one or more other therapeutic agents can be formulated together. The compositions may be formulated for oral, systemic, topical, intravenous, intraparenteral, intravaginal, intraocular, transbuccal, transmucosal, or transdermal administration.

Methods of Use



[0120] In a further embodiment, the present invention provides a method for treating or delaying the progression of disorders that are alleviated by the modulation of neurotransmitter levels in a patient, the method comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound or prodrug of the formulas disclosed herein to the patient.

[0121] In particular, the present invention relates to the field of treating pre-obesity and obesity in animals, particularly humans and other mammals, and associated effects of these conditions. It may also relate to the treatment of other conditions that may benefit from modulation of neurotransmitter levels. For example, it may relate to treatment of depression and associated disorders, as well as cocaine and/or methamphetamine addictions. It may particularly relate to the treatment of conditions that may benefit from the release and/or reuptake inhibition of one or more of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. In some embodiments, the compounds and prodrugs of the present invention are selective for one or more monoamine transporter. In some embodiments, the compounds bind more strongly to the dopamine and/or serotonin transporters than to the norepinephrine transporters.

[0122] In some embodiments, the present invention may relate to the use of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention to treat diseases that are responsive to the modulation of the level of one or more monoamine neurotransmitter. For example, in some embodiments, the invention provides for the use of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention to treat diseases responsive to one or more of dopamine, serotonin, and/or norepinephrine release. In some embodiments, the invention provides for the use of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention to treat diseases responsive to dopamine release. In some embodiments, the invention provides for the use of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention to treat diseases responsive to joint dopamine and serotonin release. In some embodiments, the invention provides for the use of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention to treat diseases responsive to one or more of dopamine, serotonin, and/or norepinephrine uptake inhibition. In certain embodiments, the invention provides for the use of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention to treat diseases responsive to a combination of monamine neurotransmitter release and uptake inhibition. For example, in some embodiments, the invention provides for the use of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention to treat diseases responsive to dopamine and norepinephrine release and/or serotonin uptake inhibition.

[0123] Obesity has its common meaning, e.g., the medical condition that exists when an individual has accumulated excess body fat, which may lead to a variety of related health problems, and which is characterized by a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more. Pre-obesity, also known as overweight, refers to the condition wherein an individual's BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2.

[0124] Addiction has its common meaning, e.g., the condition that exists when an individual persists in the use of a substance despite impairment or distress related to the use of the substance. In preferred embodiments, the compounds and prodrugs of the present invention show a slow onset and long duration of activity. These features make the compounds and prodrugs of the present invention particularly suitable for the treatment of addiction to abused substances, which commonly exhibit a fast onset and/or short duration of activity. Administration of compounds or prodrugs of the present invention to subjects with addiction to one or more substances may be particularly suited for the treatment of cocaine, methamphetamine, and nicotine addiction.

[0125] The compounds and prodrugs of the present invention may also be applicable to treating depression and depressive conditions in animals, particularly humans and other mammals, and associated effects of these conditions. Depression has its common meaning, e.g., a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy, and poor concentration or a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity. Physical changes, such as insomnia, anorexia, weight loss, and decreased energy and libido can also occur as a result of depression. Depression includes dysthymic disorder or dysthymia, defined as a chronic low-grade depression and major depression as well as other stages or levels of depression. It also includes post-partum depression.

[0126] The compounds or prodrugs of the present invention may also be used for other conditions that may be responsive to release or inhibition of reuptake of one or more type of neurotransmitter. In some embodiments, the compounds or prodrugs may be used to treat patients for conditions that are responsive to the release or uptake inhibition of dopamine, norepinephrine, and/or serotonin. For example, in some embodiments, compounds or prodrugs of the present invention may be used to treat patients with bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), hypoactive sexual desire disorder, antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction, orgasmic dysfunction, seasonal affective disorder/winter depression, obesity and food addiction, mania, bulimia and other eating disorders, panic disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder, Parkinson's disease, narcolepsy, anxiety disorders, insomnia, chronic pain, migraine headaches, and restless legs syndrome.

[0127] The method of treatment generally includes administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or prodrug of a formula disclosed herein, optionally in a pharmaceutical composition including one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The therapeutically effective amount is preferably sufficient to cause the release of one or more neurotransmitter and/or inhibit the uptake of one or more neurotransmitter. The therapeutically effective amount is further preferably sufficient to cause some relief to the patient in the symptoms of the disorder for which the patient is being treated.

[0128] For example, in one embodiment, a method of treating pre-obesity or obesity is provided. In such methods, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or prodrug of the present invention to treat a patient with pre-obesity or obesity may be that amount capable of effecting the release and/or reuptake of one or more monoamine neurotransmitter. Such compound or prodrug may cause the patient to experience decreased appetite and/or may create a sensation of fullness. The method of treating pre-obesity or obesity may be used to attain or maintain a patient's weight loss.

[0129] In another embodiment, a method of treating cocaine addiction is provided. In such methods, a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or prodrug of the present invention to treat a patient with cocaine addiction may be that amount capable of exerting some dopaminergic effect. Cocaine functions by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine by blocking the dopamine transporter that transports excess dopamine back into the presynaptic cell. It has a fast onset of activity and short duration. Chronic cocaine use produces a withdrawal syndrome that is associated with depletion of dopamine and deficits in dopaminergic signaling. By providing a compound or prodrug of the present invention with slow onset and long duration of activity, the compound or prodrug may be able to reverse dopaminergic deficits in chronic cocaine users.

[0130] In another embodiment, a method of treating depression is provided. A therapeutically effective amount of a compound or prodrug of the present invention to treat a patient with depression may be that amount capable of providing some relief from symptoms such as changes in mood, feelings of intense sadness and despair, mental slowing, loss of concentration, pessimistic worry, agitation, and self-deprecation and/or from physical changes such as insomnia, anorexia and weight loss, and decreased energy and libido. The levels of one or more of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin may be low in subjects with depression and thus, increase in the release of or inhibition of the uptake of any of these monoamines by the appropriate transporter may be effective to adjust the monoamine levels and treat the symptoms of depression.

[0131] The therapeutically effective dosage amount of any specific formulation will vary somewhat from drug to drug, patient to patient, and will depend upon factors such as the condition of the patient and the route of delivery. When administered conjointly with other pharmaceutically active agents, even less of the compound or prodrug of the invention may be therapeutically effective. Furthermore, the therapeutically effective amount may vary depending on the specific condition to be treated.

[0132] The compound or prodrug of the invention can be administered once or several times a day or according to any other intermittent administration schedule. The daily dose can be administered either by a single dose in the form of an individual dosage unit or several smaller dosage units or by multiple administration of subdivided dosages at certain intervals. Possible routes of delivery include buccally, subcutaneously, transdermally, intramuscularly, intravenously, orally, or by inhalation.

[0133] The compounds and prodrugs of the invention may be used with other types of therapy, including those which are non-drug based. For example, obesity is commonly treated using one or more therapeutics in combination with behavioral treatment (e.g., diet and exercise changes), which may lead to a better outcome than using a drug alone. Depression is commonly treated with some combination of therapeutics and some sort of psychotherapy. Thus, in some embodiments, the methods of the present invention comprise administering to a subject a compound or prodrug of the invention that that is capable of modulating neurotransmitter levels in conjunction with one or more other types of non-drug-based therapy.

Examples



[0134] Certain compounds in the Examples Section are referred to with an alphanumerical designation. The compound structure for these compounds can be found, for example, in the specific synthesis examples, Schemes 1-3, or in the data tables provided herein.

Example 1 (Reference) - Representative preparation of compounds of the present invention


Preparation of PAL-583



[0135] 



[0136] A 0.4 M solution of 2-Bromopropiophenone (1.54mL, 1eq) in acetonitrile (26mL) was mixed in a 50mL round bottom flask under N2 (g). Ethanolamine (1.25mL, 2eq) was added changing the color of solution from olive green to amber and forming a precipitate. The reaction was refluxed at 40°C for 3.5 hrs and then cooled to room temperature to stir overnight. The next morning the orange-yellow mixture with precipitate was refluxed at 40°C for 2 hrs. After cooling to room temperature the reaction was diluted with ethylacetate, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (2 x 50mL), water (2 x 50mL), brine (2 x 50mL), and then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. After filtration the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure affording 0.807g (40%) of crude product. Purified on 12g column (ISCO) using a system of chloroform (A)/9:1 methanol: ammonium hydroxide (B) with a 20-30% gradient (B). Fractions 8-10 were collected and concentrated under reduced pressure affording 0.351g (18%) of purified product. The free base was salted with 0.2108g of fumaric acid and recrystalized using methanol/ether yielding 0.2135g of final product.

Preparation of PAL-587



[0137] 



[0138] 1-(3-fluorophenyl)propan-1-one (4.53g, 1eq) and bromine (1.53mL, 1eq) were combined and stirred in 50mL of methylene chloride overnight at room temperature. The next day the mixture was washed with water (4 x 50mL), brine (2 x 50mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. After filtration the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure affording 6.435g (94%) of crude 2-bromo-1-(3-fluorophenyl)propan-1-one.



[0139] A 0.4 M solution of 2-bromo-1-(3-fluorophenyl)propan-1-one (3.05g, 1eq) in acetonitrile (33mL) was mixed in a 100mL round bottom flask under N2 (g). Ethanolamine (1.6mL, 2eq) was added and stirred/refluxed for 6 hrs at 40°C. After cooling to room temperature overnight the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure, the residue was then taken up in ethyl acetate, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (3 x 50mL), brine (2 x 50mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. After filtration the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure affording 1.464g (53%) of crude product. Purified on 12g column (ISCO) using a system of methylene chloride (A)/methanol (B) with a 20-30% gradient (B). Fractions 13-32 were collected and concentrated under reduced pressure affording 0.638 g (23%) of purified product. The free base was salted with 0.3506g of fumaric acid and recrystalized using methanol/ethyl acetate yielding 0.5672g of final product.

Preparation of PAL-589



[0140] 



[0141] 1-(3-methylphenyl)propan-1-one (8.746g, 1eq) and bromine (3.04mL, 1eq) were combined and stirred in 100mL of methylene chloride overnight at room temperature. The next day the mixture was washed with water (4 x 50mL), brine (2 x 50mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. After filtration the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure affording 12.923g (96%) of crude 2-bromo-1-(3-methylphenyl)propan-1-one.



[0142] A 0.4 M solution of 2-bromo-1-(3-methylphenyl)propan-1-one (6.57g, 1eq) in acetonitrile (72mL) was mixed in a 250mL round bottom flask under N2 (g). Ethanolamine (3.5mL, 2eq) was added and stirred/refluxed for 6 hrs at 40°C. After cooling to room temperature overnight the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure, the residue was then taken up in ethyl acetate, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (3 x 50mL), brine (2 x 50mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. After filtration the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure affording 3.777g (63%) of crude product. Purified on 12g column (ISCO) using a system of methylene chloride (A)/methanol (B) with a 20-30% gradient (B). Product fractions were collected and concentrated under reduced pressure affording 1.183g (20%) of purified product. The free base was salted with 0.6624g of fumaric acid and recrystalized using methanol/ethyl acetate, yielding 0.3459g of final product.

Preparation of PAL-590



[0143] 



[0144] A 0.4 M solution of 2-bromo-1-(3-chlorophenyl)propan-1-one (4.22g, 1eq) in acetonitrile (43mL) was mixed in a 100mL round bottom flask under N2 (g). Ethanolamine (2.05mL, 2eq) was added and stirred/refluxed for 6 hrs at 40°C. After cooling to room temperature overnight the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure, the residue was then taken up in ethyl acetate, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (3 x 50mL), brine (2 x 50mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. After filtration the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure affording 3.319g (70%) of crude product. Purified on 12g column (ISCO) using a system of methylene chloride (A)/methanol (B) with a 20-30% gradient (B). Product fractions were collected and concentrated under reduced pressure affording 0.970g (20%) of purified product. The free base was salted with 0.4054g of fumaric acid and recrystalized using methanol/ethyl acetate, yielding 0.7213g of final product.

Preparation of PAL-592



[0145] 



[0146] A solution of 3-methyl-2-phenylmorpholin-2-ol fumarate salt (0.4646g, 1 eq) in 1:1 ethanol:water (3.6mL) was chilled to 0°C under N2 (g). With constant stirring, a solution of sodium borohydride (0.2278g, 4eq) in water (2.5mL) was added drop wise. The reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature and stir overnight. The next morning the reaction was chilled to 0°C and 2.2mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added drop wise. The ethanol was then removed under reduced pressure and the crude mixture was diluted with water, chilled to 0°C, made basic by adding 40% aqueous sodium hydroxide (tested with litmus), extracted with methylene chloride (3 x 25mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and volatiles removed under reduced pressure to afford 0.200g of solid residue. The intermediate residue dissolved in methylene chloride was then added drop wise to 4.8mL of concentrated sulfuric acid at 0°C and stirred overnight. The next morning the reaction was poured into ice water, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was chilled to 0°C. The aqueous layer was then made basic with 40% aqueous sodium hydroxide (tested with litmus), extracted with methylene chloride (3 x 25mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and volatiles removed under reduced pressure to afford 0.172g of oil. The oil was then dissolved in methylene chloride and 0.0681g of fumaric acid in methanol was added to form the fumarate salt of the product. Anal. Calcd for 2[C11H15CNO] [C4H4O4] : C 66.36, H 7.28, N 5.95; Found: C 66.12, H 7.29, N 5.85. 1H NMR (300 MHz, MeOH) δ ppm 1.01 (d, J=6.78 Hz, 3 H) 3.20 - 3.41 (m, 3 H) 3.84 - 3.99 (m, 1 H) 4.13 (d, J=14.32 Hz, 1H) 4.32 (d, J=10.17 Hz, 1H) 6.70 (s, 1H) 7.39 (s, 5H).

Preparation of PAL-593



[0147] 



[0148] A solution of 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholin-2-ol fumarate salt (0.4326g, 1eq) in 1:1 ethanol:water (3.3mL) was chilled to 0°C under N2 (g). With constant stirring, a solution of sodium borohydride (0.2000g, 4eq) in water (2.2mL) was added drop wise. The reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature and stir overnight. The next morning the reaction was chilled to 0°C and 1.9mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added drop wise. The ethanol was then removed under reduced pressure and the crude mixture was diluted with water, chilled to 0°C, made basic by adding 40% aqueous sodium hydroxide (tested with litmus), extracted with methylene chloride (3 x 25mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and volatiles removed under reduced pressure to afford 0.176g of clear oil. The intermediate oil dissolved in methylene chloride was then added drop wise to 1.9mL of concentrated sulfuric acid at 0°C and stirred overnight. The next morning the reaction was poured into ice water, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was chilled to 0°C. The aqueous layer was then made basic with 40% aqueous sodium hydroxide (tested with litmus), extracted with methylene chloride (3 x 25mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and volatiles removed under reduced pressure to afford 0.168g of oil. The oil was then dissolved in methylene chloride and 0.0626g of fumaric acid in methanol was added to form the fumarate salt of the product. Anal. Calcd for 2[C11H14CFNO] [C4H4O4] : C 61.65, H 6.37, N 5.53; Found: C 61.67, H 6.36, N 5.53. 1H NMR (300 MHz, METHANOL-d4) δ ppm 0.96 (d, J=6.78 Hz, 3 H) 3.04 - 3.17 (m, 1 H) 3.17 - 3.24 (m, 1H) 3.26 (m, 1 H) 3.83 (t, J=11.11 Hz, 1 H) 4.09 (d, J=11.68 Hz, 1H) 4.23 (d, J=9.42 Hz, 1H) 6.68 (s, 1 H) 7.03 - 7.24 (m, 3 H) 7.39 (dd, J=7.91, 7.16 Hz, 1H).

Preparation of PAL-594



[0149] 



[0150] A solution of 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholin-2-ol fumarate salt (0.3884g, 1eq) in 1:1 ethanol:water (2.8mL, plus methanol drop wise till dissolved) was chilled to 0°C under N2 (g). With constant stirring, a solution of sodium borohydride (0.1710g, 4eq) in water (1.8mL) was added drop wise. The reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature and stir overnight. The next morning the reaction was chilled to 0°C and 1.7mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added drop wise. The ethanol was then removed under reduced pressure and the crude mixture was diluted with water, chilled to 0°C, made basic by adding 40% aqueous sodium hydroxide (tested with litmus), extracted with methylene chloride (3 x 25mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and volatiles removed under reduced pressure to afford 0.247g of white solid. The solid intermediate dissolved in methylene chloride was then added drop wise to 5.1mL of concentrated sulfuric acid at 0°C and stirred overnight. The next morning the reaction was poured into ice water, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was chilled to 0°C. The aqueous layer was then made basic with 40% aqueous sodium hydroxide (tested with litmus), extracted with methylene chloride (3 x 25mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and volatiles removed under reduced pressure to afford 0.245g of oil. The oil was then dissolved in methylene chloride and 0.0868g of fumaric acid in methanol was added to form the fumarate salt of the product. Anal. Calcd for 2[C11H14ClNO] [C4H4O4] : C 57.89, H 5.98, N 5.19; Found: C 57.75, H 5.88, N 5.10.
1H NMR (300 MHz, MeOH) δ ppm 1.06 (d, J=6.78 Hz, 3 H) 3.17 - 3.28 (m, 1 H) 3.27 - 3.35 (m, 1 H) 3.34 - 3.39 (m, 1 H) 3.93 (t, J=11.87 Hz, 1 H) 4.19 (d, J=12.43 Hz, 1H) 4.32 (d, J=9.80 Hz, 1 H) 6.79 (s, 1 H) 7.37 - 7.44 (m, 1 H) 7.47 (d, J=5.27 Hz, 1 H) 7.53 (s, 1 H).

Example 2 (Reference) - Preparation of additional compounds


Representative preparation:


Step 1: Preparation of N-Benzyl-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-1-methyl-2-oxo-2-tolylethylamine



[0151] 



[0152] A solution of 2-bromo-2'-acetonaphthone (3 g, 12 mmol) and 2-benzylaminoethanol (3.64 g, 24.1 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was stirred 18h at 50 C. The mixture was concentrated and taken up into ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, water and brine. The organics were dried (MgSO4), concentrated and purified by automated flash chromatography (silica gel, 4/1 hexane/ethyl acetate) to yield 4.93 g (84%) of 1a as a white solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.52-7.11 (m, 9 H), 4.17-4.13 (m, 2 H), 3.66-3.59 (m, 3 H), 2.84-2.65 (m, 2 H), 2.43-2.33 (m, 4 H), 0.96-0.79 (m, 3 H); APCI-MS, calculated for C19H23NO2 (M+H)+ 298.4; observed 298.4.

Step 2: Preparation of N-Benzyl-N-(2'-hydroxyethyl)-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-tolylethylamine



[0153] 



[0154] A solution of 1a (4.9 g, 16.5 mmol) in MeOH (150 mL) was treated with NaBH4 (0.69 g, 18.1 mmol) and the reaction stirred for 1 h at room temperature. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was taken up into ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, water and brine. The organic phase was dried (MgSO4) and concentrated to generate a quantitative amount of colorless oil (2a), which required no further purification. 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.38-7.09 (m, 9 H), 4.33 (d, 1H, J = 9 Hz), 3.94 (d, 1 H, J = 15 Hz), 3.70-3.62 (m, 2 H), 3.49 (d, 1 H, J = 12 Hz), 2.87-2.83 (m, 2 H), 2.67-2.58 (m, 1 H), 2.32 (s, 3 H), 0.83-0.80 (m, 3 H); APCI-MS, calculated for C19H25NO2 (M+H)+ 300.4; observed 300.5.

Step 3: Preparation of N-Benzyl-3-methyl-2-tolylmorpholine



[0155] 



[0156] A suspension of 2a (4.9 g, 16.5 mmol) in 60% (v/v) of aqueous HCl solution (150 mL) was introduced to a glass reactor and sealed with a Teflon cap and was heated to 105 C for 18 h. The mixture was made alkaline with solid KOH and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried (MgSO4) and concentrated to yield 5.13 g of brown oil. This crude material was purified by automated flash chromatography (silica gel, 1/1 hexanes/ethyl acetate) to obtain 1.86 g (40%) of pale orange solid (3a). 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.34-7.23 (m, 8 H), 7.15 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.21-4.10 (m, 2 H), 3.85-3.74 (m, 2 H), 3.18 (d, 1 H, J = 15 Hz), 2.68-2.64 (m, 1 H), 2.51-2.38 (m, 2 H), 2.34 (s, 3 H), 0.97 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C19H25NO (M+H)+ 282.4; observed 282.4.

Step 4: Preparation of 3-Methyl-2-(4'-Tolyl)morpholine fumarate (PAL 747)



[0157] 



[0158] A solution of 3a (1.86 g, 6.61 mmol) and 1-chloroethyl chloroformate (0.95 mL, 8.72 mmol) in DCE (30 mL) was refluxed for 1.5 h and then concentrated. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (30 mL) and refluxed for 1 h. The mixture was concentrated again and this residue was taken up into ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, water and brine, dried (MgSO4) and concentrated. The crude product was purified by automated flash chromatography (silica gel, 10% MeOH/DCM) to yield 572 mg (45%) of pale yellow solid. An initial attempt was made to isolate the hydrochloride salt, but if it wouldn't crystallize, the mixture was neutralized and the fumarate salt was formed. After several recrystallization attempts, 66 mg (9%) of pure 4a was obtained. 1H NMR (D2O 300 MHz) δ 7.20 (d, 2 H, J= 9 Hz), 7.15 (d, 2 H, J = 9 Hz), 3.97 (d, 1H, J = 9 Hz), 3.89-3.85 (m, 2 H), 2.98-2.81 (m, 3 H), 2.29 (s, 3 H), 0.73 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C12H17NO (M+H)+ 192.3; observed 192.1; Anal. Calculated for C14H19NO3 (with 0.2 mol of water): C, 66.49; H, 7.73; N, 5.54. Found: C, 66.14; H, 7.46; N, 5.31.

[0159] The following compounds were prepared based on the above procedure (Steps 1-4) with the indicated modifications. Characterization data for representative compounds of the present invention is presented below.

3-Methyl-2-(4'-Tolyl)morpholine



[0160] 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.23-7.16 (m, 4 H), 4.41 (d, 1 H, J = 12 Hz), 4.14-4.09 (m, 2 H), 3.30-3.19 (m, 3 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H), 1.19 (d, 3 H, J = 9 Hz).

2-(2'-Naphthyl)morpholine hydrochloride (4b, PAL 703)



[0161] The product of the de-benzylation step was recrystallized from methanol/ether to yield a white solid in 86% yield (1.34 g); 1H NMR (d6-DMSO, 300 MHz) δ 9.38 (br s, 2 H), 7.97-7.93 (m, 4 H), 7.58-7.51 (m, 3 H), 4.93 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.19-4.15 (m, 1 H), 3.98-3.97 (m, 1 H), 3.54-3.50 (m, 1 H), 3.41-3.28 (m, 1 H), 3.20-3.06 (m, 2 H); ESI-MS, calculated for C14H15NO (M+H)+ 214.3; observed 214.1; Anal. Calculated (with 0.1 mol water) for C14H16ClNO; C, 66.84; H, 6.49; N, 5.57. Found: C, 66.75; H, 6.50; N, 5.47.

3-Methyl-2-(2'-Naphthyl)morpholine hydrochloride (4c, PAL 704)



[0162] The product of the de-benzylation step was recrystallized from methanol/ether to yield a white solid in 7% yield (29 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.95-7.89 (m, 4 H), 7.56-7.53 (m, 3 H), 4.59 (d, 1 H, J = 9.9 Hz), 4.25-4.24 (m, 1 H), 4.11-3.96 (m, 1 H), 3.58-3.45 (m, 3 H), 1.10 (d, 3 H, J = 6.9 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C15H17NO (M+H)+ 228.3; observed 228.1; Anal. Calculated (with 0.2 mol water) for C15H18ClNO; C, 67.39; H, 6.94; N, 5.24. Found: C, 67.40; H, 6.85; N, 5.26.

3-Methyl-[(4'-Fluoro)-2-Phenyl]morpholine (0.5 fumarate) (4d, PAL 748):



[0163] The product was isolated as a white solid in 39% yield (99 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.43-7.37 (m, 2 H), 7.11 (t, 2 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.24 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.07 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 3.85-3.83 (m, 1 H), 3.27-3.14 (m, 3 H), 0.95 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C11H14FNO (M+H)+ 196.2; observed 196.3; Anal. Calculated for C13H16FNO3; C, 61.65; H, 6.38; N, 5.53; F, 7.50. Found: C, 61.92; H, 6.38; N, 5.51; F, 7.28.

3-Methyl-[(4'-Fluoro)-2-Phenyl]morpholine



[0164] 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.34-7.30 (m, 2 H), 7.11-7.05 (m, 2 H), 4.49 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.18-4.11 (m, 2 H), 3.38-3.18 (m, 3 H), 1.23 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz).

3-Methyl-[(4'-Chloro)-2-Phenyl]morpholine (0.5 fumarate) (4e, PAL 749)



[0165] The product was isolated as a white solid in 27% yield (74 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.39-7.36 (m, 4 H), 6.68 (s, 1 H), 4.27 (d, 1 H, J = 12 Hz), 4.11 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 3.91-3.82 (m, 1 H), 3.29-3.18 (m, 3 H), 0.99 (d, 3 H, J = 9 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C11H14ClNO (M+H)+ 212.7; observed 212.0; Anal. Calculated (with 0.4 mol water) for C13H16ClNO3; C, 56.38; H, 6.12; N, 5.06. Found: C, 56.32; H, 5.78; N, 4.77.

3-Methyl-[(4'-Chloro)-2-Phenyl]morpholine



[0166] 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.37-7.33 (m, 2 H), 7.29-7.27 (m, 2 H), 4.36 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.12-4.03 (m, 2 H), 3.26-3.22 (m, 2 H), 3.12-3.07 (m, 1 H), 1.16 (dd, 3 H, J = 6 Hz, 15 Hz).

3-Methyl-[(4'-Methoxy)-2-Phenyl]morpholine hydrochloride (4f, PAL 751)



[0167] The product was isolated as a white solid in 30% yield (97 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.31 (d, 2 H, J = 6 Hz), 6.95 (d, 2 H, J = 6 Hz), 4.30 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.19-4.15 (m, 1 H), 3.92-3.83 (m, 1 H), 3.80 (s, 3 H), 3.40-3.35 (m, 3 H), 1.04 (d, 3 H, J = 9 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C12H17NO2 (M+H)+ 208.3; observed 207.8; Anal. Calculated for C12H18ClNO2; C, 59.14; H, 7.44; N, 5.75. Found: C, 59.03; H, 7.40; N, 5.68.

3-Methyl-[(4'-Cyano)-2-Phenyl]morpholine (0.5 fumarate) (4g, PAL 772)



[0168] The product was isolated as a white solid in 12% yield (56 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.76 (d, 2 H, J = 9 Hz), 7.58 (d, 2 H, J = 6 Hz), 6.68 (s, 1 H), 4.33 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.09 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 3.84-3.78 (m, 1 H), 3.28-3.21 (m, 3 H), 0.96 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C12H14N2O (M+H)+ 203.3; observed 203.1; Anal. Calculated for C14H16N2O3; C, 64.60; H, 6.20; N, 10.76. Found: C, 64.65; H, 6.23; N, 10.85.

3-Methyl-[(4'-Cyano)-2-Phenyl]morpholine



[0169] 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.67 (d, 2 H, J = 9 Hz), 7.48 (d, 2 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.25 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.09-4.04 (m, 1 H), 3.95-3.83 (m, 1 H), 3.24-3.15 (m, 2 H), 2.97-2.92 (m, 1 H), 0.99 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) δ 139.0, 132.5, 128.6, 85.9, 68.4, 56.7, 46.8, 18.5.

3-Methyl-2-(3'-Tolyl)morpholine (0.5 fumarate) (4h, PAL 773)



[0170] The product was isolated as a white solid in 18% yield (31 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.28-7.14 (m, 4 H), 6.66 (s, 1 H), 4.21 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.08 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 3.92-3.82 (m, 1 H), 3.28-3.19 (m, 3 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H), 0.96 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C12H17NO (M+H)+ 192.3; observed 192.1; Anal. Calculated for C14H19NO3; C, 67.45; H, 7.68; N, 5.62. Found: C, 67.17; H, 7.64; N, 5.57.

3-Methyl-2-(3'-Tolyl)morpholine



[0171] 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.25-7.21 (m, 2 H), 7.16-7.10 (m, 2 H), 4.14 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.07-4.02 (m, 1 H), 3.92-3.89 (m, 1 H), 3.21-3.00 (m, 3 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H), 0.99 (dd, 3 H, J = 9 Hz, 12 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) δ 140.2, 139.0, 129.2, 128.5, 128.4, 125.1, 86.9, 68.6, 56.4, 46.9, 21.8, 18.8.

3-Methyl-[(3'-Hydroxy)-2-Phenyl]morpholine hydrochloride (4i, PAL 780)



[0172] The product was isolated as a white solid in 10% yield (45 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.20 (t, 1H, J = 3 Hz, 6 Hz), 6.85-6.79 (m, 3 H), 4.29 (d, 1H, J = 12 Hz), 4.19 (d, 1 H, J = 12 Hz), 3.98-3.85 (m, 1H), 3.41-3.33 (m, 3 H), 1.07 (d, 3 H, J = 9 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C11H15NO2 (M+H)+ 194.2; observed 194.3; Anal. Calculated for C11H16ClNO2; C, 57.52; H, 7.02; N, 6.10. Found: C, 57.67; H, 7.06; N, 6.01.

3-Methyl-[(3'-Cyano)-2-Phenyl]morpholine hydrochloride (4j, PAL 786)



[0173] The product was isolated as a white solid in 59% yield (397 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.84 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 7.79-7.73 (m, 2 H), 7.61 (t, 1 H, J = 6 Hz, 9 Hz), 4.50 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.21-4.19 (m, 1 H), 4.03-3.93 (m, 1 H), 3.46-3.41 (m, 3 H), 1.08 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C12H14N2O (M+H)+ 203.2; observed 203.5; Anal. Calculated (with 0.3 mol water) for C12H15ClN2O; C, 59.04; H, 6.44; N, 11.48. Found: C, 59.19; H, 6.16; N, 11.29.

3-Methyl-[(3',4'-Dichloro)-2-Phenyl]morpholine hydrochloride (4k, PAL 788)



[0174] The product was isolated as a white solid in 52% yield (120 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.64 (s, 1 H), 7.58 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 7.37-7.30 (m, 1 H), 4.42 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.23-4.17 (m, 1 H), 4.01-3.92 (m, 1 H), 3.43-3.37 (m, 3 H), 1.09 (d, 3 H, J = 9 Hz); 13C NMR (free amine) (CDCl3, 75 MHz) δ 140.5, 130.6, 129.8, 127.3, 85.2, 68.4, 56.6, 46.7, 18.4; ESI-MS, calculated for C11H13Cl2NO (M+H)+ 247.2; observed 246.2; Anal. Calculated for C11H14Cl3NO; C, 46.75; H, 4.99; N, 4.96; Cl, 37.63. Found: C, 46.92; H, 4.89; N, 5.02; Cl, 37.78.

3-Methyl-[(3'-Chloro-4'-Fluoro)-2-Phenyl]morpholine hydrochloride (4l, PAL 821)



[0175] The product was isolated as a white solid in 25% yield (169 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.60 (dd, 1 H, J = 3 Hz, 6 Hz), 7.40-7.36 (m, 1 H), 7.29 (t, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.40 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.24-4.18 (m, 1 H), 4.01-3.91 (m, 1 H), 3.43-3.37 (m, 3 H), 1.07 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); 13C NMR (free amine) (CDCl3, 75 MHz) δ 143.0, 140.0, 130.0, 127.0, 123.0, 81.4, 56.0, 49.8, 46.0, 34.8, 15.4; ESI-MS, calculated for C11H13ClFNO (M+H)+ 230.7; observed 230.3; Anal. Calculated for C11H14Cl2FNO; C, 49.64; H, 5.30; N, 5.26; Cl, 26.64; F, 7.14. Found: C, 49.41; H, 5.30; N, 5.22; Cl, 26.84; F, 7.07.

3-Methyl-[(3'-Chloro-4'-Methyl)-2-Phenyl]morpholine hydrochloride (4m, PAL 822)



[0176] The product was isolated as a white solid in 25% yield (248 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.44 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 7.33 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 7.24 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 4.36 (d, 1 H, J = 12 Hz), 4.24-4.17 (m, 1 H), 4.02-3.90 (m, 1 H), 3.42-3.36 (m, 3 H), 2.37 (s, 3 H), 1.07 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); 13C NMR (free amine) (CDCl3, 75 MHz) δ 131.0, 128.4, 127.9, 126.2, 85.9, 68.6, 56.5, 46.8, 20.1, 18.7; APCI-MS, calculated for C12H16ClNO (M+H)+ 226.7; observed 226.2; Anal. Calculated for C12H17Cl2NO; C, 54.98; H, 6.54; N, 5.34; Cl, 27.04. Found: C, 55.16; H, 6.52; N, 5.41; Cl, 27.18.

3-Methyl-[(3'-Methoxy)-2-Phenyl]morpholine (0.5 fumarate) (4n, PAL 823)



[0177] The product was isolated as a white solid in 53% yield (218 mg); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.29 (t, 1 H, J = 6 Hz, 9 Hz), 6.95-6.90 (m, 3 H), 6.68 (s, 1 H), 4.23 (d, 1 H, J = 9 Hz), 4.13-4.05 (m, 1 H), 3.92-3.82 (m, 1 H), 3.80 (s, 3 H), 3.26-3.19 (m, 3 H), 0.97 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); ESI-MS, calculated for C12H17NO2 (M+H)+ 208.3; observed 208.0; Anal. Calculated for C14H19NO4; C, 63.38; H, 7.22; N, 5.28. Found: C, 63.35; H, 7.28; N, 5.25.

3-Methyl-[(3'-Methoxy)-2-Phenyl]morpholine



[0178] 1H NMR (CDCl3 300 MHz) δ 7.27-7.22 (m, 2 H), 6.93-6.82 (m, 2 H), 4.01-3.91 (m, 2 H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.70 (t, 1 H, J = 12 Hz), 3.15 (t, 1 H, J = 12 Hz), 2.96-2.83 (m, 2 H), 0.83 (d, 3 H, J = 6 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) δ 160.0, 141.8, 129.6, 120.4, 114.0, 113.3, 86.7, 68.6, 56.5, 55.6, 46.9, 18.7.

Example 3 - Preparation of additional compounds



[0179] Additional compounds were prepared according to the following procedures. The procedure used to prepare various compounds is noted and the reagents and intermediates are represented in Schemes 1, 2, and 3, below.

General Procedure A.



[0180] To a stirring solution under N2 of the commercially available amine (1.0 equiv.) in MeOH (dried over 4 Å molecular sieves, 0.20 M) was added an aryl epoxide (0.83 equiv.). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 4 h and then cooled to room temperature. The solution was allowed to stir at room temperature for 3 days and then concentrated under reduced pressure to yield an oily residue which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (10% to 20% MeOH/CH2Cl2 gradient) to remove the unreacted starting amine.

General Procedure B.



[0181] The secondary amine (1.0 equiv.) was dissolved in a 50%, 60%, or 90% aqueous HCl solution (0.37 M) and heated to 90°C overnight under N2. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature and poured onto ice water. After chilling to 0°C, the solution was carefully basified to pH 12 with a 3 M aqueous NaOH solution. After warming to room temperature, ether was added and the biphasic mixture was partitioned in a separatory funnel. The aqueous portion was extracted twice with Et2O and the combined organic extracts were washed with water and brine and dried over Na2SO4. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure, followed by flash chromatography on silica gel (5% to 20% MeOH/CH2Cl2 gradient) afforded the cyclized product.

General Procedure C.



[0182] The secondary amine (1.0 equiv.) was dissolved in concentrated H2SO4 (0.4 M) and allowed to stand at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was then poured onto ice water. After chilling to 0°C, the solution was carefully basified to pH 12 with a 10 N aqueous NaOH solution. After warming to room temperature, ether was added and the biphasic mixture was partitioned in a separatory funnel. The aqueous portion was extracted twice with Et2O and the combined organic extracts were washed with water and brine and dried over Na2SO4. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure, followed by flash chromatography on silica gel (5% to 20% MeOH/CH2Ch gradient) afforded the cyclized product.




(2S,5R)-5-Methyl-2-phenyl-morpholine (6a) and (2R,5R)-5-Methyl-2-phenyl-morpholine (7a).



[0183] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.50 mL, 6.42 mmol) and epoxide 2a (0.61 mL, 5.33 mmol) in dry MeOH (30 mL) under N2 to afford 344-mg (33% yield) of amine 5a as a clear oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 5a (344 mg, 1.76 mmol) in 60% aqueous HCl (4.8 mL) under N2 to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 1.9:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 6a: 138 mg (44% yield) isolated as a clear sticky oil. [α]20D +67.3 (c 0.0011, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.36-7.27 (m, 5H), 4.42 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (t, J = 12.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.08 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.03-2.94 (m, 1H), 2.84 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.01 (br. s, 1H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 140.6, 128.7, 128.1, 126.5, 79.1, 74.6, 53.7, 50.2, 17.9; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 178.2, found 178.4. The hydrochloride salt had mp 214-215°C; Anal. (C11H16ClNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 7a: 72 mg (23% yield) isolated as a clear sticky oil contaminated with unreacted starting material. The hydrochloride salt had mp 136-137°C; [α]20D -34.1 (c 0.00205, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.24-7.11 (m, 5H), 4.61-4.56 (m, 1H), 3.92 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.78-3.74 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.42 (m, 1H), 3.07-3.06 (m, 2H), 1.36 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 139.2, 130.2, 127.6, 77.3, 69.8, 48.8, 44.4, 13.9; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+178.2, found 178.3 (free base); Anal. (C11H16ClNO) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-5-Methyl-2-phenyl-morpholine (9a) and (2S,5S)-5-Methyl-2-phenyl-morpholine (10a).



[0184] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (0.50 mL, 6.43 mmol) and epoxide 2a (0.61 mL, 5.34 mmol) in dry MeOH (32 mL) under N2 to afford 538 mg (52% yield) of amine 8a as a pale yellow oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 8a (350 mg, 1.79 mmol) in 60% aqueous HCl (4.8 mL) under N2 to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 2.2:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 9a: 128 mg (40% yield) isolated as a clear sticky oil. [α]20D -31.0 (c 0.0029, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.35-7.27 (m, 5H), 4.43 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.97 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (t, J = 21.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (dd, J = 15.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.05-2.95 (m, 1H), 2.86 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 1.84 (br. s, 1H), 1.03 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 140.7, 128.7, 128.1, 126.5, 79.2, 74.7, 53.7, 50.2, 17.9; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 178.2, found 178.5. The hydrochloride salt had mp 214-215°C; Anal. (C11H16ClNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 10a: 57 mg (18% yield) isolated as a clear sticky oil contaminated with unreacted starting material. The fumarate had mp 164-165°C; [α]20D +12.5 (c 0.0016, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.44-7.34 (m, 5H), 6.69 (s, 2H), 4.74 (t, J = 15.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.12-3.94 (m, 2H), 3.65-3.57 (m, 1H), 3.32-3.26 (hidden m, 2H), 1.55 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 171.4, 139.1, 136.2, 129.8, 127.2, 77.3, 69.7, 48.4, 44.3, 13.8; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 178.2, found 178.1 (free base); Anal. (C15H19NO5·0.2 H2O) C, H, N.


(2S,SR)-2-(3-Methoxy-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (6b) and (2R,SR)-2-(3-Methoxy-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (7b).



[0185] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.66 mL, 8.49 mmol) and epoxide 2b (1.16 g, 7.72 mmol) in dry MeOH (26 mL) under N2 to afford 811 mg (47% yield) of amine 5b as a pale yellow oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 5b (811 mg, 3.60 mmol) in 90% aqueous HCl (9.7 mL) under N2 to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 2:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 6b: 162 mg (22% yield) isolated as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D +41.1 (c 0.0009, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.25 (t, J = 15.0, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 6.93-6.91 (m, 2H), 6.83 (br. d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 3.29 (t, J = 12.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.08 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.04-2.95 (m, 1H), 2.82 (br. t, J = 12.0, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 1.99 (br. s, 1H), 1.03 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 159.8, 141.8, 129.3, 118.4, 113.3, 111.6, 78.6, 74.2, 55.2, 53.2, 49.8, 17.4; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 208.3, found 208.2. The hydrochloride salt had mp 168-169°C; Anal. (C12H18ClNO2) C, H, N. Syn isomer 7b: 84 mg (11% yield) isolated as a pale yellow oil contaminated with unreacted starting material. The fumarate had mp 172-174°C; [α]20D -14.2 (c 0.0033, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.30 (t, J = 15.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.99-6.96 (m, 2H), 6.90 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (s, 2H), 4.75 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 4.09 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.66-3.58 (m, 1H), 3.31-3.24 (hidden m, 2H), 1.54 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 171.4, 161.5, 140.5, 136.2, 130.9, 119.2, 115.1, 112.9, 76.9, 69.5, 55.8, 48.2, 44.0, 13.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 208.3, found 207.9 (free base); Anal. (C16H21NO6·0.2 H2O) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-2-(3-Methoxy-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (9b) and (2S,5S)-2-(3-Methoxy-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (10b).



[0186] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (0.66 mL, 8.49 mmol) and epoxide 2b (1.16 g, 7.72 mmol) in dry MeOH (26 mL) under N2 to afford 1.07 g (62% yield) of amine 8b as a pale yellow oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 8b (1.07 g, 4.75 mmol) in 90% aqueous HCl (13 mL) under N2 to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 2:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 9b: 235 mg (24% yield) isolated as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D -95.8 (c 0.0019, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.24 (t, J = 18.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (br. s, 2H), 6.82 (br. d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.39 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.3 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.05 (d, J = 15.0 Hz, 1H), 3.01-2.94 (m, 1H), 2.83 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.15 (br. s, 1H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 159.7, 141.9, 129.3, 118.4, 113.3, 111.6, 78.6, 74.2, 55.2, 53.2, 49.8, 17.4; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 208.3, found 208.2. The hydrochloride salt had mp 169-171°C; Anal. (C12H18ClNO2·0.2 H2O) C, H, N. Syn isomer 10b: 118 mg (12% yield) isolated as a pale yellow oil contaminated with unreacted starting material. The fumarate had mp 177-178°C; [α]20D +15.9 (c 0.0027, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.30 (t, J = 15.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.99-6.97 (m, 2H), 6.90 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 6.70 (s, 2H), 4.74 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 4.09 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.65-3.58 (m, 1H), 3.31-3.24 (hidden m, 2H), 1.55 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 3 H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 171.5, 161.5, 140.5, 136.2, 130.9, 119.2, 115.1, 112.9, 76.9, 69.5, 55.8, 48.2, 44.1, 13.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 208.3, found 207.8 (free base); Anal. (C16H21NO6·0.25 H2O) C, H, N.


(2S,5R)-5-Methyl-2-m-tolyl-morpholine (6c) and (2R,SR)-5-Methyl-2-m-tolyl-morpholine (7c).



[0187] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.56 mL, 7.17 mmol) and epoxide 2c (875 mg, 6.52 mmol) in dry MeOH (22 mL) under N2 to afford 625 mg (46% yield) of amine 5c as a thick yellow oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 5c (575 mg, 2.75 mmol) in 90% aqueous HCl (7.4 mL) under N2 to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 1.4:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 6c: 166 mg (32% yield) isolated as a clear oil. [α]20D +33.3 (c 0.00135, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.22-7.07 (m, 4H), 4.39 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.06 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.02-2.94 (m, 1H), 2.85 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 1.96 (br. s, 1H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 140.2, 138.0, 128.4, 128.2, 126.7, 123.2, 78.8, 74.3, 53.3, 49.9, 21.4, 17.5; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 192.3, found 192.5. The hydrochloride salt had mp 194-195°C; Anal. (C12H18ClNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 7c: 117 mg (22% yield) isolated as a clear oil contaminated with unreacted starting material. The fumarate had mp 175-176°C; [α]20D -19.2 (c 0.0012, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.30-7.15 (m, 4H), 6.70 (s, 2H), 4.72 (br. t, J = 15.0, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (br. d, J = 15.0 Hz, 1H), 3.65-3.58 (m, 1H), 3.27-3.24 (m, 2H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 1.55 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 171.5, 139.7, 138.9, 136.2, 130.4, 129.7, 127.7, 124.2, 77.1, 69.5, 48.2, 44.1, 21.4, 13.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 192.3, found 192.3 (free base); Anal. (C16H21NO5·0.25 H2O) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-5-Methyl-2-m-tolyl-morpholine (9c) and (2S,5S)-5-Methyl-2-m-tolyl-morpholine (10c).



[0188] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (0.56 mL, 7.17 mmol) and epoxide 2c (875 mg, 6.52 mmol) in dry MeOH (22 mL) under N2 to afford 416 mg (31% yield) of amine 8c as a yellow oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 8c (416 mg, 1.99 mmol) in 90% aqueous HCl (5.4 mL) under N2 to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 1.9:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 9c: 143 mg (38% yield) isolated as a clear oil. [α]20D -11.7 (c 0.0095, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.22-7.10 (m, 4H), 4.38 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (t, J = 21.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.07 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.03-2.96 (m, 1H), 2.86 (br. t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 1.88 (br. s, 1H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 140.2, 138.0, 128.4, 128.2, 126.7, 123.2, 78.8, 74.3, 53.3, 49.9, 21.4, 17.5; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 192.3, found 192.2. The hydrochloride salt had mp 194-195°C; Anal. (C12H18ClNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 10c: 76 mg (20% yield) isolated as a clear oil contaminated with unreacted starting material. The fumarate had mp 168-170°C; [α]20D +14.5 (c 0.0020, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.30-7.15 (m, 4H), 6.70 (s, 2H), 4.72 (dd, J = 9.0, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.94 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.66-3.58 (m, 1H), 3.27-3.24 (m, 2H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 1.55 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 171.5, 139.7, 139.0, 136.2, 130.4, 129.7, 127.7, 124.2, 77.1, 69.5, 48.2, 44.0, 21.4, 13.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 192.3, found 192.1 (free base); Anal. (C16H21NO5) C, H, N.


(2S,5R)-2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (6d) and (2R,5R)-2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (7d).



[0189] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.50 mL, 6.42 mmol) and epoxide 2d (824 mg, 5.33 mmol) in dry MeOH (21 mL) under N2 to afford 649 mg (53% yield) of amine 5d as a thick clear oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 5d (649 mg, 2.83 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (7 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 10.3:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 6d: 261 mg (44% yield) as a clear sticky oil. [α]20D +42.1 (c 0.0024, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.37 (s, 1H), 7.29-7.20 (m, 3H), 4.39 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.06 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.01-2.92 (m, 1H), 2.79 (t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 2.01 (br. s, 1H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 142.7, 134.6, 130.0, 128.1, 126.6, 124.6, 78.3, 74.5, 53.6, 50.1, 17.8; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+212.7, found 212.1. The hydrochloride salt had mp 170-171°C; Anal. (C11H15Cl2NO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 7d: 36 mg (6% yield) as a clear sticky oil. [α]20D -6.7 (c 0.0015, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.42 (s, 1H), 7.32-7.23 (m, 3H), 4.52 (dd, J = 6.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.18-3.10 (m, 2H), 2.97 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.35 (br. s, 1H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 142.6, 134.8, 130.1, 128.1, 126.8, 124.7, 77.5, 71.4, 47.7, 46.8, 17.0; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 212.7, found 212.1. The fumarate had mp 169-171°C; Anal. (C15H18ClNO5) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (9d) and (2S,5S)-2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (10d).



[0190] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (0.50 mL, 6.43 mmol) and epoxide 2d (826 mg, 5.34 mmol) in dry MeOH (21 mL) under N2 to afford 598 mg (49% yield) of amine 8d as a pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 8d (598 mg, 2.60 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (6.5 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 17.8:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 9d: 285 mg (52% yield) as a clear sticky oil. [α]20D -40.4 (c 0.0024, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.37 (s, 1H), 7.28-7.19 (m, 3H), 4.40 (dd, J = 12.0, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (t, J = 21.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.06 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.01-2.93 (m, 1H), 2.79 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.06 (br. s, 1H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 142.6, 134.6, 130.0, 128.2, 126.6, 124.6, 78.2, 74.5, 53.5, 50.2, 17.8; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+212.7, found 212.1. The hydrochloride salt had mp 170-171°C; Anal. (C11H15Cl2NO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 10d: 42 mg (7.6% yield) as a clear sticky oil. [α]20D +30.9 (c 0.0022, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.37 (s, 1H), 7.32-7.23 (m, 3H), 4.53 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.19-3.10 (m, 2H), 2.97 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.38 (br. s, 1H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 142.7, 134.8, 130.1, 128.1, 126.8, 124.8, 77.0, 71.4, 47.7, 46.9, 17.0; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+212.7, found 212.1. The fumarate had mp 159-160°C; Anal. (C15H18ClNO5·0.7 H2O) C, H, N.


(2S,5R)-2-(3-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (6e) and (2R,5R)-2-(3-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (7e).



[0191] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.96 mL, 12.3 mmol) and epoxide 2e (1.55 g, 11.2 mmol) in dry MeOH (37 mL) under N2 to afford 1.59 g (67% yield) of amine 5e as a pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 5e (1.49 g, 6.99 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (17 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 4.2:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 6e: 553 mg (41% yield) as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D +30 (c 0.0006, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.32-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.11-7.07 (m, 2H), 6.95 (br. t, J = 21.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.29 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.06 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.02-2.91 (m, 1H), 2.79 (br. t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 1.74 (br. s, 1H), 1.00 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 164.5, 161.2, 143.0 (d, J = 6.75 Hz), 129.7 (d, J = 7.5 Hz), 121.5 (d, J = 2.25 Hz), 114.3 (d, J = 21.0 Hz), 113.0 (d, J = 21.8 Hz), 78.0, 74.2, 53.3, 49.8, 17.4; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 196.2, found 196.2. The hydrochloride salt had mp 141-143°C; Anal. (C11H15ClFNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 7e: 132 mg (9.7% yield) as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D - 39.4 (c 0.0034, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.35-7.28 (m, 1H), 7.16-7.12 (m, 2H), 6.98 (br. t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.54 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.20-3.07 (m, 2H), 2.97 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 1.97 (br. s, 1H), 1.30 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 164.6, 161.3, 142.8, 129.8 (d, J = 8.25 Hz), 121.7 (d, J = 3.0 Hz), 114.3 (d, J = 21.0 Hz), 113.2 (d, J = 22.5 Hz), 77.1, 71.0, 47.3, 46.4, 16.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 196.2, found 196.2. The fumarate had mp 165-167°C; Anal. (C18H18FNO5) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-2-(3-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (9e) and (2S,5S)-2-(3-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (10e).



[0192] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (0.96 mL, 12.3 mmol) and epoxide 2e (1.55 g, 11.2 mmol) in dry MeOH (37 mL) under N2 to afford 1.33 mg (56% yield) of amine 8e as a pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 8e (1.33 g, 6.24 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (15.6 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 5.7:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 9e: 658 mg (54% yield) as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D -48.6 (c 0.0022, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.32-7.27 (m, 1H), 7.11-7.07 (m, 2H), 6.96 (br. t, J = 12.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.40 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.07 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.02-2.92 (m, 1H), 2.78 (br. t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 1.89 (br. s, 1H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 164.5, 161.2, 142.9 (d, J = 6.75 Hz), 129.7 (d, J = 8.25 Hz), 121.5 (d, J = 3.0 Hz), 114.4 (d, J = 21.0 Hz), 112.9 (d, J = 21.8 Hz), 77.9, 74.2, 53.3, 49.8, 17.4; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 196.2, found 196.2. The hydrochloride salt had mp 143-144°C; Anal. (C11H15ClFNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 10e: 115 mg (9.4% yield) as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D +34.2 (c 0.0024, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.35-7.28 (m, 1H), 7.16-7.12 (m, 2H), 6.98 (br. t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 4.55 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.20-3.06 (m, 2H), 2.97 (dd, J = 15.0, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 1.89 (br. s, 1H), 1.30 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 164.6, 161.4, 142.8 (d, J = 6.75 Hz), 129.8 (d, J = 8.25 Hz), 121.7 (d, J = 2.25 Hz), 114.3 (d, J = 21.0 Hz), 113.3 (d, J = 21.8 Hz), 77.1, 71.0, 47.3, 46.5, 16.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 196.2, found 196.2. The fumarate had mp 163-164°C; Anal. (C15H18FNO5) C, H, N.


(2S,SR)-5-Methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine (6f) and (2R,5R)-5-Methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine (7f).



[0193] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.38 mL, 4.91 mmol) and epoxide 2f (839 mg, 4.46 mmol) in dry MeOH (15 mL) under N2 to afford 695 mg (59% yield) of amine 5f as a pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 5f (645 mg, 2.45 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (6.1 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 4:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 6f: 293 mg (49% yield) as an off-white solid. [α]20D +37 (c 0.0070, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.64 (br. s, 1H), 7.50-7.41 (m, 3H), 4.46 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.97 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (t, J = 21.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.10 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.02-2.93 (m, 1H), 2.80 (br. t, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 1.76 (br. s, 1H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 141.4, 129.3, 128.7, 124.4, 122.8, 77.9, 74.2, 53.4, 49.8, 17.4; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 246.2, found 246.4. The hydrochloride salt had mp 184-186°C; Anal. (C12H15ClF3NO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 7f: 68 mg (11% yield) as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D -32.4 (c 0.00145, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.68 (s, 1H), 7.59-7.47 (m, 3H), 4.59 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.20-3.06 (m, 2H), 2.98 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.25 (br. s, 1H), 1.31 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 141.3, 129.6, 128.8, 124.3 (d, J = 3.75 Hz), 123.1 (d, J = 3.75 Hz), 77.3, 71.1, 47.3, 46.6, 16.7; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 246.2, found 246.3. The fumarate had mp 179-180°C; Anal. (C16H18F3NO5·0.25 H2O) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-5-Methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine (9f) and (2S,5S)-5-Methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine (10f).



[0194] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (0.40 mL, 5.09 mmol) and epoxide 2f (871 mg, 4.63 mmol) in dry MeOH (15.4 mL) under N2 to afford 658 mg (54% yield) of amine 8f as a pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 8f (658 mg, 2.50 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (6.3 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 4.2:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 9f: 300 mg (49% yield) as a pale yellow solid. [α]20D -35.2 (c 0.0096, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.64 (s, 1H), 7.53 (t, J = 15.5, 7.5 Hz, 2H), 7.44 (t, J = 15.5, 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.47 (dd, J = 10.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (dd, J = 11.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (t, J = 26.0, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.10 (dd, J = 12.5, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.02-2.96 (m, 1H), 2.81 (br. t, J = 23.0, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 1.76 (br. s, 1H), 1.02 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 141.5, 129.6, 128.9, 124.6 (q, J = 11.4, 7.6, 3.75 Hz), 122.9 (q, J = 11.4, 7.6, 3.75 Hz), 78.1, 74.4, 53.5, 49.9, 17.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 246.2, found 246.1. The hydrochloride salt had mp 183-184°C; Anal. (C12H15ClF3NO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 10f: 70.6 mg (12% yield) as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D +31.4 (c 0.00175, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.68 (s, 1H), 7.58-7.54 (m, 2H), 7.47 (t, J = 15.0, 7.5 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.71 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.19-3.14 (m, 1H), 3.13-3.09 (m, 1H), 2.98 (dd, J = 13.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.21 (br. s, 1H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 141.5, 129.8, 129.0, 124.6 (q, J = 11.4, 7.6, 3.75 Hz), 123.2 (q, J = 11.4, 7.6, 4.5 Hz), 77.5, 71.4, 47.4, 46.8, 16.9; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 246.2, found 246.2. The fumarate had mp 175-177°C; Anal. (C16H18F3NO5·0.2 H2O) C, H, N.





[0195] (2S,5R)-5-Methyl-2-p-tolyl-morpholine (12c) and (2R,5R)-5-Methyl-2-p-tolyl-morpholine (13c). General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (976 mg, 13.0 mmol) and epoxide 2c (1.59 g, 11.8 mmol) in dry MeOH (39 mL) under N2 to afford 935 mg (38% yield) of amine 11c as a pale yellow oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 11c (935 mg, 4.47 mmol) in 90% aqueous HCl (12 mL) under N2 to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 5.2:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 12c: 423 mg (49% yield) isolated as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D +37.2 (c 0.0082, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.22 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 7.13 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 4.36 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.94 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (t, J = 21.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.04-2.92 (m, 2H), 2.81 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 2.31 (br. S, 4H), 0.99 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 137.2, 137.1, 128.8, 125.9, 78.4, 74.0, 53.1, 49.6, 20.9, 17.2; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 192.3, found 192.3. The hydrochloride salt had mp 150-151°C; Anal. (C12H18ClNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 13c: 81.7 mg (9.6% yield) isolated as a pale yellow oil contaminated with unreacted starting material. The fumarate had mp 160-162°C; [α]20D -34.4 (c 0.0009, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.31-7.29 (m, 2H), 7.22-7.19 (m, 2H), 6.68 (s, 2H), 4.90-4.68 (m, 1H), 4.07 (dd, J = 15.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.94 (d, J = 15.0 Hz, 1H), 3.61-3.59 (m, 1H), 3.26-3.23 (m, 2H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 1.54 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 171.5, 139.8, 136.0, 131.0, 130.4, 129.3, 127.2, 77.0, 69.5, 48.2, 44.1, 21.2, 13.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 192.3, found 192.1 (free base); Anal. (C16H21NO5·0.3 H2O) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-5-Methyl-2-p-tolyl-morpholine (15c) and (2S,5S)-5-Methyl-2-p-tolyl-morpholine (16c).



[0196] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (726 mg, 9.67 mmol) and epoxide 2c (1.18 g, 8.79 mmol) in dry MeOH (29 mL) under N2 to afford 527 mg (29% yield) of amine 14c as a clear oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 14c (527 mg, 2.52 mmol) in 90% aqueous HCl (6.8 mL) under N2 to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 4.8:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 15c: 225 mg (47% yield) isolated as an off-white solid. [α]20D -20.8 (c 0.0025, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 7.24 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 7.14 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 4.39 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (t, J = 24.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.05 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.03-2.95 (m, 1H), 2.84 (br. T, J = 21.0, 9.0 Hz, 1H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 1.85 (br. S, 1H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) ppm 137.3, 129.0, 126.0, 78.7, 74.3, 53.4, 49.9, 21.1, 17.5; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 192.3, found 192.2. The hydrochloride salt had mp 150-151°C; Anal. (C12H18ClNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 16c: 46.9 mg (9.7% yield) isolated as a clear oil contaminated with unreacted starting material. The fumarate had mp 175-177°C; [α]20D +11.4 (c 0.0007, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.31-7.28 (m, 2H), 7.22-7.19 (m, 2H), 6.68 (s, 2H), 4.73-4.68 (m, 1H), 4.06 (dd, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.63-3.56 (m, 1H), 3.26-3.21 (m, 2H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 1.54 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 171.6, 139.8, 136.3, 130.4, 127.2, 77.1, 69.6, 48.2, 44.1, 21.2, 13.6; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 192.3, found 192.2 (free base); Anal. (C16H21NO5·0.5 H2O) C, H, N.


(2S,SR)-2-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (12d) and (2R,SR)-2-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (13d).



[0197] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.88 mL, 11.3 mmol) and epoxide 2d (1.59 g, 10.3 mmol) in dry MeOH (34 mL) under N2 to afford 805 mg (34% yield) of amine 11d as a pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 11d (805 mg, 3.50 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (8.8 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 6.8:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 12d: 458 mg (62% yield) as a white solid. [α]20D +42 (c 0.0051, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.31-7.27 (m, 4H), 4.38 (dd, J = 11.0, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (dd, J = 11.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (t, J = 21.5, 10.0 Hz, 1H), 3.04 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.00-2.94 (m, 1H), 2.78 (br. T, J = 23.0, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 1.71 (br. S, 1H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 139.1, 133.5, 128.7, 127.7, 78.2, 74.5, 53.6, 50.0, 17.8; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 212.7, found 212.1. The hydrochloride salt had mp 214-216°C; Anal. (C11H15Cl2NO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 13d: 67.2 mg (9.1% yield) as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D -47.7 (c 0.00065, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.36-7.28 (m, 4H), 4.54-4.49 (hidden m, 1H), 3.86 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.69 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.17-3.14 (m, 1H), 3.12-2.96 (m, 1H), 2.94 (dd, J = 13.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (br. S, 1H), 1.30 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 139.0, 133.6, 128.8, 127.9, 77.5, 71.3, 47.5, 46.8, 16.9; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 212.7, found 212.1. The fumarate had mp 178-179°C; Anal. (C15H18ClNO5·0.6 H2O) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-2-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (15d) and (2S,5S)-2-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (16d).



[0198] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (0.88 mL, 11.3 mmol) and epoxide 2d (1.59 g, 10.3 mmol) in dry MeOH (34 mL) under N2 to afford 904 mg (38% yield) of amine 14d as a pale yellow semi-solid. General procedure C was then followed using amine 14d (904 mg, 3.94 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (9.9 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 8.8:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 15d: 472 mg (57% yield) as a white solid. [α]20D -44.1 (c 0.0039, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.33-7.28 (m, 4H), 4.40 (dd, J = 10.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 11.0, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (t, J = 21.5, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.06 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.02-2.96 (m, 1H), 2.79 (br. T, J = 22.5, 10.0 Hz, 1H), 1.71 (br. S, 1H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 139.1, 133.6, 128.7, 127.7, 78.3, 74.5, 53.7, 50.1, 17.8; MS (APCI) calcd for (M+1)+ 212.7, found 212.2. The hydrochloride salt had mp 213-215°C; Anal. (C11H15Cl2NO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 16d: 53.7 mg (6.4% yield) as a pale yellow oil. [α]20D +33.8 (c 0.0008, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.37-7.28 (m, 4H), 4.53 (dd, J = 8.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (dd, J = 11.0, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.18-3.09 (m, 2H), 2.95 (dd, J= 13.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.08 (br. S, 1H), 1.31 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 139.0, 133.6, 128.8, 127.9, 77.5, 71.3, 47.6, 46.9, 17.0; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 212.7, found 212.1. The fumarate had mp 180-181°C; Anal. (C15H18CNO5·0.6 H2O) C, H, N.


(2S,5R)-2-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (12e) and (2R,5R)-2-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (13e).



[0199] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.55 mL, 7.05 mmol) and epoxide 2e (885 mg, 6.41 mmol) in dry MeOH (21 mL) under N2 to afford 463 mg (34% yield) of amine 11e as a pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 11e (463 mg, 2.17 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (5.4 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 7.5:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 12e: 234 mg (55% yield) as a white solid. [α]20D +45 (c 0.0018, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.34-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.04-7.00 (m, 2H), 4.39 (dd, J = 11.0, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (t, J = 21.5, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.05 (dd, J = 12.5, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.01-2.97 (m, 1H), 2.82 (br. T, J = 23.0, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 1.84 (br. S, 1H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 163.5, 161.6, 136.4 (d, J = 3.1 Hz), 128.0 (d, J = 8.25 Hz), 115.4 (d, J = 21.2 Hz), 78.4, 74.5, 53.7, 50.1, 17.8; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 196.2, found 196.3. The hydrochloride salt had mp 180-182°C; Anal. (C11H15ClFO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 13e: 31.4 mg (7.4% yield) as a clear oil. [α]20D -38.3 (c 0.0006, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.39-7.35 (m, 2H), 7.06-7.02 (m, 2H), 4.53 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.18-3.10 (m, 2H), 2.97-2.93 (m, 1H), 1.33 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 162.9, 161.0, 135.7, 127.6 (d, J = 7.5 Hz), 114.9 (d, J = 21.2 Hz), 76.7, 70.7, 46.9, 46.2, 16.3; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 196.2, found 196.4.


(2R,5S)-2-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (15e) and (2S,5S)-2-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine (16e).



[0200] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (530 mg, 7.05 mmol) and epoxide 2e (885 mg, 6.41 mmol) in dry MeOH (21 mL) under N2 to afford 554 mg (40% yield) of amine 14e as a clear oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 14e (554 mg, 2.60 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (6.5 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 7.4:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 15e: 307 mg (60% yield) as a white solid. [α]20D -35.9 (c 0.0032, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.34-7.32 (m, 2H), 7.05-7.01 (m, 2H), 4.40 (dd, J = 10.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (dd, J = 11.0, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (t, J = 21.5, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.06 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.02-2.98 (m, 1H), 2.82 (br. T, J = 23.0, 11.0 Hz, 1H), 1.78 (br. S, 1H), 1.03 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 163.4, 161.5, 136.2 (d, J = 3 Hz), 127.8 (d, J = 8.2 Hz), 115.3 (d, J = 21.2 Hz), 78.2, 74.4, 53.6, 50.0, 17.7; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 196.2, found 196.2. The hydrochloride salt had mp 180-182°C; Anal. (C11H15ClFNO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 16e: 41.6 mg (8.2% yield) as a clear oil. [α]20D +35 (c 0.0006, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.39-7.35 (m, 2H), 7.07-7.02 (m, 2H), 4.53 (dd, J = 9.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.71 (dd, J = 11.5, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.18-3.10 (m, 2H), 2.95 (dd, J = 13.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.79 (br. S, 1H), 1.33 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 163.5, 161.5, 136.1 (d, J = 3.1 Hz), 128.1 (d, J = 8.4 Hz), 115.5 (d, J = 21.2 Hz), 77.6, 71.3, 47.5, 46.8, 16.8; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 196.2, found 196.2. The fumarate had mp 148-149°C; Anal. (C15H18FNO5·0.5 H2O) C, H, N.


(2S,SR)-5-Methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine (12f) and (2R,SR)-5-Methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine (13f).



[0201] General procedure A was followed using amine 3 (0.34 mL, 4.96 mmol) and epoxide 2f (848 mg, 4.51 mmol) in dry MeOH (15 mL) under N2 to afford 651 mg (55% yield) of amine 11f as a pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 11f (651 mg, 2.47 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (6.2 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 4.8:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 12f: 312 mg (51% yield) as a white solid. [α]20D +48.7 (c 0.0015, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.59 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.46 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 4.48 (d, J = 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (t, J = 21.5, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.10 (dd, J = 12.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.03-2.97 (m, 1H), 2.80 (br. T, J = 22.5, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 1.67 (br. S, 1H), 1.03 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 144.5, 127.6, 126.5, 125.5, 123.2, 78.2, 74.4, 53.6, 50.0, 17.7; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 246.2, found 246.4. The hydrochloride salt had mp 229-231°C; Anal. (C12H15ClF3NO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 13f: 65.3 mg (11% yield) as a clear oil. [α]20D -10.7 (c 0.00075, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.60 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.51 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 4.59 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (dd, J = 12.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.69 (dd, J = 11.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.19-3.08 (m, 2H), 2.98 (dd, J = 12.5, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 2.30 (br. S, 1H), 1.29 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 144.5, 127.6, 126.7, 125.5, 123.3, 77.5, 71.3, 47.6, 46.8, 16.9; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 246.2, found 246.5. The fumarate had mp 185-186°C; Anal. (C16H18F3NO5·0.25 H2O) C, H, N.


(2R,5S)-5-Methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine (15f) and (2S,5S)-5-Methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine (16f).



[0202] General procedure A was followed using amine 4 (199 mg, 2.65 mmol) and epoxide 2f (453 mg, 2.41 mmol) in dry MeOH (8 mL) under N2 to afford 278 mg (44% yield) of amine 14f as a thick clear oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 14f (278 mg, 1.06 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (2.7 mL) to afford a mixture of separable isomers in a 3.8:1 (anti:syn) ratio. Anti isomer 15f: 121 mg (47% yield) as a white solid. [α]20D -45 (c 0.0008, MeOH); 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz) δ 7.58 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.45 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 4.46 (dd, J = 10.0, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 3.96 (dd, J = 11.0, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.31 (t, J = 21.5, 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.08 (dd, J = 12.5, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.00-2.96 (m, 1H), 2.72 (br. T, J = 23.0, 11.0 Hz, 1H), 1.75 (br. S, 1H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz) ppm 144.2, 127.3, 126.2, 125.2 (q, J = 11.4, 7.6, 3.75 Hz), 123.0, 77.9, 74.1, 53.3, 49.7, 17.4; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 246.2, found 246.4. The hydrochloride salt had mp 230-231°C; Anal. (C12H15ClF3NO) C, H, N. Syn isomer 16f: 31.7 mg (12% yield) as a clear oil. The fumarate had [α]20D +19.1 (c 0.0011, MeOH); 1H NMR (CD3OD, 300 MHz) δ 7.73-7.70 (m, 2H), 7.65-7.62 (m, 2H), 6.68 (s, 2H), 4.87-4.83 (hidden m, 1H), 4.08 (dd, J = 15.0, 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.97 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H), 3.65-3.58 (m, 1H), 3.36-3.21 (hidden m, 2H), 1.54 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3OD, 75 MHz) ppm 171.2, 143.5, 136.1, 127.8, 126.7, 126.6, 76.5, 69.8, 48.3, 44.0, 13.8; MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+ 246.2, found 246.2 (free base); mp 179-180°C; Anal. (C16H18F3NO5·0.6 H2O) C, H, N.


(2S,6S)-2-Methyl-6-phenyl-morpholine (20a) and (2R,6S)-2-Methyl-6-phenyl-morpholine (21a).



[0203] General procedure A was followed using amine 17 (0.50 mL, 6.35 mmol) and epoxide 2a (0.60 mL, 5.27 mmol) in dry MeOH (32 mL) under N2 to afford 529 mg (51% yield) of amine 19a as a pale yellow oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 19a (529 mg, 2.71 mmol) in 50% aqueous HCl (7 mL) under N2 to afford 138 mg (29% yield) of inseparable morpholines 20a and 21a as a clear sticky oil in a 3:1 (syn:anti) ratio. [α]20D -57.7 (c 0.0035, MeOH); MS (APCI) calcd for (M+1)+ 178.2, found 178.4. The fumarate had mp 131-134°C; Anal. (C15H19NO5·0.2 H2O) C, H, N.


(2R,6R)-2-Methyl-6-phenyl-morpholine (23a) and (2S,6R)-2-Methyl-6-phenyl-morpholine (24a).



[0204] General procedure A was followed using amine 18 (0.50 mL, 6.35 mmol) and epoxide 2a (0.60 mL, 5.27 mmol) in dry MeOH (32 mL) under N2 to afford 446 mg (43% yield) of amine 22a as a pale yellow oil. General procedure B was then followed using amine 22a (446 mg, 2.28 mmol) in 50% aqueous HCl (6.2 mL) under N2 to afford 89.1 mg (22% yield) of inseparable morpholines 23a and 24a as a clear sticky oil in a 3:1 (syn:anti) ratio. [α]20D +23.6 (c 0.00165, MeOH); MS (APCI) calcd for (M+1)+ 178.2, found 178.2. The fumarate had mp 131-133°C; Anal. (C15H19NO5·0.2 H2O) C, H, N.


(2S,6S)-2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methyl-morpholine (20d) and (2R,6S)-2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methyl-morpholine (21d).



[0205] General procedure A was followed using amine 17 (0.50 mL, 6.35 mmol) and epoxide 2d (814 mg, 5.27 mmol) in dry MeOH (21 mL) under N2 to afford 787 mg (65% yield) of amine 19d as a thick clear oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 19d (787 mg, 3.43 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (8.6 mL) to afford 354 mg (49% yield) of inseparable morpholines 20d and 21d as a clear sticky oil in a 3:1 (syn:anti) ratio. [α]20D -37.7 (c 0.0022, MeOH); MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+212.7, found 212.1. The fumarate had mp 136-137°C Anal. (C15H18ClNO5) C, H, N.


(2R,6R)-2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methyl-morpholine (23d) and (2S,6R)-2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methyl-morpholine (24d).



[0206] General procedure A was followed using amine 18 (0.50 mL, 6.35 mmol) and epoxide 2d (815 mg, 5.27 mmol) in dry MeOH (21 mL) under N2 to afford 663 mg (55% yield) of amine 22d as a thick pale yellow oil. General procedure C was then followed using amine 22d (663 mg, 2.89 mmol) in concentrated H2SO4 (7.2 mL) to afford 406 mg (66% yield) of inseparable morpholines 23d and 24d as a clear sticky oil in a 3:1 (syn:anti) ratio. [α]20D +22.2 (c 0.0037, MeOH); MS (ESI) calcd for (M+1)+212.7, found 212.1. The fumarate had mp 136-137°C; Anal. (C15H18ClNO5) C, H, N.

Example 4 (Reference) - DA, NE, 5-HT Release Assays



[0207] A series of compounds were assayed for release of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine as well as for activity at the 5-HT2B receptor. This data is shown below in Table 3.

DA, NE and 5-HT Release Assays



[0208] [3H]MPP+ was used as the radioligand for both the DA and NE release assays, because this method led to an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Rat caudate (for DA release) or whole brain minus cerebellum and caudate (for NE and 5-HT release), was homogenized in ice-cold 10% sucrose containing 1 µM reserpine. Nomifensine (100 nM) and GBR12935 (100 nM) were added to the sucrose solution for [3H]5-HT release experiments to block any potential [3H]5-HT reuptake into NE and DA nerve terminals. For the DA release assay, 100 nM desipramine and 100 nM citalopram were added to block [3H]MPP+ uptake into NE and 5-HT nerves. For the NE release assay, 50 nM GBR12935 and 100 nM citalopram were added to block [3H]MPP+ uptake into DA and 5-HT nerves. After 12 strokes with a Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer, homogenates were centrifuged at 1000 x g for 10 min at 0-4 °C and the supernatants were retained on ice (synaptosomal preparation).

[0209] Synaptosomal preparations were incubated to steady state with 5 nM [3H]MPP+ (60 min) or 5 nM [3H]5-HT (60 min) in Krebs-phosphate buffer (without BSA) (pH 7.4), which contained 154.4 mM NaCl, 2.9 mM KCl, 1.1 mM CaCl2, 0.83 mM MgCl2, 5 mM glucose, 1 mg/mL ascorbic acid, 50 µM pargyline plus 1 µM reserpine in a polypropylene beaker with stirring at 25 °C with the appropriate blockers. After incubation to steady state, 850 µl of synaptosomes preloaded with [3H]ligand were added to 12 x 75 mm polystyrene test tubes that contained 150 µl test drug in uptake buffer plus 1 mg/ml BSA. After 5 min (3H]5-HT) or 30 min (NE and DA assays) the release reaction was terminated by dilution with 4 ml wash buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.4 containing 0.9% NaCl at 25 °C) followed by rapid vacuum filtration over Whatman GF/B filters using a Brandel Harvester. The filters were rinsed twice with 4 ml wash buffer using the Brandel Harvester, and the retained tritium was counted by a Taurus liquid scintillation counter at 40% efficiency after an overnight extraction in 3 ml Cytoscint (ICN).

Substrate Reversal Experiments



[0210] For substrate reversal experiments, test drugs were tested at approximately ED80 doses in the absence and presence of blockers (250 nM GBR1209 for DAT, 166 nM desipramine for NET, 100 nM fluoxetine for SERT). Substrate activity was detected by a significant reversal of the releasing effect of the test drug.

Data analysis and statistics



[0211] As previously described (Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI and Partilla JS Synapse 39: 32-41 (2001), incorporated herein by reference), EC50 values were determined using the nonlinear least squares curve fitting program MLAB-PC (Civilized Software, Bethesda, MD). In substrate reversal experiments, statistical significance was determined using the Student's t-test.
Table 3. Monoamine Release and 5HT2B Activity of a Series of Phenmetrazine Analogs
Compound (Reference)Release (EC50 nm or %@10 µM)5-HT2B Activity
DA5-HTNEAgonist (%@10 µM)Antagonist (% at 1 µM)


131 7765 50 0 -
PAL55


87 3246 37 0 42
PAL56


415 inactive 63 0  
PAL57


1457 Inactive 349 0  
PAL60


29% 0% 69% 0% 6%
PAL583


34% 6% 67% 0 0
PAL587


28% 56% 47% 0 12
PAL589


39% 41% 62% 0 16
PAL590


100% 95% 93% 0 1
PAL593


100% 95% 82% 2 28
PAL594


98% 31% 96% 2 12
PAL632


95% 88% 100% 0% -
PAL635
* denotes relative configuration


[0212] An additional series of compounds of the present invention, having the stereochemistry indicated in the figure above Table 4 below, was synthesized and tested for dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine release, as well as for serotonin uptake inhibition. The initial set of compounds was based on PAL-56, which is (+)-phenmetrazine, and which was found to be an effective DA/5HT releaser. The (-)-isomer is also active as a releaser, but is not as potent. The two cis compounds were weaker uptake inhibitors. Adding substituents to the phenyl ring resulted in improvements in 5HT release, such as the 3-chloro compounds (PAL-594), shown in Table 4. The data in Table 4 is shown either as %EC50 of release or the EC50 value has been calculated in nM. Two of the compounds, PAL-704 and PAL-788, show unique and interesting hybrid activity in that they are DA/NE releasers, but are 5HT uptake inhibitors.
Table 4. Comparison of the DA, 5-HT, and NE Releasing Activity of a Series of Phenmetrazine Analogs (Reference compounds)


PAL#RX,YDA Rel5HT Rel5HT UpNE Rel
56 Me H 87nM 3246nM   38nM
593 Me 3F 43nM 2558nM   30nM
594 Me 3Cl 27nM 301nM   75nM
632 H H 86nM 20260nM   79nM
635 H 4F 529nM 2403nM   285nM
678 H Naphthyl 79% 92%   88%
704 Me Naphthyl 111nM   105nM 203nM
747 Me 4Me 91% 79%   95%
748 Me 4F 98% 94%   93%
749 Me 4Cl 88% 76%   93%
751 Me 4OMe 50% 64%   84%
772 Me 4CN 0% 53%   100%
773 Me 3Me 98% 82%   80%
780 Me 3OH 97% 70%   100%
786 Me 3CN 99% 99%   100%
788 Me 3,4-diCl 60%   95% 98%
821 Me 4F,3Cl 94% 71%   80%
823 Me 3OMe 96% 78%   86%
1001 H 2CF3 64%   25% 50%


[0213] An additional set of compounds, wherein all compounds have a CH3 group at the R4 position, was generated, and tested for dopamine release, dopamine reuptake, serotonin release, and norepinephrine release. In all cases, the (2S,5S)-analog was more active as a releaser, as shown in Table 5. The other isomers were either inactive or uptake inhibitors, the potency depending on the substituent (not shown).
Table 5. Comparison of the DA, 5-HT, and NE Releasing Activity of a Series of (2S,5S)-5-methyl-2-phenylmorpolines


PAL#X,YDA RelDA Up5HT RelNE Rel
730 H 212   107 79
738 3Cl 58   23 65
880 3OMe 56%   100% 76%
886 3Me 86%   98% 88%
890 3F 96%   89% 96%
895 3CF3 45%   100% 77%
899 4Cl   90% 76% 65%
903 4F 65%   100% 100%
910 4CF3 15%   80% 15%
914 4Me   88% 88% 81%



Claims

1. A compound according to the formula:

wherein:

R1 is optionally substituted aryl, wherein the substituents are selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 alkoxy, C2-4 alkenyl, C2-4 alkynyl, Cl, F, acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3 alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, and CF3SO2, wherein R12 and R13 are each independently selected from H or optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl;

R2 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

R3 is H;

R4 is C1-3 alkyl; and

R5 is H or OH;

R6 is H or C1-3 alkyl;

with the proviso that when R2 is CH3 and R1 is phenyl, then the phenyl ring of R1 is substituted with one or more substituents and R1 is trans to R2,

wherein the compound comprises an enantiomeric excess of at least 95% of the (2S-5S) enantiomer,

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, or solvate thereof.


 
2. The compound of claim 1, wherein R1 is phenyl, substituted phenyl, naphthyl, or substituted naphthyl.
 
3. The compound of claim 1, wherein R3 is H and R1 is substituted aryl.
 
4. The compound according to claim 1, having the formula:

wherein:

each R7 represents a substituent independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 alkoxy, C2-4 alkenyl, C2-4 alkynyl, Cl, F, acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3 alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, and CF3SO2, wherein R12 and R13 are each independently selected from H or optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl; and

b is an integer from 0-5;

with the proviso that when R2 is CH3, then b is an integer from 1-5 and the optionally substituted phenyl is trans to R2;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, or solvate thereof.


 
5. The compound according to claim 4, wherein b is an integer from 1-5, and each R7 is independently selected from the group consisting of C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 alkoxy, halo, OH, CN, and CF3,

preferably wherein b is 1 and the R7 substituent is located meta or para to the morpholine substituent on the phenyl ring,

preferably wherein b is 1 and the R7 substituent is located meta to the morpholine substituent on the phenyl ring.


 
6. The compound according to claim 1, having the formula:

wherein:

each R7 represents a substituent independently selected from the group consisting of OH, C1-4 alkyl, C1-3 alkoxy, C2-4 alkenyl, C2-4 alkynyl, Cl, F, acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3 alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, and CF3SO2; and

c is an integer from 0-7,

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, or solvate thereof.


 
7. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 6,
wherein R2 is H or CH3 and/or
wherein R4 is CH3.
 
8. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of:

2-(3-chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine;

2-(3-fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine;

2-(3-methoxy-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine;

2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine;

2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholine;

5-methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine;

5-methyl-2-p-tolyl-morpholine;

5-methyl-2-m-tolyl-morpholine;

5-methyl-2-phenyl-morpholine;

5-methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholine,

or a pharmaceutically acceptable ester, amide, salt, or solvate thereof.


 
9. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the compound is one or more of a dopamine releaser, norepinephrine releaser, serotonin releaser, dopamine uptake inhibitor, norepinephrine uptake inhibitor, and serotonin uptake inhibitor.
 
10. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 8,
wherein the compound is a dopamine releaser or a dual serotonin and dopamine releaser.
 
11. The compound according to any one of claims 1 to 8,
wherein the compound is inactive at the 5HT2B receptor.
 
12. A prodrug of a compound according to any one of claims 1 to 11, having the formula:

wherein:
X is an amino acid or peptide.
 
13. The prodrug of a compound according to any one of claims 1 to 11, having the formula:

wherein R8 is optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl, optionally substituted C1-10 alkoxy, optionally substituted phenyl, optionally substituted benzyl, or optionally substituted pyridyl.
 
14. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to any one of claims 1-11 or a prodrug according to claim 12 or 13, and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers.
 
15. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound according to any one of claims 1-11 or at least one prodrug according to claim 12 or 13 for use in treating or delaying the progression of disorders that are alleviated by modulating monoamine release in a patient,
wherein the disorder is selected from the group consisting of addiction, depression, obesity, bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), hypoactive sexual desire disorder, antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction, orgasmic dysfunction, seasonal affective disorder/winter depression, mania, bulimia and other eating disorders, panic disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder, Parkinson's disease, narcolepsy, anxiety disorders, insomnia, chronic pain, migraine headaches, and restless legs syndrome.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verbindung der Formel:

worin:

R1 optional substituiertes Aryl ist, worin die Substituenten ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus OH, C1-4-Alkyl, C1-4-Alkoxy, C2-4-Alkenyl, C2-4-Alkynyl, Cl, F, Acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3-Alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S und CF3SO2, worin R12 und R13 jeweils unabhängig voneinander ausgewählt sind aus H oder optional substituiertem C1-10-Akyl;

R2 für H oder C1-3-Alkyl steht;

R3 für H steht;

R4 für C1-3-Alkyl steht; und

R5 für H oder OH steht;

R6 für H oder C1-3-Alkyl steht;

unter der Voraussetzung, dass dann, wenn R2 CH3 ist und R1 Phenyl ist, der Phenylring von R1 mit einem oder mehreren Substituenten substituiert ist und R1 trans zu R2 steht,

wobei die Verbindung einen Enantiomerenüberschuss von mindestens 95 % des (2S-5S)-Enantiomeren umfasst,

oder ein pharmazeutisch geeigneter Ester, ein pharmazeutisch geeignetes Amid, Salz oder Solvat hiervon.


 
2. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, worin R1 Phenyl, substituiertes Phenyl, Naphthyl oder substituiertes Naphthyl ist.
 
3. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, worin R3 für H steht und worin R1 substituiertes Aryl ist.
 
4. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 mit der Formel:

worin:

jeder Rest R7 einen Substituenten repräsentiert, welcher unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus OH, C1-4-Alkyl, C1-4-Alkoxy, C2-4-Alkenyl, C2-4-Alkynyl, Cl, F, Acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3-Alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S und CF3SO2, worin R12 und R13 jeweils unabhängig voneinander aus H oder optional substituiertem C1-10-Alkyl ausgewählt sind; und

b eine ganze Zahl von 0 bis 5 ist;

unter der Voraussetzung, dass dann, wenn R2 CH3 ist, b eine ganze Zahl von 1 bis 5 ist und das optional substituierte Phenyl trans zu R2 steht;

oder ein pharmazeutisch geeigneter Ester, ein pharmazeutisch geeignetes Amid, Salz oder Solvat hiervon.


 
5. Verbindung nach Anspruch 4, worin b eine ganze Zahl von 1 bis 5 ist und worin jeder Rest R7 unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus C1-4-Alkyl, C1-4-Alkoxy, Halo, OH, CN und CF3,
wobei vorzugsweise b für 1 steht und der R7-Substituent meta oder para zu dem Morpholin-Substituenten an dem Phenylring steht,
wobei vorzugsweise b für 1 steht und der R7-Substituent meta zu dem Morpholin-Substituenten an dem Phenylring steht.
 
6. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 mit der Formel:

worin:

jeder Rest R7 einen Substituenten repräsentiert, welcher unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus OH, C1-4-Alkyl, C1-3-Alkoxy, C2-4-Alkenyl, C2-4-Alkynyl, Cl, F, Acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, C1-3-Alkylthio, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S und CF3SO2; und

c eine ganze Zahl von 0 bis 7 ist,

oder ein pharmazeutisch geeigneter Ester, ein pharmazeutisch geeignetes Amid, Salz oder Solvat hiervon.


 
7. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6,
worin R2 für H oder CH3 steht und/oder
worin R4 für CH3 steht.
 
8. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Verbindung ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus:

2-(3-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholin;

2-(3-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholin;

2-(3-Methoxy-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholin;

2-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholin;

2-(4-Fluoro-phenyl)-5-methyl-morpholin;

5-Methyl-2-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholin;

5-Methyl-2-p-tolyl-morpholin;

5-Methyl-2-m-tolyl-morpholin;

5-Methyl-2-phenyl-morpholin;

5-Methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-morpholin,

oder ein pharmazeutisch geeigneter Ester, ein pharmazeutisch geeignetes Amid, Salz oder Solvat hiervon.


 
9. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei die Verbindung eines oder mehrere von einem Dopamin-Freisetzer, Norepinephrin-Freisetzer, Serotonin-Freisetzer, Dopamin-Aufnahmehemmer, Norepinephrin-Aufnahmehemmer und Serotonin-Aufnahmehemmer ist.
 
10. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8,
wobei die Verbindung ein Dopamin-Freisetzer oder ein dualer Serotonin-und-Dopamin-Freisetzer ist.
 
11. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8,
wobei die Verbindung am 5-HT2B-Rezeptor inaktiv ist.
 
12. Prodrug einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11 mit der Formel:

worin:
X eine Aminosäure oder ein Peptid ist.
 
13. Prodrug einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11 mit der Formel:

worin R8 optional substituiertes C1-10-Alkyl, optional substituiertes C1-10-Alkoxy, optional substituiertes Phenyl, optional substituiertes Benzyl oder optional substituiertes Pyridyl ist.
 
14. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend eine Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11 oder ein Prodrug nach Anspruch 12 oder 13 und einen oder mehrere pharmazeutisch geeignete Träger.
 
15. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, umfassend eine therapeutisch wirksame Menge von mindestens einer Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11 oder mindestens ein Prodrug nach Anspruch 12 oder 13 zur Verwendung in der Behandlung oder der Verzögerung des Fortschritts von Störungen, welche durch Modulation der Monoamin-Freisetzung bei einem Patienten gelindert werden,
wobei die Störung ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Sucht, Depression, Adipositas, bipolare Störung, Aufmerksamkeitsdefizitsyndrom (ADS), Aufmerksamkeitsdefizitsyndrom mit Hyperaktivität (ADHS), Störung mit verminderter sexueller Appetenz, Antidepressivum-induzierte sexuelle Dysfunktion, orgastische Dysfunktion, saisonale affektive Störung/Winterdepression, Manie, Bulimie und andere Essstörungen, Panikstörungen, obsessive kompulsive Störung, Schizophrenie, schizo-affektive Störung, Parkinson-Krankheit, Narkolepsie, Angststörungen, Schlafstörung, chronischer Schmerz, Migränekopfschmerz und Restless-Legs-Syndrom.
 


Revendications

1. Composé selon la formule :

dans laquelle :

R1 est un aryle facultativement substitué, dans lequel les substituants sont sélectionnés parmi le groupe constitué par OH, un alkyle en C1-4, un alkoxy en C1-4, un alcényle en C2-4, un alcynyle en C2-4, Cl, F, un acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, un alkylthio en C1-3, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, et CF3SO2, R12 et R13 étant chacun indépendamment sélectionnés parmi H ou un alkyle en C1-10 facultativement substitué ;

R2 est H ou un alkyle en C1-3 ;

R3 est H ;

R4 est un alkyle en C1-3 ;et

R5 est H ou OH ;

R6 est H ou un alkyle en C1-3 ;

à condition que lorsque R2 est CH3 et R1 est un phényle, alors le cycle phényle de R1 est substitué avec un ou plusieurs substituants et R1 est trans par rapport à R2,

le composé comprenant un excès énantiomérique d'au moins 95 % du (2S-5S)-énantiomère,

ou un ester, un amide, un sel ou un solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci.


 
2. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel R1 est un phényle, un phényle substitué, un naphtyle, ou un naphtyle substitué.
 
3. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel R3 est H et R1 est un aryle substitué.
 
4. Composé selon la revendication 1, ayant la formule :

dans laquelle :

chaque R7 représente un substituant indépendamment sélectionné parmi le groupe constitué par OH, un alkyle en C1-4, un alkoxy en C1-4, un alcényle en C2-4, un alcynyle en C2-4, Cl, F, un acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, un alkylthio en C1-3, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, et CF3SO2, R12 et R13 étant chacun indépendamment sélectionnés parmi H ou un alkyle en C1-10 facultativement substitué ; et

b est un nombre entier compris entre 0 et 5 ;

à condition que lorsque R2 est CH3, alors b est un nombre entier compris entre 1 et 5 et le phényle facultativement substitué est trans par rapport à R2 ;

ou un ester, un amide, un sel ou un solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci.


 
5. Composé selon la revendication 4, dans lequel b est un nombre entier compris entre 1 et 5, et chaque R7 est indépendamment sélectionné parmi le groupe constitué par un alkyle en C1-4, un alkoxy en C1-4, un halogène, OH, CN et CF3,
de préférence dans lequel b est égal à 1 et le substituant R7 est situé en méta ou en para par rapport au substituant morpholine sur le cycle phényle,
de préférence dans lequel b est égal à 1 et le substituant R7 est situé en méta par rapport au substituant morpholine sur le cycle phényle.
 
6. Composé selon la revendication 1, ayant la formule :

dans laquelle :

chaque R7 représente un substituant indépendamment sélectionné parmi le groupe constitué par OH, un alkyle en C1-4, un alkoxy en C1-3, un alcényle en C2-4, un alcynyle en C2-4, Cl, F, un acylamido, CN, CF3, N3, CONH2, CO2R12, CH2OH, CH2OR12, NHCOR12, NHCO2R12, CONR12R13, un alkylthio en C1-3, R12SO, R12SO2, CF3S, et CF3SO2 ; et

c est un nombre entier compris entre 0 et 7 ;

ou un ester, un amide, un sel ou un solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci.


 
7. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6,
dans lequel R2 est H ou CH3 et/ou
dans lequel R4 est CH3.
 
8. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le composé est sélectionné parmi le groupe constitué par :

la 2-(3-chlorophényl)-5-méthyl-morpholine ;

la 2-(3-fluorophényl)-5-méthyl-morpholine ;

la 2-(3-méthoxy-phényl)-5-méthyl-morpholine ;

la 2-(4-chlorophényl)-5-méthyl-morpholine ;

la 2-(4-fluorophényl)-5-méthyl-morpholine ;

la 5-méthyl-2-(3-trifluorométhyl-phényl)-morpholine ;

la 5-méthyl-2-p-tolyl-morpholine ;

la 5-méthyl-2-m-tolyl-morpholine ;

la 5-méthyl-2-phényl-morpholine ;

la 5-méthyl-2-(4-trifluorométhyl-phényl)-morpholine,

ou un ester, un amide, un sel ou un solvate pharmaceutiquement acceptable de celui-ci.


 
9. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel le composé est un ou plusieurs d'un agent de libération de dopamine, d'un agent de libération de noradrénaline, d'un agent de libération de sérotonine, d'un inhibiteur de fixation de la dopamine, d'un inhibiteur de fixation de la noradrénaline, et d'un inhibiteur de fixation de la sérotonine.
 
10. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel le composé est un agent de libération de dopamine ou un agent de libération double de sérotonine et de dopamine.
 
11. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel le composé est inactif au niveau du récepteur 5HT2B.
 
12. Précurseur d'un composé défini selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, ayant la formule :

dans laquelle X est un acide aminé ou un peptide.
 
13. Précurseur d'un composé défini selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, ayant la formule :

dans laquelle R8 est un alkyle en C1-10 facultativement substitué, un alkoxy en C1-10 facultativement substitué, un phényle facultativement substitué, un benzyle facultativement substitué, ou un pyridyle facultativement substitué.
 
14. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant un composé défini selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11 ou un précurseur défini selon la revendication 12 ou 13, et un ou plusieurs excipients pharmaceutiquement acceptables.
 
15. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant une dose thérapeutique efficace d'au moins un composé défini selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11 ou d'au moins un précurseur défini selon la revendication 12 ou 13, destinée à être utilisée pour traiter ou retarder la progression de troubles qui sont atténués en modulant la libération de monoamine chez un patient,
le trouble étant sélectionné parmi le groupe constitué par l'addiction, la dépression, l'obésité, les troubles bipolaires, le trouble déficitaire de l'attention (TDA), le trouble déficitaire de l'attention/hyperactivité (TDAH), le trouble lié à la baisse du désir sexuel, le dysfonctionnement sexuel induit par les antidépresseurs, le dysfonctionnement orgasmique, les troubles affectifs saisonniers/la dépression hivernale, les manies, la boulimie et autres troubles de l'alimentation, les troubles paniques, les troubles obsessionnels compulsifs, la schizophrénie, les troubles schizo-affectifs, la maladie de Parkinson, la narcolepsie, les troubles de l'anxiété, l'insomnie, les douleurs chroniques, les migraines, et le syndrome des jambes sans repos.
 




REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Non-patent literature cited in the description